Manggagawang Kabataan



at Protektahan!


“They are everywhere but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, laboring behind the walls of workshops/factories, hidden from view in sugarcane plantations, unsafe in the production of pyrotechnics, collecting garbage from households, risking their lives in the streets selling newspapers and cigarettes, hopping from one jeepney to another to wipe our shoes and beg for alms afterwards, experiencing malnutrition, can be seen asleep in the coldness of the earth provided with carton papers as their beds, paying their ancestors’ debts in some big haciendas, working for their families in the rice farm, diving for pearls in the ocean/seas of the archipelago, involved in mining and quarrying in some places, demoralized and prostituted at young age… -- (Ms. Nancy Caluya-Nicolas, LPI Newsletter) They aren’t worthy of these misfortunes. No one could ever repay the children for sacrificing their childhood years just for work. Child Labor refers to the illegal employment of children below 18 years of age in hazardous occupations. Underage children are being forced to manual labor to help their families mainly due to poverty. Labor has many ill effects in children who are supposed to be in the environment of a classroom rather than roaming the streets to earn money. Although most do get the privilege of education, most of them end up being dropouts and repeaters because they are not able to 2

focus on their studies. Because of child labor, children suffer from malnutrition, hampered growth, and improper biological development.

CHILD Any person below 18 yrs. old except those emancipated by law. a child refers to “a person below eighteen (18) years of age or one who is over eighteen (18) but is unable to fully take care of or protect himself/herself from abuse, neglect, cruelty, exploitation, or discrimination because of a physical or mental disability or condition.” CHILD WORK Refers to the children’s participation in economic activity – that does not negatively affect their health and development or interferes with education, can be positive.

is more narrowly defined and refers to children working in contravention of the above standards. This means all children below 12 years old of age working in any economic activities, those aged 12 to 14 years engaged in harmful work, and all children engaged in the worst forms of child labor. -- (Managing an Education Initiative, ILO-IPEC)


BONDED LABOR This refers to the permission of some parents to have their children into the toiling grounds to pay their debts with their employers. -- (Ate Kat, LPI)

Child Labor is most concentrated in Asia and Africa, which together account for more than 90% of total children employment. Though there are more child workers in Asia than anywhere else, a higher percentage of African children participate in the labor force. Asia is led by India, which has 44 million child laborers, diving it the largest child workers are between the ages of 10 – 14 yrs. old (1991). Nigeria has 12 million child workers. Child labor is also common in South America. For example, there are 7 million children working in Brazil (ILO 1992). Though restrictions on child labor exist in most nations, many children do work. This vulnerable state leaves them prone to exploitation. The International Labour Office reports that children work the longest hours and are the worst paid of all the laborers (Bequele and Boyden 1988). They endure work conditions, which include health hazards and potential abuse. Employers capitalize on the docility of the children recognizing that these laborers cannot legally form unions to change their conditions. Such manipulation stifles the development of youth. Their working conditions do not provide the stimulation for physical and mental development. Finally, these children are deprived of the simple joys of childhood, relegated instead to a life of drudgery.


However, there are problems with the obvious solution of abolishing child labor. First, there is no international agreement defining child labor. Countries not only have different minimum age work restrictions, but also have varying regulations based on the type of labor. This makes the limits of child labor very ambiguous. Most would agree that a six year old is too young to work, but whether the same can be said about a twelve year old is debatable. Problems with the intuitive solution of immediately abolishing child labor to prevent such abuse are first, there is no international agreement defining labor, making it hard to isolate cases of abuse, let alone abolish them. Second, many children may have to work in order to attend school so abolishing child labor may only hinder their education. Any plans of abolishment depend on schooling. Also, there must be an economic change in the condition of a struggling family to free a child from the responsibility of working. Until there is global agreement, which can isolate cases of child labor, it will be very hard to abolish. There is also the view that work can help a child in terms of socialization, in building self – esteem and for training (Collins 1983). The problem is, then, not child labor itself but the conditions under which it operates (Boyden 1991). -- (

The Philippines is literally a young nation with a high percentage of young people in its overall population. And the child labor problem in the Philippines is a serious one.


According to the National Statistics Office survey, there are about 4 million working children in the country today. Of the 4 million, 2.4 million are engaged in hazardous work, which means that they are exposed to chemical, physical and biological hazards. These are the children involved in the worst forms of child labor such as prostitution, domestic work, mining and quarrying, commercial agriculture, deep – sea fishing and pyrotechnics production. The following are the more salient figures in the survey: •Four out of 25 million children, ages 5 – 17, are working. This means that one out of 6 works. One of four children work during night time •Mostly male, elementary grader (between 10 – 17 years old), usually rural – based •Majority work as unskilled, unpaid, engaged in agriculture, on seasonal basis laborers •60% of working children, aged 5 – 17 years old are exposed to hazardous environment. •40% are elementary graduates; 32% reached high school; 3% never attended school •59% are unpaid, work in household – operated farm or business •53% in agriculture / forestry / hunting


-- (CWC) In Metro Manila and neighboring towns, most child laborers are found in factories, livestock industries like poultry farms and piggery. They often come from the provinces. In many cases, they live like convicts, incarcerated and without the freedom of movement. Young workers in the farm are made to sleep inside pigpen or poultry house together with the animals. In the Visayas and Mindanao, child labor is rampant in sugarcane, pineapple, rubber, and asparagus plantations. A significant number of child laborers can be found in sugar plantations in Tarlac. These children are directly exposed to the elements like the sun and rains, their growth is stunted because of the heavy load they carry on their shoulders. Malnutrition is common among child laborers. Child labor, especially the hazardous kind is a scourge. It must be eliminated at all cost, and the children must be saved from misery. -- (LPI Newsletter) 7

Child Trafficking
Child trafficking is one of the reasons why child labor is rampant in the Philippines. This is the process of recruitment, transportation, transfer or harboring or receipt of persons with or without the victim’s consent or knowledge, within or across the national boarders by means of threat or use of force, or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or of position, taking advantage of the vulnerability of the person. Here in the Philippines the most disadvantaged regions of the country where poverty, unemployment, underemployment landless are the natural target areas for the dishonorable recruitment agencies Samar-Leyte, Negros, Bicol, Cebu Province, & Mindanao are the most particular places where these agencies operate. To win the hearts of the parents and the child, they use combination of deception, false promises and cash incentives, for then Manila and other major cities are symbols of success and opportunity. But as for the children, they end up as factory workers, domestic servants, and victims of prostitution on the streets. The DSWD documented 85 cases of trafficked children in 1999; 42 in 2000; and 12 in June to April 2001. Almost all of the profiled victims came from extremely poor families from impoverished areas in Visayas and Mindanao. Many are first timers in the city, often with only one-way ticket (Visayan Forum).


There still remains a lack of national baseline information on the trafficking of Filipino children. Several factors that contribute to the dearth of data on the issue are: the underground nature of trafficking; the stigma placed on victims of sexual exploitation; the absence of a law on trafficking that defines the acts; the lack of a name for the problem in the community level and awareness of acts of trafficking as violations of human rights, thus the low rate of reporting; and the same lack of awareness among many government agencies and NGOs, thus the few interventions and documentations of cases. However, victims and the media report sporadically on cases of trafficking. There are also qualitative studies on cases. The forms of trafficking range from the trafficking of children to armed conflict trafficking in the guise of employment, trafficking to sexual exploitations and others. While the victim is the one often seen in trafficking, there are several actors, who exploit that have to be named – recruiter, pimp, conniving airport officials, immigration officials, establishment owner in destination areas, buyers, governments that consider overseas migration as primary employment strategy, and governments that earn from this industry. Trafficking happens mainly in conjunction with prostitution. The ‘consent’ of the victim is immaterial. Gender inequality, racism and impoverishment of women are the core of the trafficking phenomenon. There are conscious actors in trafficking, as named, that should be held accountable for it as a crime. -- (


Child Domestic Labor
Domestic child-laborers (DCLs) belong to a special sub-sector of children that deserves special care and attention. Pushed by poverty and lack of education, these children sought to be employed in other people’s households on starvation salaries in spite of working for unbelievably long hours. Away from their families and friends and isolated within unfamiliar surroundings, DCLs are constantly exposed to the risk of abuse and exploitation. The feeling of loneliness and helplessness breed low esteem, a common malady of DCLs. They know that if they can only continue their aborted education, they would have a fair chance of improving their lot. And some of them are eager to pursue their formal studies, but there are real barriers to this goal. For one, they can hardly find the time, energy and money to realize this ambition. Odds are definitely stacked up against the DCLs. A thin line separates a child who is currently “paaral” by an Auntie or Uncle and one who is a DCL. The real barometer, however, is the nature and condition of work he or she provides to the current family he or she lives with.


The following are the DCL indicators:  The child performs repetitive tasks within specific period in a day;  The performance of the expected task is monitored by an adult in the family;  The child is given a small allowance or, in some cases, salary in exchange for the tasks done;  The child has a specified number of hours in school and he or she has to be back in an appointed time. Normally, the number of working hours is equal or longer than the number of study hours;  His/Her leisure hours are limited and is under strict control from an adult member in the family; -- (LPI) “Domestic or household service” shall mean service in the employer’s home which is usually necessary or desirable for the maintenance and enjoyment thereof and includes ministering to the personal comfort and convenience of the members of the employer’s household, including services of family drivers. -- (book III title III chapter III article 141 Labor Code of the Philippines)


Street Child Labor
We see them everywhere. Selling cigarettes and newspapers, hopping from one jeepney to another to wipe our shoes and beg for alms afterwards, experiencing malnutrition, can be seen asleep in the coldness of the earth provided with carton papers as their beds. They beg for alms for them to survive another day… yet we ignore them… The following are the prominent figures that appeared from a study conducted in Cubao, Quezon City: • • • Mostly are boys, average age is 12-15 years old More than half of them are enrolled in public elementary school Almost all are living with their families, either on the streets (street families) or in a rented room in one of the marginalized areas within Cubao such as Escopa 3 and 4, 138 and 139 Ermin Garcia, 116 New York, Arayat, Harvard, along EDSA- Kamias and others. • Average years of staying in the street are 4-6 years, for 7-12 hours everyday. • Primary reasons for staying in the streets: to work as barker, vendor (sampaguita, yellow corn, roasted peanuts, etc.), baggage boy at NEPA Q-Mart, errand boy of sidewalk vendors and neighbors; to play and to hang-out with friends.


Priority Issues, Needs and Concerns… • There are at least 30 teenaged chronic rugby sniffing street chil-

dren within the commercial district of Cubao who needs intensive rehabilitation and after care program. • There are at least 62 street families with an average of two chil-

dren each along the stretch along Aurora Boulevard alone starting from 15th Avenue up to Balete Drive. This includes sidewalk vendors who tag along children while vending. • Scavenging, barking for FX Taxi, sidewalk vending which are the

main sources of income of street dwellers and families of communitybased street has been considered illegal by the government. • Limited access of street children and their families to health and

sanitation services/facilities. • Continuity and sustainability of spiritual development activities at

the community level. • Play and recreational facilities and services limited to the com-

munity children. As long as there would be informal settler colonies sprouting in urban areas and for as long as there are not enough jobs, streetchildren will continue to dominate the streets. -- (LPI)


FACTORS CAUSING THE PROBLEM OF CHILD LABOR Poverty is the primary cause of child labor in the developing countries like the Philippines. Children work to ensure the survival of their family and themselves. Though children are not well paid, they still serve as major contributors to family income in the developing countries. Children are often prompted to work by their parents. According to one study, parents represent 62% of the source of induction into employment. Children make their own decisions to work only 8% of the time (Syed et. al. 1991). Children seem to be much less of an economic burden in developing versus developed countries. Children in developing countries also contribute more time to households than they deplete as compared to their counterparts in developed countries (Lindert 1976). Therefore, parents in developing countries make use of children’s ability to work. Evidence suggests that parents have children based on a cost – benefit perspective. Children in developing countries tend to be of economic value and, as a result, become a desirable asset for struggling parents. This desire also leads to the increase of the population that is also one of the factors causing child labor. Family structure If one of the child’s parents were already deceased and they are having financial problems or if they were separated and the child doesn’t receive any money, the tendency for that child is to find a way to earn additional income for them to survive and also this is a way for him/her to continue studying.


If the parents were both deceased, the child would end up with his/her relatives and could lead to child domestic labor. He would be vulnerable to abuse because he lacks protection from his parents. Schooling problems also contribute to child labor. If children are willing to be educated, they have no choice but to work for this is the only source of their money to send themselves to schools. Many times children seek employment because there is no access to schools possibly because of the distance or worse yet there are no schools at all. When there is access, the low quality of the education often makes attendance a waste of time for the students. Schools in many developing areas suffer from problems such as overcrowding, lack of resources, inadequate sanitation and pathetic teachers. As a result, parents may find no use of sending their children to school when they could be home learning a skill, farming for example and supplementing the family income. Because parents have so much control over their children, their perception of the value of school is a main determinant of child attendance. Parents who are educated understand for themselves the importance of schooling from personal experience. School attendance by a child is also highly correlated with family income. Therefore, when children drop out of school, it is not necessarily because of irresponsible parenting; it may be due to the family’s financial situation. When these children leave school, they become potential workers.


Traditional factors are also important. The established female role in certain cultures dictates that women will not fit into traditional roles if they become educated. Such cultural practices restrict the education of females and promote child employment. The acceptance of social class participation perpetuates child labor as well. Parents often assign different roles into their children. This has been called child specialization, and may increase the number of working children. This phenomenon involves certain siblings going to school while the others work. Rapid rural – to – urban migration is the cause for the increasing rate of child labor in the urban areas of the developing countries. Families leave the severity of agricultural working conditions for cities in order to search for economic opportunities that often do not exist. Unchecked growth of population – rapid growth of population adds up to the enormous number of working children here in the Philippines. Parents keep on having children who would then be working for the family just to have some food on their table during meals and feed their empty stomachs. Another problem is with the complete abolition of child labor is that education and employment for children are not mutually exclusive. Many children work and go to school. In fact, many children have to work to go to school; otherwise, they could not afford the tuition and other fees associated with attendance.


Hazards to Health
Poor nutrition Because of the long-hours of working, many child laborers miss their time to eat, because they prefer to work more, than to rest and stop working for a while to take their meal. Death This is the worst thing that may happen to a child laborer. An example of a dangerous job for a child to work for is a pyrotechnic factory. And one of the reasons that might cause death to the child is the explosion of the factory that he works for. High prevalence of respiratory diseases Because of the hard work that is demanded by the work he has, they are being deprived for enough hours of sleep. As a result of this, their body resistance will be weakened and so as their pulmonary organ. And if this happens, complications such as Tuberculosis might take place. Sexually transmitted diseases These days, even children aged 15 is being prostituted. And since their young, they are vulnerable of being abused sexually. Thus, by having these unsafe intercourses, they might acquire transmitted infectious and diseases through sex.


Physical Health Hazards Since child laborers work without proper work attire, the children has high-risk of having wounds, bruises and cuts. Anti- Social Behavior Having an idea that child laborers work for someone makes them feel ashamed. That’s why they are uncomfortable and intimidated to people who surrounds them for they think that they might get discriminated. -- (Handling Worst Forms of Child Labor, The SBM Approach)

International and Local Standards and Programs
The Convention on the rights of the child

The United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of the Child sets out what governments and individuals should do to promote and protect the indivisible human rights of all children Unanimously adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1989, it has since been ratified by all the world’s governments, except Somalia and the United States of America. Ratification means that governments commit themselves to ensuring that children can grow up in safe and supportive conditions, with access to high quality education and health care, and a good standard of living.










discrimination, sexual and commercial exploitation and violence, and to take particular care of orphans and young refugees. It is also an acknowledgement that children have the right: • • • To express opinions, especially about decisions that affect them; have freedom of thought; expression, conscience and religion; To a private life and the right to play; To form their own clubs and organizations; To have access to information – particularly from the state and the media; to make ideas and information known themselves. Every five years, governments must report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. The Committee reviews their progress, meets with government representatives and listeners to the views of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), before making recommendations about how each country could do better. Enlisted below are the following articles with relevance to the issue on labor, trafficking, and education for children: UN-CRC Art.28 UN-CRC Art.32 UN-CRC Art.34 Children have the right to education Children have the right to protection from work that is bad for your health or education. Children have the right to be protected from sexual abuse.


UN-CRC Art.35 UN-CRC Art.36 UN-CRC Art.41

No one is allowed to kidnap or sell children. Children have the right to protection from any other kind of exploitation. Children have the right to any rights in laws in your country or internationally that give you better rights than these.

UN-CRC Art.42

All adults and children should know about this convention. You have a right to learn about your rights and adults should learn about them too. -- (The Media and Children’s Rights)

INTERNATIONAL LABOR OFFICE The International Labour Organization is the UN specialized agency which seeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights. It was founded in 1919 and is the only surviving major creation of the Treaty of Versailles which brought the League of Nations into being and it became the first specialized agency of the UN in 1946. The ILO formulates international labour standards in the form of Conventions and Recommendations setting minimum standards of basic labour rights: freedom of association, the right to organize, collective bargaining, abolition of forced labour, equality of opportunity and treatment, and other standards regulating conditions across the entire spectrum of work related issues. It provides technical assistance primarily in the fields of:; employment policy; labour administration; labour law and industrial relations; working conditions; management development; cooperatives; vocational training and vocational


rehabilitation; social security; labour statistics and occupational safety and health. It promotes the development of independent employers’ and workers’ organizations and provides training and advisory services to those organizations. Within the UN system, the ILO has a unique tripartite structure with workers and employers participating as equal partners with governments in the work of its governing organs. -- (For Children Who Toil) RATIFICATION OF INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS ON CHILD LABOR Of the 16 international conventions related to child labor, the Philippines have ratified 4. These are as follows: ILO Convention No.59 (“Minimum age for admission of children to industrial employment’). Ratified in May 1960, the Convention sets the minimum age for employment in industry at 15 years but allows children under 15 to be employed in under takings where only family members are employed, but only if such work is free from risk to the life, health, or morals of children (Art.2). ILO Convention No.77 (‘Medical examination for fitness for

employment in industry of children and young persons”). Also ratified in May 1960, the Convention requires the medical examinations of children prior to employment and continuous examinations after that, and includes the medical examination guidelines for the different kinds of work done by children.


ILO Convention No.90 (“Night work of young persons employed in industry”). Ratified in May 1953, the Convention bans the employment of children in industry at night or the duration of work of at least 12 consecutive hours, including the interval of at least 7 consecutive hours, from ten in the evening to seven in the morning, for children aged between 16 and 8 years (Art.2). ILO Convention No.138 (“Minimum age by for admission to

employment”). The campaign to build a broad support for the Convention’s ratification was spearheaded both government agencies and NGOs. This grounds well of support inspired Congress to briskly ratify Convention once it came to a vote. ILO-IPEC and its partners in the Philippines played a key role in the advocacy not only for the ratification of the Convention but also for the passage of more child sensitive laws, especially those concerning child labor. A most recent focus of ILO-IPEC partners and other anti-child labor advocates was the Global March Against Child Labour held in January 1998. The Asian side of the March was launched in the Philippines, and marchers would meet those from other parts of the world in Geneva in June 1998. Throughout 1997, several conventions and conferences around the world discussed the interests and states of child laborers, and prepared for the final meeting of representatives from various countries in June 1998 to agree on the eradication of child labor. Ratified in October 1997, the Convention focuses on setting a standard minimum age for all circumstances, having in view the terms of previous conventions covering minimum age in specific industries or sectors. These are the Conventions on the Minimum Age for industry (approved by ILO in 1919); sea (1920 and revised in 1936);









employment (revised in 1937); fishermen (1959); and underground work (1965). -- (For Children Who Toil) ILO-INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON THE ELIMINATION OF CHILD LABOR The IPEC Philippine programme has contributed significantly in initiating, energizing and mobilizing action against child labor in the Philippines. Its impact must be seen less in the high visibility of the programme itself, but rather in the new strength of its government and non-government partners in leading the campaign for professional and committed action in the campaign against child labor. The Philippine government ratified ILO Convention 138 in the latter part of 1997, setting the country’s minimum age of entry to employment at 15. This represents a major step forward in laying the basis for the fuller enforcement of the long-standing Philippine jurisprudence on child labor. The ratification process itself was a demonstration of the newly found strength of the multi-sectoral alliances campaigning against child labor in the country. The Government of the Philippines and the International Labour Organization formalized a Memorandum of Understanding on the implementation of ILO’s International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC).


From its very inception, the IPEC programme has kept its focus on priority groups of children identified in the Philippine-ILO Indicative Framework for Action. The priority target groups of children are the child victims of trafficking, children in mining and quarrying, children in home-based enterprises, especially under sub-contracting arrangements, children trapped in prostitution, children in domestic service, children in deep sea diving and fishing, and children in commercial plantation agriculture, including sugar and vegetable production.

Seven Point Strategy for Action IPEC outlined its priorities in a seven-point plan for action. These include: 1. Mainstreaming of the issue of child labour and child protection as important policy issues at the national, regional and provincial levels; 2. National media and advocacy campaign; 3. Formulation of a legislative agenda, including the ratification of relevant ILO child labour conventions; 4. Expansion of direct programme services: removal and elimination of child labour in hazardous and exploitative work and the immediate protection of working children. The areas of action are in prevention, removal, rehabilitation and recovey services, as well as the delivery of protective education and health services;


5. Broadening of the social alliances; 6. Professional and technical capability building; 7. Strengthened management and coordination of child labour programmes. While there have been no subsequent tests on awareness levels on child labour, the question on hazardous undertakings revealed that there has been significant rise in levels of awareness of hazardous work for children. Important increases are registered in Visayas and Mindanao, both of which have a high incidence of child labour. Article I, Presidential Decree 603 THE CHILD AND YOUTH WELFARE CODE OF 1974 The Child is one of the most important assets of the nation. Every effort should be exerted to promote his welfare and enhance his opportunities for a useful and happy life. The child is not a mere creature of the State. Hence, his individual traits and aptitudes should be cultivated to the utmost insofar as they do not conflict with the general welfare. The molding of the character of the child starts at the home. Consequently, every member of the family should strive to make the home a wholesome and harmonious place as its atmosphere and conditions will greatly influence the child's development. Attachment to the home and strong family ties should be encouraged but not to the extent of making the home isolated and


exclusive and unconcerned with the interests of the community and the country. The natural right and duty of parents in the rearing of the child for civic efficiency should receive the aid and support of the government. Other institutions, like the school, the church, the guild and the community in general, should assist the home and the State in the endeavor to prepare the child for the responsibilities of adulthood. -- (Phil. Nat’l. Strategic Framework for Plan Dev’t. for Children, 2000-2025, Child 21 ) REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9231 An act providing for the elimination of the worst forms of Child Labor and affording stronger protection for the working child, amending for this purpose republic act no.7610. As amended, otherwise known as the “special protection of Children against child abuse, exploitation and discrimination act”. Declared to provide special protection on children from all forms of abuse, neglect, cruelty, exploitation and discrimination and other prejudicial to their environment including child labor and its worst forms; provide sanctions for their commission and carry out a program for prevention and deterrence of and crisis intervention in situation of child abuse, exploitation and discrimination


Exemption of employment for children below 15yrs. old • • Child works directly under the sole responsibility of their parents Parents permit their children to work in entertainment or information through cinema, television, radio, magazines, etc. Hours of work of a working child: • • 15 years of age - maximum of 20 hours/wk 15 years but below 18 years – maximum of 40 hours/wk -- (Laws and Issuances on Children II) Quezon City Ordinance Prohibiting the father, mother, natural or legal guardian of a child, ward or any person to allow or tolerate, knowingly or unknowingly said child, ward or any person under his/her custody or guardianship to ask, solicit, or otherwise beg for alms, donations, contributions or any act of mendicancy from anybody in public streets, parks, playground or any public places and providing penalties thereof; -- (CWC)

On Child Trafficking
REPUBLIC ACT 9208 "ANTI-TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS ACT OF 2003," Deems it unlawful for any person, natural or juridical, to commit any of the following acts:


(a) To recruit, transport, transfer, harbor, provide, or receive a person by any means, including those done under the pretext of domestic or overseas employment or training or apprenticeship, for the purpose of prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage; (b) To introduce or match for money, profit, or material, economic or other consideration, any person or, as provided for under Republic Act No. 6955, any Filipino woman to a foreign national, for marriage for the purpose of acquiring, buying, offering, selling or trading him/her to engage in prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage; (c) To offer or contract marriage, real or simulated, for the purpose of acquiring, buying, offering, selling, or trading them to engage in prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor or slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage; (d) To undertake or organize tours and travel plans consisting of tourism packages or activities for the purpose of utilizing and offering persons for prostitution, pornography or sexual exploitation; (e) To maintain or hire a person to engage in prostitution or pornography; (f) To adopt or facilitate the adoption of persons for the purpose of prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced-labor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage (bonded labor). -- (Primer R.A. 9208)


REPUBLIC ACT.8371 THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES RIGHTS ACT OF 1997 It recognizes the vital role of children of indigenous peoples in nation – building and supports mechanisms to protect their right. Specifically, it addresses the emerging problem of child – recruitment in rebel – infested areas of the Philippines. -- (Phil. Nat’l. Strategic Framework for Plan Dev’t. for Children, 2000-2025, Child 21 )

On Child Domestic Labor
Senate Bill 1771: Senator Jinggoy Estrada proposed the Senate Bill 1771 that gives protection to Child Domestic Laborers against any kind of abuse; it is supported by the International Labor Organization (ILO), Visayan Forum (VF) and many other Non Government Organizations (NGO’s) by founding an association to train Domestic Laborers in doing house chores and conducting seminars that could help in the improvement and development of their personality. -- (LPI)


On Street Child Labor
House Bill No. 519, entitled: “AN ACT ESTABLISHING CENTERS FOR STREET CHILDREN IN EVERY REGION OF THE PHILIPPINES AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR” By Representative Antonino-Custodio -- ( Projects for the community in Cubao, Quezon City Voluntary drug treatment and rehabilitation by Help Int’l Street visitation and counseling by Christian Compassion Ministries Residential care/group homes by CCM, Mabuhay Christian Home, Help Int’l, & Kuya Drop-in Movement “Rescue” operation by the government Referral/coordination with CPTSA & Int’l Justice Mission for psycho-social & legal interventions for victims of abuse & exploitation Training & organizing of community leaders/volunteers for the protection of children by LPI Daycare and child minding center for pre-school street children by Street Dwellers Outreach Ministries & Lingap Pangkabataan Church-based evangelistic outreach ministries by SDOM & CCM Educational assistance by CCM, LPI, & SDOM Alternative learning system by LPI Livelihood projects by CCM Life-skills sessions by LPI Organizing of children’s advocacy group



• • • • • •

Master listing of all street children & other children at risk including their families Resource mapping Regular inter-agency meeting, consultation, dialogues & community assemblies Setting up a joint management team Conducting local networks projects/activities, advocacy, sociocultural development Coming up with a referral system & agreements to ensure that the children & their families receive the needed action and services

Organization of CCPI clusters at the baranggay level to be eventually recognized as the original BCPC at the baranggay level and be an active member of it. -- (LPI)

On Education
R.A. 7323 Help poor but deserving students pursue their education by encouraging their employment during summer and/or Christmas vacations. Through incentives granted to employers, allowing them to pay only sixty per centum of their salaries or wages and the forty per centum through education vouchers to be paid by the government prohibiting and penalizing the filing of fraudulent or fictitious claims and for other purposes -- (CWC) 31

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 275 In February 1996, President Ramos issued Executive Order No.275 that creates the “Special Committee for the Protection of Children”. This order aimed to consolidate the assessment, monitoring and implementation of the State’s policy of protecting children from all forms of neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation and discrimination, and other conditions prejudicial to their development. -- (Initiating and Mobilizing Action Against Child Labor in the Phils. , 1995-1997) EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 356 RENAMING THE BUREAU OF NONFORMAL EDUCATION TO BUREAU OF ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM WHEREAS, it is a declared State policy, "to protect and promote the right of all citizen to quality basic education and to promote the right of all citizens to quality basic education and such education accessible to all by providing all Filipino children in the elementary level and free education in the high school level. Such education shall also include alternative learning system for out-of school youth and adult learners." (Section 2 of PA. 9155, The Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001) -- (Laws and Issuances on Children II)


National Program Against Child Labor (NPACL) NPACL is being implemented by these groups with the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) as lead with the support of the ILOIPEC and the United Nations Children’s Fund-Manila (UNICEF-Manila). The approaches of the program are mainly on preventive, protective and rehabilitative strategies that are particular to child laborers exposed to trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, slavery/bonded labor and other forms of hazardous work. These involve identifying and master listing of child laborers, identifying of risk factors in the community and the family, legislation and enforcement of policies, support for basic education, advocacy and social mobilization, and child participation. The NPACL has implemented some endeavors namely: a. Sagip Batang Manggagawa (Save Child Laborer) Project; b. Inspection/Enforcement; c. Provision of protective custody, temporary shelter, and alternative parental care; d. Organization of barangay councils for the protection for children BCPCs; e. Mobilization of community volunteers; f. Conducting parent effectiveness services (PES); and g. More response from trade unions. Despite of their efforts, the NPACL and other initiatives still have gaps to fill. They still need to identify and articulate the problems encountered in the implementation of their various interventions and


to discuss unresolved issues and dilemmas. Among these that require further efforts are: a. successful prosecution of child labor cases; b. Establishment of rehabilitative centers at the regional and community levels; c. Provision of integrated services at the local level through active participation of the local government units, the church groups, people's organizations and other service-oriented institutions; d. Monitoring mechanisms and tools in the implementation of services to child laborers and their families; and e. The need to develop, implementation and maintain more innovative/alternative education programs for working children and the need to provide more capability training programs for school teachers/administrators handling working children.

Lack of Awareness The government has numerous projects on child labor, but the communities aren’t aware of these. The audience doesn’t even know any project in their community that has relevance with child labor. A survey conducted also shows that the audiences have only little knowledge about the NGO based on their area.


Lack of participation They may find it less interesting and/or frightening to attend seminars with regards to the issue, they could not help but be suspicious, wary that the information they give might eventually incriminate them. They are afraid to participate because they are thinking that if they are guilty of violating children’s rights, they might get into jail. They think that it will just be a waste of time for them to participate in any program. Excuses were given like “I’m so busy”, “I don’t know the place”, and “I’m busy with my kids” Lack of determination They accept the fact that it is not right for their children to work but they have no choice but to let their children work for a living. The children were afraid that if they will stop from working their parents would be mad at them.

Communication Objectives
1. To alleviate the lives of the working children by informing them about their human rights. 2. To persuade the parents to prevent their child from working. 3. To inform the employers of the consequences of employing a minor. 4. To mobilize the community to exert efforts in alleviating the lives of the working children.


The group conducted a baseline study aiming to generate basic opinion and knowledge of Brgy. E. Rodriguez residents on CDL, CL and CT. Table 1. Do u have any knowledge about any program for these? Category f % CDL 27 27% CL 46 46% CT 24 24% None 44 44% Out of 100 respondents from Baranggay E. Rodriguez, 44% doesn’t have any idea about the programs for CDL, CL and CT.56% of the respondents had multiple answers. 46% said that they have knowledge about child labor, 27% of them said that they know something about child domestic labor. 24% said that they knew programs for child trafficking. Most of the respondents in Baranggay E. Rodriguez don’t have any knowledge about the programs for CDL, CL and CT. Table 2. Who or what is your source about the issue of child labor? Category F % Parents 17 17% Friends/ peers 14 14% Neighbors 20 20% Newspapers 32 32% Internet 4 4% Seminars 5 5% Television/radio 63 63% Others 22 22%


No answers



Out of 100 respondents from Baranggay E. Rodriguez, 63% said that their source is the television /radio, 32% said that it came from newspapers, 22% had answered others (e.g. observations), 20% said that it’s from their neighbors, 17% said that it’s from their parents, 14% said its from their friends/ peers, 5% said it’s from seminars that they had attended, 4% said that it’s from the internet and 11% had no answers. Based from this baseline, the respondents mostly got their information and knowledge about CL, CDL, and CT through television and radio. Table 3. Are there projects, rules and programs for minors implemented in your community? Category f Yes, there is 43 None 56 Undecided 1 % 43% 65% 1%

Out of 100 respondents, 56% said that there are no rules, projects and programs implemented in their community for minors. 43% said that there are, and 1% doesn’t know about it. Table 4. Do you know any institutions, agencies or NGOs that has projects for child labor? Category f Yes, I do 62 None 38 % 62% 38%


Out of 100 respondents 62% of them said that they don’t know any institutions, agencies or NGOs that’s implementing projects for child labor and 38% said that they have (e.g. LPI). Table 5. How will you cooperate in our campaign for the issue of child labor? Category Financial assistance Food assistance Help to fix the venue Join the activities Volunteer No answers F 10 18 35 40 57 5 % 10% 18% 35% 40% 57% 5%

Out of 100 respondents they had multiple answers, 57% agreed to be volunteers on implementing the activities/ programs, 40 % will join the activities, 35% will help fix/ arrange the venue, 18% will assist in means of food, 10% will give financial assistance, 5% had no answer.

One year ago Lingap Pangkabataan Inc. started its CDL Program. There are now 101 Child Domestic Laborers being served and catered by this program. The CDL program is assisted by US Department of Labor through the Winrock International’s Community-Based Innovations to Reduce Child Labor through Education (CIRCLE) initiative.

Socio-Demographic Profile SEX


Almost three-fourths of the Child domestic Laborers involved in the program are females (75) while the rest (26) are males (see Table 1). Table 1. Sex Category Male Female TOTAL

f 26 75 101

% 25.7 74.3 100.0

This could be due to the nature of the work that these children provide for their employees, which are mostly household chores. Being a domestic worker, they do all household chores, including cooking and washing clothes for males. A male child recounted, “Kasi, since maraming mga pinsan ko kasi ilan po ba kami dun, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7... 13 po kami lahat sa bahay eh! Thirteen...maglalaba po ako ng mga damit kahit konti lang.” --- Zenki, 17 However, some of the male participants do other work from females aside from household chores. A child said that he was already used to working even when he was still in the province. He narrated, “Kasi po nagtrabaho din po ako sa probinsiya namin e. Grade 5 po ako nung nagbubuhat po kami ng mga coco lumber. Ewan ko kung bakit ako pumayat. Malaki dati katawan ko eh. Nagbubuhat po kami ng coco lumber tapos nagbabantay po ako ng... ano po dun pa sa may coco lumber shop pa yung mga buko-buko. Tapos taga-tulak po para mahiwa. Yun, yun pa po yung ginagawa ko. Naglalaba po ako ng damit ng mga kapatid ko kasi maliliit pa po mga kapatid ko eh.” --- Zenki, 17


AGE As of May 2006, the ages of the child domestic laborers in the program range from 13 to 17 years old. There were 69 respondents who are fifteen years old and above – seventeen years old (26 respondents), sixteen years old (22 respondents) and fifteen years old (21 respondents). On the other hand, there were 32 respondents who are thirteen and fourteen years old – 18 and 14 respondents – respectively (see Table 2).

Table 2. Age Category Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen TOTAL

f 18 14 21 22 26 101

% 17.8 13.9 20.8 21.8 25.7 100.0

PLACE of ORIGIN Most of the respondents are originally from Luzon (64%), namely Ilocos Region (4%), Southern Tagalog (20%), Central Luzon (10%) and Bicol Region (11%). At the same time, only a small percentage come from the Visayas (13%), namely Region 6 (5%), Region 7 (2%) and Region 8 (5%). (see Table 3). Table 3. Region of Origin Category f



Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 Region 4 Region 5 Region 6 Region 7 Region 8 Region 9 Region 10 Region 11 Region 12 Region 13 CAR NCR ARMM Not Stated TOTAL

4 7 9 20 11 5 2 6 1 2 1 1 1 1 13 1 16 101

4.0 6.9 8.9 19.8 10.9 5.0 2.0 5.9 1.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 12.9 1.0 15.8 100.0

Most of the children left their families in their own provinces. Some of the children attested that it was their parents who sent them in the city to work, for them to continue their studies. Family Background

STATUS of PARENTS’ MARRIAGE Although majority of the children involved in the program (55%) have intact parents, there are also 16% of them whose parents were already separated. It can be seen that a fourth of the children have either deceased parents – father (12%), mother (2%) – or both (6%). Other cases include being abandoned by parents or not knowing his/her parents at all (see Table 4). Table 4. Status of Family Marriage f %


beaten by adoptive parents both parents deceased father deceased mother deceased father abandoned father unknown father unknown, mother deceased Intact Separated separated, mother remarried TOTAL

1 4 8 1 1 2 1 34 10 1 101

1.5 6.2 12.3 1.5 1.5 3.1 1.5 52.3 15.4 1.5 100.0

On the other hand, one of the strong reasons why CDLs accept domestic jobs is because one of their parents died. This implied that some of the cases of CDLs handled by Lingap were only due to the fact that even at an early age, a child had to fill up some of the working obligations of the deceased parent to his/her family. A female child when asked how long had she been helping her mother in her laundry work said, “Am, simula po nung namatay ang tatay ko… …Nung August 2005 po.” --- chuchay, 13 Again, another reason was when parents separate. This was what happened to one of the children under the program which she


had to work separately, since her mother remarried and already had another family, after being separated with his father. NUMBER of SIBLINGS Most of the respondents’ (77) numbers of siblings range from two to six, in which this is almost equally divided among these numbers. There were 17 who had two siblings, 16 who had five siblings in their families. At the same time, there were equal number of children who had three and four siblings (15 responses each) (see Table 5). Table 5. Number of Siblings None One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine TOTAL f 6 5 17 15 15 16 14 7 5 1 101 % 5.9 5.0 16.8 14.9 14.9 15.8 13.9 6.9 5.0 1.0

It is true that children who had many siblings go to this job more often than not since, aside from their parents, they also had to help in the family’s finances. A discussant said, “Uhmm, kasi po para matulungan ko din po yung mother ko. Kasi siya lang po yung nagtatrabaho sa amin. Tapos, marami po kaming magkapatid dito. Tapos, kami lang


yung dalawang nagtutulungan para may trabaho.”

--- Rita, 16

Due to the cost of living these days, there were instances wherein they had to take the burden of providing help for the family through working to other people. There were also some children who, due to the fact that some of their siblings were already working, they don’t have a choice but to also do the same. A female child said, “Si Kuya parang ano po siya, parang sa construction. Nagaayos ng mga...ano ba yun.. yung mga escalator ganun po. Tapos yung isa ko pong kapatid… katulong din po siya sa ibang ano. Tapos si Ate ko... Jonalyn, may trabaho po siyang iba kasi may anak na siya. Binubuhay po niya.” --Zathurna Domestic Labor RELATIONSHIP to EMPLOYER Of the 101 total respondents, almost half of them stated that their employers were not closely related to them, while 39 said that they are working and living with their relatives (see Table 6) Table 6. Children’s Relationship to Employer Relationship to Employer Related Non-related Not Stated Total

f 39 50 12 101

% 38.6 49.5 11.9 100.0


Some of the participants who are living with their relatives said they are sent to Manila by their own parents and left them to close friends/relatives like tito, tita or lola. Others who worked for people they are not related with said they were also sent to work for them, since these people would help them get through their studies. A child also said, “Pinakilala sa akin ng tatay ko. Tapos sabi po sa akin dadalhin daw po ako sa Maynila. Tapos po pumunta po kami ng...Basta po nag-iikot-ikot muna kami dito, nagpunta ng Blumentritt para magtinda lang po kami ng orchids, pagdating po dun sa Cavite, sa Bacoor po...Pinag-alaga niya po ako ng anak niya, yung disabled. Ako po nag-alaga nun. Bago po ako dinala ni Ate Marlyn dun sa Tita ko.” --- Zenki, 17 WORK HAZARDS Deprivation of sleep was the most common hazard that the child domestic laborers reported. Almost one out of four of the children in the program experience excessive hours of work (24%). The children have to wake up early to start their chores. A total of eight respondents reported that they are prohibited to attend school by their employer. Less than 1/3 of the children have reported “no” work hazards (see Table 7). Table 7. Work Hazards Category Excessive hours of work Prohibition to F 30 8 MR* % 24.0 6.4 45

attend to school Deprived of sleep Hazardous jobs Others None Not Stated *n=125

34 2 8 38 5

27.2 1.6 6.4 30.4 4.0

The CDLs usually do a lot of household chores, whether they are related or not with the persons they are staying with. One discussant enumerated the things she usually do everyday, “Naglilinis ng bahay, nagwawalis, nag-aayos ng mga gamit-gamit. Ano, pinupunasan yung mga displays. Eto rin naglalaba kapag weekends… … “Tapos naghuhugas ng plato, araw, tanghali, tsaka gabi… “ --- arielle, 14 Furthermore, another participant recounted his daily tasks in the house with the exact time when he does everything. According to him, he usually foregoes his personal needs and prioritizes the household chores everyday. “Pag 5...5:30 kasi ako gumigising ng umaga. Tapos pag 5:30, di muna ako maghihilamos, di muna akmagsisipilyo, liligpitin ko muna yung mga pinaghigaan ko. . Tapos, bago ako magsipilyo tsaka maglinis ng katawan, pinupunasan ko muna ‘tong ano namin.” --- dodong, 17 Most of the time though, even at weekends, some of the CDLs still had to work instead of rest. One FGD participant said, “Tapos po, pagka-yung Sabado, naglalaba ako ng mga ano nila. Tapos naglilinis din ng mga bakuran nila tapos ano,naglilinis ng bahay. Tapos pag Linggo naman po, nagpaplantsa naman ako. Yun lang po.”


--- Chuchay, 16 Such schedule made them literally busy and deprived of rest and sleep. Some of them had to wake up early everyday and go to bed late at night only after they’ve finished their household duties. Only this time can they finally rest and do their assignments in school. “Tapos po 8 magpapahinga na po ako nun, hinihintay ko na ang alas-dose, alas-dose na po kasi ako natutulog hinihintay ko na lang po kung may iuutos pa tapos bago po ako matulog.” --- Krung-krung, 17

FREE TIME The Child Domestic Laborers usually had their rest and recreation after having finished all their tasks for the day. However, some of them only have their day-offs from work once or twice in one month. Some of the participants in the FGD said that, “Bale yung pinaka-free time ko gabi na po yun, pag nanonood ng lang. Tapos pag tinatamad naman po ako manood ng TV, nagbabasa na lang po ako o kaya nakikipagkwentuhan ako sa mga kaibigan ko.” --- ketchup, 16 “Tapos, maghihilamos na po ako. 7:30 po pupunta na po ako sa manukan, mapapakain na po kami ng manok, magpapaligo tapos pagtapos po niyan, 9 na po ako lalabas...magbabasketball na po ako, maglalaro na po. Tapos pagdating po ng 10, manonood na po ako ng TV.” --- Mayo, 15


“Mga bandang, pag natapos ko na po lahat ng gawain sa bahay, pwede na po akong maglaro. Tapos yun, pupunta sa mga kaibigan pag bandang hapon na po, tapos yun. Yun lang po gawain ko.” --- boy astig, 16 SALARY in a MONTH Out of the whole CDL respondents, almost a third of them stated that they earn from P501 to 1000 pesos in a month. At the same time, there were 18 respondents who said they are getting below 500 pesos, while 14 said they are getting 1001 to 1500 pesos every month of work. It is notable that only one child receives a salary of 3,000 pesos. The average salary of the Child Domestic Laborers is from 501 to 1000 pesos (see Table 8). Table 8. Income CDL Income in f Pesos 500 and Below 18 501 – 1000 32 1001 – 1500 14 1501 – 2000 6 2001 – 2005 5 2501 – 3000 1 Not Stated 25 TOTAL 101 Among the respondents who stated

% 17.8 31.7 13.9 5.9 5.0 1.0 24.8 100.0 their salaries, 16 of the

respondents who earn between the average salary which is from 501 to 1000 pesos, said they are related to their employees as opposed to 13 who stated they are not related to their employees. Cross tabulating children’s relationship with their employer by their salaries in a month, it is evident that the number of children decreases as the salaries increase, whether they related or not to their employers. It 48

can be also noted that almost one fourth of the respondents did not state their salaries, which is considerably a large percentage already (see Table 9). Table 9. Salary Month by Relationship to Employer Relationship to Salary in Pesos Employer NonRelated related f % f % 8 7.9 9 8.9 1 1 16 13 5.8 2.8 3 3.0 9 8.9 5 5.0 1 1.0 3 3.0 1 1.0 1 11 10 9.9 0.9 3 4 39 50 8.6 9.5 Not Stated F % 1 1.0 3 2 1 1 4 12 3.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 4.0 12

500 and Below 501 – 1000 1001 – 1500 1501 – 2000 2001 – 2005 2501 – 3000 Not Stated


This assumption can be further strengthened, as some of those who are living with their own relatives do not give them fixed monthly salaries, since their food for everyday and their allowance for school. Some of the children when asked how much they get from working in their relatives’ house said, “Sa Tita ko po? Wala pong binibigay sa akin.” --- Zenki, 17 “Wala po... Basta wala po. Basta, parang nakikitira po ako sa kanila tapos kapag may school, pag may ano na po... sila po yung bahala.”


--- chupeta, 14 “Yung ganun po. Bale dito, bago ako nagtrabaho sa bahay …basta nagtatrabaho po ako sa bahay namin pero hindi naman po sinuswelduhan. Bale, nakikitira lang po, ganun po.” --- pop corn, 16 Educational Background SCHOOL All the children involved in the program attend schools which are located within Quezon City. Among the children, one out of four is enrolled in Krus na Ligas High School. Other children attend school at Camp Gerneral Emilio Aguinald High School (19), Flora Ylagan High School (20), and Carlos P. Garcia High School (13). A small number of children go to school at Juan Sumulong High School (2) and Ramon Magsaysay High School (3) (see Table 10.)

Table 10. School Category Juan Sumulong Camp General Emilio Aguinaldo Carlos P. Garcia Ramon Magsaysay Lagro High School Krus na Ligas Flora Ylagan Others No answer TOTAL YEAR LEVEL

f 2 19 13 3 8 26 20 8 2 101

% 2.0 18.8 12.9 3.0 7.9 25.7 19.8 7.9 2.0 100.0


Of the 101 child domestic laborers, 29 of them have reached 1st year high school. An equal number of children have reached 2nd or 3rd year high school. It must be noted that some of the children have stopped formal education at one point. Only 7% of the children have only graduated from elementary (see Table 11).

Table 11. Year level Category f Elementary 7 graduate 1st year 29 Highschool 2nd year 26 Highschool 3rd year 26 Highschool 4th year 9 Highschool Not Stated 4 TOTAL 101

% 6.9 28.7 25.7 25.7 8.9 4.0 100.0

Although, a handful of CDLs stopped schooling at one point, their studies seemed to be one of the reasons why they had to enter and continue to stay in such jobs. Education was, according to them very important since it is one of the ways they can help their own families get up from poverty. One determined student said, “Sa magkakapatid po ako lang po yung nag-aaral. Bale yung ate


ko po, 2nd year lang natapos. Mga kapatid ko hindi nagaaral eh… …Magcocollege po ako. Gusto ko po makabuo, 4 yearcourse. Para po makatulong sa family ko. Para po sa aming magkakapatid man lang, ako po yung makakapagtapos.” --- Zenki, 17 TALENTS and SKILLS One important aspect that CDL Program enhances aside from providing financial help as support for the Child Domestic Laborers is the talents and skills of these young children. Many of them are active in Lingap and other community activities, in which they can show some their talents and skills in music, sports and academics. Lingap conducts Children Forum every third week of the month, wherein they can actually plan their activities for the whole year. Furthermore, they are assisted in enhancing their talents and skills through workshops in song, dance, theater and instrument playing together with their fellow CDLs. At the same time, children are also given the opportunity to join contests on drawing, poster-making, poem-writing are also provided by Lingap. Under the same program, children themselves encourage each other to participate in different activities to be able to do other things aside from their household work. Through the year also, tutorials on the subjects Math, Science and English – in which most of the children admitted to have difficulty in such areas. On the other hand, as of February 2005, there were already 73 CDLs provided with school needs, specifically materials for


their school projects, field trip fees and uniforms. The project also did some minor help to the families of those who accidentally burned by fire. Children under the program also get to learn lessons about God which made them enjoy and thankful about Lingap. “Siyempre po masaya.. Unang-una, marami pong bagong kaibigan. Tapos ano po... sa Lingap po kasi sila po yung sumusuporta po sa pag-aaral namin, ganun po. Tsaka sila po yung tumutulong po para mapalapit sa Diyos, kaya po masaya po. “ --- ketchup, 16 All these endeavors and activities helped the CDLs to be able to socialize with other people, meet some friends and learn other things outside their boxes. The organization, together with the Child Domestic Laborers hope that such efforts to improve their lives would continue for them to get out of domestic job and achieve their future dreams and ambitions.

Target Audiences
PRIMARY AUDIENCE Parents: they should be the ones who are with the children most of the times. They should be the first ones to stop their children to work but they seem to have become dependent to their child hoping that they will alleviate them from poverty. They aren’t aware of the projects made by the local government unit. They do not even know anything about the Non-Government Organization in their area committed in


providing services for the children. They need thorough mobilization indeed. Employers: some employers are considerate on the welfare of the children, but then they probably are aware that it is not right to have children toiling in their homes while they are doing something else. No one could ever repay the children for sacrificing their childhood years just for work. They should not be tolerating the children to be involved in labor. SECONDARY AUDIENCE Child laborers: Children lack the knowledge on their own rights. They are not aware that they should not be working on their young age. Even if they do, they couldn’t do anything to have themselves alleviated from their aggravations. INFLUENTIALS Local Government Unit The government shall recognize the vital role of the youth in nation building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual and social well-being by enhancing their over all development, taking into account sectoral needs and conditions in the development of educational, cultural, recreational policies and programs addressed to them. Schools It is through the schools that advocates may have the awareness drive campaign on the said issue to inform the children. The education


sector does not only need to educate the children but they must also help in doing other things concerning the nation’s future – the children.

To deliver the message, we chose LINGAP as represented by Ms. Kathy Eder of Lingap Pangkabataan because the audience can identify her and she is credible and knowledgeable about child labor here in the Philippines.

Message Strategy:
“MANGGAGAWANG KABATAAN, BANTAYAN AT PROTEKTAHAN” We chose this message because it is:  Factually correct  Easy to understand  Simple, precise and explicit  Consistent with other messages and overall program policies  Supportive of personal growth and change  Attractive and interesting  Attitudinal and behavioral change  Its language is acceptable and inoffensive.


Channel Strategy
These are the channels/media/topic that we are planning to have for our campaign for helping the CDL/ CT/ CL: 1. Family day 2. Seminar 3. Film/Documentary Showing 4. Counseling 5. Pamphlets 6. Stickers 7. Tarpaulin 8. Play 9. Music Video/Jingle 10. Streamers These channels are from the results of our baseline survey that was held last November 22 and 29, 2006 at Baranggay E. Rodriguez specifically at 139Compound, Stanford Street, New York St., and Yale Street. We also based these channels on criteria such as Reach, Frequency, Impact, access, Cultural Fit and Budget.


Schedule/ time March 2, 2007 10:00 am – 2:00 pm Activity Hanging of tarpaulin, streamers And house to house distribution of pamphlets and stickers Gathering of parents Objective To provide awareness to the audiences Personnel Materials involved needed/ budget Whole group with LPI representative/s

March 7, 2007 1:00pm – 2:00 pm

March 7, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

Venue arrangement

for the orientation about CL, CDL, CT and other child issues (GD) for the orientation (GD)

Jessica, Jorife, Nazel, Krystel, Camille, Harold with LPI representatives Leonard, Danico, Jen, Paolo, Jonathan, Carloe. Rovel Whole group with LPI representative/s

March 7, 2007 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm March 9, 2007 1:00pm – 2:00 pm


gathering of families

about CL, CDL, CT and other child issues (GD) for the Jessica, Jorife, documentary Nazel, Krystel, showing Camille, Harold with LPI representative/s 57

March 9, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

Venue arrangement

March 9, 2007 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm March 14, 2007 1:00pm – 2:00 pm

Documentar y showing gathering of families

March 16, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm March 16, 2007 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm

Venue arrangement Seminar regarding children’s rights Gathering of parents with children/ grand children For the 2nd family day Venue arrangement

March 21, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

for the Leonard, documentary Danico, Jen, showing Paolo, Jonathan, Carloe. Rovel For them to Whole group know what’s with LPI happening representatives st for the 1 Leonard, family day Danico, Jen, Paolo, Jonathan, Carloe, with LPI representative/s For the Jessica, Jorife, seminar Nazel, Krystel, Camille, Harold, Rovel For the Whole group audience to with ate Kat, know more ate Nila, Kuya about the Russel and children’s Kuya Rex rights For the 2nd Jessica, Jorife, family day Nazel, Krystel, Camille, Harold, with LPI representative/s For the 2nd family day Leonard, Danico, Jen, Paolo, Jonathan, Carloe, Rovel Whole group with LPI representatives

March 21, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

March 21, 2007 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm

2nd Family day (Plays, Parlor games for children) Gathering of parents

March 23, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

For them to have quality time and bond with each other For the Jessica, Jorife, documentary Nazel, Krystel, showing Camille, Harold, 58

March 23, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

Venue arrangement

with LPI representative/s For the Leonard, documentary Danico, Jen, showing Paolo, Jonathan, Carloe, Rovel For them to have awareness For the focused group discussion Whole group with LPI representative/s

March 23, 2007 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm March 28, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

Documentar y showing and discussion Gathering of parents/ elders

March 28, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm March 28, 2007 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm

Venue arrangement

Focused Group Discussion (FGD) regarding issues about children March 30, 2007 pm Gathering of 1:00 – 2:00 pm parents/ elders March 30, 2007 pm Venue 1:00 – 2:00 pm arrangement

Leonard, Danico, Jen, Paolo, Jonathan, Carloe, with LPI representative/s For the Jessica, Jorife, focused group Nazel, Krystel, discussion Camille, Harold, with LPI representative/s To strengthen Whole group their with ate Kat, participation, ate Nila, Kuya determination, Russel and and Kuya Rex awareness For the grand bingo Jessica, Jorife, Nazel, Krystel, Camille, Harold, with LPI representative/s Leonard, Danico, Jen, Paolo, Jonathan, Carloe, with LPI representative/s Whole group with lingap representatives 59

For the grand bingo

March 30, 2007 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm


For them to enjoy and relax

MONITORING SCHEME (Pre-Campaign Period)
Timeframe Jan. 15- 27, 2007 Activity Finding of sponsors, canvassing and planning of IEC materials and venue for the campaign proper. Recording of jingle, follow up for the sponsors, making raw mats for the documentary Completion of the IEC materials and venue for the campaign Finalization of the programs for the campaign, Target output To finish all activities with in the week Actual output Remarks

Jan. 28- Feb. 10, 2007

Feb. 10- 17, 2007

To finish he said activities and have the donations by this weeks To have this on time so we could show it to LPI To polish the said campaign that will start on

Feb. 18-28


(e.g. family day, FGD, GD,etc.)


MONITORING SHEME (Campaign Period)
Timeframe March 2, 2007 10:00 am – 2:00 pm Activity Hanging of tarpaulin, streamers and house to house distribution of pamphlets and stickers Gathering of parents for the orientation about CL, CDL, CT and other child issues (GD) Venue arrangement for the orientation (GD) orientation about CL, CDL, CT and other child issues (GD) Target output To hang the tarp and streamers and disseminate all the pamphlets and stickers To gather at least 50 persons for the GD Actual output Remarks

March 7, 2007 1:00pm – 2:00 pm

March 7, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

To arrange the venue accordingly for the GD To provide awareness and organize the program

March 7, 2007 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm


March 9, 2007 1:00pm – 2:00 pm

March 9, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

gathering of families for the documentary showing Venue arrangement for the documentary showing Documentar y showing

To gather at least 50 viewers To arrange the venue of the documentary viewing For the audience to understand what is our campaign all about To gather at least 50 families Arrange the venue for 50 families To conduct and organize the 1st family day To gather at least 50 parents Arrange the venue for the seminar For the parents to know more about the rights of the 62

March 9, 2007 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm

March 14, 2007 1:00pm – 2:00 pm March 14, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm March 14, 2007 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm

March 16, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

March 16, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm March 16, 2007 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm

gathering of families for the 1st family day Venue arrangement for the 1st family day 1st Family day (programs, plays, discussion) Gathering of Parents for seminar regarding children’s rights Venue arrangement Seminar regarding children’s rights

March 21, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

March 21, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm March 21, 2007 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm March 23, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm March 23, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm March 23, 2007 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm March 28, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm March 28, 2007 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm March 28, 2007 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm

Gathering of parents with children/ grand children Venue arrangement 2nd Family day (Plays, Parlor games for children) Gathering of parents Venue arrangement Documentar y showing and discussion Gathering of parents/ elders Venue arrangement Focused Group Discussion (FGD) regarding issues about Children Gathering of parents/ elders Venue arrangement

children Gather at least 50 families with grand parents Arrange the venue accordingly To conduct the program as planned To gather at least 50 parents Arrange the venue accordingly For them to have awareness To gather at least 50 families Arrange the venue accordingly The parents would answer the questions correctly and participate To gather 50 parents/ elders Arrange the venue for the Grand BINGO

March 30, 2007 pm 1:00 – 2:00 pm March 30, 2007 pm 1:00 – 2:00 pm


March 30, 2007 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm


Conduct the bingo game and make it successful.

Polytechnic University of the Philippines College of Communication Sta. Mesa, Manila
Control no.____ Date: Name/The Manager Marketing Department Name of Company Dear Mr./ms ____ We are writing this letter in behalf of those the child laborers, who spent years living years of hard work to help their family. Our groups is seeking for your donations so as to conduct an awareness campaign for the children as well as their parents and employers regarding the laws and children’s rights. You may contact us through mobile phone number 09229057868, or at 259-43-90. Thank you very much and we hope to work with you helping the Filipino children. Respectfully yours, Leonard Paul Daniel D. Lucas Group leader Noted by: Prof. Malaya B. Abadilla Adviser, COM 203 – communication campaign Prof. Edna T. Bernabe Chairperson,


Department of Broadcast Communication Control no. Received the ff. donations from ________ on __ Day of __, 2007 Signed:___________ selection of choices: Tarpauline_____ Streamer______ Stickers_______

Project Rationale: Recently, the researchers conducted a survey in the community and it shows that among the numerous projects held by the baranggay, there wasn’t any project done for the sake of the working children. The people of baranggay E. Rodriguez, Cubao, Quezon City lack information regarding children issues… Objectives: 1. To conduct an awareness campaign regarding Child Labor issues in partnership with Lingap Pangkabataan Inc. 2. To alleviate the lives of the working children by informing them about their human rights. 3. To persuade the parents to prevent their child from working. 4. To inform the employers of the consequences of employing a minor. 5. To mobilize the community to exert efforts in alleviating the lives of the working children. Area/Locale: Baranggay E. Rodriguez, Cubao, Quezon City Group Profile: The group is from BBrC 2-5 Class headed by Leonard Paul Daniel D. Lucas with Mark Harold P. Villanueva, as the assistant. The writers and researchers are: Jennelyn T. Sotta, Jessica D. Bables, Nastassja B. Carbonell, Danico F. Padilla, Carloe C. Tangi, Jorife B. De Veyra, Rovel R. Tecson, Krystel G. Asilo, Jonathan G. COmpendio Jr., Camille Marie P. Canosa, and John Paolo M. Tarrobal.



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