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A sandwiched double layer of phospholipids, called a plasma membrane or phospholipid bilayer
♦ Separates the cell from its surroundings.
Controls cellular traffic – acts as the “gatekeeper,” regulating what can come in and go out, so as to maintain homeostasis
♦ Also integrates many different kinds of proteins and signaling molecules
Found in BOTH plants and animals
and some bacteria. NOT FOUND in animal cells! .Cell Wall ♦ Provides support and protection ♦ Surrounds the cell membrane ♦ Allows some things to pass through ♦ Made of cellulose Found in plants. fungi.
♦ Has two membranes ♦ Has some of its own DNA (different from nuclear DNA) Found in BOTH plants and animals . called ATP.MITOCHONDRIA (singular: mitochondrion) ♦ Cellular powerhouse ♦ Changes chemical energy from food into another form of energy. This process is called cellular respiration. which can be used by the body.
♦ Stroma: spaces inside the chloroplasts that contain a protein-containing fluid ♦ Granum: stacked disks that contain chlorophyll. through the process of photosythesis ♦ Has three membranes ♦ Made of components called stroma and granum.CHLOROPLASTS ♦ Cellular powerhouses for plants ♦ Converts sunlight and CO2 into food for the plant (sugars). the substance that gives plants their green color Found in ONLY plants and green algae .
RIBOSOME ♦ NOT an organelle. but rather a large conglomeration of RNA and protein ♦ Where protein is made (through a process called protein synthesis) ♦ ♦ Composed of RNA and proteins Made in the nucleolus ♦ Some are attached to the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and others are floating freely around the cell Found in BOTH plants and animals .
LYSOSOMES ♦ Small organelles filled with digestive enzymes ♦ Responsible for breaking down the “cellular junk” ♦ Like clean-up crews or the Pac Man of the cell Found in BOTH plants and animals .
and package proteins ♦ Particularly important for proteins that are going to be secreted from the cell Found in BOTH plants and animals .GOLGI APPARATUS ♦ Look like stacks of pancakes ♦ They modify. sort.
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) ♦ Materials are transported from the nucleus by a system of channels or canals called the endoplasmic reticulum ♦ Many materials also receive significant modification and/or preparation for their final purpose ♦ Smooth ER has no ribosomes attached ♦ Rough ER has ribosomes attached Rough ER Smooth ER Found in BOTH plants and animals .
VACUOLE ♦ Membrane-bound sacs that contain a variety of different materials such as: ♦ Food ♦ Water ♦ Waste ♦ Plants have larger vacuoles than animals do ♦ They provide storage. and homeostasis Found in BOTH plants and animals . support.
CYTOSKELETON ♦ Provides shape and support for the cell ♦ Like the scaffolding that holds up a tent ♦ Made of microtubules and microfilaments ♦ Things move along the cytoskeleton within the cell Found in BOTH plants and animals .
PROKARYOTES. dark. large structures. or any membrane-bound organelles for that matter! THEY DO HAVE DNA THOUGH!!! 2.have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles ♦ Found in BOTH plants and animals Parts of the nucleus: 1. EUKARYOTES. NUCLEOLUS: see separate slide .don’t have a nucleus. 4.NUCLEUS ♦ It’s the large. NUCLEAR ENVELOPE: Two membranes surrounding the nucleus 2. NUCLEAR PORES: passageways in and out of the nucleus – formed by protein(s) 3. CHROMOSOMES: DNA attached to special proteins. circular body in cells ♦ The nucleus is the control center of the cell ♦ Presence or absence of a nucleus divides organisms into two primary categories: 1.
PEROXISOME ♦ Contain chemicals and enzymes that are important in metabolic pathways ♦ Particularly important in breaking down long fatty acid chains. or to create intermediate length fatty acid chains for use elsewhere in the cell ♦ Some have a crystallized core due to the density of enzymes present Found in BOTH plants and animals . either to extract energy.