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# Solved Problems

Dear students, Second exam include Postulates Operators (some simple commutator algebra and application of ladder operators

and .

Quantum numbers and degeneracy Various one dimensional potentials (Harmonic oscillator problem, and the following potentials) Various one dimensional potentials Step Potential (Dashed lines are reflected wave and full lines are transmitted wave) 1.

St e p P o t e n t ia l

V

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.5 x

1.0

1.5

2.0

Consider a particle of mass m and energy

interacting with the simple square barrier:

Where

Continuity of the wave function at Solution of the equations for and :

give:

Reflection and transmission coefficients can be calculated as follows: is the probability current density.

Then

Reflection and transmission coefficients

Where subscripts

and stand for transmission, reflection and incident respectively.

Since the current is a conserved quantity then

We check that

For the step potential given in the figure, for the potentials 1, 5 and 9, Hartree, graph of the transmission and reflection coefficients are plotted. Analyze the graphs.(Maximum reflection points, maximum transmission points, critical points etc) (Dashed lines are reflected wave and full lines are transmitted wave)

V , 1, L , 1.0 1.0 V , 5, L ,

0.8

0.8

0.6

T, R T, R

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 Energy 1.5 2.0

0.0 0 2 4 Energy 6 8 10

V , 9, L ,

,

,

1.0

0.8

0.6

T, R

0.4

0.2

0.0 0 5 10 Energy 15

2. Potential Barrier(Dashed Lines are transmitted) Consider a particle of mass m and energy E>0 interacting with the simple potential barrier. Write down equations and analyze the given results.

P o t e n t ia l B a rrie r

V

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.5 x

1.0

1.5

2.0

Wave function of the particle is given by

Using continuity equations at x=0 and x=L

In order to obtain transmission and reflection coefficients you must eliminate C and D and you must calculate B and F. This calculation carried out by hand. From first equation we calculate C and D interms of B then substitute them into second equation. Please do this calculation. Your result will be:

Reflection and transmission coefficients

The barrier potential shown in the figure. For the potentials 1, 5 and 9 Hartree, and barrier width L=1 and 6 bohr graph of the transmission and reflection coefficients are plotted. Analyze the graphs.(Maximum reflection points, maximum transmission points, critical points, why are they oscillationg… etc)

V , 1, L , 1

V , 5, L , 1

1.0

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.6

T, R T, R

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0 0 1 2 Energy 3 4

0.0 0 5 10 Energy 15 20

V , 9, L , 1 1.0 1.0

V , 1, L , 6

0.8

0.8

0.6

T, R T, R

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0 0 5 10 15 20 Energy 25 30 35

0.0 0 1 2 V , 9, L , 6 1.0 Energy 3 4

,,

1.0

V , 5, L , 6

,

,

0.8

0.8

T, R

T, R

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0 0 5 10 Energy 15 20

0.0 0 5 10 15 20 Energy 25 30 35

,

Consider a narrow barrier of width 0.1,0.6 and 1.1 Bohr. For 1, 5 and 9 hartree potentials, graph of the transmission and reflection coefficients are plotted. Analyze the graphs. Maximum reflection points, maximum transmission points, critical points, why are they oscillationg… etc)

V , 1, L , 0.1

P o t e n t ia l B a rrie r

1.0

0.8

0.6

T, R

V

0.4

0.2

0.0

2 1

0

1

2

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

V , 5, L , 0.1 1.0

x

V , 9, L , 0.1 1.0

Energy

,

0.8

0.8

T, R

T, R

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0 0 2 4 Energy 6 8 10

0.0 0 5 10 Energy 15

,

,

V , 1, L , 0.6 1.0 1.0

V , 5, L , 0.6

0.8

0.8

0.6

T, R T, R

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

0.0 0 2 4 Energy 6 8 10

V , 9, L , 0.6 1.0

Energy

,

1.0

V , 1, L , 1.1

,

0.8

0.8

0.6

T, R T, R

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0 0 5 10

V , 5, L , 1.1 1.0

0.0

15

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Energy

,

1.0

V , 9, L , 1.1

Energy

,

0.8

0.8

T, R

T, R

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0 0 2 4 Energy 6 8 10

0.0 0 5 10 Energy 15

,

3. Potential well Consider a standard one-dimensional square potential well,

P o t e n t ia l W e ll

4

3

V

2

1

0

2 1

0

1 x

2

3

4

Determine eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the particle and analyze the given graphs. Wave function of the particle is given by

Using continuity equations at x=0 and x=L

In order to obtain energy relation from first equation you eliminate B and C

Then second equation takes the form

From first part of the equations

Substitute into second part

You can obtain

Remember

When then is imaginary then we obtain physical solution. We conclude that energy should be smaller than potential. Below the graphs are given for eigenvalues for different values of potentials and width of the well. Analyze them carefully.

V , 1, L , 1

V , 21, L , 1 4

2

2

1

0

0

2

1

4

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Crossing points are eigenvalues

Crossing points are eigenvalues

V , 41, L , 1 4

V , 61, L , 1

4

2

2

0

0

2

2

4

4

0

10

20

30 V , 1, L , 5

40

50

60

0

20

40 V , 5, L , 5

60

80

,

4

Crossing points are eigenvalues

Crossing points are eigenvalues

4 2

2

0

0

2 2 4 4

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Crossing points are eigenvalues V , 9, L , 5

,

4

Crossing points are eigenvalues V , 13, L , 5

,

4

2

2

0

0

2

2

4

4

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

0

5

10 Crossing points are eigenvalues V , 5, L , 50

15

Crossing points are eigenvalues V , 1, L , 50

,

4

4

2

2

0

0

2

2

4

4

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Crossing points are eigenvalues

,

Crossing points are eigenvalues

4. Spherical Well

Consider a particle confined in a spherical well of radius a. The potential outside the well is infinity and inside zero. Determine eigenfunction and eigenvalues of the particle. When 20 particle confined in the well determine configuration of the particles. Solution: We solve the Schrödinger equation with zero potential

Then the solution is

Where

. Let us choose

, then

. If the particle is confined to a sphere of radius , clearly the radial wavefunction which if finite at is given by . Because , unstable at the origin. The condition that it vanishes at requires that Thus the allowed energies are related to the zero's of the spherical Bessel functions. These are can be obtained from the following graphs.

j k

1.0

0

0 r

1.0

0

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

k

2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

r 0.2

0.2

**Three zeros for l=0, are Three zeros for l=1, are
**

j k

0.4

**. Plot of the wavefunction is given by . Plot of the wavefunction is given by
**

1

1 r

0.4

1

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.2

k

2 4 6 8 10

0.1

0.1

r

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.1

5. Particle in a ring potential In quantum mechanics, the case of a particle in a one-dimensional ring is similar to the particle in a box. The Schrödinger equation for a free particle which is restricted to a ring of radius r, in polar coordinate is

The wave function be periodic in

with a period 2π and that they be normalized leads to the conditions

And boundary condition(quantization) Under these conditions, the solution to the Schrödinger equation is given by

Quantization conditions leads to the

Then energy and eigenfunction of the particle is given by:

Therefore, there are two degenerate quantum states for every value of n.