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Subsea Pipelines are used for the transportation of offshore Hydrocarbons from one Platform to another and or Platform to Shore
DIFFERENT TYPES OF OFFSHORE PRODUCTION UNITS .
g. Flowlines to transfer product from a platform to export lines Water injection or chemical injection Flowlines Flowlines to transfer product between platforms Subsea manifolds and satellite wells.: Export (transportation) pipelines Pipeline bundles.Pipelines are used for a number of purposes in the development of offshore hydrocarbon resources These include e. .
reducers and valves PIPELINE SYSTEM An inter connected system of submarine pipelines. bends. associated piping system and the corrosion protection system .SUBMARINE PIPELINE SYSTEMS PIPELINE Pipeline is defined as the part of a pipeline system which is located below the water surface at maximum tide (except for pipeline risers) Pipeline may be resting wholly or intermittently on. isolation valves. or buried below. supports. the sea bottom PIPELINE COMPONENTS Any items which are integral part of pipeline system such as flanges. tees. all integrated piping components. their risers.
for deep and shallow water Riser clamp Riser are supported/guided from the jacket members through clamps Types of Clamp Hanger clamp Fixed clamp Adjustable clamp . templates or pipelines to equipment located on a buoyant or fixed offshore structure.for shallow water Catenary steel riser .Risers A Riser is a conducting pipe connecting sub-sea wellheads. Types of riser Rigid riser .for deep water Flexible riser .
Riser Clamp (Welding to Jacket member) .
Platform FL 1 .estrained lines Pipelines which cannot expand or contract in the longitudinal irection due to fixed supports or friction between the pipe and soil nrestrained lines Pipelines without substantial axial restraint. (Maximum one fixed upport and no substantial friction).
SUBSEA PIPELINE DESIGN ACTIVITIES Pipeline Sizing Pipeline Material Selection Pipeline Mechanical Design Pipeline Stability Analysis Pipeline Span Analysis Pipeline Crossing Design Pipeline Cathodic Protection System Design .
⇒ MAXIMUM FLOW RATE CONDITION CHECK FOR THE FLOW CONDITION (pressure drop & flow velocity) CHECK FOR SECONDARY CRITERIA like ….10” etc..) which deals with the important aspects like..PIPELINE SIZING In general it means fixing up the pipeline nominal diameter (6”. # Flow regime (mix of hydro carbon. single/multi phase flow) # Temperature profile ⇒ ⇒ # Erosion velocity ..
D D tt .
Carbon steel (Carbon .Nace.PIPELINE MATERIAL SELECTION The governing parameters for the particular type of material to be used are ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ Temperature Pressure Surrounding Environment.5L X. → → → .Toughness and Weldability are limitations API .80 > X-80 .5L of Grade Ranges From X . Corrosive elements (CO2 and H2 S) API .52 .R. C.S.60 & 65 Grades are commonly used.Manganese Steel) C.42 to X .A.
PIPELINE MECHANICAL DESIGN The mechanical design of the pipeline is carried to with stand factors like Internal pressure External Pressure Hydrostatic Collapse Buckle initiation Buckle Propagation .
PIPELINE SPAN ANALYSIS Causes of the Pipeline Spans are Uneven Seabed on Selected route Pipeline Crossing seabed rock outcrop Sand Waves Scour All these result in spanning and cause Excessive yielding (Results in High Bending Moments) Buckle Initiation and there by Propagation Longitudinal loads Longitudinal loads Unsupported length .
.PIPELINE STABILITY Pipeline once installed at the sea bed should be sufficiently stable to avoid any overstressing. due to wave and current generated movements PIPELINE STABILITY Vertical stability Vertical stability Lateral stability Lateral stability . deterioration of coating etc.
D = Overall pipe outside diameter including pipe coatings B = Projected contact area between pipe and soil =P/qu Where.is given by: δ = D/2-[(D/2)2 – (B/2)2]1/2 Where. . The Pipe sinkage is determined as the depth at which the applied pipe pressure equals the soil bearing resistance. qu = CNC +1/2Bγ N γ qu = Ultimate bearing capacity of soil P = Pipe submerged weight including pipe coatings and in water filled condition per unit length. Floating of Buried Pipeline during Empty condition & Soil Liquefaction.Vertical stability Sinking in to the sea bed during maximum fluid density condition. Soil deformation(pipe sinkage)δ .
Forces to be considered for Lateral stability analysis Submerged weight WS Lateral resistance R Friction µ Drag force FD Lift force FL .Lateral stability It is the capacity to resist the lateral forces due to Environmental loads.
for nominal wall thickness (t). N/m FD = hydrodynamic drag force. N/m µ = lateral coefficient of friction between pipe and seabed. S = safety factor (1. N/m FL = hydrodynamic lift force.1) W s= submerged weight of pipeline/unit length. N/m FI = hydrodynamic inertia force. The stability criterion is expressed as (Ws .FL) µ ≥ (FD + FI) S Where. .
Methods of Pipeline stabilization Increase Pipeline wall thickness Provide Concrete Weight Coating Lay the Pipeline in Open trench Trench and bury the Pipeline Provide Concrete Mattress over Pipeline Stabilize Pipeline by Rock dumping .
Increase in Increase in Pipewall thickness Pipewall thickness Providing Providing Concrete coating Concrete coating .
Natural Fill Tremie concrete Back fill Bedding Bedding Buried pipe.Armor Cover Buried pipe.Sea bed Trench wall Jetted in pipe Armor rock Natural fill Buried pipe.Concrete Cover Stabilization Methods for buried Submarine pipeline .
Trenching Concrete Mattress .
Rock dumping .
PIPELINE CROSSING ANALYSIS Crossings are designed to Give a Physical separation Between The Proposed Line & Existing Line. To Avoid Interfacing Of Cathodic Protection Between The Two Lines A min of 300mm gap is Provided b/w the lines as per the DNV-Code. .
> > > > Bearing capacity Over turning Sliding Settlement .Crossing analysis methodology » » » » » Pipeline Crossing Span Calculation. Pipeline Crossing Flexibility analysis Pipeline Crossing Support design against. Pipeline Dynamic Span Calculation Number of Supports to be Provided.
PIPELINE CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM DESIGN The Subsea pipelines are provided with sacrificial anodes made of Aluminum or Zinc to protect against marine corrosion Important parameters for Anode Design * * * * * * * * Surface area of the Pipeline Surface area of the Pipeline Fluid and Anode temperature Fluid and Anode temperature Break down Break down Design service life of Anodes Design service life of Anodes .
Code of practice for pipeline NACE RP 0169 .Design and construction requirements for country hydrocarbon pipeline. OISD 141 .Rules for submarine pipeline system .Recommended practice.Pipeline transportation systems for liquid hydrocarbon and other liquids cross . ASME B 31.4 .8 -Gas transmission and distribution piping system.MAJOR DESIGN CODES AND STANDARDS DNV 1981 DNV 2000 API 5L BS 8010 .Submarine pipeline system .Specification for line pipe . ASME B 31.control of external corrosion on underground or submerged metallic piping.