INC 341 – Feedback Control Systems
Modelling of
Mechanical Systems
S Wongsa
sarawan.won@kmutt.ac.th
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Today’s goal
Mechanical system models
Review of the Laplace transform & transfer function
Translation Rotation
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Linear timeinvariant systems
Input
Output
System
X(s)
Y(s)
x(t)
y(t)
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( * ) ( ) (
0
s H s X s Y
d t h x t h t x t y
t
=
− = =
∫
τ τ τ
The system is called timeinvariant if system parameters do not change in time.
time
domain
frequency
domain
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Laplace transform
{ } dt e t f t f s F
st
∫
∞
−
−
= =
0
) ( ) ( ) ( L
F(s) is the frequency domain representation of f(t)
s is a complex number
ω σ j s + =
where σ and ω are real numbers with units of frequency, i.e. Hz.
Inverting the Laplace transform
  ds e s Y
j
s Y t y
j
j
st
∫
∞ +
∞ −
−
= =
σ
σ
π
) (
2
1
) ( ) (
1
L
Using tables is much easier!
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Why the Laplace transform?
We can transform an ordinary differential equation (ODE) into an algebraic equation
(AE) and easily find the rather complicated solution of the ODE.
ODE AE
Partial fraction
expansion
Solution to ODE
t  domain s  domain
L
1
L
1
2
3
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Laplace transform of some commonly used functions
From Table 2.1, Nise, Norman S., Control Systems Engineering. 5
th
Ed. John Wiley, 2008.
Impulse function / Dirac function
Properties
Unit energy
Sifting
∫
+∞
∞ −
=1 ) (t δ
∫
+∞
∞ −
= ) 0 ( ) ( ) ( f t f t δ
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Laplace transform of some commonly used functions
From Table 2.1, Nise, Norman S., Control Systems Engineering. 5
th
Ed. John Wiley, 2008.
2
3
4
5
6.
7
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Properties of Laplace Transform
From Table 2.2, Nise, Norman S., Control Systems Engineering. 5
th
Ed. John Wiley, 2008.
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
The Transfer Function
Given a nthorder, LTI differential equation,
) ( ...
) ( ) (
) ( ...
) ( ) (
0
1
1
1 0
1
1
1
t r b
dt
t r d
b
dt
t r d
b t c a
dt
t c d
a
dt
t c d
a
m
m
m
m
m
m
n
n
n
n
n
n
+ + + = + + +
−
−
−
−
−
−
If all initial conditions are zero, taking the Laplace transform of
both sides gives
0
1
1
0
1
1
...
...
) (
) (
) (
a s a s a
b s b s b
s G
s R
s C
n
n
n
n
m
m
m
m
+ + +
+ + +
= =
−
−
−
−
G(s) is known as the transfer function.
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
The Transfer Function
Transfer functions permit cascaded interconnection of several
subsystems.
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Mechanical system components : translation
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Example: One degree of freedom
[sum of impedances] X(s)=[sum of applied forces]
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( t f t Kx t x f t x M
v
= + + & & &
L
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
s F s KX s sX f s X Ms
v
= + +
) (s G
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Example : Two degrees of freedom
(a) Forces on M
1
due only to motion of M
1
(b) Forces on M
1
due only to motion of M
2
(c) All forces on M
1
Forces on M
1
) ( ) ( ] [ ) ( ] ) ( [
2 2 1 2 1
2
1
3 3 1
s F s X K s f s X K K s f f s M
v v v
= + − + + + +
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
(a) Forces on M
2
due only to motion of M
2
(b) Forces on M
2
due only to motion of M
1
(c) All forces on M
2
Forces on M
2
0 ) ( ] ) ( [ ) ( ] [
2 3 2
2
2 1 2
3 2 3
= + + + + + + − s X K K s f f s M s X K s f
v v v
Example : Two degrees of freedom
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Example : Two degrees of freedom
Equations of motion
0 ) ( ] ) ( [ ) ( ] [
) ( ) ( ] [ ) ( ] ) ( [
2 3 2
2
2 1 2
2 2 1 2 1
2
1
3 2 3
3 3 1
= + + + + + + −
= + − + + + +
s X K K s f f s M s X K s f
s F s X K s f s X K K s f f s M
v v v
v v v
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Equations of motion can also be formulated by inspection
] at x forces applied of sum [
) ( ] x and between x imp. of sum [ ) ( ] at x motion the to connected imp. of [sum
1
2 2 1 1 1
= − s X s X
) ( ) ( ] [ ) ( ] ) ( [
2 2 1 2 1
2
1
3 3 1
s F s X K s f s X K K s f f s M
v v v
= + − + + + +
Forces on M
1
] at x forces applied of sum [
) ( ] x and between x imp. of sum [ ) ( ] at x motion the to connected imp. of [sum
2
1 2 1 2 2
= − s X s X
Forces on M
2
0 ) ( ] ) ( [ ) ( ] [
2 3 2
2
2 1 2
3 2 3
= + + + + + + − s X K K s f f s M s X K s f
v v v
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Example : Two degrees of freedom
Equations of motion
0 ) ( ] ) ( [ ) ( ] [
) ( ) ( ] [ ) ( ] ) ( [
2 3 2
2
2 1 2
2 2 1 2 1
2
1
3 2 3
3 3 1
= + + + + + + −
= + − + + + +
s X K K s f f s M s X K s f
s F s X K s f s X K K s f f s M
v v v
v v v
Transfer function


¹

\

=


¹

\



¹

\

0
) (
) (
) (
2
1
s F
s X
s X
d c
b a


¹

\



¹

\

=


¹

\

−
0
) (
) (
) (
1
2
1
s F
d c
b a
s X
s X
∆


¹

\



¹

\

−
−
=


¹

\
 0
) (
) (
) (
2
1
s F
a c
b d
s X
s X
∆
+
= =
) (
) (
) (
) (
2 3 2
K s f
s G
s F
s X
∆
−
= =
) (
) (
) (
) (
2
s cF
s G
s F
s X
d c
b a
= ∆
where
See Example 2.18 and try Skillassessment Exercise 2.8
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
KSpring constant, D – coefficient of viscous friction, J – moment of inertia
Mechanical system components : Rotation
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Example : Two equations of rotational motion
(a) Torques on J
1
due only to motion of J
1
(b) Torques on J
1
due only to motion of J
2
(c) All torques on J
1
Torques on J
1
) ( ) ( ] [ ) ( ] [
2 1 1
2
1
s T s K s K s D s J = − + + θ θ
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Example : Two equations of rotational motion
(a) Torques on J
2
due only to motion of J
2
(b) Torques on J
2
due only to motion of J
1
(c) All torques on J
2
Torques on J
2
0 ) ( ] [ ) ( ] [
2 2 2 2 1
= + + + − s K s D s J s K θ θ
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Example : Two equations of rotational motion
) ( ) ( ] [ ) ( ] [
2 1 1
2
1
s T s K s K s D s J = − + + θ θ
0 ) ( ] [ ) ( ] [
2 2 2 2 1
= + + + − s K s D s J s K θ θ
Equations of motion
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Let’s get this done by inspection
] at torques applied of sum [
) ( ] and between imp. of sum [ ) ( ] at motion the to connected imp. of [sum
1
2 2 1 1 1
θ
θ θ θ θ θ = − s s
) ( ) ( ] [ ) ( ] [
2 1 1
2
1
s T s K s K s D s J = − + + θ θ
See Example 2.20 and try Skillassessment Exercise 2.9
] at torques applied of sum [
) ( ] and between imp. of sum [ ) ( ] at motion the to connected imp. of [sum
1
2 2 1 1 1
θ
θ θ θ θ θ = − s s
0 ) ( ] [ ) ( ] [
2 2 2 2 1
= + + + − s K s D s J s K θ θ
Torques on J
1
Torques on J
2
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Mechanical system components: rotation: gears
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
T
T
N
N
r
r
= = =
θ
θ
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Gear transformations
) ( ) ( ) (
2 2
2
s T s K Ds Js = + + θ
1
2
1 2
2
) ( ) ( ) (
N
N
s T s K Ds Js = + + θ
1
2
1 1
2
1
2
) ( ) ( ) (
N
N
s T s
N
N
K Ds Js = + + θ
(1) (2)
(3)
) ( ) (
1 1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
s T s
N
N
K s
N
N
D s
N
N
J =
(
(
¸
(
¸


¹

\

+


¹

\

+


¹

\

θ
Rotational mechanical impedances can be
reflected through gear trains by multiplying
the mechanical impedance by the ratio
(Number of destination teeth/Number of source teeth)
2
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Example: Reflected impedances
) ( ) (
1
1
2
2 2 2 1
2
1
2
2
2 1
2
1
2
s T
N
N
s K s D D
N
N
s J J
N
N


¹

\

=
(
(
¸
(
¸
+


¹

\

+


¹

\

+


¹

\

+


¹

\

θ
See Example 2.22 and try Skillassessment Exercise 2.10
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Using the Laplace transform to solve ODEs
From 2.004 Dynamics & Control II, MIT OCW, Fall 2007.
The motor applies torque T
s
(t) as the following step function:
) (
0 ,
0 , 0
) (
0
0
t u T
t T
t
t T
s
≡
¹
´
¦
≥
<
=
J = The shaft inertia.
b = Coefficient of viscous friction applied by the bearings.
ω= The shaft rotational speed.
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0
t u T t T t b t J
s
= = + ω ω&
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) (
2 1
0
0
b Js
K
s
K
b Js s
T
s
s
T
s b Js
+
+ =
+
= Ω
= Ω +




¹

\

+
− = Ω
J
b
s
s b
T
s
1 1
) (
0
( )
τ
ω
/
0
1 ) (
t
e
b
T
t
−
− =
where τ = J/b
1 /
0
= b T
1
L
L
Partial
fraction
expansions
force response
natural response
Summary
Laplace transform
Transfer functions & impedances of mechanical systems
{ } dt e t f t f s F
st
∫
∞
−
−
= =
0
) ( ) ( ) ( L
K Ds Js + +
2
1
T(s) Ω ΩΩ Ω(s)
ODE AE
Partial fraction
expansion
Solution to ODE
t  domain s  domain
L
1
L
1
2
3
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Next class
Transfer functions of electrical systems (2.12.4 of Ch 2).
Transfer functions of electromechanical (DC motor) systems (2.8 of Ch2).
Nonlinearities & linearisation (2.10 & 2.11 of Ch2 and 4.9 of Ch4).
You are highly recommended to read these topics before coming to the next class!
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Today’s goal Review of the Laplace transform & transfer function Mechanical system models
Translation
Rotation
Input
time domain
System
Output y(t)
x(t)
y (t ) = x (t ) * h (t ) = Y (s) = X (s) H (s)
∫ x (τ ) h (t − τ ) d τ
0
t
frequency domain
X(s)
Y(s)
.Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Linear timeinvariant systems
The system is called timeinvariant if system parameters do not change in time.
e. i. Hz.
Inverting the Laplace transform
1 y (t ) = L [Y ( s ) ] = 2πj
−1
∫σ
σ + j∞
− j∞
Y ( s ) e st ds
Using tables is much easier!
.Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Laplace transform
F ( s ) = L{ f (t )} = ∫ f (t )e − st dt
0−
∞
F(s) is the frequency domain representation of f(t) s is a complex number
s = σ + jω
where σ and ω are real numbers with units of frequency.
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Why the Laplace transform?
We can transform an ordinary differential equation (ODE) into an algebraic equation (AE) and easily find the rather complicated solution of the ODE.domain s .domain
L
ODE 1 AE
2
L1
Solution to ODE
3
Partial fraction expansion
. t .
John Wiley. Norman S.Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Laplace transform of some commonly used functions
Impulse function / Dirac function
Properties Unit energy
+∞
∫
Sifting
−∞
δ (t ) = 1
∫
From Table 2. 2008. Nise.1.
+∞
−∞
δ (t ) f (t ) = f (0)
.. Control Systems Engineering. 5th Ed.
2008. Nise.
7
From Table 2. 5th Ed.
.. Norman S.Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Laplace transform of some commonly used functions
2 3
4
5 6. Control Systems Engineering. John Wiley.1.
Nise. John Wiley. 5th Ed. Control Systems Engineering. 2008.
..Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Properties of Laplace Transform
From Table 2. Norman S.2.
taking the Laplace transform of both sides gives
C ( s) bm s m + bm −1s m −1 + ... + b0 = G (s) = R(s) an s n + an −1s n −1 + ... + b0 r (t ) dt n dt n −1 dt m dt m −1
If all initial conditions are zero. LTI differential equation.
..
d n c(t ) d n −1c(t ) d m r (t ) d m −1r (t ) an + an −1 + ...Transfer Functions of Physical Systems The Transfer Function Given a nthorder. + a0 c(t ) = bm + bm −1 + . + a0
G(s) is known as the transfer function..
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems The Transfer Function Transfer functions permit cascaded interconnection of several subsystems.
.
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Mechanical system components : translation
.
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Example: One degree of freedom
G (s)
L
& M&&(t ) + f v x(t ) + Kx(t ) = f (t ) x
Ms 2 X ( s ) + f v sX ( s ) + KX ( s ) = F ( s )
[sum of impedances] X(s)=[sum of applied forces]
.
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Example : Two degrees of freedom
Forces on M1
(a) Forces on M1 due only to motion of M1 (b) Forces on M1 due only to motion of M2 (c) All forces on M1
[ M 1s 2 + ( f v1 + f v3 ) s + K1 + K 2 ] X 1 ( s ) − [ f v3 s + K 2 ] X 2 ( s ) = F ( s )
.
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Example : Two degrees of freedom
Forces on M2
(a) Forces on M2 due only to motion of M2 (b) Forces on M2 due only to motion of M1 (c) All forces on M2
− [ f v3 s + K 2 ] X 1 ( s) + [ M 2 s 2 + ( f v2 + f v3 ) s + K 2 + K 3 ] X 2 ( s) = 0
.
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Example : Two degrees of freedom
Equations of motion
[ M 1s 2 + ( f v1 + f v3 ) s + K1 + K 2 ] X 1 ( s ) − − [ f v3 s + K 2 ] [ f v3 s + K 2 ] X 2 ( s) = F (s) 0
X 1 ( s ) + [ M 2 s 2 + ( f v 2 + f v3 ) s + K 2 + K 3 ] X 2 ( s ) =
.
between x1 and x 2 ] X 1 ( s) = [sum of applied forces at x 2 ]
− [ f v3 s + K 2 ] X 1 ( s) + [ M 2 s 2 + ( f v2 + f v3 ) s + K 2 + K 3 ] X 2 ( s ) = 0
. connected to the motion at x 2 ] X 2 ( s) − [sum of imp.Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Equations of motion can also be formulated by inspection
Forces on M1
[sum of imp. between x1 and x 2 ] X 2 ( s) = [sum of applied forces at x1 ]
[ M 1s 2 + ( f v1 + f v3 ) s + K1 + K 2 ] X 1 ( s ) − [ f v3 s + K 2 ] X 2 ( s ) = F ( s )
Forces on M2
[sum of imp. connected to the motion at x1 ] X 1 ( s) − [sum of imp.
18 and try Skillassessment Exercise 2.8
.Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Example : Two degrees of freedom
Equations of motion
[ M 1s 2 + ( f v1 + f v3 ) s + K1 + K 2 ] X 1 ( s) − [ f v3 s + K 2 ] X 2 ( s) = F ( s) − [ f v3 s + K 2 ] X 1 ( s ) + [ M 2 s 2 + ( f v 2 + f v3 ) s + K 2 + K 3 ] X 2 ( s ) = 0
Transfer function
a b X 1 ( s) F ( s ) c d X ( s ) = 0 2
d − b F ( s ) X 1 ( s ) − c a 0 X (s) = ∆ 2
X 2 (s) − cF ( s ) = G (s) = F (s) ∆
X 1 (s) a b F (s) X ( s) = c d 0 2
−1
where
∆= a b c d
( f s + K2 ) X 2 (s) = G ( s) = 3 F (s) ∆
See Example 2.
D – coefficient of viscous friction.Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Mechanical system components : Rotation
KSpring constant. J – moment of inertia
.
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Example : Two equations of rotational motion
Torques on J1
(a) Torques on J1 due only to motion of J1 (b) Torques on J1 due only to motion of J2 (c) All torques on J1
[ J1s 2 + D1s + K ]θ1 ( s ) − [ K ]θ 2 ( s ) = T ( s )
.
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Example : Two equations of rotational motion
Torques on J2
(a) Torques on J2 due only to motion of J2 (b) Torques on J2 due only to motion of J1 (c) All torques on J2
− [ K ]θ1 ( s ) + [ J 2 s2 + D2 s + K ]θ 2 ( s ) = 0
.
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Example : Two equations of rotational motion
Equations of motion
[ J1s 2 + D1s + K ]θ1 ( s ) − [ K ]θ 2 ( s ) = T ( s ) − [ K ]θ1 ( s ) + [ J 2 s2 + D2 s + K ]θ 2 ( s ) = 0
.
between θ1 and θ 2 ]θ 2 ( s ) = [sum of applied torques at θ1 ]
− [ K ]θ1 ( s) + [ J 2 s2 + D2 s + K ]θ 2 ( s) = 0
See Example 2. between θ1 and θ 2 ]θ 2 ( s ) = [sum of applied torques at θ1 ]
[ J1s 2 + D1s + K ]θ1 ( s ) − [ K ]θ 2 ( s ) = T ( s )
Torques on J2
[sum of imp.20 and try Skillassessment Exercise 2. connected to the motion at θ1 ]θ1 ( s ) − [sum of imp.Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Let’s get this done by inspection
Torques on J1
[sum of imp. connected to the motion at θ1 ]θ1 ( s) − [sum of imp.9
.
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Mechanical system components: rotation: gears
θ 2 r1 N1 T1 = = = θ1 r2 N 2 T2
.
Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Gear transformations
(1)
( Js 2 + Ds + K )θ 2 ( s) = T2 ( s )
(2) ( Js 2 + Ds + K )θ 2 (s) = T1 (s)
N2 N1
(3) ( Js 2 + Ds + K ) N1 θ1 ( s) = T1 ( s) N 2
N2 N1
2 2 N 2 N1 N1 2 J 1 s + D N N s + K N θ1 ( s ) = T1 ( s ) 2 2 2
Rotational mechanical impedances can be reflected through gear trains by multiplying the mechanical impedance by the ratio (Number of destination teeth/Number of source teeth)2
.
22 and try Skillassessment Exercise 2.10
.Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Example: Reflected impedances
N 2 N 2 2 2 J + J s + 2 D + D s + K θ ( s ) = N 2 T ( s ) 2 2 2 2 N 1 N1 1 N1 1 1
See Example 2.
Fall 2007.t ≥ 0
≡ T0u (t )
J = The shaft inertia.
natural response
& Jω (t ) + bω (t ) = Ts (t ) = T0u (t )
ω (t ) =
T0 1 − e −t /τ b
(
)
T0 / b = 1
L
( Js + b)Ω( s) = Ω( s ) = T0 s
Partial fraction expansions
force response
where τ = J/b
L1
T0 1 1 Ω( s ) = − b s s+ b J
T0 s( Js + b) K K2 = 1+ s ( Js + b)
From 2.
. ω = The shaft rotational speed.004 Dynamics & Control II.t < 0 . MIT OCW.Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Using the Laplace transform to solve ODEs
The motor applies torque Ts(t) as the following step function:
0 Ts (t ) = T0
. b = Coefficient of viscous friction applied by the bearings.
domain AE
2
L
Solution to ODE
1
Partial fraction expansion 3
Transfer functions & impedances of mechanical systems
T(s)
1 2 Js + Ds + K
Ω(s)
.domain ODE 1
L
s .Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Summary
Laplace transform
F ( s ) = L{ f (t )} = ∫ f (t )e dt
− st 0− ∞
t .
12.Transfer Functions of Physical Systems Next class
Transfer functions of electrical systems (2.10 & 2.9 of Ch4). Nonlinearities & linearisation (2.
You are highly recommended to read these topics before coming to the next class!
.4 of Ch 2).11 of Ch2 and 4.8 of Ch2). Transfer functions of electromechanical (DC motor) systems (2.