Unit 2 The Study of English

Module 1 Grammar
At the end of this module you will:a) be able to find your way around a grammar
b) have more understanding of grammatical terminology
c) understand the importance of knowing grammar
d) have begun to consider issues involved in teaching grammar

GRAMMAR

This module is designed to make sure that you are aware of your own grammar, and
aware that it is essential to get to grips with it. When you are teaching ESOL you do
not need to tell your students the grammatical terminology unless they specifically
ask for the information (language-conscious nationalities will, even at lower levels)
or unless you are teaching advanced students who need the terminology. However
you do need to know the terminology for yourself, both to be able to answer such
questions if the students ask you and to be clear about what point you are teaching
and why you are teaching it.
In order to complete this unit you will need to use a reference grammar. If you have
not examined different grammars, we do not suggest that you buy one at this stage,
as there are many on the market and you may not be comfortable with the first one
you see. A good library will have a selection to choose from. When you have
examined a few we suggest that, for this work, you get hold of a copy of Practical
English Usage by Swan or a recent edition of A Practical English Grammar by
Thomson and Martinet, whichever you feel you can most comfortably use. If you are
already working in the field of TESOL and have a different grammar you should be
able to use that so long as it was not written for use by Shakespeare! The English
language is not static and some older grammars will now be out of date - both in the
language they choose to describe and the way they describe it. Check for example
what your grammar book says about the difference between ‘will’ and ‘shall’.
If it tells you that:
the ‘correct’ way to use them is ‘shall’ with the ‘I’ form : ‘I/we shall’ and ‘will’ with
other forms
and gives examples like:
‘I shall not clean the kitchen, he will clean it,’
then you are in trouble and need a new book!
It is worth remembering that people enter the world of TESOL from a variety of
backgrounds. Therefore some of you will find these tasks quite straightforward due
to your academic background, while others will need to spend time searching
through a grammar in order to make sense of them. Take your time, that is the
advantage of a Distance Learning Course. After you have studied a topic in your
grammar book it is useful to give yourself time to listen out for it in daily life, just as
your students try to do!
There is no pressure to be the first to finish. But there may be pressure on you from
students if you do not take time do this section well!
Do not depress yourself with the notion that there is somewhere one ultimate set of
grammatical rules which we 'know' and you must learn. This is not true. The famous
adage: Rules are made to be broken.’ was never truer than for English grammar.
But there are useful rules to share with students and knowing a rule can help them
succeed. When you are teaching and you do not know the rule (let us assume this is
a momentary lapse as you should know it!) use deductive analysis (explained in this
module).

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By definition you, as a native speaker (if you are a native speaker), 'know' the
grammar of English perfectly - your problem is to see it as a foreign language, to
know about it and to understand the problems it poses to a foreign learner. (Nonnative speakers have a distinct advantage here!) Think of this all the time that you
are doing the tasks; think of simple examples where you are asked for them, make
life easy for yourself and your future students!

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DEDUCTIVE ANALYSIS
Always check out any grammatical structure which you are unsure of and are
expected to teach. Have your own 'bible' which you can rely on as a reference
before a lesson. You will need your grammar throughout your TESOL career. In this
unit you are expected to use your grammar, to familiarise yourself with the layout
and become skilled at using it as a quick reference.
BUT WHAT HAPPENS IF I HAVEN'T GOT MY GRAMMAR WITH ME?
If you do not know a particular grammatical structure well, but you wish to explain it
to your students try using DEDUCTIVE ANALYSIS. This means working it out for
yourself. Write yourself some examples. One example is very dangerous in English,
there is a good chance it will be an idiom or an exception. Two examples have a
better chance of illustrating an emerging pattern, but there is still a chance that one
will be an exception. Three examples are much safer, hopefully two of the three will
illustrate the structure and you should then be able to explain the structure
successfully.
In theory it should never happen that you do not know a grammatical structure well
enough to be able to explain it, exemplify it and name it. HOWEVER, early on in
your TESOL career it may happen. It may also happen if you are given no warning
nor preparation time before a lesson. This can happen if you are substituting for an
absent colleague or on badly organised summer schools. Otherwise you should
MAKE SURE you know what you are teaching by thoroughly preparing your lessons.
NB One hour of preparation is the minimum for a one-hour lesson, especially in
your first year of teaching.
SELF-CHECK 2:1 1 Try to use Deductive Analysis here:
1. Explain when to use the preposition 'at'
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2. Explain the use of the three prepositions 'on', 'in' and 'at' as used with
expressions of time.

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3. Explain the difference between 'count' and 'mass' nouns
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Work out some rules for the use of count and mass nouns. (Include the verb)
MY RULES
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Write examples to show the use of 'some' and 'any' in these cases:
1. Beginners - 'some' in positive sentences (in contrast to 'a')
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2. Elementary - 'any' in negative sentences
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3. Elementary - 'any' in questions
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4. Elementary - 'some' with questions (when you expect a positive answer)
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5. Intermediate - 'any' in positive sentences
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Each time a new aspect of the structure is introduced, the previous forms should be
practised again and consolidated. Each form can be taught as a definite case which
must be followed and only later do you point out and teach alternatives and
contradictions. You usually work from the commonest first up to the more unusual
forms.
SELF-CHECK 2:1 2
Now check your work with the reference grammar you have bought. Correct your
work and add in any other points that are in the grammar but that you did not think
of.

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TEACHING GRAMMAR POINTS AND GIVING EXAMPLES TO STUDENTS.
The days are gone when teachers used to stand at the front of the class and ‘tell’
the students about grammar. It helped them with what the grammar looked like but
not with how to use it. These days we need to give the students clear examples in a
context of how grammar works.
SELF-CHECK 2:1 3
There are thousands of teachers and books all over the world trying to help learners
by giving them ‘example sentences’ to help them with their grammar.
Look at the exercises below.
What is wrong with them? Why would they not help students with their grammar or
verb tenses very much?
Exercise 1 - Articles
1.

Jackie ordered (the / an / a) printer from Ebay.

2.

Everyday I exercise with (the / an / a) Denise Austin video I got for my
birthday.

3.

We enjoy (the / an / a) lovely dinner with friends on Sunday evenings.

4.

At the zoo, we saw (the / an / a) seal and (the / an / a) otter.

Exercise 2 - Tenses
In these sentences fill in the verb in the correct tense.
1. John _________________ (play) tennis every Sunday.
2. I _____________________(live) in Egypt for 3 years
3. I _____________________(play) football next Sunday.
4. I ______________________(have) coffee with my breakfast.

Problems:



COMMENT

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The comment section does not appear for all self-check tasks but only for those
where there are specific answers or discussion to be considered.
Did you spot the problems?
Articles exercise
It is very difficult to practice articles in short out of context sentences, as the article
we choose depends on the context. Look at the two options below.
Jackie ordered (the / an / a) printer from Ebay.
A: Any news on the printer?
B: Jackie ordered the printer from Ebay rather than the one from the local shop in
the end.
A: How’s the business going?
B: Badly. Jackie ordered a printer from e bay and it broke on the first day.
Everyday I exercise with (the / an / a) Denise Austin video I got for my
birthday.
The article chosen depends on how many videos there are and whether the video is
shared knowledge or not!
Everyday I exercise with the Denise Austin video I got for my birthday.
Everyday I exercise with a Denise Austin video I got for my birthday.
We enjoy (the / an / a) lovely dinner with friends on Sunday evenings.
We enjoy the lovely dinner with friends on Sunday evenings, the trip to the pub
afterwards and the fact that we can walk home.
We enjoy a lovely dinner with friends on Sunday evenings and I always provide the
wine.
There is an added problem that this is a rather strange sentence. Keep things as
natural as possible.
At the zoo, we saw the seal and an otter.
At the zoo, we saw a seal and the otter.
At the zoo, we saw the seal and the otter.
At the zoo, we saw a seal and an otter.

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The article choices depend on which animals are known about before (the) and
which were seen unexpectedly (a an).
Tense exercises.
There are similar problems with these sentences. They do not have enough context
to show students which tense to use.
John _________________ (play) tennis every Sunday.
John is going to play/plays/is playing/played. There is no clue as to whether he has
started playing yet, or finished it or is still playing at the moment.
I _____________________(live) in Egypt for 3 years
Lived (not anymore) /have lived (still there) am going to live (plan for later this year)
I _____________________(play) football next Sunday.
Am going to (plan) am playing (diary plan) will play (promise to yourself or someone
else etc…)
I ______________________(have) coffee with my breakfast.
Have (everyday) had (have just finished) have had(so I don’t want another) ‘ll have
(selection from menu)
So try to follow these rules when you are teaching grammar or tenses.
Give key words ‘usually’, ‘next week’, ‘both’ to help them choose, for example, the
difference between singular and plural, or present and past tense.
Give contexts that they can understand and might want to use themselves.
Where were you last night? I only saw Peter at the party.
Is a more useful example than:
Where was the orange last night? I only saw an apple.
Sometimes give students a text and get them to pick out the tenses for themselves this gives them a very clear idea of how words are used.

Put tenses into a paragraph rather than single sentences when you give examples.
Then students can see clearly how they work.
Now consider the following extract:
The linguist Peter Grundy reports the following conversation between himself ('me' in the extract) and

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a student at the University of Durham where he worked some years ago:
ME:
FEMALE STUDENT:
ME:
FEMALE STUDENT:

You're in a no-smoking zone.
Am I?
The whole building's a no-smoking zone.
(extinguishing cigarette) Thanks very much.
(Grundy 1995: 96)

We know what the words mean, of course, but why exactly did Peter Grundy give the student the
information about the no-smoking zone? He clearly wasn't just offering information or passing the
time. On the contrary, his purpose was to stop the student smoking. And what are we to make of the
student's second utterance? Is she really thanking her lecturer for giving her information that she
didn't have before? Or does her Thanks very much really mean sorry? Perhaps its purpose is to
indicate to her lecturer that yes, she knows she was smoking in a no-smoking zone and since she's
been 'caught', she has no option but to put out her cigarette?
Peter Grundy might have chosen different words for the purpose, especially if, instead of a student,
he had found the Dean, his boss, smoking in the corridor. Instead of stating, baldly, You’re in a nosmoking zone, he might have said something like, Umm, not sure if I should point this out or not, but
this building is a no-smoking area or maybe he would have employed a different formula of words
altogether to get his point across.
The issue that faces us here is that the words we use and what they actually mean in the context we
use them, are not the same thing at all. There is no one-to-one correspondence, in other words,
between form and meaning.
Form and meaning
Peter Grundy could have chosen a wide range of language forms to ask the student to stop smoking,
e.g. Could you put that cigarette out, please?, Stop smoking, Please extinguish your cigarette or If
you want to smoke, you'd better go outside. There are many different ways of saying the same thing.
This point is well exemplified by the different ways we have of expressing the future in English.
Among the many alternatives on offer, we might say I will arrive at eight o'clock (a simple statement
of fact), I'm arriving at eight o'clock (= that's the arrangement I have made), I'm going to arrive at
eight o'clock (= that's my plan) or I arrive at eight o'clock (= that's the itinerary). Each of these
constructions indicates futurity, but each means something slightly different, as we have shown.
If we take one of the grammatical constructions used to construct a future sentence, the present
continuous (I'm arriving at eight o'clock), another startling phenomenon becomes apparent. In our
example, the statement refers to the future, but if we say Look at John! He's laughing his head off at
something, the present continuous (sometimes called progressive) is referring not to the future, but to
a temporary transient present reality. A third possible meaning of the present continuous is
exemplified by a sentence such as The problem with John is that he's always laughing when he
should be serious, which describes a habitual, not a temporary action. And we can even use the
present continuous to make a story about the past more dramatic, e.g. So I'm sitting there minding
my own business when suddenly this guy comes up to me ....
This same-form-different-meanings situation is surprisingly unproblematic for language users since
the context (situation) and co-text (lexis and grammar which surround the form, such as eight o'clock,
Look at John, etc.) usually resolve any ambiguity. Nevertheless, it makes decisions about what forms
to teach, and what meanings to teach them with, a major factor in syllabus planning.
The choice of which future form to use from the examples above will depend not only on meaning, but
what purpose we wish to achieve.

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Purpose
Many years ago, the philosopher J.L Austin identified a series of verbs which he called
'performatives', that is verbs which do what those same words mean. Thus, if a speaker says I
promise, the word promise itself performs the function of promising. If a celebrity says I name this
ship 'Ocean 3', the use of the verb name performs the function of naming.
The idea that language performs certain functions is not restricted to the kind of verbs Austin
mentioned, however. We saw above how This is a no-smoking zone had the purpose of having the
student put out her cigarette, just as a sentence like It's cold in here might, in certain circumstances,
perform the function of a request to the other person in the room to close the window.
One major result of this interest in purpose was to lead linguists to propose a category of language
functions such as inviting, apologising, offering and suggesting. Thus Would you like to come for a
coffee? performs the function of inviting, whereas I just can't accept that performs the function of
disagreeing, with the purpose of making your own opinion quite clear. Why don't you try yoga?
performs the function of strongly suggesting, where the purpose is to provoke action, and I'll do it if
you want, is clearly offering help, with the purpose of being helpful.
The study of functions and how they are realised in language, has had a profound effect upon the
design of language teaching materials, making language purpose a major factor in the choice of
syllabus items and teaching techniques.
Appropriacy and register
A feature of language functions is that they do not just have one linguistic realisation; the following
phrases, for example, show only some of the possible ways of inviting someone to the cinema:
Would you like to come to the cinema?
How about coming to the cinema?
I was wondering if you might like to come to the cinema tonight?
Cinema?
There's a good film at the cinema.
Thus, when we attempt to achieve a communicative purpose (such as getting someone to agree to
an invitation), we have to choose which of these language forms to use. Which form, given our
situation, is the most appropriate. The same is true, of course, in our choice of language in letters,
emails and text messages.
Six of the variables which govern our choice are listed below:
Setting: we speak differently in libraries from the way we do in night clubs. We often use informal and
spontaneous language at home, whereas we may use more formal pre-planned speech in an office or
work environment.
Participants: the people involved in an exchange - whether in speech or writing - clearly affect the
language being chosen. However egalitarian we may want to be, we often choose words and phrases
in communication with superiors which are different from the words and phrases we use when talking
to, writing to or texting our friends, members of our families or colleagues of equal status to us.
Gender: research clearly shows that men and women typically use language differently when
addressing either members of the same or the opposite sex. This is especially true of conversation.
Women frequently use more concessive language than men, for example, and crucially, often talk
less than men in mixed-sex conversations.
Channel: there are marked differences between spoken and written language. But spoken language
is not all the same: it is affected by the situation we are in. Are we speaking face to face or on the

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telephone? Are we speaking through a microphone to an unseen audience or standing up in a lecture
hall in front of a crowd?
Topic: the topic we are addressing affects our lexical and grammatical choices. The words and
phrases that we use when talking or writing about a wedding will be different from those we employ
when the conversation turns to particle physics. The vocabulary of childbirth is different from the
lexical phrases associated with football. The topic-based vocabulary we use is one of the features of
register - the choices we make about what language to employ.
Tone: another feature of the register in which something is said or written is its tone. This includes
variables such as formality and informality, politeness and impoliteness. For example, sophisticated
women's magazines may talk of make-up, but teenage magazines sometimes call it slap. Using high
pitch and exaggerated pitch movement is often more polite than a flat monotone when saying things
such as Can you repeat that?
These, then, are some of the factors that influence our choice of language. When we have our
students study the way language is used in speaking or writing, we will want to draw their attention to
such issues. We may ask why a speaker uses particular words or expressions in a specific situation.
We may have our students prepare for a speaking activity by assembling the necessary topic words
and phrases. We may discuss what sort of language is appropriate in an office situation when talking
to a superior - and whether the sex of the superior makes any difference.
Language is a social construct as much as it is a mental ability. It is important for students to be just
as aware of this in a foreign or second language as they are in their own.
Language as text and discourse
Although, as we shall see, grammar and vocabulary are vital components of language (as are the
sounds of English in spoken discourse), we also need to look at language at the level of text or
discourse (that is, texts which are longer than phrases or sentences).
Discourse organisation
In order for collections of sentences or utterances to succeed effectively, the discourse needs to be
organised or conducted in such a way that it will be successful. In written English this calls for both
coherence and cohesion.
For a text to be coherent, it needs to be in the right order - or at least make sense.
However coherent a text is, however, it will not work unless it has internal cohesion. The elements in
that text must cohere or stick to each other successfully to help us navigate our way around the
stretch of discourse. One way of achieving this is through lexical cohesion, and a way of ensuring
lexical cohesion is through the repetition of words and phrases. We can also use interrelated words
and meanings (or lexical set chains) to bind a text together.
Grammatical cohesion is achieved in a number of ways. One of the most common is the concept of
anaphoric reference, where we use pronouns, for example, to refer back to things that have already
been mentioned, as in the following example:
Frank McCourt first emerged on the literary scene with his book Angela's Ashes, a memoir
of a childhood lived in poverty. It became an instant classic.
Another similar cohesive technique is that of substitution, using a phrase to refer to something we
have already written. For example:
There was nothing remarkable about my thirty years in the high school classrooms of New
York City. I often doubted if I should be there at all. At the end I wondered how I lasted

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that long.
Where ‘there’ refers back (and substitutes for) the classrooms of New York City, and ‘that long’
makes reference and substitutes for thirty years.
These features are also present in spoken language, which also shows many examples of ellipsis
(where words from a written-grammar version of an utterance are missed out without compromising
the meaning of what is being said). The following two lines, for example, were spoken in a British pub:
A: Another round?
B: Might as well.
Another round? is probably an elliptical version of the question Shall we have another round? (a
round is an order of drinks for everyone in the group), and Might as well is an elliptical version of the
sentence We might as well have another round.
For conversational discourse to be successful, participants have to know how to organise the events
in it. They need to know, for example, how and when to take turns - that is when to interrupt, when to
show they want to continue speaking, or when they are happy to 'give the floor' to someone else. In
order to do this successfully, they need to be able to use discourse markers effectively. Thus,
phrases such as anyway, moving on and right are ways of beginning a new thread of the discussion
(or sometimes of closing one down); d'you know what I mean? OK? and Right? are ways of
encouraging a listener's agreement and yeah, but and OK (said with doubtful intonation) are ways of
indicating doubt or disagreement.
Genre
One of the reasons we can communicate successfully, especially in writing, is because we have
some understanding of genre. One way of describing this - and one much favoured by people who
teach ESP (English for Specific Purposes) - is to say that a genre is a type of written organisation and
layout (such as an advertisement, a letter, a poem, a magazine article, etc.) which will be instantly
recognised for what it is by members of a discourse community - that is any group of people who
share the same language customs and norms.
Genres give way to sub-genres. Within the genre of advertising, for example, there are many
variations.
Textual success often depends on the familiarity of text forms for writers and readers of the discourse
community, however small or large that community might be. And so, when we teach students how to
write letters, send emails or make oral presentations, for example, we will want them to be aware of
the genre norms and constraints which are involved in these events. However, we need to make sure
that we are not promoting straightforward imitation, but rather making students aware of possibilities
and opportunities. One way of doing this is to show them a variety of texts within a genre rather than
asking for slavish imitation of just one type.
Whatever text we are constructing or co-constructing (as in a conversation, for example, where
speakers together make the conversation work), the sentences and utterances we use are a
combination of grammar, morphology, lexis and, in the case of speaking, sounds. And it is the first of
these elements of language that we are concerned with in this module.

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Grammar
The sentence I will arrive at around eight o'clock depends for its success on the fact that the words
are in the right order. We could not say, for example *I arrive will at eight o'clock around (* denotes an
incorrect utterance) because auxiliary verbs (e.g. will) always come before main verbs (e.g. arrive) in
affirmative sentences. Nor can the modifying adverb around come after the time adverbial since its
correct position is before it. There is a system of rules, in other words, which says what can come
before what and which order different elements can go in. We call this system syntax.
Grammar is not just concerned with syntax, however. The way words are formed - and can change
their form in order to express different meanings - is also at the heart of grammatical knowledge.
Thus, for example, we can modify the form arrive by adding -d to make arrived, so that the verb now
refers to the past. If we replace e with -ing to make the form arriving, the verb now indicates
continuity. We call the study of this kind of word formation morphology. Speakers of a language have
a good knowledge of morphology, for if they did not, they would not be able to say I arrive, but then
change this to he arrives. They would not be able to use the different forms of the verb take (take,
took, taken) without such knowledge, or be able to manipulate a word such as happy (adjective) so
that it becomes an adverb (happily), a noun (happiness), or has an opposite meaning (unhappy).
Grammar can thus be partly seen as a knowledge of what words can go where and what form these
words should take. Studying grammar means knowing how different grammatical elements can be
strung together to make chains of words.
Choosing words
When we construct sentences, we are constantly making choices about, for example, singular or
plural, countable or uncountable, present or past, transitive or intransitive, and about exactly what
words we want to use (e.g. like, enjoy, say or tell).
A similar situation occurs with verbs which are either transitive (they take an object), intransitive (they
don't take an object) or both. The verb herd (e.g. to herd sheep) is a transitive verb. It always takes
an object. The verb open, on the other hand, can be either transitive or intransitive. The dentist says
Open your mouth (transitive), but we can also say The dentist's surgery opens at eight o' clock
(intransitive).
Verbs are good examples, too, of the way in which words can trigger the grammatical behaviour of
words around them. The verb like triggers the use of either the -ing form in verbs which follow it (I like
listening to music) or the use of to + the infinitive (I like to listen to music), but in British English like
cannot be followed by that + a sentence (we can't say *She likes that she sails). The verb tell triggers
the use of a direct object and, if there is a following verb, the construction to + infinitive (She told me
to arrive on time), whereas say triggers that + a clause construction (She said that I should arrive on
time).
As far as possible, students need to understand at some level (consciously or unconsciously) what
these implications are. They need to be aware of rules. The problems arise, however, when rules are
complex and difficult to perceive. The fact that third person singular verbs in the present simple take
an s in most varieties (e.g. he plays the guitar; she sails ocean-going yachts) is a straightforward
concept which is easy to explain and easy to understand, but other rules are far less clear. Perhaps
our greatest responsibility, therefore, is to help students develop their language awareness. That is,
their ability to spot grammatical patterns and behaviour for themselves.
Adapted from The Practice of English Language Teaching, Jeremy Harmer 2007, Longman.

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SELF-CHECK TENSE EXERCISE 2:1 4
Read through the following article about using ICT in classrooms. Look at the
underlined verbs then fill the verbs into the right space in the chart below the text.

Before I started teacher training, I thought a laptop was an
optional extra, but I decided to buy one anyway. I’m glad I did.
I’m using it constantly.
You often hear teachers saying how children have stopped
reading. Well if I was a modern child, I would find looking at a
black and white textbook a bit tedious! With a laptop and
projector you have instant colour and a change of focus.
To go back to last Monday. It started badly. I had intended to
do a lesson based on a section of DVD, projected onto my
white board, but it was not to be. If I had checked my materials
properly, perhaps I wouldn’t have been caught out. Five
minutes into the lesson, however, just as I was getting to the
focussed scene, the system crashed.
I’ve learnt my lesson from this and I’m always going to have a
backup plan from now on. What’s more, whenever I use the
laptop, I’ll do a trial run first.
Luckily, next week our ICT co-ordinator is visiting the school.
I’ll ask him to give me a demonstration of how to manage the
equipment effectively.
Present continuous and present simple tenses (MOVED)
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Past , present perfect & past perfect tenses

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Future forms
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Conditional forms
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TASKS FOR SUBMISSION TO YOUR TUTOR

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Module 1

NAME &
ADDRESS..........................................................................................................
TASK 1
Look at the 10 multiple choice questions on the assessment sheet overleaf. This is
part 1 of a level assessment which is sent out to our overseas students. You will
obviously have no problem in finding the correct answer, but explaining your choice
can be more problematic.
What do you think is being tested in each question? Explain in your own words or
use grammatical terms if you know them.
1.................................................................................................................................
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2................................................................……………………………………………….
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3..............................................................…………………………………………………
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4..............................................................………………………………………………….
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5..............................................................………………………………………………….
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6..............................................................…………………………………………………
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7..............................................................…………………………………………………
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8..............................................................………………………………………………….
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9..............................................................…………………………………………………
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10.............................................................…………………………………………………
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In question 9 alternative b) is the correct answer. Bear in mind that the
situation/circumstances are important. Under what circumstances is c) possible?
Explain.
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Module 1

This is not a task for you! This is one of our assessments for homestay students.
ASSESSMENT SHEET
In order to help us to assess your level of English, and therefore your needs, please
complete the following. If you cannot understand a question leave it out. Do not ask
anyone for help and do not use a dictionary or any other book to help you.
PART 1
Write the correct answer in the space provided.
1. Sally often ......................... her lunch in a restaurant.
a) has got b) is having c) has d) have
2. My friend is going shopping ....................... 3 o'clock.
a) to
b) at
c) in
d) on
3. John plays badminton ......................... than Sam.
a) worse
b) badly
c) bad
d) worst
4. The girls have been students ......................... 1990
a) during b) by
c) for
d) since
5. I believe you went to the party. Did you both enjoy ...........?
a) yourself
b) ourselves
c) yourselves d) you
6. Adam speaks excellent French, but he doesn't speak very ...... English.
a) better b) good
c) well
d) best
7. There aren't ......................... biscuits on this plate.
a) too much b) a lot
c) enough
d) some
8. I wanted to go out this evening but I haven't ......... money.
a) any
b) many c) some
d) no
9. Before the film begins all the tickets ............ collected.
a) had been b) will have been c) are being d) were being
10.The test was quite easy. ................ he got a few wrong.
a) because b) in spite of c) although d) nevertheless

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Module 1

TASK 2
Use an example of each of the following in a sentence and underline it.
1. an adjective
1..............................................................…………………………………………………
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2. an adverb
2..............................................................…………………………………………………
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3. a countable noun
3..............................................................…………………………………………………
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4. an uncountable or mass noun
4..............................................................…………………………………………………
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5. a conjunction
5..............................................................…………………………………………………
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6. a preposition of time
6..............................................................…………………………………………………
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7. a preposition of movement
7..............................................................…………………………………………………
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8. a question tag
8..............................................................…………………………………………………
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9. an auxiliary verb
9..............................................................…………………………………………………
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10. a gerund (as subject of a sentence)
10.............................................................…………………………………………………
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Module 1

TASK 3
Write an example for each of the following:1. a positive statement
1..............................................................………………………………………………….
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2. a negative statement
2..............................................................………………………………………………….
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3. an interrogative
3..............................................................………………………………………………….
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4. an imperative
4..............................................................………………………………………………….
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Module 1

TASK 4
Write as many ways of using the definite and indefinite articles as you can find in
your grammar and explain each one.
definite articles
the definite article “the” is used:
1/ before nouns of which there is only one . eg: the sky , the moon , the earth .
2/ before a noun which became definite as a result of been mentionned a second
time . eg : the entire building caught fire . the fire was a disaster .
3/before a noun made definite by the addition of a phrase or a clause . eg: the man
in blue is our teacher .
4/ before superlatives and first, second eg: she is the most intelligent student in her
school .
5/ before some geographical nouns . eg : the pacific , the Nile , the Sahara

We omit the definite article before :
1/ names of languages , sports and subjects . eg : i speak English . I plau football .
I study literature .
2/ home, hospital , church ,school ,work ,prison and town .
Eg: i will go back home
He went to hospital to visit his friend .
He goes to church each Sunday .
She left school at the age of ten .
He is at work
He will be sent to prison for his crime.
I go to town two times a week .

indefinite articles
TENSE TASK 1
Write 2 sentences in each of the following tenses:Try to give an example sentence that has a clear context and time reference.

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Module 1

1. present simple
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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2. present continuous or present progressive
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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3. past simple
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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4. past continuous (progressive)
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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5. present perfect
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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Module 1

...............................................................…………………………………………………..

6. present perfect continuous (progressive)
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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7. past perfect
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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8. past perfect continuous (progressive)
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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9. future tense (be careful!)
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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10. 'going to' form (as a future)
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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11. present simple used as a future form
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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12. present continuous/progressive used as a future form
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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13. future perfect
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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Module 1

14. first conditional (probable condition)
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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15. second conditional (improbable condition)
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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16. third conditional (impossible condition)
a)..............................................................................................................................…
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b)..............................................................................................................................…
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Module 1

TENSE TASK 2
Change the following from active to passive voice:Please note it is not always necessary to include who carried out the action.
1.We keep the milk in the fridge.
1. .............................................................................................................................…
...............................................................…………………………………………………..

2. The boys kicked the ball through the window.
2. .............................................................................................................................…
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3. The workmen are repairing the road.
3. .............................................................................................................................…
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TENSE TASK 3
Change the following from indirect to direct speech.
1. Jean said that she had lost her shoes.
1. .............................................................................................................................…
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2. Fred insisted that he would be driving his own car in the rally.
2. .............................................................................................................................…
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3. Sally shouted that she would be on the train.
3. .............................................................................................................................…
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Change the following from direct to indirect speech

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Module 1

1. She said, "I'm cold."
1. .............................................................................................................................…
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2. The officer said, " They look like fugitives from Alcatraz."
2. .............................................................................................................................…
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3. "What are you doing?" asked Sally.
3. .............................................................................................................................…
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Copyright INTESOL Worldwide 2009

Unit 2

30

Module 1

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