Introduction Women in almost all the nations constitute around 50% of the population.

In many European countries they constitute slightly more than 50% too. Yet in majority of countries, the women constitute no more than 10% of their legislative bodies. They are struggling to achieve adequate representation. The demand of women to be given their due share in all spheres of life – including that of the legislative and governing institutions is a universal demand. Women continue to be responsible for 80% of the food production and provide about 70% of the labor especially in subsistence farming , but most of them (55%) are not paid. Bridge 2008. Gender disparity is rampant in decision making process. Between 85-90% victims of gender based violence are women. Almost half (47%) of women have experienced physical violence since they were 15 years with the majority being between age bracket of 15-25 years.Bridge 2008. Women participation in all spheres of life is very crucial. . In this essay, gender is defined here in terms of the social relations and processes embodied in the variety of institutions (e.g. families, communities, markets, legal systems) underpinning day-to-day life. As such, gender relations are dynamic, variable, and context-specific. Gender relations are shaped by historical processes, which influence how gender interacts with other axes of inequality. In Zambia, the central force that shaped social relations is Culture. Gender relations also shape, and are shaped by, socio-economic institutions governing labour allocation and resource entitlements, by sociocultural norms which define gender identities and by the scope for representation of gender interests within political, socio economic and legal institutions. All of these factors interact to create specific patterns of gender differentiation and inequality. To ensure that women participate in a quality way we have analyse what the gender the issues that have led to women not to have quality participation. I shall there use known tools for gender analysis to evaluate the project and make recommendations thereafter in my conclusion.

Gender roles and sex roles The behaviors, attitudes, and activities expected or common for males and females. Whereas sex roles are essentially biologically determined (ensuring successful reproduction and forming the basis of sexual division of labor, in which women are associated with childrearing), gender roles (behavior that is considered ―masculine‖ or ―feminine‖) are culturally determined.

Gender roles and sex roles have a significant influence on how society would want women to participate in the affairs of society. Gender role is a term used to denote a set of behavioral norms that accompany a given gendered status (also called a gendered identity) in a given social group or system Connel 1987. Every known society has a gender/sex system, although the components and workings of this system vary widely from society to society. Gender role is comprised of several elements. A person's gender role can be expressed through clothing, behaviour, choice of work, personal relationships and other factors. Gender roles were traditionally divided into strictly feminine and masculine gender roles, though these roles have diversified today into many different acceptable male or female gender roles. However, gender role norms for women and men can vary significantly from one country or culture to another, even within a country or culture. People express their gender role somewhat uniquely.

Differences between men and women are obvious in both physiological and psychological aspects. Personality differences between Men and Women are not as obvious as biological differences because psychological differences in men and women are probably caused by biological differences. The historic interpretation of these differences has often led to prejudice and discrimination against women. Tool of evaluation Model project A variety of methods used to understand the relationships between men and women, their access to resources, their activities, and the constraints they face relative to each other. Therefore in this project I would use gender analysis tools to evaluate women participation and how qualitable their participation should be. Gender analysis provides information that recognizes that gender, and its relationship with race, ethnicity, culture, class, age, disability, and/or other status, is important in understanding the different patterns of involvement, behaviour and activities that women and men have in political, economic, social and legal structures. An analysis of gender relations provides information on the different conditions that women and men face, and the

among others. culture. Areas of evaluation (tools for gender analysis) The project must address the connections of gender with factors such as race. limited access to reproductive health services and family planning. A medical approach to maternal mortality can only partly address this tragic and complex problem. In this project. for example how will the project enable women to have increased control over their lives? Let us take. and/or other status. age. When doing research. responsibilities and opportunities. Every year at least 585. gender analysis makes visible the varied roles women. in the community. class. and have the opportunity to contribute to the definition of the solution. Broadening the focus and giving attention to equality issues such as child marriage. female genital mutilation. for example. A gender perspective focuses on the reasons for the current division of responsibilities and benefits and their effect on the distribution of rewards and incentives. and in economic. girls and boys play in the family. it is important to keep in mind the long term impact of the project in terms of women's participation in all aspects of life. Such information can inform and improve policies and programs. the case of maternal mortality. That means a research is necessary to ascertain why women there has been poor participation by women. Gathering information to enrich the understanding of the gender roles and relations in a specific context and asking difficult questions. While it is easy to see the people . Both women and men must be consulted on the issue at hand. At the same time.different effects that policies and programs may have on them because of their situations. Who are the intended recipients of the benefits of the proposed project. and women and girls eating last and least can reduce and transform the recurring nature of maternal mortality. Reconsidering an issue using gender analysis expands the understanding of the challenges women face and the range of solutions available. disability. 2000). ethnicity. I will start with examining the issue so that the broad reality of gender roles and relationships is taken into account. I would consider if my client is challenging the existing gender division of labour.000 women die of pregnancy or childbirth related causes around the world (WHO. legal and political structures. men. tasks. At the local level. and is essential in ensuring that the different needs of both women and men are met.

involved in more practical and tangible initiatives. issues and priorities are different . . With this information measures of equity can be created to address the disparities and promote better partipation of women. and the uses men and women make of natural resources. such as capacity building for local authorities. An analysis of gender relations can tell us who has access. a balanced male/female account of activities performed and their affect on the environment. needs. needs. women's life experiences. and on how a particular development initiative may challenge or maintain the existing gender division of labour. needs. such as land and water. who has control. the development of a country's environmental policy. on some appropriate entry points for measures that promote equality within a particular context of course . issues. It can provide information on the potential direct or indirect benefit of a development initiative on women and men. In undertaking this project. the interests that women have in common may be determined as much by their social position or their ethnic identity as by the fact they are women . The life experiences. Without a proper analysis of these issues in economic policies can result in women's perspectives and priorities being left out of strategies for development and indeed quality participation of women in developmental issues. one needs to recognize that women's and men's lives are different and therefore experiences. Women do a majority of the work within the informal sector and the home and as a result. much of their work is not counted or is underrepresented in official statistics. It can also lead us to explore assumptions about issues such as the distribution of resources and the impact of culture and traditions. any project will ultimately have an effect on people. women's lives are not all the same. and must work to promote the equal status of women and men. and who is likely to lose. This might involve understanding the perceptions of women and men of the environment. Therefore in my project I would ask questions that can lead us in a search for information to understand why a situation has developed the way it has. For example. who is likely to benefit from a new initiative. should involve a holistic socio-economic analysis that addresses gender relations to fully understand the situation and ensure that the policy and its directives promote equality. issues and priorities are different for different ethnic groups . Many of women's contributions to the economy continue to go unrecognized because their work is not easily counted within the conventional structures.

It includes the ways in which those differences. to problem definition. implementation. marital status. occur within complex sets of differing social and cultural expectations'. have been valued. Throughout the lifespan of the project. Conclusion The term 'gender' refers to the social construction of female and male identity. the interrelationships between social context and economic factors can be understood and initiatives that respond to those needs can be designed. therefore different strategies should be used to encourage women in these different groupings to participate for their own good. The significance of this is that the lives and experiences of women and men. employment status. I would recommend the following: that both men and women must be involved to advance quality partipation of women. This participatory process provides the context for the creation. some of the intricacies of the gender roles and social relationships may not be easily understood. throughout the entire development process. disability. used and relied upon to classify women and men and to assign roles and expectations to them.and priorities vary for different groups of women (dependent on age. groups and communities affected by development initiatives must be involved from the beginning of the process in order to determine the gender dimensions of the issue at hand. planning. After undertaking this project. Without local knowledge and expertise. ethnicity. implementation and evaluation of development initiatives to promote gender balance. system. It can be defined as 'more than biological differences between men and women. whether real or perceived. . monitoring and evaluation we need to keep on analyising gender differences and inequalities so that we come up with better solution to women participation. income levels. throughout research. By examining basic assumptions each step of the way.Individuals. sexual orientation and whether they have dependants) .

——(ed. Publisher: Routledge. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Practice. Feminist Review. ——(ed. London: Macmillan.Occupational asthma in the city of São Paulo. (eds) (1992) Women and Adjustment Policies in the Third World. Afshar. (1981) Water Resources Development and Rural Women. (1982) ‗Khomenini‘s teachings and their implications for women‘. Agarwal. State and Ideology. H. N. Work and Ideology in the Third World. Page Number: 15. Publication Year: 1993. H.) (1987) Women. Moser . B. and Training. and Dennis. New Delhi: Ford Foundation. . 12:59-62. Afshar. Place of Publication: New York. London: Tavistock.) (1985) Women. C. Contributors: Caroline O. Robert William: Gender and Power. with special reference to gender analysis Connell.REFERENCE WHO (2000). Cambridge: University Press 1987 Publication Information: Book Title: Gender Planning and Development: Theory.author. 1995–2000.

Aklilu. Mimeo. (1991) Gender Training: Experiences. Association of Women in Development. ——(1991) ‗Does gender training make a difference? An approach to evaluating the effectiveness of gender training‘. Paper presented at Women. M.——(1986) Cold Earth and Barren Slopes: Woodfuel Crises in the Third World. C. P. New York: UNIFEM. Washington. Occasional Paper prepared for WID Colloquium on Gender and Development. DC: AWID. (1988) ‗Integrating women or restructuring development‘. (eds) (1987) Women in Development Cooperation: Europe‘s Unfinished Business. A UNIFEM Review Paper. Andersen. (1989) ‗Women and planning: the needs for an alternative analysis‘. Development Policy and the Management of Change seminar. Barbados. Antrobus. and Baud. (1990) Women on the Agenda: UNIFEM‘s Experience in Mainstreaming with Women 1985-1990. Anderson. Lessons and Future Directions. I. Anderson. M. Antwerp: Centre for Development Studies. New York: UNIFEM. M. D. . and Chen. California: Riverdale.

J.——(1991) ‗Development alternatives with women‘. Dawber. Balayon. I. A. Norway (12-15 May 1991). Shindler. B. J. (1991) ‗Gender dynamics: a conceptual framework‘. J. Klugman. Voices from the South. Obery.. Baele. . and Yawitch. S. South Institute.. London: Zed.. Paper presented at the International Conference on Gender Training and Development Planning: Learning from Experience. Barrett. London: Verso. Proceedings of the Association of Women in Development colloquium. Bergen. Geneva: International Labour Organization. (1990) Gender and Development: Elements for a Staff Training Strategy.. Ottawa: The North. M. (1985) South African Women on the Move.. in The Future for Women in Development. (1980) Women‘s Oppression Today. Barrett. T.

In contrast. Planners are unable to deal with the ‘whole’ economy—that is. ethnicity and class. reproductive rights. This in turn is defined as the ‘means by which concerns are satisfied’. process and organization.Practical and strategic gender needs and the role of the state An important underlying rationale of gender planning concerns the fact that men and women not only play different roles in society. Its purpose is to propose a new planning framework that can effectively aid the goal of the emancipation of women. knowledge base. The usefulness of these gender planning tools is then examined in terms of several interventions in different planning sectors. It focuses specifically on gender precisely because this tends to be subsumed within class in so much of policy and planning. in other words. It is these that provide the conceptual rationale for the identification of gender planning as a planning tradition in its own right. with distinct levels of control over resources. a planning . A brief description follows of the way the state in different political contexts effectively controls women’s strategic gender needs through family policy relating to domestic violence. In order to discuss gender planning within the broader perspective of Third World planning. This chapter provides a description of the concept of gender interests and its translation into planning terms as gender needs. strategic gender interests and practical gender interests. When identifying interests it is useful to differentiate between ‘women’s interests’. Having identified the different interests of women it is possible to translate them into planning needs. agenda. First. At the outset it is important to emphasize that the rationale for gender planning does not ignore other important issues such as race. with both market and non-market relations—and with gender divisions of labour. It identifies the important distinction between practical and strategic gender needs. 1 From a planning perspective this separation is essential because of its focus on the planning process whereby an interest. the means by which their concerns may be satisfied. but that they therefore often have different needs. A further distinction can then be made concerning women’s needs. following the threefold conceptualization made by Maxine Molyneux (1985a). it is useful to clarify several commonly confused issues. THE IDENTIFICATION OF GENDER NEEDS Planning for low-income women in the Third World must be based on their interests—in other words. This chapter describes the emerging tradition of gender planning. legal status and welfare policy. with its own focus and objectives. A planning tradition is a particular form of planning. strategic gender needs and practical gender Towards gender planning A new planning tradition and planning methodology BACKGROUND: A BRIEF OUTLINE OF PLANNING TRADITIONS AND METHODOLOGIES Part One of this book identified the ways in which current assumptions about women and men in society result in the formulation and implementation of policies. defined here as a ‘prioritized concern’. programmes and projects that ignore. disadvantage or discriminate against Third World women. a distinction should be made between a planning tradition and a planning methodology. translates into a need. through strategies to challenge and overcome oppressive roles and relationships. tools and techniques. and outlines its methodological procedures. their prioritized concerns.

and the different effects that policies and programs may have on them because of their situations. their access to resources. is important in understanding the different patterns of involvement. Casimira walked for nearly 3 hours to reach a training session/meeting. a range of different traditions. as gender is a factor in all social and economic relations. class. and the constraints they face relative to each other. culture. has evolved. is the need to acknowledge that over time different planning traditions have used different planning methodologies. disability. it is necessary to recognize that planning methodologies differ concerning the extent to which they identify planning as a set of technical or political procedures. . behaviour and activities that women and men have in economic. and following from this. social and legal structures. and its relationship with race. and/or other status. Secondly. Bolivia. A comprehensive socio-economic analysis would take into account gender relations. Safier (1990) GENDER ANALYSIS What is gender analysis? Gender Analysis in Development Cooperation What can gender analysis tell us? Where is gender analysis used? When in the process is gender analysis applied? Who undertakes gender analysis? Elements of Gender Analysis Tools for Gender Analysis Related Sites What is gender analysis? Gender analysis refers to the variety of methods used to understand the relationships between men and women. and is essential in ensuring that the different needs of both women and men are met. Gender analysis is an essential element of socio-economic analysis. Since planning was first identified as a professional activity. age. ethnicity. An analysis of gender relations provides information on the different conditions that women and men face. each with an associated methodology and relative perception relating to the ‘neutrality’ of the activity. Thirdly. Gender analysis provides information that recognizes that gender. Such information can inform and improve policies and programs. their activities.methodology is the process of providing organized technical guidance for such action (Safier 1990).

gender analysis has already led to changes in strategies for development cooperation that previously did not meet the needs of women. in the community. Gender analysis asks questions that can lead us in a search for information to understand why a situation has developed the way it has. who has control. challenge systemic inequalities (most often faced by women). legal and political structures. programs and projects can build effective actions that promote equality. who is likely to benefit from a new initiative. . men. girls and boys play in the family. and build efficient and equitable solutions. is an integral part of policy analysis. What can gender analysis tell us? An analysis of gender relations can tell us who has access. and with it gender relations. It can provide information on the potential direct or indirect benefit of a development initiative on women and men. and in economic. The information gathered during the research stage of the analysis should make the differences between women and men explicit (using sex-disaggregated data) so that policies. Gender Analysis in Development Cooperation An understanding of socio-economic relations. With this information measures of equity can be created to address the disparities and promote equality. By being part of this process. CIDA's Policy on Gender Equality section entitled Gender Analysis as a Tool outlines some important considerations. and on how a particular development initiative may challenge or maintain the existing gender division of labour. gender analysis makes visible the varied roles women. and programs can have on women and men. It can also lead us to explore assumptions about issues such as the distribution of resources and the impact of culture and traditions. A gender perspective focuses on the reasons for the current division of responsibilities and benefits and their effect on the distribution of rewards and incentives. Since gender relations will change in each context and over time. To be most effective. on some appropriate entry points for measures that promote equality within a particular context. policies. a gender analysis should be done within each development initiative. it must be part of each step of a development initiative: from conception and design to implementation and evaluation. Gender analysis offers information to understand women's and men's access to and control over resources that can be used to address disparities. Analysis of the different situations of men and women can provide an understanding of the different impacts that legislation. and who is likely to lose. Gender analysis can also provide insights on how gender equality can be promoted within efforts for sustainable development to ensure maximum efficiency in pursuing development goals. cultural practices.At the local level. and is essential in creating and implementing effective development co-operation initiatives.

and thus. but in others. By examining basic assumptions each step of the way. In Jamaica. Within CIDA. While it is easy to see the people involved in more practical and tangible initiatives. and must work to promote the equal status of women and men. Where is gender analysis used? Development cooperation always involves people. it is boys who are at higher risk of missing out on education. throughout research. CIDA-led initiatives must undertake gender analysis at . culture. disability. such as capacity building for local authorities. there is a gap between girls' and boys' enrolment and retention in school. Many of women's contributions to the economy continue to go unrecognized because their work is not easily counted within the conventional structures. the gap works against girls. The lack of a gender analysis in economic policies can result in women's perspectives and priorities being left out of strategies for development. to problem definition. For example. much of their work is not counted or is underrepresented in official statistics. In India.In the case of primary education. among others. implementation. that is. should involve a holistic socio-economic analysis that addresses gender relations to fully understand the situation and ensure that the policy and its directives promote equality. any policy or project will ultimately have an effect on people. and/or other status. This might involve understanding the perceptions of women and men of the environment. planning. governments are increasingly using gender analysis to investigate the source of the gap and what measures can be adopted to reduce the distortions in the educational system. In their efforts to balance the need to meet the needs of both girls and boys. an average six year-old girl can expect to spend six years in school. such as land and water. three years less than a boy of the same age. monitoring and evaluation. age. Boys are often pulled out of school and sent to work to boost family income. however. the interrelationships between social context and economic factors can be understood and initiatives that respond to those needs can be designed. programs and projects. and the uses men and women make of natural resources. When in the process is gender analysis applied? Gender analysis takes place throughout the entire development process. is required for all policies. In the majority of countries where there is a gender gap. gender analysis can tell us that a gender gap exists in most countries. Girls in rural areas are at even greater disadvantage: their risk of dropping out of school is three times that of a boy. the development of a country's environmental policy. their drop-out rate is higher than that of girls'. ethnicity. it works against boys. Women do a majority of the work within the informal sector and the home and as a result. a gender analysis that addresses the connections of gender with factors such as race. a sexdisaggregated account of activities performed and their affect on the environment. class.

from planning through to evaluation. Consequently. policy-makers and program managers located in both donor and partner countries. and men and women without daughters. both Dinka people and organisations identified widows and people with disabilities as vulnerable. but the Dinka explained that gifts are to be distributed within the clan and the family. Dinka people. Bangladesh. groups and communities affected by development initiatives must be involved from the beginning of the process in order to determine the gender dimensions of the issue at hand. implementation and evaluation of development initiatives to promote gender equality. In it. also identified male and female farmers and fishers with no livestock or fish. such as posters with women involved in construction. the organizations involved were surprised. For example. This participatory process provides the context for the creation. They questioned their own assumptions of the vulnerability of people and the way that food aid was A traditional birth assistant being distributed. a gender analysis should identify local and national initiatives undertaken by both governments and civil society in order to strengthen and complement these efforts. In the case of the organizations delivering food aid to vulnerable members of the Dinka people of South Sudan there was a puzzling issue. to work in partnership with women and men involved to advance gender equality. some of the intricacies of the gender roles and social relationships may not be easily understood. When Dinka mothers began voluntarily to remove malnourished children from therapeutic feeding programs. Without local knowledge and expertise. the number of women in technical courses jumped from 13. Individuals. The donor strategy often called for the provision of food aid to one child within a family. Additionally. They then set-up discussions counsels 13 to 15-year-olds. between members of aid organisations and women and men involved in decision-making about food in the local communities. a technical training program. During the discussions it became clear that each group had different definitions of need and different ideas of how aid should be distributed. the Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI) or National Industrial Apprenticeship Program in Brazil. built in gender analysis from the beginning and responded to the under-representation of female students. Who undertakes gender analysis? It is the task of analysts. For example. in both government and civil society. a portion of the program focused on a sensitization campaign geared towards students and industry. This exchange has led to devising methods .5% to 31.3% in seven years. promotional materials showcased female role-models in non-traditional jobs. As a result of undertaking and following through on the gender analysis. however.the planning stage and integrate the findings and recommendations at each step of the way.

programs and projects Undertaking gender analysis begins with examining the issue so that the broad reality of gender roles and relationships is taken into account. and women and girls eating last and least can reduce and transform the recurring nature of maternal mortality. limited access to reproductive health services and family planning. Gathering information to enrich the understanding of the gender roles and relations in a specific context means asking difficult questions. with some advantages and disadvantages. program or project. When doing research. and who could potentially lose? Both women and men must be consulted on the issue at hand. Consider three important points:    it requires skilled professionals with adequate resources it benefits from the use of local expertise the findings must be used to actually shape the design of policies. tasks. program or project in terms of women's equality with men. consider if you are challenging the existing gender division of labour. A medical approach to maternal mortality can only partly address this tragic and complex problem. Broadening the focus and giving attention to equality issues such as child marriage. Reconsidering an issue using gender analysis expands the understanding of the challenges women face and the range of solutions available. while others are more participatory. responsibilities and opportunities. female genital mutilation. 2000). and to establishing a more appropriate manner of distributing aid that takes into account local practices. Who are the intended recipients of the benefits of the proposed policy.to better account for local definitions of social assets. the case of maternal mortality. At the same time. Tools for Gender Analysis There are a variety of tools that have been developed to assist people in asking these questions. Elements of Gender Analysis For a good gender analysis. it is important to keep in mind the long term impact of a policy. . resources and commitment to implement the results of the analysis are necessary. Each tool is different.000 women die of pregnancy or childbirth related causes around the world (WHO. for example. How will these enable women to have increased control over their lives? Take. some account for other social characteristics and factors better. Following are some examples. Every year at least 585. and have the opportunity to contribute to the definition of the solution.

Finland. development initiatives will come short in their efforts to support sustainable development. CIDA's Policy on Gender Equality Gender Analysis Guidelines provides some thoughts on what to ask and what to do when carrying out gender analysis. case studies and examples. Without this. Gender Based Analysis. It has three main components: an activity profile ('who does what?'). an access and control profile ('who has access and who controls what?'). conscientization. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada's Gender Equality Analysis Policy provides a useful guide of questions to ask. A Guide for Policy-Making. The manual was published by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. published by Status of Women Canada. Related Sites Navigating Gender: a Framework and a Tool for Participatory Development is a manual to help apply the often theoretical understanding of gender issues in practical work through concepts. Regardless of the tool or method used. entitled Some Gender Planning Approaches and Strategies offers descriptions of the Harvard Analytical Framework. the Women’s Empowerment Framework and the Social Relations Framework. information should account for differences between men and women. boys and girls. definitions. participation. The Harvard Analytical Framework is a tool to collect data at the community and household level. . access. Moser’s Gender Planning Framework. Module 1 of the ILO/SEAPAT's Online Gender Learning & Information. describes the methodology involved in undertaking gender analysis. The Gender Based Analysis Backgrounder of the Bureau of Women's Health and Gender Analysis of Health Canada describes the importance of Gender Based Analysis in the development of health policy programs and legislation. Department for International Development Cooperation. control and empowerment. and should ask questions for the reasons behind these differences. and an analysis of influencing factors ('how does gender influence the profiles?').The Women's Equality and Empowerment Framework builds on an analytical framework based on the interconnected principles of welfare.

The results of Women’s.enut.ee/enut. It is another source of information that should complement other source like statistics and studies. Knowledge about gender relation and gendered patterns in society should not be based on every day assumptions on “the women” and “the men”. The challenge when using analytical gender tools is to know which instrument applies to which context. Men’s and Gender Studies provide a good knowledge basis to figure out gender disparities. for example the Gender Related Development Index by the UNDP or gender-statistics on country level. Then these analytical tools become part of an educational tool because participants will be sensitised for gender issues. it is necessary to substantiate the process with empirical data. The library of the Eesti Naisuurimus. to adjust given tools and further develop them. Often tools are applied in a Gender Training Workshop as an example.When it comes to Gender Mainstreaming. Often it will be necessary to deal with instruments in a flexible way. Statistics/Studies Since Gender Mainstreaming should be based on a profound knowledge basis it may be necessary to find out about gender relation within a specific field with the use of empirical data or qualitative studies on gender relations. . Useful links for gender statistics available on the Internet are listed below [internal link].php?keel=ENG&id=6 Gender analysis tools The following examples of analytical tools are useful to generate data and information. Rather the quality of the implementation of GM strongly depends on the use of research results like statistical material and other empirical studies and information.ja Teabekeskus (The Estonian Women’s Studies and Resource Centre) ENUT offers a good service: http://www. Gender analysis tools can also be used to demonstrate which questions are relevant when implementing Gender Mainstreaming.

However. The table gives you an impression of how the tool works. Representation: WHO? Key questions for example: · · · How many women/men are at which level? How many men/women profit. values and stereotypes are underlying? (qualitative) . knowledge. It can be applied to many contexts: Originally it was developed in a communal setting in Sweden for a gender analysis of communal projects. if you would like to use the 3R method you should at least read the publication mentioned below. how many women/men use service? How many men/women take part in decision making processes? (quantitative) Resources: WHAT? Key questions for example: · How are funds.The 3R-Method The 3R method today is widely known as a simple but effective tool for gender analysis. time. space distributed between women and men? (quantitative) Realities WHICH CONDITIONS? Key questions: · · What are the causes of gender disparities analysed? Which norms. Today the 3R method is also being used for analysing organisations and programmes.

measures and laws for their possible future impacts conbtributes to their sustainability also aiming at reducing costs: It will not be necessary to review a certain policy when possible negativ impacts are excluded in advance. 1.pdf Gender proofing With the help of Gender proofing methods one can ensure that policies. There are three steps in GIA: Checking gender relevance. This kind of checking programmes. programmes or laws do contribute to more gender equality. It is a tool for an ex-ante evaluation. Gender Impact Assessment (GIA) A typical and widely known gender proofing tool is the Gender Impact Assessment (GIA) developed within the EU context. Checking Gender Relevance The first step in a gender mainstreaming process is to establish whether gender is relevant to the policy on which you are working. In order to check gender relevance. Assessing the Gender Impact Assessing differences between women and men in the policy field. meaning the assessment of possible future impacts of a policy. participation. asses the expected impact on gender relations and finally to make gender sensitive policy proposals. resources.lygus. such as: .Source: http://www. values and norms related to gender)? 2.lt/gm/admin/files/VERKSTAN(eng). you need to obtain and study sexdisaggregated data and to ask the right questions: · · Does the proposal concern one or more target groups? Will it affect the daily life of part(s) of the population? · Are there differences between women and men in this policy field (with regard to rights.

human rights (including freedom from sexual violence and degradation). new technologies. to masculine and feminine characteristics. a project or other policy tools. job and professional career. If a whole sample of entities is available this kind of checklist can be applied to. in participation rates.html An example of how the GIA can be transferred into a notional policy is Norway: A Guide to GIA of the Norwegian Government Policy is available at: http://odin. and inequalities in the value attached to men and women or to masculine and feminine characteristics · rights pertaining to direct or indirect sex-discrimination. leisure) · norms and values which influence gender roles.html Checklists Checklists are tools to assess to which extend a gender perspective been included in a programme. however in this way a checklist can become an educational tool for the person who answers the respective questions.· participation (sex-composition of the target/population group(s). tasks and responsibilities in private and public life.no/bfd/engelsk/regelverk/rikspolitiske/004041-990029/index-dok000-b-n-a. .int/comm/employment_social/evaluation/gender03_en. the attitudes and behaviour of women and men respectively. education and training. in the legal. and access to justice. asking questions which invite to reflect and give further details. means of transport. division of labour by gender. benefits. behaviour and priorities? Adapted from: http://europa. housing. It will be more difficult to evaluate and compare information generated by non-standardised checklist. health care services. It can either be standardized offering only certain possibilities to answered (yes/no/not sure). political or socio-economic environment 3. information and money. in the distribution of resources. space.eu. in the value and attention accorded to male and female. Other checklist are less standardized. representation of women and men in decision-making positions · resources (distribution of crucial resources such as time. political and economic power. Propose Gender-Aware Policy The third step is to make a proposal on how policies can contribute to the elimination of existing inequalities and promote equality between women and men.dep. it will be possible to prove statistical whether Gender-aspects are included.

org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/library/download/pub03-11/part2-5.in/REPORT/Gstrat/strat-11.ilo.An example for a standardised checklist also giving instructions on how to include a gender perspective is provided by the International Labour Organisation.pdf An example for a not-standardised checklist which is also an educational tool is the “Suggestive Checklist of Actions for Gender Mainstreaming” provided by the Gender in Development Programme: http://www. programmes.undp.org. and budgets on action against child labour exploitation: http://www. ILO.htm . projects. This checklist can be used to assess to what extent gender mainstreaming strategies have been included in policies.

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