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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report summarizes the findings for the design of a multi-storey steel building using the BS
5950 part 1- 2000, BS 6399 part 1- 1996, BS 684- 1964, BS 6399 part 1- 1984 and the CP 3
chapter V part 2- 1972 done by students of Civ 428 (Structural Steel Design), carried out on
behalf of Mr. Marlon Daniels (lecturer at the University of Guyana). The site have not be located
but can be assumed to be somewhere on the coast of Guyana.
The objective of this design is to enable the student to identify and provide a first order
assessment on the variability of the loading conditions as required by the client i.e. Mr. Marlon
Daniels. The results obtained will help to establish the design of the various members of the
proposed structure being designed using the BS 5950 part 1-2000 codes etc. This can provide
qualitative information for planning purposes.
Further interpolation and interpretation of engineering properties in this report is beyond the
scope of this project. Professional knowledge and interpretation should be sought from a
qualified structural engineer. The load analysis and design of the structure was for a two-way
spanning floor system. Designing of beams, columns, base plates and connections form the core
of elementary steel design. According to the requirements, this report furnishes the design and
calculation of laterally supported and laterally unsupported beams, a column, the column base
plate and bolt connection. The following are the results of design:
Table 1: Summary of the designed members
Location Member Length(/m) Section Size(/mm) Grade Strength
(N/mm
2
)
2
nd
Floor Beam B2 8.0 610 x229 x101 UB S 275
Beam A1 8.0 457 x191 x67 UB S 275
Column B2 4.6 203 x 203 UC 86 S 275
Column B1 4.6 203 x 203 UC 86 S 275
Bracket Connector 170 x 250 x 8 S 275
10 # M16Total Grade 8.8
Beam to Column Connector 90 x 90 x 10 S 275
6 # M16 Total Grade 8.8
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Table 2: Summary of the designed members
Location Member Length(/m) Section Size(/mm) Grade Strength
(N/mm
2
)
1
st
Floor Beam B2 8.0 610 x229 x101 UB S 275
Beam A1 8.0 457 x191 x67 UB S 275
Column B2 3.6 254 x 254 UC 107 S 275
Column B1 3.6 254 x 254 UC 107 S 275
Bracket Connector 170 x 250 x 8 S 275
10 # M16Total Grade 8.8
Beam to Column Connector 90 x 90 x 10 S 275
6 # M16 Total Grade 8.8
Table 3: Summary of the designed members
Location Member Length(/m) Section Size(/mm) Grade Strength
(N/mm
2
)
G - Floor Beam B2 8.0 610 x229 x101 UB S 275
Beam A1 8.0 457 x191 x67 UB S 275
Column B2 3.6 254 x 254 UC 167 S 265
Column B1 3.6 254 x 254 UC 167 S 265
Bracket Connector -- 170 x 250 x 8 S 275
-- 10 # M16Total Grade 8.8
Beam to Column Connector -- 90 x 90 x 10 S 275
-- 6 # M16 Total Grade 8.8
Base Plate for Column B2 -- 600 x 600 x 70 S 275
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Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.................................................................................................................................. 1
LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................................................................................ 5
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................. 6
METHOD STATEMENT FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A MULTI-STOREY STEEL BUILDING ON TIMBER PILE
FOUNDATION................................................................................................................................................ 7
Purpose..................................................................................................................................................... 7
References ................................................................................................................................................ 7
Methodology of Works ............................................................................................................................. 7
Mobilisation of Machinery, Equipment, Tools and Labour................................................................... 7
Materials ............................................................................................................................................... 8
Construction of Multi-Storey Building .................................................................................................. 8
Contingencies............................................................................................................................................ 9
List of Equipment to be used.................................................................................................................. 10
Quality Control........................................................................................................................................ 10
Occupational Health and Safety ............................................................................................................. 10
DAY WORKS SCHEDULE............................................................................................................................... 11
General.................................................................................................................................................... 11
Labour ..................................................................................................................................................... 11
Equipment............................................................................................................................................... 12
Materials ................................................................................................................................................. 12
PROJECT INFORMATION............................................................................................................................. 13
SECOND FLOOR ELEMENTS DESIGN............................................................................................................ 14
DESIGN OF ROOF BEAMS (ALL ROOF BEAMS) ........................................................................................ 14
BEAM B2.............................................................................................................................................. 14
BEAM A1 ............................................................................................................................................. 18
DESIGN OF COLUMNS............................................................................................................................. 22
Design of Column B2: Roof to Second Floor ....................................................................................... 22
DESIGN OF COLUMNS............................................................................................................................. 24
Design of Column B1: Roof to Second Floor ....................................................................................... 24
DESIGN OF BRACKET CONNECTION FOR BEAM 2A................................................................................. 26
BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION USING WEB CLEATS......................................................................... 28
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FIRST FLOOR ELEMENTS DESIGN ................................................................................................................ 30
DESIGN OF SECOND FLOOR BEAMS (ALL FLOOR BEAMS) ...................................................................... 30
BEAM B2.............................................................................................................................................. 30
BEAM A1 ............................................................................................................................................. 34
DESIGN OF COLUMNS................................................................................................................................. 38
Design of Column B2: Second Floor to First Floor .............................................................................. 38
DESIGN OF COLUMNS................................................................................................................................. 40
Design of Column B1: Second Floor to First Floor .............................................................................. 40
DESIGN OF BRACKET CONNECTION FOR BEAM 2A................................................................................. 42
BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION USING WEB CLEATS......................................................................... 44
GROUND FLOOR ELEMENTS DESIGN.......................................................................................................... 46
DESIGN OF FIRST FLOOR BEAMS (ALL FLOOR BEAMS) ........................................................................... 46
BEAM B2.............................................................................................................................................. 46
BEAM A1 ............................................................................................................................................. 50
DESIGN OF COLUMNS............................................................................................................................. 53
Design of Column B2: Second Floor to First Floor .............................................................................. 54
DESIGN OF COLUMNS................................................................................................................................. 55
Design of Column B1: First Floor to Second Floor .............................................................................. 56
DESIGN OF BRACKET CONNECTION FOR BEAM 2A................................................................................. 58
BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION USING WEB CLEATS......................................................................... 60
DESIGN OF BASE PLATE FOR COLUMN B2 .............................................................................................. 62
DISCUSSIONS............................................................................................................................................... 64
CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................................................................. 65
REFERENCES................................................................................................................................................ 66
APPENDICES................................................................................................................................................ 67
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1- Plan showing beams and columns layout for roof level
Figure 2- Longitudinal section for beam B2 with loading condition roof level.
Figure 3 – Cross section of beam B2 roof level
Figure 4- Longitudinal section for beam A1 with loading condition roof level.
Figure 5 – Cross section of beam A1 roof level
Figure 6 – 3D view of column B2 with loading condition roof level
Figure 7 – Cross section of column B2 roof level
Figure 8 – 3D view of column B1 with loading condition roof level
Figure 9 – Cross section of column B1 roof level
Figure 10 – Cross section of bracket connector for beam B2 roof level
Figure 11- Plan showing beams and columns layout for second floor level
Figure 12- Longitudinal section for beam B2 with loading condition second floor level.
Figure 13 – Cross section of beam B2 second floor level
Figure 14- Longitudinal section for beam A1 with loading condition second floor level.
Figure 15 – Cross section of beam A1 second floor level
Figure 16 – 3D view of column B2 with loading condition second floor level
Figure 17 – Cross section of column B2 second floor level
Figure 18 – 3D view of column B1 with loading condition second floor level
Figure 19 – Cross section of column B1 second floor level
Figure 20 – Cross section of bracket connector for beam B2 second floor level
Figure 21- Plan showing beams and columns layout for first floor level
Figure 22- Longitudinal section for beam B2 with loading condition first floor level.
Figure 23 – Cross section of beam B2 first floor level
Figure 24- Longitudinal section for beam A1 with loading condition first floor level.
Figure 25 – Cross section of beam A1 first floor level
Figure 26 – 3D view of column B2 with loading condition first floor level
Figure 27 – Cross section of column B2 first floor level
Figure 28 – 3D view of column B1 with loading condition first floor level
Figure 29 – Cross section of column B1 first floor level
Figure 30 – Cross section of bracket connector for beam B2 first floor level
Figure 31 – Cross section ground floor base plate connector
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INTRODUCTION
Structural steelwork can be either a single member or an assembly of a number of steel sections
connected together in such a way that they perform a specified function. The function required
by a client or owner will vary enormously but may include: building frames, bridges, temporary
supports, etc.
The objective of this project is to enhance the students’ knowledge of the use of the Design
Code, BS 5950 part 1, 2000. As requested by Mr. Marlon Daniels, lecturer of CIV 428
(Structural Steel Design), this project entails the design of a proposed multi-storey Steel
building, designing of members where necessary. The specification for this building was given
by Mr. Marlon Daniels. The specification had been a multi-storey building to cater for a Movie
Theater, a Game Arcade, and a Supermarket. The initial stage of the project involved coming up
with an adequate size to cater for the standard size of a modern day movie theater and then the
member sizes and analyzing of the design. The loading conditions were calculated using dead
and live loading conditions. From the analysis, members were designed. Detailed structural
drawings have been provided in the appendix.
The design codes used to accomplish the project are:-
BS 5950: Structural Use of Steelwork in Building
BS 6399: 1984: Part 1: Dead and Imposed Loads
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METHOD STATEMENT FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A MULTI-STOREY STEEL
BUILDING ON TIMBER PILE FOUNDATION
Purpose
This method statement defines the procedure to be used by the contractor to execute the works in
accordance with engineering requirements.
References
References were made to General Instructions to Bidders and Technical Specifications Clauses,
provided by FIDIC Standard Bidding Document for International Competitive Bidding © 2005.
In addition, references were made to the detailed drawings developed and the prevailing site
conditions.
Methodology of Works
Mobilisation of Machinery, Equipment, Tools and Labour
• Mobilization of machinery, equipment, tools and labour, etc. will be mobilized to the site
within two (2) weeks or sooner after the signing of the contract and the receipt of the engineer’s
order to commence works.
• Heavy machinery such as hydraulic excavators, pile drivers, dragline, cane and motor
grader, etc. will be transported to the site using low bed trailer; small and light equipment will be
transported on small trucks.
• Site offices, toilet and washing facilities for the engineer, clerk of works and the
contractor will be constructed.
• Storage bonds for materials and mess areas for the workers will also be constructed
simultaneously with site offices, etc.
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Materials
• Materials for the works will be procured by means of cash purchases and credit facilities
available to the contractor from various suppliers.
• Stockpiling of GH piles, fine aggregate, coarse aggregates, reinforcements, excavated
clay, and steel members etc. will be done at suitable location within the limits of the site. The
areas for stockpiling will be inspected prior to stockpiling to determine proximity to the site and
freeness of ruinous materials.
Construction of Multi-Storey Building
General: The structure will be constructed and finished in accordance with the procedures
described below.
(i) Site clearance/ marking-out & material testing: The limits of the site will be cleared
of all vegetation and maintained during the period of construction. The area to be
occupied by the building will then be marked-out and an in situ test executed in order
to analyse the soil profile.
(ii) Excavation: Prior to pile driving, the selected area will be excavated and levelled to a
surface smooth enough to execute works.
(iii) Pile driving and capping: Piles will be driven, in accordance with the results obtained
from the in situ test, to an approximate depth of 19m avoiding as much vibration as
possible. The type of mechanism to be utilised for driving is the jack hammer. Further
these piles will be driven in groups, with the total number of piles being 300 (nr). The
piles will be designed to resist uplift and to support the full weight of the structure
above. After driving, the piles will be capped with slabs of thickness 450mm.
(iv) Sand filling: Using suitable machinery such as skid steer loaders and excavators, the
building area will be sand filled to the desired elevation as stipulated in the contract
document.
(v) Casting of foundation slab: The foundation strip will be reinforced with size 5/8”
steel and casted to a thickness of 12” with 19mm sizes of aggregates.
(vi) Construction of skeletal structure by jib cranes: The entire skeletal structure of the
three storey building will rest directly above the foundation strip. It will be
established by the use of jib crane and will generally be structural steel. Construction
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will commence from the base of the structure right up to the roof and will have
specifications as shown in summary above.
• The base will have 16 columns of lengths 3.6m.
(vii) Exterior walling: Exterior walls will be established, as shown in the drawing, around
the entire skeletal structure by the use of construction lay blocks and curtain walls.
These blocks will be poured monolithically with mortar and will be reinforced with
additional ½” high speed steel. Lastly, the walls will then be brought to a smooth
surface by plastering with concrete mortar.
(viii) Interior walling: Interior walls will be established, as shown in the drawing, by
partitioning and will follow the same procedure as for exterior walls.
(ix) Casting of roof slab: The roof slab will be reinforced with size 12mm dia. steel and
casted to a thickness of 250 mm with 19mm sizes of aggregates.
(x) Finishing: All finishes such as doors, windows, etc. will be applied to the structure to
give its final appearance.
Contingencies
Excavation during construction and stockpiling will be done from a suitable location. The entire
area will be declared a danger zone and will be protected by means of warning tapes, signs and
barriers. These mechanisms will be installed at suitable locations to give adequate warning to the
public and to avoid them from coming into contact with the works, thus, minimizing the
occurrence of accidents.
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List of Equipment to be used
(i) 2 Nr. Cat 312 long boom hydraulic excavators
(ii) 2 Nr. Cat 312 skid steer loaders
(iii) 2 Nr. 24 cubic yards dump trucks
(iv) 1 Nr. complete scaffolding mechanism
(v) 1 Nr. Cat 324 low bed trolley
(vi) 1 Nr. Cat 365 pile driver with jib crane
(vii) 4 Nr. hydraulic mixers
(viii) 1 Nr. generator
(ix) 3 Nr. chainsaw
(x) 1 Nr. electrical power saw
(xi) 2 Nr. electrical power drill
(xii) 2 Nr. water pump
Quality Control
The intention is to meet and exceed the client’s expectations through rigid observance to the
specifications and client involvement during all stages of construction. The AASHTO and
ASTM methods for compaction and soil testing will be utilised before and after construction to
ensure that the soil was unaffected by any possible contamination. Piles will be fully seasoned
before driving and reinforcements will be electroplated to avoid corrosion.
In addition, during construction, a site engineer will be placed at the location to ensure that all
technical specifications are adhered to and to ensure that the structure is constructed in
accordance with the details outlined in the drawing.
Occupational Health and Safety
The intension is to implement occupational health and safety (OH&S) plans to meet the
acceptable standards in the construction industry. Surplus to requirements, attention will be given
to the safe care and use of oils, fuel, lubricants and bituminous products in keeping with strict
environmental guidelines set out by the EPA of Guyana.
Additionally, workers will be properly briefed and supervised of the use and care of construction
equipment.
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In order to maintain good contractor/client relationship, consistent monitoring of the behavioral
approach of staff and tradesmen, with respect to workmanship and continual improvement, will
be ensured at all times.
In keeping with GCC Clauses (section vii: FIDIC Standard bidding document © 2005), it will be
ensured that potential traffic hazards are avoided as much as possible. At the end of the works it
will be made certain that the site’s surroundings are brought back to its original position as much
as possible.
DAY WORKS SCHEDULE
General
Work will not be executed on a daily basis without following written instruction by the Engineer.
Bidders will enter basic rates for day work items in the Schedules. These rates will apply to any
quantity of day work ordered by the Engineer. Nominal quantities have been indicated against
each item of day work, and the extended total for day work will be carried forward as a
Provisional Sum to the Summary Total Bid Amount. The rates of labour, materials and
equipment will be in Guyana dollars only.
Labour
In calculating payments due to the Contractor for the execution of day works, the hours for
labour will be reckoned from the time of arrival of the labour at the job site to execute the
particular item of day work to the time of departure from the job site, but excluding meal breaks
and rest periods. Only the time of classes of labour directly doing work ordered by the Engineer
and are competent to perform such work shall be measured. The time of gangers (charge hands)
actually doing work with the gangs will also be measured but not the time of foremen or other
supervisory personnel.
The Contractor shall be entitled to payment in respect of the total time that labour is employed
on day work, calculated on the basis of the rates for that class of labour entered in the "
SCHEDULE OF DAYWORK RATES: 1. LABOUR". The rates for labour shall be deemed to
cover all costs to the Contractor including (but not limited to) the amount of wages paid to such
labour, transportation time, overtime, subsistence allowances, and any sums paid to or on behalf
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of such labour for social benefits in accordance with the law, as well as Contractor's profit,
overheads, superintendence, liabilities and insurance and allowance to labour, timekeeping and
clerical and office work, the use of consumable stores water lighting and power; scaffolding
workshops and stores; portable power tools, manual plant and tools; supervision by the
Contractor's staff, foremen and other supervisory personnel; and charges incidental to the
foregoing.
Equipment
The Contractor will be entitled to payments in respect to the supplied constructional plant
employed on day work on the basis of rental rates entered by him in the “SCHEDULE OF
DAYWOR RATES”EQUIPMENT”. The said rates shall be deemed to include due and complete
allowance for depreciation, interest, and insurance, repairs, maintenance, supplies, fuel,
lubricant, and other consumables and all overhead, profit and administrative costs related to the
use of such equipment. The aggregate cost of drivers /operators and assistants also shall be
included in the rate of the equipment and no separate payment whatsoever shall be made to the
contractor in this connection.
In calculating the payment due to the Contractor for Constructional Plant employed on day work,
only the actual number of working hours shall be eligible for payment.
Materials
The Contractor will be entitled to payment with respect to materials used for day work (except
for materials for which the cost is included in the percentage addition to labour costs). The rates
entered by the contractor in the "SCHEDULE OF DAYWORK RATES: “MATERIALS" and
will be deemed to include overhead charges and profit as follows:
(a) The entered rates for materials shall include invoiced price, costs of freight, insurance,
handling expenses including stockpiling at site, damage, losses, wastage, and all incidentals
costs as applicable.
(b) The cost of hauling materials for use on work ordered to be carried out as day work, from the
store or stockpile on the Site to the place where it is to be used also will be included in the same
rate.
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PROJECT INFORMATION
The specification for the design of a steel building was given by Mr. Marlon Daniels (Lecturer
for CIV 428).
Considerations and Assumptions:
The design was done using BS5950 -1: 2000 and Code of Practices for the Structural use of
Steel. The structural analysis of the building was done manually using formulas and conditions
proved in the BS 5950-1:2000.
The load G
k
were obtained from the weights of the actual construction materials used, while the
loading for the roof and all other floors were taken from British Standard 6399, Part 1-1996. Live
loads for floors were taken from British Standard 6399, Part 1-1996, and other consideration
taken by the design team. The effect of wind load was taken into considered because:
I. The building can be considered as a high rise structure.
II. The building might not be located amongst other buildings.
III. The initial loading analysis was calculated and then inputted into BS 5950 formulas to
generate the Moments and Shear Forces.
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SECOND FLOOR ELEMENTS DESIGN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
DESIGN OF ROOF BEAMS (ALL ROOF BEAMS)
Figure1
BEAM B2
Dead Loads:
The roof beams supports 250 mm R.C slab weight, ceiling weight and asphalt
finishes.(0.41 kN/m
2
)
Dead load
R.C slab weight = 24 kN/m
3
x0.25m x8.0m = 48 kN/m
Dead load from asphalt finishes 19mm thk.2 layers = 3.28 kN/m
Dead load from ceiling = 0.25 kN/m2 x 8 = 2 kN/m
Total dead load = 53.28 kN/m
Imposed load
Load from wind = 0.032 kN/m2 x8m x8m = 2.048 kN
Load from services = 1.4 kN
Total imposed load = 3.448 kN
53.28kN/m
3.448kN/m
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BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
(Table 11).
IMPOSED LOAD
DEAD LOAD
8000
3.448 kN
2.76 kN
298.37 kN
Combined dead
weight 53.28 kN/m
8000
298.37 kN
2.76 kN
Figure2
BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE
Total loading = (3.448 × 1.6) + (53.28 × 1.4)8 = 5.52 + 74.6 ×8 = 602.26 kN
Because the structure is symmetrical R
A
= R
B
= 602.26/2 = 301.13 kN.
The central bending moment, M, is
H =
w L
4
+
w I
2
8
=
5.5 2 x 8
4
+
7 4.6 x 8
2
8
= 11.04 + 596.8 = 607.84 kN.m
Assuming P
y
= 275 N/mm
2
S x=
M
P
j
=
6 0 7 .8 4 x 1 0
6
2 7 5
= 2210 cm
3
From steel tables (Appendix B), suitable section chosen:
610 x229 x101 UB, S
x
= 2880 cm
3
CLASSIFICATION
Strength Classification
Because the flange thickness T = 14.8 mm (< 16 mm), then p
y
= 275 N/mm
2
(as assumed) from Table 11 and ε =
1
2
2
2
275N/
1
275N/
mm
mm
| |
=
|
\ .

Fv =301.13 kN
M = 607.84 kN/m
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BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
(Table 11).
4.2.3
4.2.5.2
Table 8
Section classification
b/T = 7.69 which is less than 9ε = 9. Hence from Table 4.4, flange is plastic.
Also d /t = 51.6 which is less than 80ε = 80. Hence from Table 11, web is
plastic.
Therefore 610 × 229 × 101 UB section is class 1 plastic.
SHEAR STRENGTH
As d /t = 51.6 < 70ε, shear buckling need not be considered.
Shear capacity of section, P
v
, is
P
v
= 0.6*py*Av = 0.6*py*t*D = 0.6 × 275 × 10.6 × 602.2= 1053× 10
3
N =
1053 kN
Now, as Fv (301.13 kN) < 0.6Pv = 631.8 kN (ok) (low shear load).
BENDING MOMENT From above
M
c
= p
y
*S = 275*2880*10
3
= 792× 10
6
N.mm= 792 kN.m
≤ 1.2*py*Z = 1.2 × 275 × 2510 × 10
3
= 828.3 × 10
6
N.mm = 828.3 kN.m
(OK)
M
sw
= 1.4 × (101 × 9.81/10
3
)*
8
2
8
= 11.1 kN.m
M
t
= M + M
sw
= 607.84 + 11.1 = 618.94 kN.m < Mc (792 kN.m) (OK)
Deflection checks on steel beams (BS 5950)
o
c
=
w I
3
4 8 L I
=
3.4 4 8 ∗8
3
4 8∗2 0 5 ∗1 0
6
∗7 5 7 0 0 ∗1 0
- 8
= 0.00024 m = 0.24 mm
From Table 8, the recommended maximum deflection for beams carrying
plaster is span/360 which equals 8000/360 = 22.0 mm.
Deflection is OK.
Mt= 618.94 kN/m

c = 0.24 mm
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BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
4.5.2.1
4.5.3.1
WEB BEARING AT SUPPORTS
Assuming the beam sits on 150 mm bearings at each end.
P
bw
= (b1 + nk) t*p
yw
= (150 + 2 × 27.5) 10.6× 275 = 597.8× 10
3
N = 597.8
kN > 312.33 kN (OK)
where
k = T + r = 14.8 + 12.7 = 27.5 mm
n = 2 + 0.6b
e
/k = 2 (since b
e
= 0)
CONTACT STRESS AT SUPPORTS
P
cs
= (b
1
× 2(r +T)) p
y
= (150 × 55) × 275 = 2268 × 10
3
N = 2268 kN > 312.33
kN (OK)
WEB BUCKLING AT SUPPORT
Since α
e
(= 75 mm) < 0.7d = 0.7 × 547.6 = 383.11 mm, buckling resistance of
the web is
P
x
=
∝c + 0 .7 d
1.4 d
*
2 5εt
¸(b 1 + n k )d
P
bw
=
7 5 + 3 8 3 .1 1
1.4∗5 4 7 .6
*
2 5∗1∗1 0.6
¸(1 5 0 + 2 ∗2 7.5)∗5 4 7 .6
* 597.8kN
P
x
= 544.6 kN > 312.33 kN (OK) no web stiffeners are required at supports.
Use 610 × 229 × 101 UB
Figure 3
Pbw = 597.8 kN
P
cs
= 2268 kN
P
x
= 544.6 kN
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BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
BEAM A1
Dead Loads:
The roof beams supports 250 mm R.C slab weight, ceiling weight and asphalt
finishes.(0.41 kN/m
2
)
Dead load
R.C slab weight = 24 kN/m
3
x0.25m x4.0m = 24 kN/m
Dead load from asphalt finishes 19mm thk.2 layers = 1.64 kN/m
Dead load from ceiling = 0.25 kN/m
2
x 4= 1 kN/m
Total dead load = 26.64 kN/m
Imposed load
Load from wind = 0.032 kN/m2 x8m x4m = 1.024 kN
Load from services = 1.4 kN
Total imposed load = 2.424kN
IMPOSED LOAD
DEAD LOAD
8000
2.424 kN
1.94 kN
149.184 kN
Combined dead
weight 26.64 kN/m
8000
149.184 kN
1.94 kN
Figure 4
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BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
Table 11
4.2.3
DESIGN BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE
Total loading = (2.424 × 1.6) + (26.64 × 1.4)8 = 3.88 + 37.30 ×8 = 302.25 kN
Because the structure is symmetrical R
A
= R
B
= 602.26/2 = 151.12 kN.
The central bending moment, M, is
H =
w L
4
+
w I
2
8
=
3.8 8 x 8
4
+
3 7.3 x 8
2
8
= 7.76 + 298.4 = 306.16 kN.m
Assuming P
y
= 275 N/mm
2
S x=
M
P
j
=
6 0 7 .8 4 x 1 0
6
2 7 5
= 1165 cm
3
From steel tables (Appendix B), suitable section chosen:
457 x191 x67 UB, S
x
= 1470 cm
3
CLASSIFICATION
Strength Classification
Because the flange thickness T = 12.7 mm (< 16 mm), then p
y
= 275 N/mm
2
(as assumed) from Table 4.3 and ε =
1
2
2
2
275N/
1
275N/
mm
mm
| |
=
|
\ .
(Table 4.4).
Section classification
b/T = 7.48 which is less than 9ε = 9. Hence from Table 11, flange is plastic.
Also d /t = 48 which is less than 80ε = 80. Hence from Table 4.4, web is
plastic.
Therefore 457 × 191 × 67 UB section is class 1 plastic.
SHEAR STRENGTH
As d /t = 48 < 70ε, shear buckling need not be considered.
Shear capacity of section, P
v
, is
P
v
= 0.6*py*Av = 0.6*py*t*D = 0.6 × 275 × 8.5 × 453.6= 636 × 10
3
N = 636
kN
Now, as Fv (151.12 kN) < 0.6Pv = 381.16 kN (ok) (low shear load).
Fv =151.12 kN
M = 306.16 kN/m
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BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
4.2.5.2
Table 8
4.5.2.1
BENDING MOMENT From above
M
c
= p
y
*S = 275*1470*10
3
= 404× 10
6
N.mm= 404 kN.m
≤ 1.2*py*Z = 1.2 × 275 × 1296 × 10
3
= 427.7 × 10
6
N.mm = 427.7 kN.m
(OK)
M
sw
= 1.4 × (67 × 9.81/10
3
)*
8
2
8
= 7.36 kN.m
M
t
= M + M
sw
= 306.16 + 7.36 = 313.52 kN.m < M
c
(404 kN.m) (OK)
Deflection checks on steel beams (BS 5950)
o
c
=
w I
3
4 8 L I
=
2.4 2 4 ∗8
3
4 8∗2 0 5 ∗1 0
6
∗2 9 4 0 0 ∗1 0
- 8
= 0.006 m = 0.6 mm
From Table 8, the recommended maximum deflection for beams carrying
plaster is span/360 which equals 8000/360 = 22.0 mm.
Deflection is OK.
WEB BEARING AT SUPPORTS
Assuming the beam sits on 150 mm bearings at each end.
P
bw
= (b1 + nk) t*p
yw
= (150 + 2 × 22.9) 8.5 × 275 = 457× 10
3
N = 457 kN >
151.52 kN (OK)
where
k = T + r = 12.7 + 10.2 = 22.9 mm
n = 2 + 0.6b
e
/k = 2 (since b
e
= 0)
CONTACT STRESS AT SUPPORTS
P
cs
= (b
1
× 2(r +T)) p
y
= (150 × 45.8) × 275 = 1889 × 10
3
N = 1889 kN >
151.52 kN (OK)
Mt= 313.52 kN/m

c = 0.6 mm
Pbw = 457 kN
P
cs
= 1889 kN
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BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
5.5.3.1
WEB BUCKLING AT SUPPORT
Since α
e
(= 75 mm) < 0.7d = 0.7 × 407.6 = 285.32 mm, buckling resistance of
the web is
P
x
=
∝c + 0 .7 d
1.4 d
*
2 5εt
¸(b 1 + n k )d
P
bw
=
7 5 + 2 8 5 .3 2
1.4∗4 0 7 .6
*
2 5∗1∗8.5
¸(1 5 0 + 2 ∗2 2.9)∗4 0 7 .6
* 457kN
P
x
= 216.48 kN > 151.52 kN (OK) no web stiffeners are required at supports.
Use 457 x191 x67 UB
Figure 5
P
x
= 216.48 kN
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BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
DESIGN OF COLUMNS
Design of Column B2: Roof to Second Floor
Design Load = 1204.54 kN
Column B2 is a purely axially loaded column. It takes the reactions off of
beams 2A and 2B; and B1 and B2. The self-weight of the column, is taken as
0.45kN/m.
Dead Load
Axial (kN)
Imposed
Load (kN)
Total Design
Load
2 No. B1/B2 = 596.74
2 No. 2A/2B = 596.74
Total = 1193.5 kN
5.52
5.52
11.04 kN
= 1.4 0 k+ 1.6 µ k= (1193.5) + (11.04) = 1 2 û 4 . 5 4k N
Design Load =
Fc = 1204.54 kN
Figure 6
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BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
4.7.4
Try 203 x 203 UC 86
Try 203 x 203 UC 86, , 16mm t s
2
/ 275 mm N p
y
=
A g= 110 c m
2
, r y= 53.2 m m
From Table 24, I c= 1.2I = 5.52 m
*Member effectively held in position and restrained in direction at both ends.
Slenderness z =
L c
¡
j
=
5 5 2 0
5 3.2
= 104
From Table 27(c),
P c= 119
N
m m
2
UC section is not slender,
Compressive Resistance
P c= A g P c =
1 1,0 0 0 x 1 1 9
1 0 0 0
= 1309 kN
P c> F c…………1309 > 1204.54
The section is satisfactory. Use 203 x 203 UC 86
Figure 7
Pc = 119 N/mm
2
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BS5950
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Calculations Output
DESIGN OF COLUMNS
Design of Column B1: Roof to Second Floor
Design Load = 903.39 kN
Column B2 is a purely axially loaded column. It takes the reactions off of
beams 1A and 2B; B2. The self-weight of the column, is taken as 0.45kN/m.
Dead Load
Axial (kN)
Imposed
Load (kN)
Total Design
Load
2 No. 1A/2B = 596.74
1 No. B1 = 298.37
Total = 895.11 kN
5.52
2.76
8.28 kN
= 1.4 0 k+ 1.6 µ k= (895.11) + 8.28 = 9 û 3 . 3 9k N
Design Load =
Fc = 903.39 kN
Figure 8
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BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
4.7.4
Try 203 x 203 UC 86
Try 203 x 203 UC 86, , 16mm t s
2
/ 275 mm N p
y
=
A g= 110 , r y= 53.2 m m
From Table 24, I c= 0.7I = 3.22 m
*Member effectively held in position and restrained in direction at both ends.
Slenderness z =
L c
¡
j
=
3 2 2 0
5 3.2
= 60.5
From Table 27(c),
P c= 201
N
m m
2
UC section is not slender,
Compressive Resistance
P c= A g P c =
1 1 0 0 0 x 2 0 1
1 0 0 0
= 2211 kN
P c> F c…………2211 > 903.39
The section is satisfactory. Use 203 x 203 UC 86
Figure 9
Pc = 201 N/mm
2
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BS5950
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Calculations Output
DESIGN OF BRACKET CONNECTION FOR BEAM 2A
The bolted connection shown carries the vertical ultimate load from beam 2A
of 301.13 kN placed at an eccentricity of 100mm. Using 10 No 16-mm
diameter grade 8.8 bolts and the approximate method, the design is set out
below.
Figure 10
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BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
6.3.4.2
APPROXIMATE METHOD
Since the bolts are subject to combined shear and tension, the bolts should be
checked for shear, tension and combined shear and tension separately.
SHEAR
Design shear force, P = 301.13 kN
Number of bolts, N = 10
Shear force/bolt, Fs = P/N = 301.13/10 = 30.113 kN
Shear capacity of bolt, Ps, is
Psd = 2Ps = ps As = 2 x 375 x 157 = 117.8 × 10
3
N = 117.8 kN > Fs OK
TENSILE CAPACITY
Maximum bolt tension, F
t
, is
F t=
P c y 1
2Σ y
2
_
Ft=
276.81 x 250 x 400
2Σ (40
2
+ 100
2
+ 200
2
+ 300
2
+ 400
2
)
,
Ft = 45.89 kN
Tension capacity, P
nom
, is
P
nom
= 0.8 p t A t = 0.8 × 560 × 157 = 70.3 × 10
3
N = 70.3 kN ˃ Ft Okay
COMBINED SHEAR AND TENSION
Combined check:
F s
P s
+
F t
P
n o ¡ m
≤ 1.4
30.113
117.8
+
45.89
70.3
= 0.9 ≤ 1.4
Hence the M16, grade 8.8 bolts are satisfactory.
Fs = 30.113 kN
Psd = 117.8 kN
Ft = 45.89 kN
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BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
6.3.2.1
BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION USING WEB CLEATS
Design of double angle web cleat beam-to-column connection detail shown
below is suitable to resist the design shear force, V, of 301.13 kN. Assume the
steel is grade S275 and the bolts are M16 grade 8.8 in 2 mm clearance holes.
CHECK FASTENER SPACING AND EDGE/END DISTANCES
Diameter of bolt, db = 16 mm
Diameter of bolt hole, Dh = 18mm
Pitch of bolt, p = 140 mm and 60 mm
Edge distance, e1 = 40 mm
End distance, e2 = 60 mm and 50 mm
Thickness of angle cleat, tp = 10 mm
The following conditions need to be met:
Pitch ≥ 2.5db = 2.5 × 16 = 32 < 140 and 60 OK
Pitch ≤ 14tp = 14 × 10 = 140 ≤ 140 and 60 OK
Edge distance e
1
≥ 1.4Dh = 1.4 × 18= 25.2 < 40 OK
End distance e
2
≥ 1.4Dh = 1.4 × 18 = 25.2 < 60 and 50 OK
e
1
and e
2
≤ 11tpε = 11 × 10 × 1 = 110 < 40, 50 and 60 OK
(For grade S275 steel with t
p
= 10 mm, py = 275 N/mm
2
, ε = 1.) Hence all
fastener spacing and edge/end distances to fasteners are satisfactory.
CHECK STRENGTH OF BOLTS CONNECTING CLEATS TO
SUPPORTING COLUMN
Shear
6 No., M16 grade 8.8 bolts. Hence A
s
= 157 mm
2
(Table 4.22) and p
s
= 375
N/mm
2
(Table 4.19).
Shear capacity of single bolt, Ps, is
Ps = psAs = 375 × 157 = 59 × 10
3
= 59 kN
Shear capacity of bolt group is
6Ps = 6 × 59 = 354 kN > V = 303.13 kN
Ps = 59 kN
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BS5950
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Calculations Output
Hence bolts are adequate in shear.
Bearing
Bearing capacity of bolt, P
bb
, is given by
P
bb
= d
b
tp
bb
= 16 × 10 × 1000 = 160× 10
3
= 160 kN
Since thickness of angle cleat (= 10 mm) < thickness of column flange (= 23.8
mm), bearing capacity of cleat is critical. Bearing capacity of cleat,
P
bs
, is given by
P
bs
= k
bs
d
b
tp
bs
= 1 × 16 × l0 × 460 = 73 × 10
3
N = 73kN
≤ 0.5k
bs
etp
bs
= 0.5 × 1 × 60 × 10 × 460 = 138 × 10
3
N = 138 kN
Bearing capacity of connection is 6 × 73 = 438 kN > V = 303.13 kN
Therefore bolts are adequate in bearing.
CHECK STRENGTH OF BOLT GROUP CONNECTING CLEATS TO
WEB OF SUPPORTED BEAM
Shear
6 No., M16 grade 8.8 bolts; from above, A
s
= 157 mm
2
and ps = 375 N/mm
2
Since bolts are in double shear, shear capacity of each bolt is
2P
s
= 2 × 59 = 118 kN
Loads applied to the bolt group are vertical shear, V = 303.13 kN and
moment, M = 303.13 × 50 × 10
−3
= 15.16 kN m.
Outermost bolt (A
l
) subject to greatest shear force which is equal to the
resultant of the load due to the moment,
M = 15.16 kN m and vertical shear force, V = 303.13 kN. Load on the
outermost bolt due to moment, F
mb
, is given by
F m b=
M
z
A =
1 5.1 6 x 1 0
3
4 2 0
= 36.1 kN
where A is the area of bolt and Z the modulus of the bolt group given by
I
¥
=
in which I is the inertia of the bolt group equal to 2A(30
2
+ 90
2
+ 150
2
) =
63000A mm
4
Load on outermost bolt due to shear, F
vb
, is given by F
vb
= V/ No. of bolts =
303.13/6 = 50.52 kN
Resultant shear force of bolt, Fs, is Fs = (F
2
vb
+ F
2
mb
)
1/2
= (50.52
2
+ 36.1
2
)
1/2
= 62.1 kN
Since F
s
(= 62.1 kN) < 2P
s
(= 118 kN) the bolts are adequate in shear.
Fmb = 36.1 kN
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FIRST FLOOR ELEMENTS DESIGN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
DESIGN OF SECOND FLOOR BEAMS (ALL FLOOR BEAMS)
Figure 11
BEAM B2
Dead Loads:
The floor beams supports 250 mm R.C slab weight, ceiling weight and
finishes .(0.899 kN/m
2
)
Dead load
R.C slab weight = 24 kN/m
3
x0.25m x8.0m = 48 kN/m
Dead load from ceiling and finishes = 7.192 kN/m
Total dead load = 55.192 kN/m
Imposed load
Load from wind = 0.032 kN/m2 x8m x8m = 2.048 kN
Load for Movie theater = 1.5 kN
Total imposed load = 3.548 kN
BS5950 Calculations Output
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Reference
Table 11
IMPOSED LOAD
DEAD LOAD
8000
3.548 kN
2.84 kN
309.1 kN
Combined dead
weight 55.192 kN/m
8000
309.1 kN
2.84 kN
Figure 12
DESIGN BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE
Total loading = (3.548 × 1.6) + (55.192 × 1.4)8 = 5.52 + 74.6 ×8 = 623.83 kN
Because the structure is symmetrical R
A
= R
B
= 623.83/2 = 311.9 kN.
The central bending moment, M, is
H =
w L
4
+
w I
2
8
=
5.6 8 x 8
4
+
7 7.2 7 x 8
2
8
= 11.36 + 618.16 = 629.52 kN.m
Assuming P
y
= 275 N/mm
2
S x=
M
P
j
=
6 2 9 .5 2 x 1 0
6
2 7 5
= 2289 cm
3
From steel tables (Appendix B), suitable section chosen:
610 x229 x101 UB, S
x
= 2880 cm
3
CLASSIFICATION
Strength Classification
Because the flange thickness T = 14.8 mm (< 16 mm), then p
y
= 275 N/mm
2
(as assumed) from Table 11 and ε =
1
2
2
2
275N/
1
275N/
mm
mm
| |
=
|
\ .
(Table 4.4).
Fv = 311.9 kN
M = 629.52 kN.m
BS5950 Calculations Output
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Reference
Table 11
4.2.3
4.2.5.2
Table 8
Section classification
b/T = 7.69 which is less than 9ε = 9. Hence from Table 4.4, flange is plastic.
Also d /t = 51.6 which is less than 80ε = 80. Hence from Table 11, web is
plastic.
Therefore 610 × 229 × 101 UB section is class 1 plastic.
SHEAR STRENGTH
As d /t = 51.6 < 70ε, shear buckling need not be considered.
Shear capacity of section, P
v
, is
P
v
= 0.6*py*Av = 0.6*py*t*D = 0.6 × 275 × 10.6 × 602.2= 1053× 10
3
N =
1053 kN
Now, as Fv (311.9 kN) < 0.6Pv = 631.8 kN (ok) (low shear load).
BENDING MOMENT From above
M
c
= p
y
*S = 275*2880*10
3
= 792× 10
6
N.mm= 792 kN.m
≤ 1.2*py*Z = 1.2 × 275 × 2510 × 10
3
= 828.3 × 10
6
N.mm = 828.3 kN.m
(OK)
M
sw
= 1.4 × (101 × 9.81/10
3
)*
8
2
8
= 11.1 kN.m
M
t
= M + M
sw
= 629.52 + 11.1 = 640.62 kN.m < M
c
(792 kN.m) (OK)
Deflection checks on steel beams (BS 5950)
o
c
=
w I
3
4 8 L I
=
3.5 4 8 ∗8
3
4 8∗2 0 5 ∗1 0
6
∗7 5 7 0 0 ∗1 0
- 8
= 0.00024 m = 0.24 mm
From Table 8, the recommended maximum deflection for beams carrying
plaster is span/360 which equals 8000/360 = 22.0 mm.
Deflection is OK.
Pv = 1053 kN
Mt = 640.62 kN.m
c = 0.24
BS5950 Calculations Output
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Reference
4.5.2.1
5.5.3.1
WEB BEARING AT SUPPORTS
Assuming the beam sits on 150 mm bearings at each end.
P
bw
= (b1 + nk) t*p
yw
= (150 + 2 × 27.5) 10.6× 275 = 597.8× 10
3
N = 597.8
kN > 312.33 kN (OK)
where
k = T + r = 14.8 + 12.7 = 27.5 mm
n = 2 + 0.6b
e
/k = 2 (since b
e
= 0)
CONTACT STRESS AT SUPPORTS
P
cs
= (b
1
× 2(r +T)) p
y
= (150 × 55) × 275 = 2268 × 10
3
N = 2268 kN > 312.33
kN (OK)
WEB BUCKLING AT SUPPORT
Since α
e
(= 75 mm) < 0.7d = 0.7 × 547.6 = 383.11 mm, buckling resistance of
the web is
P
x
=
∝c + 0 .7 d
1.4 d
*
2 5εt
¸(b 1 + n k )d
P
bw
=
7 5 + 3 8 3 .1 1
1.4∗5 4 7 .6
*
2 5∗1∗1 0.6
¸(1 5 0 + 2 ∗2 7.5)∗5 4 7 .6
* 597.8kN
P
x
= 544.6 kN > 312.33 kN (OK) no web stiffeners are required at supports.
Use 610 × 229 × 101 UB
Figure 13
Pbw = 597.8 kN
Pcs = 2268 kN
Px = 544.6 kN
BS5950 Calculations Output
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Reference
BEAM A1
Dead Loads:
The roof beams supports 250 mm R.C slab weight, ceiling weight and
finishes.(0.899 kN/m
2
)
Dead load
R.C slab weight = 24 kN/m
3
x0.25m x4.0m = 24 kN/m
Dead load from ceiling and finishes = 3.6 kN/m
Total dead load = 27.6 kN/m
Imposed load
Load from wind = 0.032 kN/m2 x8m x4m = 1.024 kN
Load from services = 1.5 kN
Total imposed load = 2.524 kN
IMPOSED LOAD
DEAD LOAD
8000
2.524 kN
2.02 kN
154.56 kN
Combined dead
weight 27.6 kN/m
8000
`154.56 kN
2.02 kN
Figure 14
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
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Table 11
4.2.3
DESIGN BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE
Total loading = (2.524 × 1.6) + (27.6 × 1.4)8 = 4.04 + 38.64 ×8 = 313.16 kN
Because the structure is symmetrical R
A
= R
B
= 313.16/2 = 156.58 kN.
The central bending moment, M, is
H =
w L
4
+
w I
2
8
=
4.0 4 x 8
4
+
3 8.6 4 x 8
2
8
= 8.08+ 309.12 = 317.2 kN.m
Assuming P
y
= 275 N/mm
2
S x=
M
P
j
=
3 1 7 .2 x 1 0
6
2 7 5
= 1153 cm
3
From steel tables (Appendix B), suitable section chosen:
457 x191 x67 UB, S
x
= 1470 cm
3
CLASSIFICATION
Strength Classification
Because the flange thickness T = 12.7 mm (< 16 mm), then p
y
= 275 N/mm
2
(as assumed) from Table 4.3 and ε =
1
2
2
2
275N/
1
275N/
mm
mm
| |
=
|
\ .
(Table 4.4).
Section classification
b/T = 7.48 which is less than 9ε = 9. Hence from Table 11, flange is plastic.
Also d /t = 48 which is less than 80ε = 80. Hence from Table 4.4, web is
plastic.
Therefore 457 × 191 × 67 UB section is class 1 plastic.
SHEAR STRENGTH
As d /t = 48 < 70ε, shear buckling need not be considered.
Shear capacity of section, P
v
, is
P
v
= 0.6*py*Av = 0.6*py*t*D = 0.6 × 275 × 8.5 × 453.6= 636 × 10
3
N = 636
kN
Now, as Fv (151.12 kN) < 0.6Pv = 381.16 kN (ok) (low shear load).
Fv = 156.58 kN
M = 317.2 kN.m
Pv = 636 kN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
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4.2.5.2
Table 8
4.5.2.1
BENDING MOMENT From above
M
c
= p
y
*S = 275*1470*10
3
= 404× 10
6
N.mm= 404 kN.m
≤ 1.2*py*Z = 1.2 × 275 × 1296 × 10
3
= 427.7 × 10
6
N.mm = 427.7 kN.m
(OK)
M
sw
= 1.4 × (67 × 9.81/10
3
)*
8
2
8
= 7.36 kN.m
M
t
= M + M
sw
= 317.2 + 7.36 = 324.56 kN.m < M
c
(404 kN.m) (OK)
Deflection checks on steel beams (BS 5950)
o
c
=
w I
3
4 8 L I
=
2.5 2 4 ∗8
3
4 8∗2 0 5 ∗1 0
6
∗2 9 4 0 0 ∗1 0
- 8
= 0.0004 m = 0.4 mm
From Table 8, the recommended maximum deflection for beams carrying
plaster is span/360 which equals 8000/360 = 22.0 mm.
Deflection is OK.
WEB BEARING AT SUPPORTS
Assuming the beam sits on 150 mm bearings at each end.
P
bw
= (b1 + nk) t*p
yw
= (150 + 2 × 22.9) 8.5 × 275 = 457× 10
3
N = 457 kN >
151.52 kN (OK)
where
k = T + r = 12.7 + 10.2 = 22.9 mm
n = 2 + 0.6b
e
/k = 2 (since b
e
= 0)
CONTACT STRESS AT SUPPORTS
P
cs
= (b
1
× 2(r +T)) p
y
= (150 × 45.8) × 275 = 1889 × 10
3
N = 1889 kN >
151.52 kN (OK)
WEB BUCKLING AT SUPPORT
Since α
e
(= 75 mm) < 0.7d = 0.7 × 407.6 = 285.32 mm, buckling resistance of
the web is
Mt = 324.56 kN.m
c = 0.4 mm
Pbw = 457 kN
Pcs = 1889 kN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
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N
A
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E
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5.5.3.1
P
x
=
∝c+0.7d
1.4d
*
2 5εt
¸(b1+n k)d
P
bw
=
7 5+2 8 5 .3 2
1.4∗4 0 7 .6
*
2 5∗1∗8.5
¸(1 5 0 +2∗2 2.9)∗4 0 7 .6
* 457kN
P
x
= 216.48 kN > 151.52 kN (OK) no web stiffeners are required at supports
Use 457 x191 x67 UB
Figure 15
Px = 216.48 kN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
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DESIGN OF COLUMNS
Design of Column B2: Second Floor to First Floor
Design Load = 1247.8 kN +12045.54 kN = 2452.34 kN.
Column B2 is a purely axially loaded column. It takes the reactions off of
beams 2A and 2B; and B1 and B2. The self-weight of the column, is taken as
0.45kN/m.
Dead Load
Axial (kN)
Imposed
Load (kN)
Total Design Load
2 No. B1/B2 = 618.2
2 No. 2A/2B = 618.2
Total = 1236.4 kN
5.69
5.69
13.38 kN
= 1.4 0 k+ 1.6 µ k= (1236.4) + (13.38) = 1 2 4 7 . 8 k N
Design Load =
Fc = 1247.8 kN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
Figure 16
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4.7.4
Try 254 x 254 UC 107
Try 254 x 254 UC 107, , 16mm t s
2
/ 275 mm N p
y
=
A g= 137 c m
2
, r y= 65.7 m m
From Table 24, I c= 1.2I = 4.32m
*Member effectively held in position and restrained in direction at both ends.
Slenderness z =
L c
¡
j
=
4 3 2 0
6 5.7
= 65.75
From Table 27(c),
P c= 191
N
m m
2
UC section is not slender,
Compressive Resistance
P c= A g P c =
1 3 7 0 0 x 1 9 1
1 0 0 0
= 2616.7 kN
P c> F c…………2616.7 > 2452.34
The section is satisfactory. Use 254 x 254 UC 107
Figure 17
Pc = 2616.7 kN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
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DESIGN OF COLUMNS
Design of Column B1: Second Floor to First Floor
Design Load = 935.82 kN + 903.39 kN = 1839.21 kN.
Column B2 is a purely axially loaded column. It takes the reactions off of
beams 1A and 2B; B2. The self-weight of the column, is taken as 0.45kN/m.
Dead Load
Axial (kN)
Imposed
Load (kN)
Total Design Load
2 No. 1A/2B = 618.2
1 No. B1 = 309.1
Total = 927.3 kN
5.68
2.84
8.52 kN
= 1.4 0 k+ 1.6 µ k= (927.3) + 8.52 = 9 3 5 . 8 2k N
Design Load =
Fc = 935.82 kN
BS5950 Calculations Output
Figure 18
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Reference
4.7.4
Try 254 x 254 UC 107
Try 254 x 254 UC 107, , 16mm t s
2
/ 275 mm N p
y
=
A g= 137 , r y= 65.7 m m
From Table 24, I c= 0.7I = 2.52 m
*Member effectively held in position and restrained in direction at both ends.
Slenderness z =
L c
¡
j
=
2 5 2 0
6 5.7
= 38.36
From Table 27(c),
P c= 243
N
m m
2
UC section is not slender,
Compressive Resistance
P c= A g P c =
1 3 7 0 0 x 2 4 3
1 0 0 0
= 3329.1 kN
P c> F c…………3329.1 > 1839.21
The section is satisfactory. Use 254 x 254 UC 1
254 x 254 UC 107
Figure 19
Pc = 3329.1 kN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
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I
N
A
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DESIGN OF BRACKET CONNECTION FOR BEAM 2A
The bolted connection shown carries the vertical ultimate load from beam 2A
0f 311.9 kN placed at an eccentricity of 100mm. Using 10 No 16-mm
diameter grade 8.8 bolts and the approximate method, the design is set out
below.
Figure 20
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
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6.3.4.2
APPROXIMATE METHOD
Since the bolts are subject to combined shear and tension, the bolts should be
checked for shear, tension and combined shear and tension separately.
SHEAR
Design shear force, P = 311.9 kN
Number of bolts, N = 10
Shear force/bolt, Fs = P/N = 311.9/10 = 31.19 kN
Shear capacity of bolt, Ps, is
Psd = 2Ps = ps As = 2 x 375 x 157 = 117.8 × 10
3
N = 117.8 kN > Fs OK
TENSILE CAPACITY
Maximum bolt tension, F
t
, is
F t=
P c y 1
2Σ y
2
_
Ft=
276.81 x 250 x 400
2Σ (40
2
+ 100
2
+ 200
2
+ 300
2
+ 400
2
)
,
Ft = 45.89 kN
Tension capacity, P
nom
, is
P
nom
= 0.8 p t A t = 0.8 × 560 × 157 = 70.3 × 10
3
N = 70.3 kN ˃ Ft Okay
COMBINED SHEAR AND TENSION
Combined check:
F s
P s
+
F t
P
n o ¡ m
≤ 1.4
31.19
117.8
+
45.89
70.3
= 0.92 ≤ 1.4
Hence the M16, grade 8.8 bolts are satisfactory.
Ft = 45.89 kN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
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I
N
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BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION USING WEB CLEATS
Design of double angle web cleat beam-to-column connection detail shown
below is suitable to resist the design shear force, V, of 301.13 kN. Assume the
steel is grade S275 and the bolts are M16 grade 8.8 in 2 mm clearance holes.
CHECK FASTENER SPACING AND EDGE/END DISTANCES
Diameter of bolt, db = 16 mm
Diameter of bolt hole, Dh = 18mm
Pitch of bolt, p = 140 mm and 60 mm
Edge distance, e1 = 40 mm
End distance, e2 = 60 mm and 50 mm
Thickness of angle cleat, tp = 10 mm
The following conditions need to be met:
Pitch ≥ 2.5db = 2.5 × 16 = 32 < 140 and 60 OK
Pitch ≤ 14tp = 14 × 10 = 140 ≤ 140 and 60 OK
Edge distance e
1
≥ 1.4Dh = 1.4 × 18= 25.2 < 40 OK
End distance e
2
≥ 1.4Dh = 1.4 × 18 = 25.2 < 60 and 50 OK
e
1
and e
2
≤ 11tpε = 11 × 10 × 1 = 110 < 40, 50 and 60 OK
(For grade S275 steel with t
p
= 10 mm, py = 275 N/mm
2
, ε = 1.) Hence all
fastener spacing and edge/end distances to fasteners are satisfactory.
CHECK STRENGTH OF BOLTS CONNECTING CLEATS TO
SUPPORTING COLUMN
Shear
6 No., M16 grade 8.8 bolts. Hence A
s
= 157 mm
2
(Table 4.22) and p
s
= 375
N/mm
2
(Table 4.19).
Shear capacity of single bolt, Ps, is
Ps = psAs = 375 × 157 = 59 × 10
3
= 59 kN
Shear capacity of bolt group is
6Ps = 6 × 59 = 354 kN > V = 303.13 kN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
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Hence bolts are adequate in shear.
Bearing
Bearing capacity of bolt, P
bb
, is given by
P
bb
= d
b
tp
bb
= 16 × 10 × 1000 = 160× 10
3
= 160 kN
Since thickness of angle cleat (= 10 mm) < thickness of column flange (= 23.8
mm), bearing capacity of cleat is critical. Bearing capacity of cleat,
P
bs
, is given by
P
bs
= k
bs
d
b
tp
bs
= 1 × 16 × l0 × 460 = 73 × 10
3
N = 73kN
≤ 0.5k
bs
etp
bs
= 0.5 × 1 × 60 × 10 × 460 = 138 × 10
3
N = 138 kN
Bearing capacity of connection is 6 × 73 = 438 kN > V = 303.13 kN
Therefore bolts are adequate in bearing.
CHECK STRENGTH OF BOLT GROUP CONNECTING CLEATS TO
WEB OF SUPPORTED BEAM
Shear
6 No., M16 grade 8.8 bolts; from above, A
s
= 157 mm
2
and ps = 375 N/mm
2
Since bolts are in double shear, shear capacity of each bolt is
2P
s
= 2 × 59 = 118 kN
Loads applied to the bolt group are vertical shear, V = 303.13 kN and
moment, M = 303.13 × 50 × 10
−3
= 15.16 kN m.
Outermost bolt (A
l
) subject to greatest shear force which is equal to the
resultant of the load due to the moment,
M = 15.16 kN m and vertical shear force, V = 303.13 kN. Load on the
outermost bolt due to moment, F
mb
, is given by
F m b=
M
z
A =
1 5.1 6 x 1 0
3
4 2 0
= 36.1 kN
where A is the area of bolt and Z the modulus of the bolt group given by
I
¥
=
in which I is the inertia of the bolt group equal to 2A(30
2
+ 90
2
+ 150
2
) =
63000A mm
4
Load on outermost bolt due to shear, F
vb
, is given by F
vb
= V/ No. of bolts =
303.13/6 = 50.52 kN
Resultant shear force of bolt, Fs, is Fs = (F
2
vb
+ F
2
mb
)
1/2
= (50.52
2
+ 36.1
2
)
1/2
= 62.1 kN
Since F
s
(= 62.1 kN) < 2P
s
(= 118 kN) the bolts are adequate in shear.
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GROUND FLOOR ELEMENTS DESIGN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
DESIGN OF FIRST FLOOR BEAMS (ALL FLOOR BEAMS)
Figure 21
BEAM B2
Dead Loads:
The floor beams supports 250 mm R.C slab weight, ceiling weight and
finishes .(0.899 kN/m
2
)
Dead load
R.C slab weight = 24 kN/m
3
x0.25m x8.0m = 48 kN/m
Dead load from ceiling and finishes = 7.192 kN/m
Total dead load = 55.192 kN/m
Imposed load
Load from wind = 0.032 kN/m2 x8m x8m = 2.048 kN
Load for Game Arcade = 3.6 kN
Total imposed load = 5.648 kN
BS5950 Calculations Output
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Reference
Table 11
IMPOSED LOAD
DEAD LOAD
8000
3.548 kN
2.84 kN
309.1 kN
Combined dead
weight 55.192 kN/m
8000
309.1 kN
2.84 kN
Figure 21
DESIGN BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE
Total loading = (5.648 × 1.6) + (55.192 × 1.4)8 = 9.04 + 77.27×8 = 627.19kN
Because the structure is symmetrical R
A
= R
B
= 627.19/2 = 313.59 kN.
The central bending moment, M, is
H =
w L
4
+
w I
2
8
=
9.0 4 x 8
4
+
7 7.2 7 x 8
2
8
= 18.08 + 618.16 = 636.24 kN.m
Assuming P
y
= 275 N/mm
2
S x=
M
P
j
=
6 3 6 .2 4 x 1 0
6
2 7 5
= 2314 cm
3
From steel tables (Appendix B), suitable section chosen:
610 x229 x101 UB, S
x
= 2880 cm
3
CLASSIFICATION
Strength Classification
Because the flange thickness T = 14.8 mm (< 16 mm), then p
y
= 275 N/mm
2
(as assumed) from Table 11 and ε =
1
2
2
2
275N/
1
275N/
mm
mm
| |
=
|
\ .
(Table 4.4).
Fv = 313.59 kN
M = 636.24 kN.m
BS5950 Calculations Output
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A
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48 | P a g e
Reference
4.2.3
4.2.5.2
Table 8
Section classification
b/T = 7.69 which is less than 9ε = 9. Hence from Table 4.4, flange is plastic.
Also d /t = 51.6 which is less than 80ε = 80. Hence from Table 4.4, web is
plastic.
Therefore 610 × 229 × 101 UB section is class 1 plastic.
SHEAR STRENGTH
As d /t = 51.6 < 70ε, shear buckling need not be considered.
Shear capacity of section, P
v
, is
P
v
= 0.6*py*Av = 0.6*py*t*D = 0.6 × 275 × 10.6 × 602.2= 1053× 10
3
N =
1053 kN
Now, as Fv (313.59 kN) < 0.6Pv = 631.8 kN (ok) (low shear load).
BENDING MOMENT From above
M
c
= p
y
*S = 275*2880*10
3
= 792× 10
6
N.mm= 792 kN.m
≤ 1.2*py*Z = 1.2 × 275 × 2510 × 10
3
= 828.3 × 10
6
N.mm = 828.3 kN.m
(OK)
M
sw
= 1.4 × (101 × 9.81/10
3
)*
8
2
8
= 11.1 kN.m
M
t
= M + M
sw
= 636.24 + 11.1 = 647.34 kN.m < M
c
(792 kN.m) (OK)
Deflection checks on steel beams (BS 5950)
o
c
=
w I
3
4 8 L I
=
5.6 4 8 ∗8
3
4 8∗2 0 5 ∗1 0
6
∗7 5 7 0 0 ∗1 0
- 8
= 0.0004 m = 0.4 mm
From Table 8, the recommended maximum deflection for beams carrying
plaster is span/360 which equals 8000/360 = 22.0 mm.
Deflection is OK.
Pv = 1053 kN
Mt = 647.34 kN.m
c = 0.4 mm
BS5950 Calculations Output
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Reference
4.5.2.1
5.5.3.1
WEB BEARING AT SUPPORTS
Assuming the beam sits on 150 mm bearings at each end.
P
bw
= (b1 + nk) t*p
yw
= (150 + 2 × 27.5) 10.6× 275 = 597.8× 10
3
N = 597.8
kN > 312.33 kN (OK)
where
k = T + r = 14.8 + 12.7 = 27.5 mm
n = 2 + 0.6b
e
/k = 2 (since b
e
= 0)
CONTACT STRESS AT SUPPORTS
P
cs
= (b
1
× 2(r +T)) p
y
= (150 × 55) × 275 = 2268 × 10
3
N = 2268 kN > 312.33
kN (OK)
WEB BUCKLING AT SUPPORT
Since α
e
(= 75 mm) < 0.7d = 0.7 × 547.6 = 383.11 mm, buckling resistance of
the web is
P
x
=
∝c + 0 .7 d
1.4 d
*
2 5εt
¸(b 1 + n k )d
P
bw
=
7 5 + 3 8 3 .1 1
1.4∗5 4 7 .6
*
2 5∗1∗1 0.6
¸(1 5 0 + 2 ∗2 7.5)∗5 4 7 .6
* 597.8kN
P
x
= 544.6 kN > 312.33 kN (OK) no web stiffeners are required at supports.
Use 610 × 229 × 101 UB
Figure 22
Pbw = 597.8 kN
Pcs = 2268 kN
Px = 544.6 kN
BS5950 Calculations Output
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Reference
BEAM A1
Dead Loads:
The roof beams supports 250 mm R.C slab weight, ceiling weight and
finishes.(0.899 kN/m
2
)
Dead load
R.C slab weight = 24 kN/m
3
x0.25m x4.0m = 24 kN/m
Dead load from ceiling and finishes = 3.6 kN/m
Total dead load = 27.6 kN/m
Imposed load
Load from wind = 0.032 kN/m2 x8m x4m = 1.024 kN
Load from Game Arcade = 3.6 kN
Total imposed load = 4.624 kN
IMPOSED LOAD
DEAD LOAD
8000
2.524 kN
2.02 kN
154.56 kN
Combined dead
weight 27.6 kN/m
8000
`154.56 kN
2.02 kN
Figure 23
DESIGN BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE
Total loading = (4.624 × 1.6) + (27.6 × 1.4)8 = 7.4 + 38.64 ×8 = 316.52 kN
Because the structure is symmetrical R
A
= R
B
= 316.52/2 = 158.26 kN.
Fv = 158.26 kN
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BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
Table 11
4.2.3
4.2.5.2
The central bending moment, M, is
H =
w L
4
+
w I
2
8
=
7.4 x 8
4
+
3 8.6 4 x 8
2
8
= 14.8 + 309.12 = 323.92 kN.m
Assuming P
y
= 275 N/mm
2
S x=
M
P
j
=
3 2 3 .9 2 x 1 0
6
2 7 5
= 1178 cm
3
From steel tables (Appendix B), suitable section chosen:
457 x191 x67 UB, S
x
= 1470 cm
3
CLASSIFICATION
Strength Classification
Because the flange thickness T = 12.7 mm (< 16 mm), then p
y
= 275 N/mm
2
(as assumed) from Table 11 and ε =
1
2
2
2
275N/
1
275N/
mm
mm
| |
=
|
\ .
(Table 4.4).
Section classification
b/T = 7.48 which is less than 9ε = 9. Hence from Table 4.4, flange is plastic.
Also d /t = 48 which is less than 80ε = 80. Hence from Table 4.4, web is
plastic.
Therefore 457 × 191 × 67 UB section is class 1 plastic.
SHEAR STRENGTH
As d /t = 48 < 70ε, shear buckling need not be considered.
Shear capacity of section, P
v
, is
P
v
= 0.6*py*Av = 0.6*py*t*D = 0.6 × 275 × 8.5 × 453.6= 636 × 10
3
N = 636
kN
Now, as Fv (151.12 kN) < 0.6Pv = 381.16 kN (ok) (low shear load).
BENDING MOMENT From above
M
c
= p
y
*S = 275*1470*10
3
= 404× 10
6
N.mm= 404 kN.m
≤ 1.2*py*Z = 1.2 × 275 × 1296 × 10
3
= 427.7 × 10
6
N.mm = 427.7 kN.m(OK)
M = 323,92 kN.m
Pv = 636 kN
BS5950 Calculations Output
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Reference
4.5.2.1
5.5.3.1
M
sw
= 1.4 × (67 × 9.81/10
3
)*
8
2
8
= 7.36 kN.m
M
t
= M + M
sw
= 317.2 + 7.36 = 324.56 kN.m < M
c
(404 kN.m) (OK)
Deflection checks on steel beams (BS 5950)
o
c
=
w I
3
4 8 L I
=
2.5 2 4 ∗8
3
4 8∗2 0 5 ∗1 0
6
∗2 9 4 0 0 ∗1 0
- 8
= 0.0004 m = 0.4 mm
From Table 4.5, the recommended maximum deflection for beams carrying
plaster is span/360 which equals 8000/360 = 22.0 mm.
Deflection is OK.
WEB BEARING AT SUPPORTS
Assuming the beam sits on 150 mm bearings at each end.
P
bw
= (b1 + nk) t*p
yw
= (150 + 2 × 22.9) 8.5 × 275 = 457× 10
3
N = 457 kN >
151.52 kN (OK)
where
k = T + r = 12.7 + 10.2 = 22.9 mm
n = 2 + 0.6b
e
/k = 2 (since b
e
= 0)
CONTACT STRESS AT SUPPORTS
P
cs
= (b
1
× 2(r +T)) p
y
= (150 × 45.8) × 275 = 1889 × 10
3
N = 1889 kN >
151.52 kN (OK)
WEB BUCKLING AT SUPPORT
Since α
e
(= 75 mm) < 0.7d = 0.7 × 407.6 = 285.32 mm, buckling resistance of
the web is
P
x
=
∝c + 0 .7 d
1.4 d
*
2 5εt
¸(b 1 + n k )d
P
bw
=
7 5 + 2 8 5 .3 2
1.4∗4 0 7 .6
*
2 5∗1∗8.5
¸(1 5 0 + 2 ∗2 2.9)∗4 0 7 .6
* 457kN
P
x
= 216.48 kN > 151.52 kN (OK) no web stiffeners are required at supports.
Mt = 324.56 kN.m
c = 0.4 mm
Pbw = 457 kN
Pcs = 1889 kN
Px = 216.48 kN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
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Use 457 x191 x67 UB
Figure 24
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
DESIGN OF COLUMNS
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Design of Column B2: Second Floor to First Floor
Design Load = 1254.48 + 1247.8 kN +12045.54 kN = 3706.82 kN.
Column B2 is a purely axially loaded column. It takes the reactions off of
beams 2A and 2B; and B1 and B2. The self-weight of the column, is taken as
0.45kN/m.
Dead Load
Axial (kN)
Imposed
Load (kN)
Total Design Load
2 No. B1/B2 = 618.2
2 No. 2A/2B = 618.2
Total = 1236.4 kN
9.04
9.04
18.08 kN
= 1.4 0 k+ 1.6 µ k= (1236.4) + (18.08) = 1 2 5 4 . 4 8k N
Design Load =
Fc = 1254.48 kN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
Try 254 x 254 UC 167
Try 254 x 254 UC 167, t ≤ 40m m
Figure 25
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4.7.4
P y= 2 ó 5
N
m m
2
A g= 212 c m
2
, r y= 67.9 m m
From Table 24, I c= 1.2I = 4.32m
*Member effectively held in position and restrained in direction at both ends.
Slenderness z =
L c
¡
j
=
4 3 2 0
6 7.9
= 63.62
From Table 27(c),
P c= 190
N
m m
2
UC section is not slender,
Compressive Resistance
P c= A g P c =
2 1 2 0 0 x 1 9 0
1 0 0 0
= 4028 kN
P c> F c…………4028 > 3706.82
The section is satisfactory. Use 254 x 254 UC 167
Figure 26
Pc = 4028 kN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
DESIGN OF COLUMNS
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Design of Column B1: First Floor to Second Floor
Design Load = 940.86 + 935.82 kN + 903.39 kN = 2780.1 kN.
Column B2 is a purely axially loaded column. It takes the reactions off of
beams 1A and 2B; B2. The self-weight of the column, is taken as 0.45kN/m.
Dead Load
Axial (kN)
Imposed
Load (kN)
Total Design Load
2 No. 1A/2B = 618.2
1 No. B1 = 309.1
Total = 927.3 kN
9.04
4.52
13.56 kN
= 1.4 0 k+ 1.6 µ k= (927.3) + 13.56 = 9 4 û . 8 ók N
Design Load =
Fc = 940.86 kN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
Figure 27
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4.7.4
Try 254 x 254 UC 167
Try 254 x 254 UC 167, t ≤ 40m m
P y= 2 ó 5
N
m m
2
A g= 212 c m
2
, r y= 67.9 m m
From Table 24, I c= 0.7I = 2.52m
*Member effectively held in position and restrained in direction at both ends.
Slenderness z =
L c
¡
j
=
2 5 2 0
6 7.9
= 37.11
From Table 27(c),
P c= 234
N
m m
2
UC section is not slender,
Compressive Resistance
P c= A g P c =
2 1 2 0 0 x 2 3 4
1 0 0 0
= 4960.8 kN
P c> F c…………4960.8 > 2780.1
The section is satisfactory. Use 254 x 254 UC 167
Figure 28

Pc = 4960.8 kN
BS5950 Calculations Output
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Reference
DESIGN OF BRACKET CONNECTION FOR BEAM 2A
The bolted connection shown carries the vertical ultimate load from beam 2A
0f 313.59 kN placed at an eccentricity of 100mm. Using 10 No 16-mm
diameter grade 8.8 bolts and the approximate method, the design is set out
below.

BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
Figure 29
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6.3.4.2
APPROXIMATE METHOD
Since the bolts are subject to combined shear and tension, the bolts should be
checked for shear, tension and combined shear and tension separately.
SHEAR
Design shear force, P = 313.59 kN
Number of bolts, N = 10
Shear force/bolt, Fs = P/N = 313.59/10 = 31.36 kN
Shear capacity of bolt, Ps, is
Psd = 2Ps = ps As = 2 x 375 x 157 = 117.8 × 10
3
N = 117.8 kN > Fs OK
TENSILE CAPACITY
Maximum bolt tension, F
t
, is
F t=
P c y 1
2Σ y
2
_
Ft=
276.81 x 250 x 400
2Σ (40
2
+ 100
2
+ 200
2
+ 300
2
+ 400
2
)
,
Ft = 45.89 kN
Tension capacity, P
nom
, is
P
nom
= 0.8 p t A t = 0.8 × 560 × 157 = 70.3 × 10
3
N = 70.3 kN ˃ Ft Okay
COMBINED SHEAR AND TENSION
Combined check:
F s
P s
+
F t
P
n o ¡ m
≤ 1.4
31.36
117.8
+
45.89
70.3
= 0.92 ≤ 1.4
Hence the M16, grade 8.8 bolts are satisfactory.
Fs = 31.36 kN
Psd = 117.8 kN
Ft = 45.89 kN
Pnorm = 70.3 kN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
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BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION USING WEB CLEATS
Design of double angle web cleat beam-to-column connection detail shown
below is suitable to resist the design shear force, V, of 301.13 kN. Assume the
steel is grade S275 and the bolts are M16 grade 8.8 in 2 mm clearance holes.
CHECK FASTENER SPACING AND EDGE/END DISTANCES
Diameter of bolt, db = 16 mm
Diameter of bolt hole, Dh = 18mm
Pitch of bolt, p = 140 mm and 60 mm
Edge distance, e1 = 40 mm
End distance, e2 = 60 mm and 50 mm
Thickness of angle cleat, tp = 10 mm
The following conditions need to be met:
Pitch ≥ 2.5db = 2.5 × 16 = 32 < 140 and 60 OK
Pitch ≤ 14tp = 14 × 10 = 140 ≤ 140 and 60 OK
Edge distance e
1
≥ 1.4Dh = 1.4 × 18= 25.2 < 40 OK
End distance e
2
≥ 1.4Dh = 1.4 × 18 = 25.2 < 60 and 50 OK
e
1
and e
2
≤ 11tpε = 11 × 10 × 1 = 110 < 40, 50 and 60 OK
(For grade S275 steel with t
p
= 10 mm, py = 275 N/mm
2
, ε = 1.) Hence all
fastener spacing and edge/end distances to fasteners are satisfactory.
CHECK STRENGTH OF BOLTS CONNECTING CLEATS TO
SUPPORTING COLUMN
Shear
6 No., M16 grade 8.8 bolts. Hence A
s
= 157 mm
2
(Table 4.22) and p
s
= 375
N/mm
2
(Table 4.19).
Shear capacity of single bolt, Ps, is
Ps = psAs = 375 × 157 = 59 × 10
3
= 59 kN
Shear capacity of bolt group is
6Ps = 6 × 59 = 354 kN > V = 303.13 kN
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
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Hence bolts are adequate in shear.
Bearing
Bearing capacity of bolt, P
bb
, is given by
P
bb
= d
b
tp
bb
= 16 × 10 × 1000 = 160× 10
3
= 160 kN
Since thickness of angle cleat (= 10 mm) < thickness of column flange (= 23.8
mm), bearing capacity of cleat is critical. Bearing capacity of cleat,
P
bs
, is given by
P
bs
= k
bs
d
b
tp
bs
= 1 × 16 × l0 × 460 = 73 × 10
3
N = 73kN
≤ 0.5k
bs
etp
bs
= 0.5 × 1 × 60 × 10 × 460 = 138 × 10
3
N = 138 kN
Bearing capacity of connection is 6 × 73 = 438 kN > V = 303.13 kN
Therefore bolts are adequate in bearing.
CHECK STRENGTH OF BOLT GROUP CONNECTING CLEATS TO
WEB OF SUPPORTED BEAM
Shear
6 No., M16 grade 8.8 bolts; from above, A
s
= 157 mm
2
and ps = 375 N/mm
2
Since bolts are in double shear, shear capacity of each bolt is
2P
s
= 2 × 59 = 118 kN
Loads applied to the bolt group are vertical shear, V = 303.13 kN and
moment, M = 303.13 × 50 × 10
−3
= 15.16 kN m.
Outermost bolt (A
l
) subject to greatest shear force which is equal to the
resultant of the load due to the moment,
M = 15.16 kN m and vertical shear force, V = 303.13 kN. Load on the
outermost bolt due to moment, F
mb
, is given by
F m b=
M
z
A =
1 5.1 6 x 1 0
3
4 2 0
= 36.1 kN
where A is the area of bolt and Z the modulus of the bolt group given by
I
¥
=
in which I is the inertia of the bolt group equal to 2A(30
2
+ 90
2
+ 150
2
) =
63000A mm
4
Load on outermost bolt due to shear, F
vb
, is given by F
vb
= V/ No. of bolts =
303.13/6 = 50.52 kN
Resultant shear force of bolt, Fs, is Fs = (F
2
vb
+ F
2
mb
)
1/2
= (50.52
2
+ 36.1
2
)
1/2
= 62.1 kN
Since F
s
(= 62.1 kN) < 2P
s
(= 118 kN) the bolts are adequate in shear.
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
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DESIGN OF BASE PLATE FOR COLUMN B2
Compression strength of concrete 25 N/mm
2
Design of Column Base for Column B2
Column B2: 254 x 254 UC 167
Axial load at base- 3706.82 kN (Dead + Imposed)
Design Load = 3706.82 kN
Bearing Strength of concrete = 0.6 ¡
c u
AREA OF BASEPLATE
Effective area: A
b c

u x ì u I I o u d
b c u ¡ ì n g s t ¡ c n g t h
=
3 7 0 6 .8 2 x 1 0
3
0.6 x 2 5
= 2.5 x 10
5
mm
2
ACTUAL AREA
: A
b c
= (B +2c)(Ð + 2c) −2{(Ð −2|I +C])(|B + 2c] −|t + 2C]}
2.5 x 10
5
= (264.5 +2c)(289.1 + 2c) −2{(289.1 −2|31.7 +c])(|264.5 +
2c
]
−|19.2 +2c]}
c = 152 mm
Minimum length of baseplate = D + 2c = 289.1 + 2 x 152 = 593.1 mm
Minimum width of base plate = B + 2c = 264.5 + 2 x 152 = 568.5 mm
Provide 600 x 600 mm base plate in grade S275 steel.
BASEPLATE THICKNESS
Assuming a base plate thickness of less than 80 mm the design strength
p
yp
= 245 N/mm
2
. The actual base plate thickness, t
p
, is
t
p
= c[
3 o
P
j p
]1
0.5
= 152 [3 x(0.6 x 25) /245]
0.5
= 65.3 mm
Hence, a 600 mm x 600 mm x 70 mm thick base plate in grade S275 steel
should be suitable.
The arrangement of the column base is as shown below:
Abe = 2.5 x 10
5
mm
2
C = 152 mm
BS5950
Reference
Calculations Output
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Figure 30
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DISCUSSIONS
The design of a structure may be judged by whether it fulfills the required function safely, can be
built with economy and can maintain an acceptable appearance for its specified lifetime. As a
result, it means that the design of structural steelwork is assessed based on the criteria of safety,
economy and appearance.
Safety is assessed by considering the strength of the structure relative to the loads which it is
expected to carry. In practice this assessment is applied to each structural element in turn, but
these individual element checks are not sufficient without considering the overall safety of the
framework. The strength of the structural element must always exceed the effects of the loads by
a margin which is known as the factor of safety. In general sense assessment of the structure
includes all the criteria by which its performance should be judged, e.g. strength, deflection,
vibration, bending, etc. In this project, the design was done in accordance with B.S. 5950. As a
result of the dead and imposed loads of the members, analyses using the size of the various
members were possible and were found to be adequate; since all the necessary checks were
satisfied: bending, compressions, deflection, shear and lateral torsional buckling.
Whilst in practice economy of the design is of great importance to the owner of the finished
structure, students were not required to make an economic assessment. However, two basic
matters should be taken into account. Firstly, the finished design should match, without
excessively exceeding, as many of the design criteria as possible. Clearly the provision of excess
strength in a structural element without reason will not be seen as economic. Secondly, in
structural steelwork only part of the cost is contained in the rolled steel sections, and a large part
of the cost results from fabrication and erection processes. Consequently, economic design does
not result from finding the smallest structural size and weight without considering the difficulties
of fabrication. In many cases repetition of a member size and standardization of components can
lead to substantial overall savings.
The appearance of the finished structure is generally of great importance due to the very size and
impact of frames in structural steel. The achievement of an element design is desirable not only
in complete structures but in small design details. It is here that students should try to achieve
elegant, neat and balanced solutions to problems. In many cases, these may be found to be the
most economically sound solutions.
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CONCLUSIONS
Based on the objective of this project it can be stated that first order assessment on the variability
of the loading conditions for various steel components are possible. The results obtained enabled
the establishment of the design of the various members of the proposed structure being designed
using the BS 5950 part 1-2000, BS 6399 Part 2, etc. Further, it was found that the building
members that were designed using the relevant codes were adequate in passing the required tests
as outlined in BS 5950 and the elements of design for steel members.
Additionally, it can be stated that a simple basis for design of steel structures is to consider a
structural framework composed of a number of elements connected together. Loads are sustained
by the element, and its reactions transferred to other elements via the connections. In this simple
concept for design, it is essential that overall action of the framework is considered.
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REFERENCES
 [1] Morris L. J., Plum D. R., (1988) Structural Steelwork Design To BS 5950. United
Kingdom: Longman Scientific & Technical Inc.
 [2] BS 5268, (2002). Structural use of timber. Retrieved April, 2, 2011] from [Structural
use of Timber][http:// www.nzwood.co.nz/how-wood/seismic-design/]
 [3] Draycott. T (1999) Structural Elements Design Manual .Linacre House, Wildwood
Avenue.
 [4] No Author, (2005). Guide to Timber Design. Retrieved [April, 2, 2011] from
[Library - University Services - The University of Newcastle 2006][http://www.The
University of Newcastle, Australia.html]
 [5] No Author, (2004). Example of Steel Member Design (2004). Retrieved April , 2011,
from page 2-4] at [http//:www.instructional1.calstatela.edu/dfrankl/CURR/pdf]
 [6] BS 5950–1: 2000: Structural use of steelwork in buildings; Part 1: Code of practice
for design – rolled and welded sections
 [7] BS 6399: Design loading for buildings; Part 1: Code of practice for dead and imposed
loads, 1996; Part 2: Code of practice for wind loads, 1997; Part 3: Code of practice for
imposed roof loads, 1988.
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APPENDICES

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Table 2: Summary of the designed members
Location 1st Floor Member Beam B2 Beam A1 Column B2 Column B1 Bracket Connector Length(/m) 8.0 8.0 3.6 Section Size(/mm) 610 x229 x101 UB 457 x191 x67 UB 254 x 254 UC 107 254 x 254 UC 107 170 x 250 x 8 10 # M16Total 90 x 90 x 10 6 # M16 Total Grade Strength (N/mm2) S 275 S 275 S 275 S 275 S 275 Grade 8.8 S 275 Grade 8.8

3.6

Beam to Column Connector

Table 3: Summary of the designed members

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Location G - Floor

Member Beam B2 Beam A1 Column B2 Column B1 Bracket Connector

Length(/m) 8.0 8.0 3.6

Section Size(/mm)

610 x229 x101 UB 457 x191 x67 UB 254 x 254 UC 167 254 x 254 UC 167 170 x 250 x 8 10 # M16Total 90 x 90 x 10 6 # M16 Total 600 x 600 x 70

Grade Strength (N/mm2) S 275 S 275 S 265 S 265 S 275

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Base Plate for Column B2

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Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................. 1 LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................................................................................ 5 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................. 6 METHOD STATEMENT FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A MULTI-STOREY STEEL BUILDING ON TIMBER PILE FOUNDATION................................................................................................................................................ 7 Purpose ..................................................................................................................................................... 7 References ................................................................................................................................................ 7 Methodology of Works ............................................................................................................................. 7 Mobilisation of Machinery, Equipment, Tools and Labour................................................................... 7 Materials ...............................................................................................................................................8 Construction of Multi-Storey Building ..................................................................................................8 Contingencies............................................................................................................................................9 List of Equipment to be used .................................................................................................................. 10 Quality Control........................................................................................................................................ 10 Occupational Health and Safety .............................................................................................................10 DAY WORKS SCHEDULE...............................................................................................................................11 General....................................................................................................................................................11 Labour .....................................................................................................................................................11 Equipment...............................................................................................................................................12 Materials ................................................................................................................................................. 12 PROJECT INFORMATION ............................................................................................................................. 13 SECOND FLOOR ELEMENTS DESIGN............................................................................................................14 DESIGN OF ROOF BEAMS (ALL ROOF BEAMS) ........................................................................................14 BEAM B2.............................................................................................................................................. 14 BEAM A1 .............................................................................................................................................18 DESIGN OF COLUMNS............................................................................................................................. 22 Design of Column B2: Roof to Second Floor .......................................................................................22 DESIGN OF COLUMNS............................................................................................................................. 24 Design of Column B1: Roof to Second Floor .......................................................................................24 DESIGN OF BRACKET CONNECTION FOR BEAM 2A.................................................................................26 BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION USING WEB CLEATS.........................................................................28 3|Page

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............... 2011 FIRST FLOOR ELEMENTS DESIGN ...............................58 BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION USING WEB CLEATS............................................................................................................................................................ 30 BEAM B2.....................................55 Design of Column B1: First Floor to Second Floor ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................46 BEAM B2....42 BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION USING WEB CLEATS................ 56 DESIGN OF BRACKET CONNECTION FOR BEAM 2A...................................................................46 DESIGN OF FIRST FLOOR BEAMS (ALL FLOOR BEAMS) ................................................................... 30 DESIGN OF SECOND FLOOR BEAMS (ALL FLOOR BEAMS) ........................................................................................ 46 BEAM A1 ............................................................................................................ 54 DESIGN OF COLUMNS.......................50 DESIGN OF COLUMNS.........................34 DESIGN OF COLUMNS..................................................................................................38 Design of Column B2: Second Floor to First Floor ...............................................................................................................................................................................................64 CONCLUSIONS................................................... 40 DESIGN OF BRACKET CONNECTION FOR BEAM 2A................................................................................. 67 CI V 42 8 FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR E OJ 4|Page CT ..............................................................................................................62 DISCUSSIONS.................................. 38 DESIGN OF COLUMNS........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 53 Design of Column B2: Second Floor to First Floor ...................................................CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................60 DESIGN OF BASE PLATE FOR COLUMN B2 ................................................................................................. 30 BEAM A1 ...........................................................40 Design of Column B1: Second Floor to First Floor .............................................................................................. 66 APPENDICES ........................................................................................................................................................................................65 REFERENCES................44 GROUND FLOOR ELEMENTS DESIGN .......

Plan showing beams and columns layout for first floor level Figure 23 – Cross section of beam B2 first floor level Figure 22.Plan showing beams and columns layout for second floor level Figure 12. Figure 24.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11. Figure 3 – Cross section of beam B2 roof level Figure 4.Plan showing beams and columns layout for roof level Figure 2.Longitudinal section for beam A1 with loading condition roof level. 2011 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.Longitudinal section for beam B2 with loading condition second floor level.Longitudinal section for beam B2 with loading condition roof level.Longitudinal section for beam A1 with loading condition first floor level.Longitudinal section for beam A1 with loading condition second floor level. Figure 13 – Cross section of beam B2 second floor level Figure 14.Longitudinal section for beam B2 with loading condition first floor level. Figure 5 – Cross section of beam A1 roof level Figure 6 – 3D view of column B2 with loading condition roof level Figure 7 – Cross section of column B2 roof level Figure 8 – 3D view of column B1 with loading condition roof level Figure 9 – Cross section of column B1 roof level Figure 10 – Cross section of bracket connector for beam B2 roof level Figure 11. Figure 25 – Cross section of beam A1 first floor level Figure 26 – 3D view of column B2 with loading condition first floor level Figure 27 – Cross section of column B2 first floor level Figure 28 – 3D view of column B1 with loading condition first floor level Figure 29 – Cross section of column B1 first floor level Figure 30 – Cross section of bracket connector for beam B2 first floor level Figure 31 – Cross section ground floor base plate connector CI V 42 8 FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR E OJ 5|Page CT . Figure 15 – Cross section of beam A1 second floor level Figure 17 – Cross section of column B2 second floor level Figure 19 – Cross section of column B1 second floor level Figure 16 – 3D view of column B2 with loading condition second floor level Figure 18 – 3D view of column B1 with loading condition second floor level Figure 20 – Cross section of bracket connector for beam B2 second floor level Figure 21.

and a Supermarket. The specification had been a multi-storey building to cater for a Movie Theater. From the analysis. a Game Arcade. The initial stage of the project involved coming up with an adequate size to cater for the standard size of a modern day movie theater and then the member sizes and analyzing of the design. designing of members where necessary. etc. temporary supports. members were designed. As requested by Mr. 2011 INTRODUCTION Structural steelwork can be either a single member or an assembly of a number of steel sections connected together in such a way that they perform a specified function. lecturer of CIV 428 (Structural Steel Design). Marlon Daniels. The design codes used to accomplish the project are:BS 5950: Structural Use of Steelwork in Building BS 6399: 1984: Part 1: Dead and Imposed Loads CI V 42 8 FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR E OJ 6|Page CT . The function required by a client or owner will vary enormously but may include: building frames. this project entails the design of a proposed multi-storey Steel building. The specification for this building was given by Mr. 2000. Detailed structural drawings have been provided in the appendix. bridges. Marlon Daniels. The objective of this project is to enhance the students’ knowledge of the use of the Design Code.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11. BS 5950 part 1. The loading conditions were calculated using dead and live loading conditions.

CIV 428 Steel Project

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METHOD STATEMENT FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A MULTI-STOREY STEEL BUILDING ON TIMBER PILE FOUNDATION Purpose This method statement defines the procedure to be used by the contractor to execute the works in accordance with engineering requirements. References References were made to General Instructions to Bidders and Technical Specifications Clauses, provided by FIDIC Standard Bidding Document for International Competitive Bidding © 2005. In addition, references were made to the detailed drawings developed and the prevailing site

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conditions. Methodology of Works

Mobilisation of Machinery, Equipment, Tools and Labour

Mobilization of machinery, equipment, tools and labour, etc. will be mobilized to the site

within two (2) weeks or sooner after the signing of the contract and the receipt of the engineer’s

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order to commence works. •

Heavy machinery such as hydraulic excavators, pile drivers, dragline, cane and motor

grader, etc. will be transported to the site using low bed trailer; small and light equipment will be

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transported on small trucks. •

Site offices, toilet and washing facilities for the engineer, clerk of works and the

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contractor will be constructed. •

Storage bonds for materials and mess areas for the workers will also be constructed

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simultaneously with site offices, etc.

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CIV 428 Steel Project Materials

May 11, 2011

Materials for the works will be procured by means of cash purchases and credit facilities

available to the contractor from various suppliers. • Stockpiling of GH piles, fine aggregate, coarse aggregates, reinforcements, excavated

clay, and steel members etc. will be done at suitable location within the limits of the site. The areas for stockpiling will be inspected prior to stockpiling to determine proximity to the site and freeness of ruinous materials.
Construction of Multi-Storey Building

General: The structure will be constructed and finished in accordance with the procedures

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described below. (i)

Site clearance/ marking-out & material testing: The limits of the site will be cleared of all vegetation and maintained during the period of construction. The area to be occupied by the building will then be marked-out and an in situ test executed in order

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to analyse the soil profile. (ii) (iii) surface smooth enough to execute works. Excavation: Prior to pile driving, the selected area will be excavated and levelled to a Pile driving and capping: Piles will be driven, in accordance with the results obtained from the in situ test, to an approximate depth of 19m avoiding as much vibration as possible. The type of mechanism to be utilised for driving is the jack hammer. Further these piles will be driven in groups, with the total number of piles being 300 (nr). The piles will be designed to resist uplift and to support the full weight of the structure above. After driving, the piles will be capped with slabs of thickness 450mm. (iv) Sand filling: Using suitable machinery such as skid steer loaders and excavators, the document. (v) (vi) Casting of foundation slab: The foundation strip will be reinforced with size 5/8” steel and casted to a thickness of 12” with 19mm sizes of aggregates. Construction of skeletal structure by jib cranes: The entire skeletal structure of the three storey building will rest directly above the foundation strip. It will be established by the use of jib crane and will generally be structural steel. Construction
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building area will be sand filled to the desired elevation as stipulated in the contract

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will commence from the base of the structure right up to the roof and will have specifications as shown in summary above. • The base will have 16 columns of lengths 3.6m. (vii) Exterior walling: Exterior walls will be established, as shown in the drawing, around the entire skeletal structure by the use of construction lay blocks and curtain walls. These blocks will be poured monolithically with mortar and will be reinforced with additional ½” high speed steel. Lastly, the walls will then be brought to a smooth surface by plastering with concrete mortar.

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(viii) (ix) (x)

Interior walling: Interior walls will be established, as shown in the drawing, by partitioning and will follow the same procedure as for exterior walls. Casting of roof slab: The roof slab will be reinforced with size 12mm dia. steel and casted to a thickness of 250 mm with 19mm sizes of aggregates. Finishing: All finishes such as doors, windows, etc. will be applied to the structure to

give its final appearance. Contingencies

Excavation during construction and stockpiling will be done from a suitable location. The entire area will be declared a danger zone and will be protected by means of warning tapes, signs and barriers. These mechanisms will be installed at suitable locations to give adequate warning to the public and to avoid them from coming into contact with the works, thus, minimizing the

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Cat 312 long boom hydraulic excavators 2 Nr. water pump CI V 42 8 FI NA L Quality Control The intention is to meet and exceed the client’s expectations through rigid observance to the specifications and client involvement during all stages of construction. 2011 List of Equipment to be used (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) 2 Nr. during construction. Piles will be fully seasoned before driving and reinforcements will be electroplated to avoid corrosion. electrical power drill 2 Nr. In addition. Occupational Health and Safety The intension is to implement occupational health and safety (OH&S) plans to meet the acceptable standards in the construction industry. lubricants and bituminous products in keeping with strict environmental guidelines set out by the EPA of Guyana. Cat 324 low bed trolley 1 Nr.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11. generator 3 Nr. The AASHTO and ASTM methods for compaction and soil testing will be utilised before and after construction to ensure that the soil was unaffected by any possible contamination. Cat 365 pile driver with jib crane 4 Nr. 10 | P a g e YE AR ST EE L PR E OJ CT . attention will be given to the safe care and use of oils. chainsaw 1 Nr. 24 cubic yards dump trucks 1 Nr. electrical power saw 2 Nr. Surplus to requirements. a site engineer will be placed at the location to ensure that all technical specifications are adhered to and to ensure that the structure is constructed in accordance with the details outlined in the drawing. complete scaffolding mechanism 1 Nr. fuel. workers will be properly briefed and supervised of the use and care of construction equipment. Additionally. hydraulic mixers 1 Nr. Cat 312 skid steer loaders 2 Nr.

and any sums paid to or on behalf 11 | P a g e ST EE L PR E OJ CT . Labour In calculating payments due to the Contractor for the execution of day works. materials and 8 FI NA L YE AR equipment will be in Guyana dollars only. but excluding meal breaks and rest periods. consistent monitoring of the behavioral approach of staff and tradesmen. Bidders will enter basic rates for day work items in the Schedules. Nominal quantities have been indicated against each item of day work. overtime. The rates for labour shall be deemed to cover all costs to the Contractor including (but not limited to) the amount of wages paid to such labour. calculated on the basis of the rates for that class of labour entered in the " SCHEDULE OF DAYWORK RATES: 1. At the end of the works it will be made certain that the site’s surroundings are brought back to its original position as much as possible. it will be ensured that potential traffic hazards are avoided as much as possible.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11. the hours for labour will be reckoned from the time of arrival of the labour at the job site to execute the particular item of day work to the time of departure from the job site. CI V 42 DAY WORKS SCHEDULE General Work will not be executed on a daily basis without following written instruction by the Engineer. In keeping with GCC Clauses (section vii: FIDIC Standard bidding document © 2005). The rates of labour. and the extended total for day work will be carried forward as a Provisional Sum to the Summary Total Bid Amount. will be ensured at all times. subsistence allowances. The time of gangers (charge hands) actually doing work with the gangs will also be measured but not the time of foremen or other supervisory personnel. transportation time. The Contractor shall be entitled to payment in respect of the total time that labour is employed on day work. These rates will apply to any quantity of day work ordered by the Engineer. 2011 In order to maintain good contractor/client relationship. with respect to workmanship and continual improvement. LABOUR". Only the time of classes of labour directly doing work ordered by the Engineer and are competent to perform such work shall be measured.

fuel. the use of consumable stores water lighting and power. and charges incidental to the foregoing. from the store or stockpile on the Site to the place where it is to be used also will be included in the same rate. insurance. The aggregate cost of drivers /operators and assistants also shall be included in the rate of the equipment and no separate payment whatsoever shall be made to the CI V 42 8 FI NA L YE contractor in this connection. superintendence. manual plant and tools. maintenance. foremen and other supervisory personnel. Equipment The Contractor will be entitled to payments in respect to the supplied constructional plant employed on day work on the basis of rental rates entered by him in the “SCHEDULE OF DAYWOR RATES”EQUIPMENT”. overheads. lubricant. wastage. The said rates shall be deemed to include due and complete allowance for depreciation. scaffolding workshops and stores. Materials The Contractor will be entitled to payment with respect to materials used for day work (except for materials for which the cost is included in the percentage addition to labour costs). and all incidentals costs as applicable. interest. AR ST EE L PR 12 | P a g e E OJ CT . profit and administrative costs related to the use of such equipment. as well as Contractor's profit. damage. portable power tools. (b) The cost of hauling materials for use on work ordered to be carried out as day work. handling expenses including stockpiling at site. and insurance. In calculating the payment due to the Contractor for Constructional Plant employed on day work. supplies.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11. timekeeping and clerical and office work. losses. costs of freight. The rates entered by the contractor in the "SCHEDULE OF DAYWORK RATES: “MATERIALS" and will be deemed to include overhead charges and profit as follows: (a) The entered rates for materials shall include invoiced price. and other consumables and all overhead. 2011 of such labour for social benefits in accordance with the law. liabilities and insurance and allowance to labour. only the actual number of working hours shall be eligible for payment. repairs. supervision by the Contractor's staff.

The load Gk were obtained from the weights of the actual construction materials used. The initial loading analysis was calculated and then inputted into BS 5950 formulas to NA L YE generate the Moments and Shear Forces. Live loads for floors were taken from British Standard 6399. The effect of wind load was taken into considered because: CI V 42 8 FI I. III. and other consideration taken by the design team. while the loading for the roof and all other floors were taken from British Standard 6399. The building can be considered as a high rise structure. The building might not be located amongst other buildings.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11. Considerations and Assumptions: The design was done using BS5950 -1: 2000 and Code of Practices for the Structural use of Steel. II. 2011 PROJECT INFORMATION The specification for the design of a steel building was given by Mr. Part 1-1996. Part 1-1996. The structural analysis of the building was done manually using formulas and conditions proved in the BS 5950-1:2000. AR ST EE L PR 13 | P a g e E OJ CT . Marlon Daniels (Lecturer for CIV 428).

28 kN/m Imposed load Load from wind = 0.28kN/m 3.4 kN Total imposed load = 3.25 kN/m2 x 8 = 2 kN/m Total dead load = 53.048 kN Load from services = 1.448 kN CI V 42 finishes. ceiling weight and asphalt R.032 kN/m2 x8m x8m = 2.41 kN/m2) Dead load 8 BEAM B2 Dead Loads: FI Figure1 NA L YE AR ST EE L PR 14 | P a g e E OJ 53.0m = 48 kN/m Dead load from asphalt finishes 19mm thk. 2011 SECOND FLOOR ELEMENTS DESIGN BS5950 Reference Calculations Output DESIGN OF ROOF BEAMS (ALL ROOF BEAMS) The roof beams supports 250 mm R.448kN/m CT .28 kN/m Dead load from ceiling = 0.(0.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.C slab weight = 24 kN/m3 x0.2 layers = 3.25m x8.C slab weight.

448 × 1. suitable section chosen: 610 x229 x101 UB.6 ×8 = 602.84 kN/m + = = 11.52 + 74.28 × 1.8 mm (< 16 mm).13 kN ST EE L M = 607.m PR Assuming Py = 275 N/mm2 = 2210 cm3 E OJ CT From steel tables (Appendix B).CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference May 11.26/2 = 301.4)8 = 5.6) + (53.76 kN FI Figure2 NA L YE AR Fv =301. is = .37 kN DEAD LOAD 3.28 kN/m 8000 298. M. The central bending moment. 2011 Calculations Output Combined dead weight 53.04 + 596.76 kN BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE Total loading = (3. Sx = 2880 cm3 CLASSIFICATION Strength Classification Because the flange thickness T = 14.84 kN. 8000 IMPOSED LOAD 2. then py = 275 N/mm2 (Table 11). CI V 42 8 + = = . .8 = 607. 1  275N/mm2  2 1 (as assumed) from Table 11 and ε =  2   275N/mm  15 | P a g e .26 kN Because the structure is symmetrical RA = RB = 602.13 kN.37 kN 2.448 kN 298.

69 which is less than 9ε = 9.m) (OK) Deflection checks on steel beams (BS 5950) Table 8 FI ∗ (OK) NA L YE = 11.6 which is less than 80ε = 80.6 × 602. web is plastic.3 kN.24 mm From Table 8.6Pv = 631.2. the recommended maximum deflection for beams carrying plaster is span/360 which equals 8000/360 = 22.m Msw = 1. ∗ ∗ = 0. Therefore 610 × 229 × 101 UB section is class 1 plastic. 16 | P a g e .4.4 × (101 × 9. (Table 11).81/103)* Mt = M + Msw = 607.0 mm.8 kN (ok) (low shear load).2= 1053× 103 N = CI V Shear capacity of section.2*py*Z = 1.5.1 = 618.2 × 275 × 2510 × 103 = 828.CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference May 11.1 kN.13 kN) < 0.m < Mc (792 kN.mm= 792 kN. is 42 8 4.94 kN. shear buckling need not be considered.mm = 828. BENDING MOMENT From above 4.84 + 11. 2011 Calculations Output Section classification b/T = 7.2.6 × 275 × 10.3 1053 kN Now.6*py*Av = 0. Hence from Table 11. flange is plastic.6 < 70ε. Pv = 0. Also d /t = 51. Pv. Hence from Table 4.94 kN/m E OJ CT c = = ∗ ∗ .3 × 106 N.m AR ST EE L PR Mt= 618.2 Mc = py*S = 275*2880*103 = 792× 106 N. Deflection is OK.6*py*t*D = 0.m ≤ 1.24 mm c = 0.00024 m = 0. SHEAR STRENGTH As d /t = 51. as Fv (301.

4.6be /k = 2 (since be = 0) Pbw = 597.6 kN  312.8× 103 N = 597. ∗ .33 kN (OK) where k = T + r = 14. 2011 Calculations Output WEB BEARING AT SUPPORTS Assuming the beam sits on 150 mm bearings at each end.8 kN Pcs = (b1 × 2(r +T)) py = (150 × 55) × 275 = 2268 × 103 N = 2268 kN > 312. AR .7 × 547. NA . . ( ε CONTACT STRESS AT SUPPORTS WEB BUCKLING AT SUPPORT the web is * ) V 42 8 kN (OK) FI . * 597.6× 275 = 597.CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference May 11.1 Pbw = (b1 + nk) t*pyw = (150 + 2 × 27.8 + 12.1 Px = Pbw = * ∗ ∗ .11 mm.6 kN ST EE L PR E OJ CT Use 610 × 229 × 101 UB Figure 3 17 | P a g e .3.5.6 = 383. buckling resistance of CI ∝ .7 = 27.7d = 0.8kN Px = 544. Px = 544.33 Pcs= 2268 kN Since αe (= 75 mm) < 0.2. L ( YE ∗ 4. )∗ .33 kN (OK) no web stiffeners are required at supports.5.5) 10.5 mm n = 2 + 0.8 kN > 312.

ceiling weight and asphalt finishes.25 kN/m2 x 4= 1 kN/m Total dead load = 26.94 kN IMPOSED LOAD 1.25m x4. 2011 Calculations BEAM A1 Output Dead Loads: The roof beams supports 250 mm R.CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference May 11.41 kN/m2) Dead load R.184 kN AR ST EE L PR E OJ CT 8000 1.424kN CI V 42 8000 8 Imposed load FI NA L YE Combined dead weight 26.C slab weight.C slab weight = 24 kN/m3 x0.032 kN/m2 x8m x4m = 1.424 kN 149.2 layers = 1.64 kN/m Load from wind = 0.184 kN DEAD LOAD 2.024 kN Load from services = 1.64 kN/m Dead load from ceiling = 0.4 kN Total imposed load = 2.64 kN/m 149.0m = 24 kN/m Dead load from asphalt finishes 19mm thk.94 kN Figure 4 18 | P a g e .(0.

16 kN (ok) (low shear load).424 × 1.6Pv = 381. SHEAR STRENGTH As d /t = 48 < 70ε.5 × 453. Fv =151. web is plastic.CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference May 11. = The central bending moment.30 ×8 = 302.6) + (26. Also d /t = 48 which is less than 80ε = 80.48 which is less than 9ε = 9. M. Hence from Table 4.4). flange is plastic.12 kN.4)8 = 3.7 mm (< 16 mm). M = 306.6 × 275 × 8.16 kN/m Assuming Py = 275 N/mm2 = = 1165 cm3 From steel tables (Appendix B). (as assumed) from Table 4. Hence from Table 11.26/2 = 151. shear buckling need not be considered.6= 636 × 103 N = 636 kN Now.64 × 1.25 kN Because the structure is symmetrical RA = RB = 602.12 kN) < 0.76 + 298.4 = 306. Pv. suitable section chosen: 457 x191 x67 UB.m . 2011 Calculations Output DESIGN BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE Total loading = (2.88 + 37.4. then py = 275 N/mm2  275N/mm2  2  1 (Table 4. Shear capacity of section.16 kN. CI V 42 Section classification 8 FI NA L YE 1 AR ST EE L PR E OJ CT 4.3 19 | P a g e . as Fv (151. Therefore 457 × 191 × 67 UB section is class 1 plastic. is Pv = 0.12 kN + = = 7.6*py*Av = 0. is + = .3 and ε =  2   275N/mm  Table 11 b/T = 7.2.6*py*t*D = 0. Sx = 1470 cm3 CLASSIFICATION Strength Classification Because the flange thickness T = 12. .

2011 Calculations Output BENDING MOMENT From above Mc = py*S = 275*1470*103 = 404× 106 N.m ≤ 1.5 × 275 = 457× 103 N = 457 kN > k = T + r = 12.7 kN.6 mm c = 0.5. ∗ WEB BEARING AT SUPPORTS 4. Pbw = (b1 + nk) t*pyw = (150 + 2 × 22. Deflection is OK.2.6be /k = 2 (since be = 0) CONTACT STRESS AT SUPPORTS Pcs = (b1 × 2(r +T)) py = (150 × 45. the recommended maximum deflection for beams carrying plaster is span/360 which equals 8000/360 = 22.m < Mc (404 kN.1 Assuming the beam sits on 150 mm bearings at each end.6 mm FI NA L YE AR ST EE Pbw = 457 kN L PR 20 | P a g e E OJ Pcs= 1889 kN CT .52 kN.2 = 22.4 × (67 × 9.2 May 11.0 mm.006 m = 0.2.7 × 106 N.52 kN/m Mt = M + Msw = 306.2*py*Z = 1.52 kN (OK) where 8 = 0.16 + 7.7 + 10.2 × 275 × 1296 × 103 = 427.CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference 4.m Mt= 313.m) (OK) Deflection checks on steel beams (BS 5950) Table 8 CI V c = = From Table 8.mm= 404 kN.36 kN.5.36 = 313.m (OK) Msw = 1. ∗ ∗ ∗ 151.mm = 427.81/103)* = 7.9 mm n = 2 + 0.9) 8.52 kN (OK) 42 ∗ .8) × 275 = 1889 × 103 N = 1889 kN > 151.

7 × 407.3. Px = 216. * 457kN Px = 216. )∗ . . .1 Px = ∝ .48 kN  151. buckling resistance of 5.48 kN CI V 42 Use 457 x191 x67 UB Figure 5 8 FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR 21 | P a g e E OJ CT . 2011 Calculations Output WEB BUCKLING AT SUPPORT Since αe (= 75 mm) < 0.CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference May 11. ∗ .6 = 285. ∗ . the web is * ( ε ) Pbw = .52 kN (OK) no web stiffeners are required at supports.7d = 0.5.32 mm. * ( ∗ ∗ .

45kN/m.6 CI V 42 Imposed Load (kN) 5. Fc = 1204. 2011 Calculations Output DESIGN OF COLUMNS Design of Column B2: Roof to Second Floor Design Load = 1204.74 2 No.52 5.04) = 8 FI NA L Figure 6 YE AR Total Design Load ST EE L PR E OJ CT .5) + (11.74 Total = 1193. is taken as 0.54 kN Column B2 is a purely axially loaded column. Dead Load Axial (kN) 2 No.52 11.5 kN = 1.CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference May 11. 2A/2B = 596. It takes the reactions off of beams 2A and 2B.4 + 1. B1/B2 = 596.54 kN 22 | P a g e .04 kN Design Load = = (1193. The self-weight of the column. and B1 and B2.

4 The section is satisfactory. = 119 . = 53.2 = 5.CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference May 11.52 m *Member effectively held in position and restrained in direction at both ends. Slenderness = = . 8 Pc = 119 N/mm2 FI NA L 4.7. Compressive Resistance … … … … 1309 > 1204. t  16mm.2 CI = 104 V = UC section is not slender. = 110 . Use 203 x 203 UC 86 > = 1309 kN YE AR ST EE L PR E OJ CT 23 | P a g e Figure 7 .54 = 42 From Table 27(c). 2011 Calculations Output Try 203 x 203 UC 86 Try 203 x 203 UC 86. p y  275N / mm 2 From Table 24. = 1.

76 .CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference May 11.52 2. It takes the reactions off of beams 1A and 2B.4 = 895. 2011 Calculations Output DESIGN OF COLUMNS Design of Column B1: Roof to Second Floor Design Load = 903.39 kN Column B2 is a purely axially loaded column. B2.39 kN CT .28 = 8 FI NA Imposed Load (kN) 5. Dead Load Axial (kN) 2 No. is taken as 0. B1 = 298.6 CI V 42 8. The self-weight of the column.28 kN Design Load = = (895.11 kN + 1.37 Total = 1. 1A/2B = 596.11) + 8.74 1 No. L Figure 8 YE AR Total Design Load ST EE L PR 24 | P a g e E OJ Fc = 903.45kN/m.

22 m = . t  16mm.2 CI V = UC section is not slender.7. = 110 . Use 203 x 203 UC 86 > … … … … 2211 > 903. = 201 = = 53. 2011 Calculations Output Try 203 x 203 UC 86 Try 203 x 203 UC 86.4 The section is satisfactory.5 From Table 27(c).7 = 3. From Table 24.CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference May 11. Slenderness = 60.39 = NA = 2211 kN L YE AR ST EE L Figure 9 PR 25 | P a g e E OJ CT . p y  275N / mm 2 = 0. *Member effectively held in position and restrained in direction at both ends. 42 Pc = 201 N/mm2 Compressive Resistance 8 FI 4.

the design is set out below. CI V 42 8 FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR E OJ CT Figure 10 26 | P a g e . Using 10 No 16-mm diameter grade 8.8 bolts and the approximate method.13 kN placed at an eccentricity of 100mm.CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference May 11. 2011 Calculations Output DESIGN OF BRACKET CONNECTION FOR BEAM 2A The bolted connection shown carries the vertical ultimate load from beam 2A of 301.

3 × 103 N = 70.89 kN 1 FI NA L YE Ft = 45. is COMBINED SHEAR AND TENSION Combined check: + ≤ 1.CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference May 11.8 kN > Fs OK TENSILE CAPACITY Maximum bolt tension.4 117.8 × 103N = 117.4 Hence the M16.81 Pnom = 0.8 250 400 2Σ Fs = 30.9 ≤ 1.13/10 = 30. Ft.113 kN CI Shear capacity of bolt.2 = 0. N = 10 Shear force/bolt. tension and combined shear and tension separately.8 bolts are satisfactory.3.3 kN ˃ Ft Okay Tension capacity.113 kN Psd = 2Ps = ps As = 2 x 375 x 157 = 117.89 + = 0. is Ft= 276.8 70. V Psd = 117.13 kN Number of bolts.113 45. is 6. grade 8. Fs = P/N = 301. 2011 Calculations Output APPROXIMATE METHOD Since the bolts are subject to combined shear and tension. Pnom.8 × 560 × 157 = 70.4. the bolts should be checked for shear.8 kN 30.3 42 8 = 2Σ (40 + 100 + 200 + 300 + 400 ) Ft = 45. P = 301. SHEAR Design shear force.89 kN AR ST EE L PR 27 | P a g e E OJ CT . Ps.

2011 Calculations Output BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION USING WEB CLEATS Design of double angle web cleat beam-to-column connection detail shown below is suitable to resist the design shear force.8 bolts. M16 grade 8.3.5 × 16 = 32 < 140 and 60 OK Pitch ≤ 14tp = 14 × 10 = 140 ≤ 140 and 60 OK Edge distance e1 ≥ 1.4 × 18= 25. Shear capacity of single bolt. of 301. Dh = 18mm Pitch of bolt. tp = 10 mm V 42 8 FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR 28 | P a g e E OJ Ps = 59 kN CT . e1 = 40 mm End distance.2 < 60 and 50 OK e1 and e2 ≤ 11tpε = 11 × 10 × 1 = 110 < 40.8 in 2 mm clearance holes. Assume the steel is grade S275 and the bolts are M16 grade 8. p = 140 mm and 60 mm Edge distance.4 × 18 = 25.) Hence all fastener spacing and edge/end distances to fasteners are satisfactory. db = 16 mm The following conditions need to be met: Pitch ≥ 2.4Dh = 1.4Dh = 1.1 Ps = psAs = 375 × 157 = 59 × 103 = 59 kN Shear capacity of bolt group is 6Ps = 6 × 59 = 354 kN > V = 303. ε = 1..2.19). 50 and 60 OK (For grade S275 steel with tp = 10 mm.22) and ps = 375 N/mm2 (Table 4.CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference May 11.2 < 40 OK End distance e2 ≥ 1.5db = 2. CHECK FASTENER SPACING AND EDGE/END DISTANCES Diameter of bolt. py = 275 N/mm2. Ps. CHECK STRENGTH OF BOLTS CONNECTING CLEATS TO SUPPORTING COLUMN Shear 6 No. e2 = 60 mm and 50 mm Thickness of angle cleat. is 6.13 kN CI Diameter of bolt hole. Hence As = 157 mm2 (Table 4. V.13 kN.

CHECK STRENGTH OF BOLT GROUP CONNECTING CLEATS TO WEB OF SUPPORTED BEAM Shear 6 No.1 kN) < 2Ps (= 118 kN) the bolts are adequate in shear.522 + 36. is Fs = (F 2 vb + F 2mb)1/2 = (50. Outermost bolt (Al) subject to greatest shear force which is equal to the resultant of the load due to the moment. bearing capacity of cleat is critical.13 kN and moment.1 kN Since Fs (= 62.1 kN YE AR ST EE L PR 29 | P a g e E OJ Fmb = 36. is given by Fvb = V/ No.8 bolts. V = 303.5kbsetpbs = 0. 2011 Calculations Output Hence bolts are adequate in shear. of bolts = 303. As = 157 mm2 and ps = 375 N/mm2 Since bolts are in double shear. Fvb.8 mm).13/6 = 50. NA L = 36.13 × 50 × 10−3 = 15. shear capacity of each bolt is 2Ps = 2 × 59 = 118 kN Loads applied to the bolt group are vertical shear.16 kN m.5 × 1 × 60 × 10 × 460 = 138 × 103 N = 138 kN Bearing capacity of connection is 6 × 73 = 438 kN > V = 303. M = 303.1 kN CT .52 kN Resultant shear force of bolt.CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference May 11. Pbs. is given by where A is the area of bolt and Z the modulus of the bolt group given by = in which I is the inertia of the bolt group equal to 2A(302 + 902 + 1502) = 63000A mm4 Load on outermost bolt due to shear.13 kN Therefore bolts are adequate in bearing. Load on the outermost bolt due to moment. from above. V = 303.12)1/2 = 62. Pbb. CI V 42 = 8 = FI .. Bearing Bearing capacity of bolt.16 kN m and vertical shear force. M = 15. Fs. M16 grade 8. Fmb. is given by Pbs = kbsdbtpbs = 1 × 16 × l0 × 460 = 73 × 103 N = 73kN ≤ 0.13 kN. Bearing capacity of cleat. is given by Pbb = dbtpbb = 16 × 10 × 1000 = 160× 103 = 160 kN Since thickness of angle cleat (= 10 mm) < thickness of column flange (= 23.

548 kN BS5950 Calculations CI V 42 finishes .192 kN/m Total dead load = 55.048 kN Load for Movie theater = 1.25m x8.5 kN Total imposed load = 3.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.899 kN/m2) Dead load 8 Figure 11 BEAM B2 Dead Loads: FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR 30 | P a g e E OJ Output CT . ceiling weight and R.(0. 2011 FIRST FLOOR ELEMENTS DESIGN BS5950 Reference Calculations Output DESIGN OF SECOND FLOOR BEAMS (ALL FLOOR BEAMS) The floor beams supports 250 mm R.0m = 48 kN/m Dead load from ceiling and finishes = 7.C slab weight = 24 kN/m3 x0.C slab weight.192 kN/m Imposed load Load from wind = 0.032 kN/m2 x8m x8m = 2.

52 kN. Sx = 2880 cm3 CLASSIFICATION Strength Classification Because the flange thickness T = 14.84 kN 42 8 + = = . FI Figure 12 NA L YE AR Fv = 311. CI 2.192 × 1. is = .548 × 1.8 mm (< 16 mm).9 kN ST EE L M = 629.1 kN DESIGN BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE Total loading = (3. The central bending moment.16 = 629.52 + 74.4)8 = 5.1 kN DEAD LOAD 3.6) + (55. then py = 275 N/mm2 Table 11 1  275N/mm2  2  1 (Table 4.4).9 kN. (as assumed) from Table 11 and ε =  2   275N/mm  Calculations Output BS5950 31 | P a g e .6 ×8 = 623.52 kN.m + = = 11.83 kN Because the structure is symmetrical RA = RB = 623.84 kN V 8000 IMPOSED LOAD 2.83/2 = 311. .CIV 428 Steel Project Reference May 11.36 + 618. 2011 Combined dead weight 55.548 kN 309.m PR Assuming Py = 275 N/mm2 = 2289 cm3 E OJ CT From steel tables (Appendix B). suitable section chosen: 610 x229 x101 UB. M.192 kN/m 8000 309.

Table 11 Therefore 610 × 229 × 101 UB section is class 1 plastic.3 × 106 N.8 kN (ok) (low shear load).4 × (101 × 9. BENDING MOMENT From above CI V Shear capacity of section.CIV 428 Steel Project Reference May 11.3 kN.6*py*t*D = 0. Also d /t = 51.2*py*Z = 1.3 Pv = 1053 kN 4.2.6 which is less than 80ε = 80.6 < 70ε.6Pv = 631.m ≤ 1.6 × 275 × 10. Hence from Table 11. shear buckling need not be considered.mm = 828.62 kN.m PR E OJ CT Table 8 c = = = 0.mm= 792 kN. web is plastic.69 which is less than 9ε = 9. flange is plastic.2= 1053× 103 N = Now.24 From Table 8.2.81/103)* Mt = M + Msw = 629.00024 m = 0. Pv.6 × 602. as Fv (311. 2011 Section classification b/T = 7.2 Mc = py*S = 275*2880*103 = 792× 106 N.24 mm c = 0. the recommended maximum deflection for beams carrying plaster is span/360 which equals 8000/360 = 22.62 kN.m < Mc (792 kN.m) (OK) Deflection checks on steel beams (BS 5950) ∗ ∗ .52 + 11.1 = 640. ∗ ∗ ∗ 8 1053 kN FI NA L YE = 11. Hence from Table 4. SHEAR STRENGTH As d /t = 51.2 × 275 × 2510 × 103 = 828.4.m AR ST EE L Mt = 640. Deflection is OK. BS5950 Calculations Output 32 | P a g e .5. is 42 4. Pv = 0.9 kN) < 0.0 mm.1 kN.6*py*Av = 0.m (OK) Msw = 1.

8kN AR ST Px = 544.8× 103 N = 597.6 kN EE L PR 33 | P a g e E OJ CT . . CI ( ε CONTACT STRESS AT SUPPORTS WEB BUCKLING AT SUPPORT the web is * ) V Pcs = 2268 kN 42 kN (OK) 8 FI .6× 275 = 597.1 Px = Pbw = * ∗ ∗ ∗ .CIV 428 Steel Project Reference May 11. 4.33 Pbw = 597.33 kN (OK) no web stiffeners are required at supports.2.8 + 12.6 kN  312. Px = 544.7 × 547.33 kN (OK) where k = T + r = 14.7d = 0.6 = 383. NA .8 kN > 312. L ( 5.5 mm n = 2 + 0.6be /k = 2 (since be = 0) Pcs = (b1 × 2(r +T)) py = (150 × 55) × 275 = 2268 × 103 N = 2268 kN > 312.1 Pbw = (b1 + nk) t*pyw = (150 + 2 × 27. )∗ .7 = 27.11 mm. Use 610 × 229 × 101 UB Figure 13 BS5950 Calculations Output YE * 597. ∗ .5) 10.5.5. buckling resistance of ∝ . 2011 WEB BEARING AT SUPPORTS Assuming the beam sits on 150 mm bearings at each end.3.8 kN Since αe (= 75 mm) < 0. .

524 kN IMPOSED LOAD NA 8000 8000 L YE AR Combined dead weight 27.25m x4.02 kN L PR E OJ CT BS5950 Reference Calculations Output 34 | P a g e .524 kN CI 2.56 kN V Total dead load = 27.024 kN Load from services = 1.C slab weight = 24 kN/m3 x0.5 kN Total imposed load = 2.56 kN 2.0m = 24 kN/m Dead load from ceiling and finishes = 3.C slab weight.6 kN/m ST EE `154. ceiling weight and finishes.(0.899 kN/m2) Dead load R.6 kN/m Load from wind = 0.032 kN/m2 x8m x4m = 1.6 kN/m 42 Imposed load 8 Figure 14 FI DEAD LOAD 2. 2011 Dead Loads: The roof beams supports 250 mm R.CIV 428 Steel Project Reference BEAM A1 May 11.02 kN 154.

as Fv (151. The central bending moment. flange is plastic. NA L YE 1 AR ST EE L 3 PR E OJ Pv = 636 kN CT BS5950 Reference Calculations Output 35 | P a g e .6= 636 × 10 N = 636 kN Now. 2011 DESIGN BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE Total loading = (2. Hence from Table 11. suitable section chosen: 457 x191 x67 UB. Pv.16/2 = 156.m Fv = 156. shear buckling need not be considered. CI V 42 Section classification 8 FI plastic.6*py*t*D = 0.48 which is less than 9ε = 9. Hence from Table 4. Shear capacity of section. is = .6Pv = 381. then py = 275 N/mm2  275N/mm2  2 (as assumed) from Table 4.7 mm (< 16 mm).04 + 38.6) + (27. SHEAR STRENGTH As d /t = 48 < 70ε.6 × 1. 275N/mm2   Table 11 b/T = 7. Also d /t = 48 which is less than 80ε = 80.2 kN.6*py*Av = 0.64 ×8 = 313.4). Sx = 1470 cm3 CLASSIFICATION Strength Classification Because the flange thickness T = 12. M.m . web is Therefore 457 × 191 × 67 UB section is class 1 plastic.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.2. .4)8 = 4.4.16 kN (ok) (low shear load).08+ 309.16 kN Because the structure is symmetrical RA = RB = 313. M = 317.6 × 275 × 8.12 kN) < 0. is 4.58 kN + = + = = 8.524 × 1.5 × 453.2 kN.12 = 317.58 kN.3 and ε =    1 (Table 4. Assuming Py = 275 N/mm2 = = 1153 cm3 From steel tables (Appendix B).3 Pv = 0.

8) × 275 = 1889 × 103 N = 1889 kN > 151.4 mm c = 0.mm = 427. 2011 BENDING MOMENT From above 4.36 = 324.m Mt = 324.7 kN.2.2*py*Z = 1.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.5.0004 m = 0.m < Mc (404 kN.9 mm n = 2 + 0.7 × 106 N.m ≤ 1.7 + 10.32 mm.2. Deflection is OK.0 mm.5 × 275 = 457× 103 N = 457 kN > 151.52 kN (OK) WEB BUCKLING AT SUPPORT Since αe (= 75 mm) < 0. the recommended maximum deflection for beams carrying plaster is span/360 which equals 8000/360 = 22.1 ∗ ∗ ∗ = 0. buckling resistance of the web is 42 8 FI NA L YE Pbw = 457 kN AR ST EE L PR E OJ Pcs = 1889 kN CT BS5950 Reference Calculations Output 36 | P a g e .5.52 kN (OK) where k = T + r = 12.56 kN.4 × (67 × 9.36 kN.7 × 407. WEB BEARING AT SUPPORTS Assuming the beam sits on 150 mm bearings at each end.56 kN.2 Mc = py*S = 275*1470*103 = 404× 106 N.7d = 0.m (OK) Msw = 1.9) 8.2 = 22.2 + 7. From Table 8.2 × 275 × 1296 × 103 = 427.6 = 285.mm= 404 kN.m) (OK) Deflection checks on steel beams (BS 5950) CI = V c = ∗ ∗ Table 8 . 4.6be /k = 2 (since be = 0) CONTACT STRESS AT SUPPORTS Pcs = (b1 × 2(r +T)) py = (150 × 45.81/103)* = 7.m Mt = M + Msw = 317.4 mm Pbw = (b1 + nk) t*pyw = (150 + 2 × 22.

CIV 428 Steel Project ∝ . )∗ .52 kN (OK) no web stiffeners are required at supports CI V 42 Use 457 x191 x67 UB Figure 15 8 FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR E OJ CT BS5950 Reference Calculations Output 37 | P a g e .1 * Pbw = * * 457kN Px = 216. . ∗ . May 11. ( ε ) .48 kN  151. 2011 Px = 5. . ( ∗ ∗ . ∗ .3.48 kN Px = 216.5.

and B1 and B2.54 kN = 2452. L YE AR Figure 16 Total Design Load ST EE L PR E OJ Fc = 1247.45kN/m.8 kN CT BS5950 Reference Calculations Output 38 | P a g e . The self-weight of the column. Dead Load Axial (kN) 2 No. 2A/2B = 618.34 kN. is taken as 0.4) + (13.8 kN +12045.69 13.38) = 8 FI NA Imposed Load (kN) 5.6 CI V 42 Design Load = = (1236. It takes the reactions off of beams 2A and 2B.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11. B1/B2 = 618.2 2 No.2 Total = 1. 2011 DESIGN OF COLUMNS Design of Column B2: Second Floor to First Floor Design Load = 1247.4 = 1236.4 kN + 1.69 5. Column B2 is a purely axially loaded column.38 kN .

CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.4 The section is satisfactory. = = 137 = 65. From Table 24. Slenderness = 65.7 *Member effectively held in position and restrained in direction at both ends. t  16mm. 42 = Compressive Resistance … … … … 2616.34 8 FI NA = 2616. = 1. Use 254 x 254 UC 107 AR ST EE L PR E OJ CT Figure 17 BS5950 Reference Calculations Output 39 | P a g e .7.7 kN L YE 4. 2011 Try 254 x 254 UC 107 Try 254 x 254 UC 107.7 kN Pc = 2616.75 CI From Table 27(c). p y  275N / mm 2 .2 = 4. = 191 V = > UC section is not slender.7 > 2452.32m = .

4 = 927.3) + 8. 1A/2B = 618.84 8. Dead Load Axial (kN) 2 No. It takes the reactions off of beams 1A and 2B. 2011 DESIGN OF COLUMNS Design of Column B1: Second Floor to First Floor Design Load = 935. Column B2 is a purely axially loaded column. B2. Fc = 935.39 kN = 1839.82 kN + 903.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.52 = Calculations FI NA Imposed Load (kN) 5.1 Total = 1. B1 = 309. is taken as 0.52 kN .6 CI V 42 8 Design Load = = (927.68 2.2 1 No.3 kN + 1.82 kN L YE AR Total Design Load ST Figure 18 EE L PR E OJ CT BS5950 Output 40 | P a g e . The self-weight of the column.45kN/m.21 kN.

Slenderness = 38.CIV 428 Steel Project Reference May 11. From Table 24. = 137 .4 = 3329. p y  275N / mm 2 = 0. t  16mm.36 From Table 27(c). 2011 Try 254 x 254 UC 107 Try 254 x 254 UC 107. = 65.1 kN L > … … … … 3329.7 = 2. Use 254 x 254 UC 1 254 x 254 UC 107 Figure 19 BS5950 Reference Calculations Output YE AR ST EE L PR 41 | P a g e E OJ CT .1 > 1839.7 *Member effectively held in position and restrained in direction at both ends.52 m = .1 kN Pc = 3329.21 The section is satisfactory. = 243 = CI V = UC section is not slender. 42 Compressive Resistance 8 = FI NA 4.7.

9 kN placed at an eccentricity of 100mm.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.8 bolts and the approximate method. 2011 DESIGN OF BRACKET CONNECTION FOR BEAM 2A The bolted connection shown carries the vertical ultimate load from beam 2A 0f 311. the design is set out below. Using 10 No 16-mm diameter grade 8. CI V 42 8 FI NA L YE AR ST Figure 20 EE L PR E OJ CT BS5950 Reference Calculations Output 42 | P a g e .

Ft. N = 10 Shear force/bolt.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.4 117.89 + = 0.3 Hence the M16.9 kN Number of bolts.19 kN Shear capacity of bolt.81 Pnom = 0. the bolts should be checked for shear. grade 8. is COMBINED SHEAR AND TENSION Combined check: + ≤ 1.3. 42 2Σ (40 + 100 + 200 + 300 + 400 ) Ft = 45.89 kN = 1 8 FI NA L YE Ft = 45.8 × 560 × 157 = 70.8 × 103N = 117.8 kN > Fs OK CI 250 V Maximum bolt tension.8 bolts are satisfactory. Fs = P/N = 311.89 kN AR ST EE L PR E OJ CT BS5950 Reference Calculations Output 43 | P a g e .9/10 = 31.3 kN ˃ Ft Okay Tension capacity.3 × 103 N = 70.8 70. SHEAR Design shear force. Pnom. is TENSILE CAPACITY Psd = 2Ps = ps As = 2 x 375 x 157 = 117. P = 311.4 31.8 400 2Σ 6. 2011 APPROXIMATE METHOD Since the bolts are subject to combined shear and tension. tension and combined shear and tension separately. is Ft= 276.2 = 0.92 ≤ 1.4.19 45. Ps.

M16 grade 8. Shear capacity of single bolt.8 in 2 mm clearance holes. Assume the steel is grade S275 and the bolts are M16 grade 8.4Dh = 1.) Hence all fastener spacing and edge/end distances to fasteners are satisfactory. e1 = 40 mm 42 8 FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR 44 | P a g e E OJ CT .8 bolts. of 301.2 < 60 and 50 OK e1 and e2 ≤ 11tpε = 11 × 10 × 1 = 110 < 40. CHECK FASTENER SPACING AND EDGE/END DISTANCES Diameter of bolt. ε = 1.22) and ps = 375 N/mm2 (Table 4. Dh = 18mm The following conditions need to be met: Pitch ≥ 2. V. 2011 BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION USING WEB CLEATS Design of double angle web cleat beam-to-column connection detail shown below is suitable to resist the design shear force. Ps.19).4Dh = 1. is Ps = psAs = 375 × 157 = 59 × 103 = 59 kN Shear capacity of bolt group is 6Ps = 6 × 59 = 354 kN > V = 303.5 × 16 = 32 < 140 and 60 OK Pitch ≤ 14tp = 14 × 10 = 140 ≤ 140 and 60 OK Edge distance e1 ≥ 1. SUPPORTING COLUMN Shear 6 No.5db = 2. db = 16 mm Diameter of bolt hole.2 < 40 OK End distance e2 ≥ 1. 50 and 60 OK (For grade S275 steel with tp = 10 mm.13 kN..4 × 18 = 25. tp = 10 mm V Edge distance. Hence As = 157 mm2 (Table 4. p = 140 mm and 60 mm End distance. e2 = 60 mm and 50 mm Thickness of angle cleat.13 kN BS5950 Reference Calculations Output CHECK STRENGTH OF BOLTS CONNECTING CLEATS TO CI Pitch of bolt.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.4 × 18= 25. py = 275 N/mm2.

CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.8 mm). shear capacity of each bolt is 2Ps = 2 × 59 = 118 kN Loads applied to the bolt group are vertical shear. of bolts = 303. Pbs. is given by Pbb = dbtpbb = 16 × 10 × 1000 = 160× 103 = 160 kN Since thickness of angle cleat (= 10 mm) < thickness of column flange (= 23. is Fs = (F 2 vb + F 2mb)1/2 = (50. M16 grade 8.. V = 303.13 kN.13 kN and moment.5kbsetpbs = 0. M = 303. Bearing Bearing capacity of bolt. bearing capacity of cleat is critical.1 kN) < 2Ps (= 118 kN) the bolts are adequate in shear.13 kN Therefore bolts are adequate in bearing.1 kN YE AR ST EE L PR 45 | P a g e E OJ CT . M = 15.522 + 36. Pbb.13 × 50 × 10−3 = 15. Bearing capacity of cleat.5 × 1 × 60 × 10 × 460 = 138 × 103 N = 138 kN Bearing capacity of connection is 6 × 73 = 438 kN > V = 303. Outermost bolt (Al) subject to greatest shear force which is equal to the resultant of the load due to the moment.1 kN Since Fs (= 62. is given by where A is the area of bolt and Z the modulus of the bolt group given by = in which I is the inertia of the bolt group equal to 2A(302 + 902 + 1502) = 63000A mm4 Load on outermost bolt due to shear. from above.8 bolts. Fs. Fmb. CI V 42 = 8 = FI . is given by Fvb = V/ No. NA L = 36. is given by Pbs = kbsdbtpbs = 1 × 16 × l0 × 460 = 73 × 103 N = 73kN ≤ 0. Fvb.13/6 = 50.16 kN m.52 kN Resultant shear force of bolt.16 kN m and vertical shear force. V = 303. As = 157 mm2 and ps = 375 N/mm2 Since bolts are in double shear.12)1/2 = 62. 2011 Hence bolts are adequate in shear. Load on the outermost bolt due to moment. CHECK STRENGTH OF BOLT GROUP CONNECTING CLEATS TO WEB OF SUPPORTED BEAM Shear 6 No.

192 kN/m Imposed load Load from wind = 0.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.648 kN BS5950 Calculations CI V 42 finishes .25m x8. 2011 GROUND FLOOR ELEMENTS DESIGN BS5950 Reference Calculations Output DESIGN OF FIRST FLOOR BEAMS (ALL FLOOR BEAMS) The floor beams supports 250 mm R.032 kN/m2 x8m x8m = 2.899 kN/m2) Dead load 8 Figure 21 BEAM B2 Dead Loads: FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR 46 | P a g e E OJ Output CT .192 kN/m Total dead load = 55.6 kN Total imposed load = 5.C slab weight = 24 kN/m3 x0.(0. ceiling weight and R.C slab weight.048 kN Load for Game Arcade = 3.0m = 48 kN/m Dead load from ceiling and finishes = 7.

Sx = 2880 cm3 CLASSIFICATION Strength Classification Because the flange thickness T = 14.1 kN DESIGN BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE Total loading = (5.84 kN 42 8 + = = .19/2 = 313.6) + (55. suitable section chosen: 610 x229 x101 UB. (as assumed) from Table 11 and ε =  2   275N/mm  Calculations Output 1 BS5950 47 | P a g e .4)8 = 9. M.24 kN. The central bending moment.192 × 1.m + = = 18.16 = 636.192 kN/m 8000 309.04 + 77.4).m L Assuming Py = 275 N/mm2 = 2314 cm3 PR E OJ CT From steel tables (Appendix B).24 kN. Figure 21 FI NA L YE Fv = 313. 2011 Combined dead weight 55.648 × 1. CI 2.CIV 428 Steel Project Reference May 11.8 mm (< 16 mm).84 kN V 8000 IMPOSED LOAD 2.548 kN 309.27×8 = 627. .59 kN AR ST EE M = 636.08 + 618.59 kN.19kN Because the structure is symmetrical RA = RB = 627.1 kN DEAD LOAD 3. then py = 275 N/mm2 Table 11  275N/mm2  2  1 (Table 4. is = .

34 kN.m < Mc (792 kN. 2011 Section classification b/T = 7. Therefore 610 × 229 × 101 UB section is class 1 plastic. Pv. flange is plastic.24 + 11.2.m ≤ 1.m (OK) Msw = 1.2 × 275 × 2510 × 103 = 828.4.2 Mc = py*S = 275*2880*103 = 792× 106 N. BENDING MOMENT From above 42 Pv = 1053 kN 8 1053 kN FI NA L 4.6 which is less than 80ε = 80.3 × 106 N.3 Pv = 0.6Pv = 631.1 = 647. Also d /t = 51.6*py*t*D = 0. Hence from Table 4.m) (OK) Deflection checks on steel beams (BS 5950) ∗ ∗ . the recommended maximum deflection for beams carrying plaster is span/360 which equals 8000/360 = 22. Hence from Table 4.4 × (101 × 9.6 × 602.8 kN (ok) (low shear load).69 which is less than 9ε = 9.81/103)* Mt = M + Msw = 636. CI V Shear capacity of section.2*py*Z = 1.5. Deflection is OK.2= 1053× 103 N = Now.59 kN) < 0.m AR ST EE L Mt = 647.34 kN.0 mm. as Fv (313.4 mm CT c = = = 0.6 < 70ε. BS5950 Calculations Output 48 | P a g e . SHEAR STRENGTH As d /t = 51.CIV 428 Steel Project Reference May 11.6*py*Av = 0.m PR E OJ c = 0.mm = 828. web is plastic.4.1 kN.3 kN. shear buckling need not be considered.6 × 275 × 10.0004 m = 0.4 mm Table 8 From Table 8.mm= 792 kN.2. ∗ ∗ ∗ YE = 11. is 4.

buckling resistance of ∝ .7 × 547.8 kN > 312. ∗ .5.33 Pbw = 597. )∗ .7d = 0.5) 10.33 kN (OK) no web stiffeners are required at supports.3.CIV 428 Steel Project Reference May 11.5.5 mm n = 2 + 0.8kN AR ST Px = 544.11 mm.6 = 383. Use 610 × 229 × 101 UB BS5950 YE * 597. .6be /k = 2 (since be = 0) Pcs = (b1 × 2(r +T)) py = (150 × 55) × 275 = 2268 × 103 N = 2268 kN > 312.6 kN  312. CI ( ε CONTACT STRESS AT SUPPORTS WEB BUCKLING AT SUPPORT the web is * ) V Pcs = 2268 kN 42 kN (OK) 8 FI .2.7 = 27. 2011 WEB BEARING AT SUPPORTS Assuming the beam sits on 150 mm bearings at each end.1 Px = Pbw = * ∗ ∗ ∗ .8 + 12.6× 275 = 597. Px = 544.1 Pbw = (b1 + nk) t*pyw = (150 + 2 × 27.8× 103 N = 597.33 kN (OK) where k = T + r = 14. L ( 5. 4. .6 kN EE L PR E OJ CT Figure 22 Calculations Output 49 | P a g e . NA .8 kN Since αe (= 75 mm) < 0.

ceiling weight and finishes.6 kN/m 42 Imposed load 8 FI IMPOSED LOAD Figure 23 NA 8000 DEAD LOAD 2.64 ×8 = 316.899 kN/m2) Dead load R.6 kN/m Load from wind = 0.6 kN/m EE `154.(0.26 kN CI 2.024 kN Load from Game Arcade = 3.CIV 428 Steel Project Reference BEAM A1 May 11.6) + (27.52/2 = 158.25m x4.0m = 24 kN/m Dead load from ceiling and finishes = 3.C slab weight = 24 kN/m3 x0.524 kN 8000 2.02 kN 154.56 kN L PR 50 | P a g e E OJ CT . 2011 Dead Loads: The roof beams supports 250 mm R.56 kN V Total dead load = 27.4 + 38.032 kN/m2 x8m x4m = 1.6 kN Total imposed load = 4. Fv = 158.4)8 = 7.C slab weight.6 × 1.624 × 1.02 kN L YE AR ST Combined dead weight 27.52 kN Because the structure is symmetrical RA = RB = 316.624 kN DESIGN BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE Total loading = (4.26 kN.

as Fv (151.m = 1178 cm3 From steel tables (Appendix B).48 which is less than 9ε = 9.7 × 106 N. Pv.7 kN. = 14. (as assumed) from Table 11 and ε =  2   275N/mm  Section classification b/T = 7. Shear capacity of section. BENDING MOMENT From above CI V CLASSIFICATION 42 Strength Classification 8 FI 1 plastic. is 4.6= 636 × 10 N = 636 kN Now. M. suitable section chosen: 457 x191 x67 UB.12 kN) < 0. flange is plastic.6Pv = 381.2.12 = 323.4).2 × 275 × 1296 × 103 = 427.2.6 × 275 × 8.2 Mc = py*S = 275*1470*103 = 404× 106 N. NA L YE AR ST EE L PR E OJ Pv = 636 kN CT 4. .6*py*Av = 0. Hence from Table 4.5 × 453.3 3 Pv = 0. Also d /t = 48 which is less than 80ε = 80. + = Assuming Py = 275 N/mm2 = .4.m(OK) BS5950 Calculations Output 51 | P a g e .m M = 323.8 + 309.CIV 428 Steel Project BS5950 Reference May 11. shear buckling need not be considered.5.6*py*t*D = 0. Sx = 1470 cm3 Because the flange thickness T = 12. Hence from Table 4. 2011 Calculations Output = The central bending moment.mm= 404 kN.2*py*Z = 1. web is Therefore 457 × 191 × 67 UB section is class 1 plastic.4.92 kN.7 mm (< 16 mm).m ≤ 1. SHEAR STRENGTH As d /t = 48 < 70ε.mm = 427. then py = 275 N/mm2 Table 11  275N/mm2  2  1 (Table 4. is + = .16 kN (ok) (low shear load).92 kN.

0 mm. ∗ . WEB BEARING AT SUPPORTS k = T + r = 12. ε ) 42 8 the web is * Pbw = .2 = 22.6 = 285.3.5.0004 m = 0.5 × 275 = 457× 103 N = 457 kN > 151.1 CI ( Deflection is OK.56 kN.52 kN (OK) where Pcs = (b1 × 2(r +T)) py = (150 × 45.2.2 + 7. buckling resistance of 5.36 kN.56 kN.CIV 428 Steel Project Reference May 11.48 kN Px = 216.48 kN  151. Pcs = 1889 kN Px = * ∗ ∗ .4 mm = 0.52 kN (OK) WEB BUCKLING AT SUPPORT Since αe (= 75 mm) < 0. 2011 Msw = 1.7 + 10. .52 kN (OK) no web stiffeners are required at supports.6be /k = 2 (since be = 0) CONTACT STRESS AT SUPPORTS 3 V ∝ . 4.8) × 275 = 1889 × 10 N = 1889 kN > 151.32 mm. ∗ ∗ ∗ c = 0.9 mm n = 2 + 0.9) 8.1 Pbw = (b1 + nk) t*pyw = (150 + 2 × 22.4 × (67 × 9. BS5950 Reference Calculations Output 52 | P a g e .7 × 407.m) (OK) Deflection checks on steel beams (BS 5950) c = = ∗ ∗ .5. . )∗ * 457kN Px = 216.m < Mc (404 kN.5.81/103)* = 7. ∗ .4 mm From Table 4.m Mt = M + Msw = 317.m Mt = 324. the recommended maximum deflection for beams carrying plaster is span/360 which equals 8000/360 = 22.7d = 0.36 = 324. FI Pbw = 457 kN NA L ( YE AR ST EE L PR E OJ CT . Assuming the beam sits on 150 mm bearings at each end.

2011 CI V 42 Use 457 x191 x67 UB Figure 24 8 FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR E OJ CT BS5950 Reference Calculations Output DESIGN OF COLUMNS 53 | P a g e .CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.

4) + (18.8 kN +12045. 2A/2B = 618. ≤ 40 Output 54 | P a g e . It takes the reactions off of beams 2A and 2B.08) = Calculations 8 FI NA Imposed Load (kN) Figure 25 L YE AR Total Design Load ST EE L PR E OJ CT . and B1 and B2.4 + 1.04 9. is taken as 0.4 kN = 1.54 kN = 3706.45kN/m. 2011 Design of Column B2: Second Floor to First Floor Design Load = 1254. Column B2 is a purely axially loaded column. Fc = 1254. B1/B2 = 618.2 Total = 1236.82 kN.6 CI V 42 9.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.04 18.48 kN BS5950 Reference Try 254 x 254 UC 167 Try 254 x 254 UC 167.08 kN Design Load = = (1236.2 2 No. The self-weight of the column. Dead Load Axial (kN) 2 No.48 + 1247.

*Member effectively held in position and restrained in direction at both ends. = = 212 = . Use 254 x 254 UC 167 > … … … … 4028 > 3706. Slenderness = .32m = 67.9 = 63. 2011 From Table 24. = 1.82 = 8 = 4028 kN Pc = 4028 kN FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR E OJ CT Figure 26 BS5950 Reference Calculations Output DESIGN OF COLUMNS 55 | P a g e . 42 Compressive Resistance 4.4 The section is satisfactory.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11. = 190 CI V = UC section is not slender.2 = 4.62 From Table 27(c).7.

Column B2 is a purely axially loaded column.56 = Calculations 8 FI NA Imposed Load (kN) L YE AR Figure 27 Total Design Load ST EE L PR E OJ Fc = 940. Output 56 | P a g e . 2011 Design of Column B1: First Floor to Second Floor Design Load = 940.1 Total = 927. B1 = 309.52 13.3 kN = 1.56 kN Design Load = = (927.4 CI + 1.39 kN = 2780.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.82 kN + 903. B2. 1A/2B = 618. It takes the reactions off of beams 1A and 2B.1 kN. Dead Load Axial (kN) 2 No.2 1 No.86 + 935.04 4. The self-weight of the column.6 V 42 9.3) + 13.86 kN CT BS5950 Reference . is taken as 0.45kN/m.

= = 0. 2011 Try 254 x 254 UC 167 Try 254 x 254 UC 167.8 > 2780.4 42 > = Compressive Resistance = 4960.11 CI V = From Table 27(c). ≤ 40 = 212 = . From Table 24.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.7 = 2.8 kN Pc = 4960.7.9 *Member effectively held in position and restrained in direction at both ends.8 kN … … … … 4960. = 234 UC section is not slender.52m = . Slenderness = 37. = 67.1 The section is satisfactory. 4. Use 254 x 254 UC 167 8 FI NA L YE AR ST Figure 28 EE L PR E OJ CT BS5950 Calculations Output 57 | P a g e .

the design is set out below.CIV 428 Steel Project Reference May 11.8 bolts and the approximate method. Using 10 No 16-mm diameter grade 8. CI V 42 8 FI NA Figure 29 L YE AR ST EE L PR E OJ CT BS5950 Reference Calculations Output 58 | P a g e .59 kN placed at an eccentricity of 100mm. 2011 DESIGN OF BRACKET CONNECTION FOR BEAM 2A The bolted connection shown carries the vertical ultimate load from beam 2A 0f 313.

2011 APPROXIMATE METHOD Since the bolts are subject to combined shear and tension.3 Hence the M16. the bolts should be checked for shear. tension and combined shear and tension separately. SHEAR Design shear force.36 kN Psd = 2Ps = ps As = 2 x 375 x 157 = 117. Ft. 42 2Σ (40 + 100 + 200 + 300 + 400 ) Ft = 45.3 × 10 N = 70.4 117.89 + = 0.89 kN YE AR Pnorm = 70.8 70.59/10 = 31.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.2 = 0.59 kN Number of bolts.3.8 kN > Fs OK CI 250 V TENSILE CAPACITY Maximum bolt tension.81 Pnom = 0. is Psd = 117. N = 10 Shear force/bolt.8 × 103N = 117. Fs = P/N = 313. Ps.89 kN = 1 8 FI NA L Ft = 45.8 bolts are satisfactory. grade 8. Pnom.36 45.3 kN ˃ Ft Okay Tension capacity.3 kN ST EE L PR E OJ CT BS5950 Reference Calculations Output 59 | P a g e .4.8 × 560 × 157 = 70. P = 313.8 400 2Σ 6. is 3 COMBINED SHEAR AND TENSION Combined check: + ≤ 1.8 kN Fs = 31.4 31.92 ≤ 1.36 kN Shear capacity of bolt. is Ft= 276.

Assume the steel is grade S275 and the bolts are M16 grade 8. e1 = 40 mm 42 8 FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR 60 | P a g e E OJ CT . 50 and 60 OK (For grade S275 steel with tp = 10 mm. p = 140 mm and 60 mm End distance. Ps. py = 275 N/mm2. is Ps = psAs = 375 × 157 = 59 × 103 = 59 kN Shear capacity of bolt group is 6Ps = 6 × 59 = 354 kN > V = 303.22) and ps = 375 N/mm2 (Table 4.5 × 16 = 32 < 140 and 60 OK Pitch ≤ 14tp = 14 × 10 = 140 ≤ 140 and 60 OK Edge distance e1 ≥ 1. V.13 kN.4Dh = 1.4Dh = 1.8 in 2 mm clearance holes.. M16 grade 8. Hence As = 157 mm2 (Table 4. db = 16 mm Diameter of bolt hole.8 bolts.2 < 40 OK End distance e2 ≥ 1. tp = 10 mm V Edge distance.4 × 18= 25. Shear capacity of single bolt. of 301.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.4 × 18 = 25. ε = 1. SUPPORTING COLUMN Shear 6 No. Dh = 18mm The following conditions need to be met: Pitch ≥ 2.5db = 2.13 kN BS5950 Reference Calculations Output CHECK STRENGTH OF BOLTS CONNECTING CLEATS TO CI Pitch of bolt. e2 = 60 mm and 50 mm Thickness of angle cleat.) Hence all fastener spacing and edge/end distances to fasteners are satisfactory. CHECK FASTENER SPACING AND EDGE/END DISTANCES Diameter of bolt. 2011 BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION USING WEB CLEATS Design of double angle web cleat beam-to-column connection detail shown below is suitable to resist the design shear force.2 < 60 and 50 OK e1 and e2 ≤ 11tpε = 11 × 10 × 1 = 110 < 40.19).

is given by Pbs = kbsdbtpbs = 1 × 16 × l0 × 460 = 73 × 103 N = 73kN ≤ 0.5kbsetpbs = 0.1 kN) < 2Ps (= 118 kN) the bolts are adequate in shear.16 kN m and vertical shear force. Bearing capacity of cleat.13 kN and moment.1 kN YE AR ST EE L PR 61 | P a g e E OJ CT . is given by Pbb = dbtpbb = 16 × 10 × 1000 = 160× 103 = 160 kN Since thickness of angle cleat (= 10 mm) < thickness of column flange (= 23. Load on the outermost bolt due to moment.1 kN Since Fs (= 62.13 kN Therefore bolts are adequate in bearing. from above. Fmb. is given by Fvb = V/ No.13 kN. is Fs = (F 2 vb + F 2mb)1/2 = (50. BS5950 Reference Calculations Output CI V 42 = 8 = FI . CHECK STRENGTH OF BOLT GROUP CONNECTING CLEATS TO WEB OF SUPPORTED BEAM Shear 6 No.8 bolts. M = 15. M = 303. Pbs. V = 303. Outermost bolt (Al) subject to greatest shear force which is equal to the resultant of the load due to the moment. Fvb. 2011 Hence bolts are adequate in shear. Bearing Bearing capacity of bolt.12)1/2 = 62. is given by where A is the area of bolt and Z the modulus of the bolt group given by = in which I is the inertia of the bolt group equal to 2A(302 + 902 + 1502) = 63000A mm4 Load on outermost bolt due to shear. shear capacity of each bolt is 2Ps = 2 × 59 = 118 kN Loads applied to the bolt group are vertical shear.52 kN Resultant shear force of bolt.16 kN m. Pbb. Fs. V = 303.522 + 36.8 mm). NA L = 36.5 × 1 × 60 × 10 × 460 = 138 × 103 N = 138 kN Bearing capacity of connection is 6 × 73 = 438 kN > V = 303.13/6 = 50.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.. As = 157 mm2 and ps = 375 N/mm2 Since bolts are in double shear. of bolts = 303. M16 grade 8. bearing capacity of cleat is critical.13 × 50 × 10−3 = 15.

1 − 2[31. = 152 [3 x(0. BASEPLATE THICKNESS Assuming a base plate thickness of less than 80 mm the design strength pyp = 245 N/mm2.5 x 105 = (264. The arrangement of the column base is as shown below: BS5950 Reference V ≥ AREA OF BASEPLATE = . .5 x 105 mm2 FI NA L YE AR ST C = 152 mm EE L PR 62 | P a g e E OJ Output CT .6 x 25) /245]0.6 Design Load = 3706.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.82 kN (Dead + Imposed) Bearing Strength of concrete = 0. The actual base plate thickness.82 kN Effective area: 2. = ( + 2 )( + 2 ) − 2{( − 2[ + ])([ + 2 ] − [ + 2 ]} ACTUAL AREA CI tp = [ ]1 Hence. a 600 mm x 600 mm x 70 mm thick base plate in grade S275 steel should be suitable.5 + 2 )(289.7 + ])([264.5 x 105 mm2 Abe = 2.1 + 2 x 152 = 593.5 + : 2 ] − [19. is .1 mm Minimum width of base plate = B + 2c = 264.5 mm Provide 600 x 600 mm base plate in grade S275 steel.5 = 65. tp.1 + 2 ) − 2{(289.3 mm 42 8 Calculations = 2.5 + 2 x 152 = 568.3706.2 + 2 ]} c = 152 mm Minimum length of baseplate = D + 2c = 289. 2011 DESIGN OF BASE PLATE FOR COLUMN B2 Compression strength of concrete 25 N/mm2 Design of Column Base for Column B2 Column B2: 254 x 254 UC 167 Axial load at base.

CIV 428 Steel Project May 11. 2011 Figure 30 CI V 42 8 FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR 63 | P a g e E OJ CT .

As a result. The strength of the structural element must always exceed the effects of the loads by a margin which is known as the factor of safety. deflection. In many cases. Clearly the provision of excess strength in a structural element without reason will not be seen as economic. it means that the design of structural steelwork is assessed based on the criteria of safety. economic design does not result from finding the smallest structural size and weight without considering the difficulties lead to substantial overall savings. shear and lateral torsional buckling. As a result of the dead and imposed loads of the members. analyses using the size of the various members were possible and were found to be adequate. Safety is assessed by considering the strength of the structure relative to the loads which it is expected to carry. strength. Whilst in practice economy of the design is of great importance to the owner of the finished structure.S. in structural steelwork only part of the cost is contained in the rolled steel sections. It is here that students should try to achieve elegant. bending. The appearance of the finished structure is generally of great importance due to the very size and impact of frames in structural steel. the design was done in accordance with B.g. can be built with economy and can maintain an acceptable appearance for its specified lifetime. since all the necessary checks were satisfied: bending. 2011 DISCUSSIONS The design of a structure may be judged by whether it fulfills the required function safely. The achievement of an element design is desirable not only in complete structures but in small design details. students were not required to make an economic assessment. Firstly. vibration. 64 | P a g e of fabrication. neat and balanced solutions to problems. Consequently. without excessively exceeding. e. compressions. as many of the design criteria as possible. In this project. etc. but these individual element checks are not sufficient without considering the overall safety of the framework. deflection. economy and appearance. Secondly. these may be found to be the most economically sound solutions. and a large part of the cost results from fabrication and erection processes. 5950. the finished design should match. In many cases repetition of a member size and standardization of components can CI V 42 8 FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR E OJ CT .CIV 428 Steel Project May 11. two basic matters should be taken into account. However. In general sense assessment of the structure includes all the criteria by which its performance should be judged. In practice this assessment is applied to each structural element in turn.

Additionally. CI V 42 8 FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR 65 | P a g e E OJ CT . The results obtained enabled the establishment of the design of the various members of the proposed structure being designed using the BS 5950 part 1-2000. Loads are sustained by the element. In this simple concept for design. and its reactions transferred to other elements via the connections. BS 6399 Part 2. etc. it can be stated that a simple basis for design of steel structures is to consider a structural framework composed of a number of elements connected together. it was found that the building members that were designed using the relevant codes were adequate in passing the required tests as outlined in BS 5950 and the elements of design for steel members. it is essential that overall action of the framework is considered. Further.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11. 2011 CONCLUSIONS Based on the objective of this project it can be stated that first order assessment on the variability of the loading conditions for various steel components are possible.

Australia. (2004). 2. Part 3: Code of practice for imposed roof loads. Structural use of timber. Example of Steel Member Design (2004). 1997. Wildwood Avenue. Retrieved April. United Kingdom: Longman Scientific & Technical Inc.  [2] BS 5268.CIV 428 Steel Project May 11. Plum D. (2002). (2005). Retrieved April . R. J.html]  [5] No Author. 1988. CI V 42 8 FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR 66 | P a g e E OJ CT .edu/dfrankl/CURR/pdf]  [6] BS 5950–1: 2000: Structural use of steelwork in buildings.nz/how-wood/seismic-design/]  [3] Draycott.calstatela.The University of Newcastle 2006][http://www. Guide to Timber Design. 2011] from [Structural use of Timber][http:// www. 1996. Retrieved [April.co. Part 1: Code of practice for dead and imposed loads.  [4] No Author.The University of Newcastle. T (1999) Structural Elements Design Manual . from page 2-4] at [http//:www.nzwood. Part 2: Code of practice for wind loads.. 2011 REFERENCES  [1] Morris L.University Services . (1988) Structural Steelwork Design To BS 5950. 2011] from [Library . 2011.instructional1. 2. Part 1: Code of practice for design – rolled and welded sections  [7] BS 6399: Design loading for buildings.Linacre House..

2011 APPENDICES CI V 42 8 FI NA L YE AR ST EE L PR 67 | P a g e E OJ CT .CIV 428 Steel Project May 11.

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