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on Geoinformatics Geospatial Information Research: Bridging the Pacific and Atlantic University of Gvle, Sweden, 7-9 June 2004

Hu Shiyuan1 and Li Deren2

2 1

School of Resource and Environmental Science , Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, China, 430079 School of Remote Sensing Information Engineering, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, China, 430079

Abstract Cellular automata (CA) are simple mathematical systems that exhibit very complicated behaviour. The integration of GIS and CA shows tremendous capability in simulating spatio-temporal dynamic process in geography world. But standard CA has some restrictions in cellular shape, spatial resolution, precision, quantity, neighbor and rulewhich restrict the CAs abilities of simulating real world and other applications. This paper discusses the relation between geography phenomenon and cellular automata, extends the constitutes of standard CA such as cell and states, neighborhoods, local transition rule and discrete time and so on, and builds a extended CA model based on geographical entity in irregular geographical spaces, where cells are no longer regular tessellations, and cellular neighborhoods vary from place to place, and are no longer based on physically adjacent cells. In addition, a general integrated framework of GIS and vector cellular automata based geographical entity (VCA) is brought forward in the paper. INTRODUCTION Cellular automata (CA) are mathematical models for systems in which many simple components act together to produce complicated patterns of behavior (Wolfram, 1985).CA have close associations with complexity theory and have been employed in the exploration of a diverse range of urban phenomena. Urban applications of CA range from traffic simulation and regional-scale urbanization to land-use dynamics, historical urbanization, and urban development. The integration of GIS and CA will accelerate GISs ability of simulating geographical process greatly especially (Zhou et al., 2001). CA models are usually based on fine regular tessellations such as a grid, in which every cell is identical, has identical relations with each of its neighbors, and has a standard neighborhood of cells in which these relations operate. These neighborhoods are strictly local in that they are based on physically adjacent cells. In geographic and urban models, this may be over-simplistic (O'Sullivan, 2000), and it has some restrictions in cellular shape, neighborhood and neighbor ruleswhich restrict the CAs ability to simulate real worldThe standard CA exists some problems mainly as follows: (1) Space partition, namely determination of space pixel. Each kind of graphical object has itself space scale in the system which plenty of graphical entities exist together. In addition, graphical entity represents different behavior in different space scale. It is a problem how to determinate a uniform spatial resolution. (2) Precision & Quantity. CA models are usually based on fine regular tessellations, cell is similar to the grid of grid data in GIS, it exists some problems such as imprecise locating and tremendous quantity. (3) Cell space is divided into regular tessellations on abstract space in standard CA. Every cell is identical, has identical relations with each of its neighbors. This kind of CA can expose local reciprocity among cells. But

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Hu S. and Li D.

geographical system is a typical complex system, which is a compound system consisted of physical, social and economic subsystems. The complexity is an essential characteristic of Geo-Spatial System for its complexity properties such as non-equilibrium, multi-scale, indeterminacy, hierarchy, self-organizing, self-similarity, randomicity, iterativeness, and so forth. So regular space system exists hardly in real world. This paper will explore the relation between geographical space and cellular automataand build a extended CA model based on geographical entity in irregular geographical spaces. In addition, this paper will explore the integrated pattern of GIS and CA VECTOR CELLULAR AUTOMATA BASED GEOGRAPHICAL ENTITY According to the characters and the shortcomings that CA simulates the dynamic behaviors of the complex geography phenomenon, on the basis of summarizing the predecessors research, inspired by the theories of complex system, an extended cellular automata model with the name of VCA is put forward. The author extends the constitutes of standard CA from five aspects such as cell and states, cell space, neighborhoods , local transition rule and discrete time, and builds a extended CA model based on geographical entity in irregular geographical spaces. See Figure 1. The central works for VCA goes as follows.

Local Transition Rule (Geography Regulation)

Figure 1: Vector Cellular Automata Based Geographical Entity.

Geography cell & states Standard CA model is usually based on regular tessellations. The neighborhoods are strictly local in that they are based on physically adjacent cells. Whereas, a cell must correspond with one geographical entity such as a land parcel, a block, a road, a school, a commerce center etc in VCA. Geographical entity may mapping into a point, a line or a polygon on the vector map, accordingly, geography cell can be divided into point cell, line cell and polygon cell. A geographical entity holds many interactional states commonly, thus, cells state is a multivariable. For example, in land estimating cell auotomata, a cell corresponds with one parcel, cells states are composed of land grade, price, using type, influence factor value. In

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VCA, geography cell style and its states are lie on the style of geographical entity. Vector cellular automata based geographical entity is a mathematical model in which many geographical entities act together to produce complicated geographical behavior. Cell space Cell space is one-dimensional or two-dimensional Euclid's geometric space in standard CA. It is an abstract space. In the VCA , cell space must be converted into the cell space under the Cartesian system of coordinates, cells correspond to geographical entities under the Cartesian system of coordinates. Figure 2 shows eight kinds of cases of cell space. Constant boundary is adopted generally in VCA, namely the states of all cells out of boundary are endowed with a constant which differs from other cells states. Research region is treated as a island (Zhou et al., 2001) when VCA is used to simulate geographical process.

Neighborhoods In standard CA, the structure of neighborhoods presents a symmetric configuration, viz. the von Neumann, Moore, extended Moore and, Margolus neighborhoods. These neighborhoods are strictly local in that they are based on physically adjacent cells. In geographic and urban models, this may be over-simplistic, and it has some restrictions in cellular shape and neighborhood and neighbor ruleswhich restrict the CAs ability to simulate real worldWhereas the complicated interaction among geographical entities, neighborhood definition is more agiler than that of the standard CAs in VCA, it lies on the spatial distributing of geographical entities. The neighborhood configuration would presents a dissymmetrical layout in the VCA. The neighborhood relation of CA is the embodiment of spatial neighborhood among geographical entities. This kind of spatial neighborhood has its special meaning in different geographical field. In view of the practicability of CA model, the neighbors of one cell must be a set of some cells which have influence upon the next state of the center cell.

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The spatial neighborhood among geographical entities can make use of Voronoi diagram to measure (Luo et al., 2002). By the Voronoi partition of cells in cell space, the discrete special relation among cells is converted into the spatial neighborhood relation among Voronoi polygon. Thus, one cells neighbours are the creating fountains of those Voronoi polygons which are near to the Voronoi polygon containing goal cell. Figure 3 shows the Voronoi partition of cells. In Figure 3a, the neighborhoods of point cell A are cell B, cell C, cell D, cell E, cell F, cell G and cell I. In Figure 3b, the neighborhoods of line cell A are cell B, cell C, cell D, cell E and cell F. In Figure 3c, the neighborhoods of polygon cell A are cell B, cell C, cell D, cell E and cell F. Figure 3d shows the Voronoi partition of mixed cells, the neighborhoods of polygon cell A are point cell C1, point cell C2 and point cell C11, the neighborhoods of line cell B1 are polygon cell A, point cell C1, point cell C2, point cell C11, point cell C10, point cell C8, point cell C9 and line cell B2.

(a )

(b )

(c )

(d )

Figure 3: Voronoi Tessellation of Cells. (a) Voronoi tessellation of point cells, (b) Voronoi tessellation of line cells, (c) Voronoi tessellation of polygon cells, (d) Voronoi tessellation of mixed cells.

Apparently, by the Voronoi partition of the geographical entities, the three spacial relations including topological adjacency, space neighborhood and complicated separation in geographical space are translated into topological adjacency relations among Voronoi polygons containing geographical cell. In addition, we can make use of visibility-shortestpath Voronio diagram and weighed Voronio diagram to obtain the spatial neighborhood of goal cell for some special conditions that the differences of spacial influence of geographical entities must be showed (Chen, 2002). Local transition rule The CAs kernel is the local transition rule on which the dynamic evolvement process of CA is depended. Local transition rules embody the reciprocities among the geographical entities in VCA, these reciprocities must be endowed with the special geographical meanings in different geographical field. In a general way, a cells next state lies on its current state and the influence from its neighborhoods. How to influence and what the influence degree is are determined by the states and the area of its neighbors, the distance between the goal cell and the neighbor cell, and the length of the common border in a general way. The local transition rule might be different for different cell space. For point cell space, a cells next state lies on its current state, the neighborhoods states and the distance between the goal cell and the neighbor cell. The neighborhoods influence the goal cells state by a certain function attenuation. Of course, the space attenuation function might be different in different geographical field. For example, in simulating the quality evolution of city land, the factor cell influencing land quality impacts on the parcel cells quality state by linear

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attenuation function or non-linear attenuation function. This rule is represented by the formula

f ij = Fi (1 r )

or

(1)

(2)

where Fi is the state of the factor cell i, fij is the influence value that the factor cell i impacts on the parcel cell j, and r is the relative distance between the factor cell i and the parcel cell j, r is based on the follow equation:

d / R (d < R ) r = 1( d R )

(3)

Where d is the actual distance between the factor cell i and the parcel cell j, R is the influence radius of the factor cell. For polygon cell space, if the space relation among cells is topological adjacency, the way is more complicated. The next state of a cell is determined by the states and area of its neighbors, the distance between the goal cell and the neighbor cell, and the length of the common border. Figure 4 shows several cases of polygon cell space.

Figure 4a shows different length of common border has different influence on goal cell in the condition of the same area, Figure 4b shows different area has different influence on

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Hu S. and Li D.

goal cell in the condition of the same common border, in Figure 4c , despite the different common border, the cell impacts on the goal cell samely in the condition of the same area , Figure 4d shows different distance between the goal cell and the neighbor has different influence on goal cell in the condition of the same common border and the same area. By all appearances, the influence from cells neighbor is anfractuous, so we can not form a formula simply using the area of its neighbors, the distance between the goal cell and the neighbor cell, and the length of the common border to measure the effect. A constrained delaunay partitioning of polygon objects can be taken advantage of to calculate the influence from its neighborhoods. In Figure 4e, the neighbor B is divided into 14 triangles, we can figure out the effect from every triangle solely, regard the goal cell and every triangle as a point, well then, turn the influence between the goal cell and its neighborhoods to the influence between point and point, then make into a whole by bringing all parts together. This calculational rule is represented by the formula

I ij =

f

k =1

ik j

(4)

Where k is the numbers of the triangle, f ik j is the influence value that the triangle k impacts on the goal cell j, and Iij is the total influence value between the cell i and the neighbor j. For line cell space or mixed cell space, the disposal is similar to above method. The local transition rules are established by some predigesting measures accordingly. The method mentioned above is basic, for special geographical field, the local transition rule must be extended. Discrete Time Discrete time is abstract in standard CA, it is corresponding to a certain time point of CA model running only. Therefore, how to match the abstract time to a material date is very important during the process of simulating geography phenomenon using VCA. Generally, there are two methods as follows: 1) Ratiocinating using data. We can make use of a series of history data to train the VCA, ratiocinate the actual time by analyzing the simulating result and the history data. 2) Combination of VCA and other model. Firstly, other forecasting models such as regression analysis, gray forecasting, MarKov Process and differential eguation and so on are used to forecast a certain geographical phenomenon, then we compare the forecasting results with the result of VCA simulating, find the relation of both, and ratiocinate the actual time (Zhou et al., 2001). Of course, no matter what method we adopt, the decided time is not very precise, it represents the evolvement course of geography phenomenon in the main only, but it is enough to reveal the order of geography phenomenon. INTEGRATION OF GIS AND VCA At present, many GIS can manage, express, analyze and deal with spacial information effectively, but they come up against a series of problems in describing and stimulating the spatio-temporal behavior of geography phenomenon. CA has the powerful ability of stimulating the spatio-temporal geographical behavior, but these basic functions such as

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inputting data, outputting data, editing data and saving the spatio-temporal information are weak correspondingly. So integration of GIS and VCA will synthesize the predominance of both, and come into being a new dynamic system (Cao and Sun,1999). Many scholars have done plenty of researches on integration of GIS and CA thoroughly. There are four styles in all, viz. loose coupling, tight coupling, embedding GIS in CA, embedding CA in GIS. For integration of GIS and VCA, the author recognizes embedding GIS in CA. This kind of integration takes VCA as the kernel, utilizes advanced program language such as VC or VB etc and GIS control like mapobject, mapx or arcobject to carry out GIS functions which sustain the running of VCA. It makes the designer design model and adjust model parameter freely. According to the characteristics of VCA and GIS, a general integrated framework of GIS and VCA is represented as Figure 5.

User Interface

Controller

Local Transition Rule (Geography Regulation) Cell and its states (Geography Phenomenon) Neighborhoods (Geography Environment)

Vector Cellular Automata Figure 5: A general integrated framework of GIS and VCA.

CONCLUSION CA is a important tool of researching complex system, the integration of GIS and CA has tremendous potential in simulating spatio-temporal dynamic behavior. Owing to the complexity of the real world, the spacial relations among geographical entities are anfractuous, the standard CA exists some limitations which restrict its applied ability. By extending the standard CA, vector cellular automata model based geographical entity and a general integrated framework of GIS and VCA are brought forward. Many restrictions existing in standard CA are released in VCA. Vector cellular automata model based geographical entity provides us with a natural quomodo describing knowledge and understanding the real world, but also a resultful resolvent of simulating the spatiotemporal process in geography world. However, the vector cellular automata model based geographical entity is not a actual model aiming at a certain material geographical application, but a general model framework. For some material applications, We must make

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a concrete analysis, detail the model, and make it fit in with analyzing the diversified geography phenomenon. REFERENCES Cao Z. and Sun S., 1999: Intergration of CA theory and GIS for dynamic simulation and modelling of geographic information. Journal of Surveying and Mapping 11, 7-9. Chen J., 2002: Voronoi special dynamic model. Mapping press, 24-37. Luo P., Du Q. and He S., 2002: The study on extended cellular automata base on relational database and the spatio-temporal simulating. Geography and Territorial Research 18(3), 8-12. O'Sullivan, D., 2000: Irregular Cellular Automata. http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/research/ irreg-ca.htm. Wolfram, S., 1985: Two-Dimensional Cellular Automata. http://www.stephenwolfram.com/ publications/articles/ca/85-wo/index.html Zhou C., Sun Z. and Xie Y., 2001: The Study on Geo-Cellular Automata. Science press, 3438, 59-67.

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