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Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Course 221 Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology


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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Course 221 Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Course Objectives
! ! ! ! ! ! ! Examine Current Wireless Networks Examine TCP/IP and Data Fundamentals Examine Wireless Intelligent Networks Examine 2G Wireless Networks and Services Examine Wireless Applications and Enablers Examine 2.5G Wireless Networks and Services Examine 3G Wireless Networks and Services

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Table of Contents
Current Wireless Networks 1-1

TCP/IP and Data Fundamentals

2-1

Wireless Intelligent Networks

3-1

2G Wireless Networks and Services

4-1

Wireless Applications and Enablers

5-1

2.5G Wireless Networks and Services

6-1

3G Wireless Networks and Services

7-1

Appendix A - Acronyms

A-1

Appendix B - Standardization

B-1

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Current Wireless Networks Lesson 1

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Objectives
! ! ! ! ! ! Examine the Radio Frequency Spectrum Define the Different Wireless Technologies Define the Different Technology Access Methods Examine the Evolution of US Operators Examine Different Issues in Todays Networks Examine Current Wireless Technology Growth

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Wireless Network Evolution Roadmap


Business 1G 2G
national voice early adopters standard services regional data early adopters regional voice mass market open IP service platform global multi-media mass market analog no data low rate CS data (CS/TDM +packet) CN mono mode terminal IP-CN new air new air interface interface

Technical
digital low rate CS data medium rate packet data IP CN + ATM RAN multi-mode terminal all-IP ad-hoc network?

2G 2G+

2G+ 3G

new air new air interface interface

3G 3G+

3G+ 4G
new air new air interface interface carrier business

cost reduction new services end customer & OFDM/CDMA content provider Mobile IP business

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Throughout this course, we will look at how wireless networks are going to evolve towards their third generation and beyond. As a final thought provoker, it might be worth considering what happens after that. The fourth generation wireless network. By the time third generation is widely deployed, newer and cheaper services will be available. The core network has evolved to an all-IP packet network. So what could happen after that. We introduce the concept of an ad-hoc or self-organizing network. This is a dynamic network that changes with the users around it. A network created as quickly as it is dissolved. And one that does not require the user to know anything about the equipment. Only the services matter.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

2000 Telecommunication Facts


USA North America World

Wired Lines (M) Penetration (%) Wireless Subscribers (M) Penetration (%) Internet Users (M) Penetration (%)

211 75.2% 108 38.4% 153.8 56%

230 72.8% 114 36.4% 169.1 43%

997 16.4% 474.8 7.9% 407.1 3.7%

Source: Media Metrix


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 1-4

Some more interesting facts show how the US compares to the rest of North America (Canada) and to the rest of the world as a whole. The US represents nearly one fifth of the total world wired line installations with nearly three quarters of the population having at least one wired phone line (since there are approximately 103 million households, many of them have multiple lines). Nearly one third of the population have a wireless phone compared to less than 10% for the total world. More than one third of the population have subscriptions to the Internet.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

The 800 MHz Cellular Spectrum


Channel Numbers 1 1023 991 824 MHz

Reverse link (mobile transmits)


1 1023 667 666 717 716 799 991 334 333

Forward link (cell site transmits)


334 333 667 666

Channel Numbers 717 716 799

A
1

A
10

B
10

A
1.5

B
2.5

other uses

A
1
869 MHz

A
10

B
10

A
1.5

B
2.5
894 MHz

849 MHz

Paired Bands
A - -Non Wireline Carriers A Non Wireline Carriers B - -Wireline Carriers B Wireline Carriers
45 MHz Duplex Spacing

Downlink / Forward / Cell-to-User

Uplink / Reverse / User-to-Cell


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 1-5

United States cellular and PCS frequencies lie in the UHF (Ultra High Frequency band). That band runs between 300 MHz and 3000 MHz (3GHz). The cellular frequencies start at 824 MHz and end at 894 MHz, a total of 69.66 megahertz. In AMPS, IS-54B, IS-136, and PCS 1900, 45 MHz separates transmit and receive frequencies. That keeps them from interfering with each other and allows simultaneous talking. North American cellular development got going in earnest after the Bell System breakup in 1984. To foster competition in a limited radio spectrum, the United States licensed two carriers in every large metropolitan area. One license went automatically to the local telephone company, the local exchange carriers or LECs (the wireline carriers). The other went to an individual, a company or a group of investors who met a long list of requirements and who properly petitioned the FCC (the non-wireline carriers). Each company in each area took half the spectrum available. What's called the "A Band" and the "B Band." The non-wireline carriers usually got the A Band and the wireline carriers got the B band. For this spectrum, the FCC granted the licenses.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

The 1900 MHz PCS Spectrum


Channel Numbers 299 300 0

Reverse link (mobile transmits) Unlicensed


1199 400 699 700 800 900

Forward link (cell site transmits)


300 400 699 700 800 900 299

Channel Numbers 1199

MTA

B T A

MTA

B B T T A A

BTA

Data Voice

MTA

B T A

MTA

B B T T A A

BTA

A
15 1850 MHz

D
5

B
15

E F
5 Licensed 5

C
15 1910 MHz 10 10 1930 MHz

A
15

D
5

B
15 Licensed

E F
5 5

C
15 1990 MHz

Paired Bands 80 MHz Duplex Spacing

MTA - Major Trading Areas BTA - Basic Trading Areas

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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PCS broadband frequencies go from1850 MHz to1990 MHz (a total of 140 MHz). From 1995 to 1997 the FCC licensed the so called PCS spectrum, the area around 1900 MHz and some additional radio space around 900 MHZ. What they call the PCS broadband and narrowband frequencies. PCS licenses differ in bandwidth size from cellular licenses. PCS operators can have two different sized licenses: 30 MHz and 10 MHz, of which they are allowed to put together. Six PCS licenses exist for each market. These licenses were auctioned by the FCC. Narrowband PCS uses narrower frequency blocks. Less room means N-PCS is better suited for advanced paging services. 50 kHz wide paired and unpaired channels make up narrowband's frequency ranges. Besides paging services, something this spectrum isn't limited to by regulation, N-PCS can be used for telemetry, such as remotely monitoring gas and electric meters. Even keeping track of copier usage or vending machines. Broadband PCS belongs in the microwave band near 2GHz., utilizing 30 MHz wide frequency blocks. This room allows voice, data, and video. Of the 140 MHz allotted, 20MHz is reserved for "unlicensed applications that could include both data and voice services." Within each range are scattered frequency blocks. The A, B, and C blocks are 30 MHz wide while the D, E, and F blocks are 10 MHz wide.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Wireless Technology Comparison


Technology Technology Advanced Advanced Mobile Phone Mobile Phone Service Service Narrowband Narrowband AMPS AMPS Digital AMPS Digital AMPS North American North American TDMA TDMA European European 2nd-Generation 2nd-Generation TDMA TDMA Code Division Code Division Multiple Access Multiple Access
January 8, 2001

AMPS AMPS

Standards Standards Documents Documents EIA/TIA 553 EIA/TIA 553 IS-19 mobile IS-19 mobile IS-20 BTS IS-20 BTS IS-88 IS-88 IS-54B IS-54B IS-136 IS-136 ETSI/TIA/ITU ETSI/TIA/ITU multiple multiple documents documents IS-95A IS-95A J-STD-008, J-STD-008, +features stds +features stds

First ModulaFirst ModulaUsed tion Used tion 1983 1983 Analog Analog FM FM Analog Analog FM FM Digital Digital DQPSK DQPSK

Service Service Types Types Voice Voice Voice Voice SMS SMS Voice Voice Data Data
+CAVE +CAVE +DCCH +DCCH +SMS +SMS

Band- Users/ Band- Users/ width Carrier width Carrier 30 30 kHz kHz 10 10 kHz kHz 30 30 kHz kHz 11

NAMPS NAMPS

1990 1990 1993 1993 1995 1995 1992 1992

11 33(6 (6 with with halfhalfrate) rate) 88(16 (16 with with halfhalfrate) rate) 22 8kb 22 8kb 17 13kb 17 13kb
1-7

D-AMPS D-AMPS

GSM GSM

Digital Digital GMSK GMSK

CDMA CDMA

Digital Digital 1995 OQPSK OQPSK 1995 Spread

Spread Spectrum Spectrum

Voice Voice SMS SMS Cell Bcst Cell Bcst frq hopg frq hopg Voice Voice SMS SMS Data Data +more +more

200 200 kHz kHz 1250 1250 kHz kHz

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

The AMPS family of wireless standards were intended to be just another analog radio-telephone standard. However, due to the high capacity allowed by the cellular concept, the lower powerenabling portable operation and the robust design of AMPS, it has been a stunning success. Today, more than half the cellular phones in the world operate according to AMPS standards. TDMA digital systems get their name by dividing a single channel into a number of timeslots, with each user getting one out of every few slots. The first implementation of AMPS digital cellular used TDMA, in the IS-54 standard. This requires digitizing voice, compressing it and transmitting it in regular bursts. Following IS-54, which provided a TDMA voice channel, IS-136, the next generation, uses TDMA on the control channel. TDMA triples the capacity of cellular frequencies by dividing a 30 kHz cellular channel into 3 timeslots, which supports 3 users in strict alternation. Future systems may also utilize half-rate voice coders, which will allow 6 users in one 30 kHz channel. CDMA is a "spread spectrum" technology, which means that it spreads the information contained in a particular signal of interest over a much greater bandwidth than the original signal. A CDMA call starts with a standard rate of 9.6 kilobits per second. This is then spread to a transmitted rate of about 1.23 Mbps. Spreading means that digital codes are applied to the data bits associated with users in a cell. These data bits are transmitted along with the signals of all the other users in that cell. When the signal is received, the codes are removed from the desired signal, separating the users and returning the call to a rate of 9600 bps.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

US Telephone Family Tree August 2000


New Mega Carriers
NCR NCR Three-way split 1997 AT&T AT&T Ameritech Ameritech Acquisition pending SBC SBC SNET SNET SBC SBC Lucent Lucent AT&T AT&T TCI TCI Teleport Teleport MediaOne MediaOne AT&T AT&T

American American Telephone & Telephone & Telegraph Telegraph


Split up in 1984

Southwestern Bell Southwestern Bell Acquired 1997 Pacific Telesis Pacific Telesis Nynex Nynex Bell Atlantic Bell Atlantic Bell South Bell South US West US West MCI MCI WorldCom WorldCom Sprint Sprint MCI WorldCom MCI WorldCom WorldCom WorldCom Acquired 1997 Merger Pending GTE GTE Bell South Bell South Qwest Qwest Qwest Qwest

Verizon Verizon

Bell Atlantic Bell Atlantic Bell South Bell South US West US West

Merger Pending

Sprint Sprint

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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On January 1, 1984, in the midst of cellular's arrival in the marketplace, the Bell System broke itself up to settle an antitrust suit between AT&T and the Department of Justice. The breakup divided the system roughly into a local part and an 'all other' part that included long distance. The local part, which consisted of all the Bell telephone companies, was further broken up into seven regional pieces (RBOCs), which were barred from the long distance business. Cellular service fell on the 'local' side of the breakup and Bell's interests in it were accordingly split into seven regional cellular service companies. From that point on, mergers and acquisitions have been occurring in both the local and long distance side.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

US Cellular Family Tree - August 2000


Vanguard Vanguard McCaw Cellular McCaw Cellular AT&T Wireless AT&T Wireless AT&T AT&T AT&T Wireless AT&T Wireless

New Mega Carriers


TDMA

Ameritech Mobile Ameritech Mobile SBC Cellular SBC Cellular Southwestern Bell Southwestern Bell Mobile Mobile Bell South Mobility Bell South Mobility Bell South Mobility Bell South Mobility

Comcast Cell. Comcast Cell. SNET SNET

60%
Cingular Cingular

TDMA/ GSM

40%
CommNet CommNet

Pacific Telesis -Pacific Telesis AirTouch AirTouch US West -- New Vector US West New Vector

AirTouch AirTouch

50%
PrimeCo PrimeCo

Vodafone Vodafone AirTouch AirTouch

45%
Verizon Verizon Wireless Wireless

CDMA

Nynex Mobile Nynex Mobile Bell Atlantic -- BAM Bell Atlantic BAM Alltel Cellular Alltel Cellular

50%
BAM BAM

GTE Wireless GTE Wireless Frontier Cell Frontier Cell

55%

Alltel Cellular Alltel Cellular

CDMA 1-9

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Just as with the wireline side of the house, the wireless operators (both the traditional telcos as well as the non-traditional players such as McCaw Cellular) have been undergoing dramatic change. Mergers and acquisitions have been happening at a frantic pace. For cellular operators (the 800 MHz folks), the landscape has pared itself down to four major carriers across the country. There are, of course, hundreds of other small (regional to local) carriers as well as affiliates, resellers, etc. but AT&T, Verizon, Alltel and SBC/BellSouth make up the vast majority. Digital cellular operators have had an additional burden in that they have an obligation to support legacy AMPS subscribers which causes undue capacity problems.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

US PCS Family Tree - August 2000


TDMA
AT&T Wireless AT&T Wireless AT&T Wireless AT&T Wireless NTT DoCoMo NTT DoCoMo AT&T Wireless AT&T Wireless

Investment Pending
Verizon Wireless Verizon Wireless Qwest/US West PCS Qwest/US West PCS Sprint PCS Sprint PCS

CDMA CDMA CDMA

PrimeCo PrimeCo US West PCS US West PCS Sprint PCS Sprint PCS

BAM/GTE/AirTouch/PrimeCo BAM/GTE/AirTouch/PrimeCo Qwest/US West PCS Qwest/US West PCS Sprint PCS Sprint PCS

GSM GSM TDMA GSM GSM GSM GSM GSM

SBC/PBMS SBC/PBMS BellSouth Mobility DCS BellSouth Mobility DCS

SBC/PBMS SBC/PBMS BellSouth Mobility DCS BellSouth Mobility DCS

60% 40%
Cingular Cingular

VoiceStream VoiceStream Deutsche Telekom Deutsche Telekom Omnipoint Omnipoint Aerial Aerial Powertel Powertel DigiPH DigiPH Powertel Powertel VoiceStream VoiceStream

Merger Pending
VoiceStream VoiceStream

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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The PCS players (1900 MHZ operators) have undergone nothing less dramatic than the cellular carriers in terms of transformations through mergers and acquisitions. Just five short years ago, there were more than 15 well known and recognized names in the PCS end of the industry. Thanks to the FCCs somewhat unusual splitting of the 1900 MHz frequency into 6 bands in every region, carriers have been popping up all over the place. Each technology had at least 2 operator choices in virtually every region. A number of them have since gone bankrupt and those that have remained have been combining at an unprecedented rate. We have whittled it down to 5 major nationwide operators and now they are beginning to attract attention from outside the US (witness Duetsche Telekoms pending acquisition of VoiceStream or NTT DoCoMos investment in AT&T Wireless). In contrast to 800 MHz cellular, there is no analog support required for 1900 MHz operators.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Wireless Growing Pains

Capacity Limits Quality Security

Features Data Services Future-Proofing

Push factors which Push factors which drive the wireless drive the wireless industry industry

Pull factors which Pull factors which lead the wireless lead the wireless industry industry

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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The wireless industry has been experiencing tremendous growing pains as it tries to keep up with demand. A number of forces are exerting their influence and all of them are helping to shape the networks of the future. On the one hand, there are the factors that are pushing the industry. These are the forces that are driving operators to evolve their networks. Factors such as ever increasing needs for higher capacity, better quality of service and tighter security. On the other hand, there are the forces pulling the networks towards the needs of their subscribers. Better and more advanced features and services, new high speed data services and the unattainable future-proofed technology are just a few of the many requirements that subscribers are placing on the operators. Additional factors at play that are affecting the direction and growth of the networks are the drastic reduction in the costs of the phones, the availability of multi-band, multi-mode phones and the ever popular bucket-o-minute plans.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Current US Wireless Issues


Spectrum Availability
No specific spectrum has been allocated for 3G services in the US Operators have a 45 MHz limit in the current 800/1900 frequency range. This may not be enough to overlay wideband 3G networks FCC plans to auction (eventually) additional spectrum (in 20 MHz and 10 MHz blocks) in the 700Mhz range not subject to the 45MHz limit. Many issues surround the current occupancy of this frequency by TV broadcast stations (UHF channels 60 to 69) Auction currently ongoing of 1900 MHz spectrum from bankrupt C-block license winners like NextWave Additional spectrum may be freed up in the future by the FCC in either the 1.7 GHz or 2.6 GHz band
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 1-12

The radio frequency spectrum is the single most important asset that the wireless operators own. It is also the source of a lot of problems. The US, unlike the rest of the world, has not set aside specific spectrum for third generation networks. For members of the ITU, the 3G spectrum is in the same frequency range as that of the current US PCS operators (1900 MHz). By law, a US wireless operator can not own more than 45 MHz of spectrum (most have much less than that). This is not adequate for deploying a wideband 3G overlay network, given the current spectrum usage vs. the requirements for 3G. The FCC plans to auction spectrum in the 700 MHz range that is not subject to any limitations. The problem is that currently, this spectrum is occupied by TV broadcast stations and they do not have to vacate it until 2006. The auctions keep getting delayed and many wireless operators are hesitant to invest in this asset that has numerous risks. As of this writing, the FCC is currently auctioning spectrum in the 1900 MHz range for Cblock licenses that were owned by now bankrupt companies such as NextWave Telecom. There is the possibility of future spectrum to be auctioned but it is probably a year or two away.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Current US Wireless Issues


Voice Capacity vs. Data Services
Most operators, regardless of technology are experiencing capacity issues. Given the fact that the current wireless subscriber penetration of 30% is expected to double by 2005, the capacity issues will only get worse No solid projections for 3G data services. The initial drive to deploy 3G technology will be based on the need for high speed data services as well as additional voice capacity Of the 2.5G technologies, CDMA 1xRTT offers additional voice capacity, while GPRS is for packet data services only The GSM and TDMA communities come together with GPRS/EDGE. This creates opportunities covering more than 80% of wireless subs
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 1-13

With wireless subscriber growth booming, most operators have capacity issues in their networks. But the capacity constraints are not in the backbone or core network, they are in the last mile. The radio spectrum they own to reach their subscribers. The promise of the great demand for wireless data has been hyped for many years. Numerous forecasts paint a bright picture for this in the future. But most remain skeptical. Their real motivation for deploying 3G technology is not for the high speed wireless data but for additional voice capacity the new technologies will bring. Currently, 1xRTT technology provides an increase in voice capacity. The other high speed data services are for data only and will not support voice (initially). But the convergence of GSM and TDMA via the GPRS/EDGE introduction will lead to global economies of scale covering more than 80% of the global wireless subscriber base.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Current US Wireless Issues


Standards Issues
CDMA operators will follow an upgrade path from 2G to 2.5G/3G using 1xRTT and then to cdma2000 3xRTT or alternatives The OHG (Operators Harmonization Group) is a 3GPP2 standards group working to define how to connect CDMA base stations to a UMTS core network and vice-versa The GSM and TDMA communities have united their evolution paths through GPRS/EDGE. UWC-136 has been included as an IMT-2000 RTT GAIT (GSM ANSI-136 Interoperability Team) created to facilitate roaming between ANSI-136 and GSM networks

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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The standardization battles continue to rage through constant upheavals from wrinkles thrown into the mix by vendors who are tweaking their products to stretch its capabilities just a little farther than the last. The Operators Harmonization Group (OHG) is currently working on standards that will allow mixing and matching of technologies, connecting one kind of radio to a different kind of network. With the uniting of the GSM and TDMA communities (and PDC in Japan), the move towards global interoperability across these networks is being driven by the GAIT team.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Current US Wireless Issues


Core Network Considerations
Voice and data are converging into a single backbone packet network running IP or ATM Operators will seek to maximize the utilization in current backbone networks when upgrading for 3G capabilities IP-optimized networks appear to be the backbone of choice for the future given its flexibility and universal acceptance ATM backbones offer high reliability and superior QoS for voice, but the initial investment required is higher than IP-centric networks VoIP or VoATM are feasible depending on the core network choice

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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The evolution of the core network also has its variances. While everyone believes that packet data and voice over packet is a given, the medium over which the packets are transported is not the same to all. The IP vs. ATM argument continues to rage. Each has its advantages and each has its supporters. Which one chosen will likely depend on the individual needs of the operators. While ATM has better built in mechanisms for Quality of Service, it is also more expensive than IP. The tradeoff must be weighed and made accordingly.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Cellular Subscribers by Technology


North American Subscribers by Technology
Source: UWCC, June 2000
IS -95 27.5%

A N S I1 36/A MP S 64.5%

G SM 8.0%

North American TDMA-EDGE subscribers increased by 98%! North American TDMA-EDGE subscribers increased by 98%!
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 1-16

The Yankee Group is predicting that the total wireless subscriber base in North America will double within the next five years. It is likely that it will happen even sooner than that. The Universal Wireless Communications Consortium (UWCC, Bellevue, WA) claims that worldwide subscriber numbers for TDMA-EDGE have grown 87% over the past year, reaching nearly 41 million by the end of the first quarter 2000. North American TDMA-EDGE subscribers increased by 98% and currently serves over 22 million subscribers in North America.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Cellular Subscribers by Technology


World Subscribers by Technology - Estimated
Source: UWCC, Herschel Shosteck
A N S I -1 36 1 9% PDC 8%

Systems that will use GPRS as the backbone for IP traffic

I S -95/A MP S 11%

GSM 62%

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Herschel Shosteck, another well known and respected research and consulting company has estimated that by the end of 2000, almost 90% of the worlds wireless subscribers will be connected to a TDMA-based technology. The evolution of each of these networks includes the implementation of GPRS for their backbone. Following GPRS, each network will deploy EDGE or W-CDMA or a combination of the two. What this means is that GSM and ANSI-136 subscribers will enjoy global roaming for their high speed data and eventually voice services. The economies of scale brought by this union will create an undeniable force in the future high speed wireless network and ensuring the TDMA technology a long and healthy life.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Potential Wireless Auction Players


Auction Participants

Traditional

Capacity-strained Operators Coverage-limited Operators

Foreign-owned Telecoms

Domestic Telecoms without wireless assets

Spectrum Use

Cellular / PCS operators adding capacity for resale

Carriers Carrier Wholesale / Resale Model Partnership between Incumbent and ISPs / Content Provider / Portals / Automakers CLECs

DEs Small Business Entrepreneurs Local Wireless Start-Ups ISPs, Web Portals, Content Providers

Non-Traditional

Local Wireless Operators

Incumbents
January 8, 2001

Challengers
1-18

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

With the upcoming (hopefully) spectrum auctions that the FCC intends to hold for the 700 MHz spectrum as well as the future 1.6 GHz spectrum, there are a number of potential new players. Beyond the incumbents that are normally expected to participate, there will likely be several unexpected newcomers. These could be in the form of partially foreign owned telecom operators, ISPs, new wireless start ups and maybe even companies completely outside the current wireless industry scope (such as financial institutions).

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Lesson 1: Self-Check 1. What are the different wireless technologies used in the US?

2. How is the 800 MHz cellular spectrum defined?

3. How are the PCS 1900 MHz frequencies defined?

4. What are the different wireless access technologies and how do they differ?

5. What are the different possibilities for core networks as they evolve?

6. Who are some of the potential bidders in the future spectrum auctions?

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

TCP/IP and Data Fundamentals Lesson 2

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-1

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Objectives
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Review the history of the Internet Define Ethernet Define the seven layers of the OSI reference model Compare circuit and packet switching Discuss IP routing and its protocols Examine how routing works Understand IP addressing and subnet masking Understand IP addressing IPv4 vs. IPv6 Examine IP network components DNS, DHCP Understand the demand for QoS and the protocols required to deliver various levels of QoS
Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 2-2

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

History of the Internet


Arpanet
Arpanet Demonstrated Arpanet Transition to TCP/IP

Internet
Internet Society Founded Mosaic launched NSF-net Initiated World Wide Web InterNIC created Multi-protocol Environment

TCP/IP Invented

Arpanet widely used

First Gateway (IMP)

Milnet / Arpanet split

IETF formed

1968
Number of Networks Number of Nodes
January 8, 2001

1980
1 3 20 60 300 1K

1986
500 900

1993
16K 1M 50K 10M

1996
150K

2000
300K

10K 100K

50M 100M
2-3

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

The Internet is a network of networks that link schools, universities, libraries, businesses, hospitals, government agencies, and other entities into a single, large communication network that spans the globe. Even though the Internet today is used more and more by businesses and consumers, it all started with the intent to connect several research and educational institutions. The Internet grew out of an earlier U.S. Department of Defense project called, ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), that was put into place in 1969 as a pioneering project to test packet switching networks. In 1983, the military portion of the ARPANET was split off into Milnet (Military Network), and then in 1986, NSF-net was initiated, which subsequently became what is called Internet today. ARPANET was officially dismantled in 1990. The Internet is based on TCP/IP protocol, an open internetwork communication protocol; it was first defined in the early 1970s and has been modified and refined several times since. No person, government or entity owns or control the Internet. The Internet Society (ISOC) was formed in 1989 to promote global cooperation and coordination for the Internet and its internetworking technologies and applications. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) was formed in 1986 to study the evolution of Internet architecture. Today IETF is the most important standardization organization related to Internet and IP technologies. World Wide Web (WWW) was first defined / created by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in 1990, and became the reason for the popular growth of the Internet; WWW uses hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and hypertext links, changing the way information can be organized, presented and accessed on the Internet. Mosaic was the first graphical browser defined in 1993, and it took the Internet by storm! Netscape Navigator browser was later defined as a commercial package following the foot steps of Mosaic.

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January 8, 2001

Ethernet
! Ethernet is the most common medium over which TCP/IP systems operate ! It is a coaxial-based bus cabling system ! Most Ethernet transmissions are broadcast, not routed, to the appropriate Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) ! Each station listens to the message to determine whom the message belongs to

A drawing of the first Ethernet system by Bob Metcalfe

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-4

Ethernet is the de-facto hardware standard for local area networks. Ethernet (Version 2) and the very similar IEEE 802.3 standard define the physical and link layers of carrier sense multiple access/collision detection (CSMA/CD) LANs. In CSMA/CD LANs, all stations can access the network at any time. Before sending data, each station must "listen" to the network to see if it is already in use. Data is sent only if the station doesn't "hear" any data being sent. Collision, is a situation where two stations detect silence on the network and send data at the same time. To overcome collision problems, Ethernet hardware is equipped with collision detection sensors. Whenever a collision is detected, the colliding data is ignored. The stations that originally sent the data will resend it.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Internet Backbone (vBNS)


NAP Other Networks NAP NAP Other Networks

Regional ISPs

Regional ISPs

ISPs must connect to multiple NAPs

National ISP
National Service Providers (NSPs) must connect to 3 NAPs ! Peering agreements to exchange traffic ! Controversy over free peering ! Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) used for routing ! Congestion major issue ! Private peering sites

Peering Relations
Chicago NAP
PSINet Netcom UUNet

Global NAPs are called Global Internet Exchanges (GIX)


! New York ! San Francisco ! Hong Kong ! Tokyo ! Singapore ! Seoul ! Sydney
2-5

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

In 1995, NSF-nets backbone was replaced by a new network architecture called Very high speed Backbone Network System (VBNS) with 155 Mbps facilities. Originally, 4 regional Network Access Points (NAPs) were defined as a connection point and traffic exchange facility. National Service Providers (NSPs) are expected to be connected to 3 such NAPs. Regional ISPs are expected to be connected to at least 2 NAPs. NSF awarded the original contracts to various carriers in 1994. Since then, more Metropolitan Area Exchanges (MAEs) as well as Global Internet Exchanges (GIX) were established. NAPs exchange traffic between ISPs, which is called Peering; this is level 2 switching, with no filtering, no tampering as traffic flows between ISPs. NAPs and MAEs are at the top of the Internet hierarchy; they dont provide routing functionality, but the routers connected to NAPs/MAEs from the ISPs do use Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) to route traffic through these peering points.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-5

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

OSI Reference Model


Application Open System Interconnection Model Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 2-6

! Internationally accepted framework for data networks ! Essential to understand data communication principles ! Allows different systems to interconnect ! Protocols are used at different levels for communication

The seven layer Open System Interconnection (OSI) model is the reference structure for all data communication systems. All exiting data communication systems are compared to OSI model, in one way or another. Each layer of the OSI reference model has a specific set of functions it performs. It expects a set of services / functions from the layer below, and provides a set of services / functions to the layer immediately above it. There are protocols operating at each layer, communicating with similar OSI stacks at the other end. Physical Layer: Defines the physical characteristics of the interface, such as mechanical components and connectors, electrical aspects, and functional aspects. Data Link Layer: Defines the rules for sending and receiving information across a physical connection between two systems. Its main function is to divide the data stream into frames and send them across the physical link. The data link layer is concerned with getting the information to the next node. Network Layer: Ensures that packet of information reaches its destination when traveling across multiple point-to-point links. Layer 3 manages multiple data link connections. Transport Layer: Provides a high level of control for moving information between end-systems in a communication session. Layer 4 is concerned with end-to-end transport. Session Layer: Coordinates the exchange of information between systems by using conversational techniques or dialogs. Layer 5 manages the session. Presentation Layer: Defines how to present the information. Application Layer: Used for a range of applications that employ the underlying layers.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Internet Protocol Suite

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-7

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP): A protocol for creating a TCP/IP connection over both synchronous and asynchronous systems. PPP provides connections for host to network or between two routers. It also has a security mechanism. PPP is well known as a protocol for connections over regular telephone lines using modems on both ends. This protocol is widely used for connecting personal computers to the internet. Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP): A point-to-point protocol to use over a serial connection, a predecessor of PPP. There is also an advanced version of this protocol known as CSLIP (compressed serial line internet protocol) which reduces overhead on a SLIP connection by sending just header information when possible, thus increasing packet throughput. File Transfer Protocol (FTP): FTP enables transferring of text and binary files over a TCP connection. FTP allows file transfers according to a strict mechanism of ownership and access restrictions. It is one of the most commonly used protocols over the internet today.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Internet Protocol Suite cont.

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-8

Telnet: Telnet is a terminal emulation protocol, defined in RFC854, for use over a TCP connection. It enables users to login to remote hosts and use their resources from the local host. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SMTP): This protocol is dedicated for sending EMail messages originating on a local host, over a TCP connection, to a remote server. SMTP defines a set of rules which allows two programs to send and receive mail over the network. The protocol defines the data structure that would be delivered with information regarding the sender, the recipient (or several recipients) and, of course, the mail's body. Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP): A protocol used to transfer hypertext pages across the world wide web. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP): A simple protocol that defines messages related to network management. Through the use of SNMP network devices such as routers can be configured by any host on the LAN. User Datagram Protocol (UDP): A simple protocol that transfers datagrams (packets of data) to a remote computer. UDP doesn't guarantee that packets will be received in the same order they were sent. In fact it doesn't guarantee delivery at all.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-8

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)


Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical
January 8, 2001

TCP
! Connection establishment ! Reliable message transmission ! Error detection and packet re-transmission algorithms to ensure integrity of data ! Packet sequencing/ordering ! Flow control

IP
! Transmits packets known as datagrams ! Provides best-effort or connectionless delivery service ! Responsible for network addressing - IP addresses ! Current version is called version 4 - IPv4 ! Network information is distributed via routing protocols
Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 2-9

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): Like UDP, a protocol that enables a computer to send data to a remote computer. Unlike UDP, TCP is reliable i.e. packets are guaranteed to wind up at their target, in the correct order. Internet Protocol (IP): IP is the underlying protocol for all the other protocols in the TCP/IP protocol suite. IP defines the means to identify and reach a target computer on the network. Computers in the IP world are identified by unique numbers which are known as IP addresses. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP): In order to map an IP address into a hardware address the computer uses the ARP protocol which broadcasts a request message that contains an IP address. The target computer replies with both the original IP address and the hardware address. Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP): A protocol used to carry USENET posting between News clients and USENET servers.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-9

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

IP at the Center
! ! ! ! Communication protocols are divided into multiple layers At the network layer, IP (Internet Protocol) has become a widely used standard Multiple protocols are still widely used in all the other layers IP has become the glue of all data devices
Web Web Appl. / Pres. Layers Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Link Layer Physical Layer Ethernet Ethernet PPP PPP FDDI FDDI PSTN PSTN HTML HTML HTTP HTTP

File File Transfer Transfer FTP FTP TCP TCP

Email Email SMTP SMTP

Terminal Terminal Emulation Emulation Telnet Telnet

Network Network Management Management SNMP SNMP UDP UDP

VoIP VoIP H.323/SIP H.323/SIP

IP IP AAL5 AAL5 ATM ATM Frame Relay Frame Relay Wireless MAC Wireless MAC RF RF
2-10

10 / /100 Base TT 10 100 Base

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Here we see a comparison of the popular data communications protocols as they relate to the OSI reference model. IP is the common network layer protocol, as the glue for all the other layers and protocols. You can see how some of the other popular protocols are positioned in terms of the protocol layers. Applications running on computers could implement all 7 layers of the OSI stack, while routers are up to layer 3, or network layer.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Dial up Connection to Internet PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)


PPP PPP PPP PPP

Host (End User)

Dial-up connection

ISP
Point of Presence (POP)

Internet

! PPP is anchored at the user client and the ISPs RAS ! PPP allows the end user to become a fully participating member of the network ! PPP is a layer 2 protocol and IP rides over it
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 2-11

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is the most important protocol used for dial up connections for Internet access. For example, home users dial-up into their local ISP. After the modems establish a connection, a PPP session is set up between the end users system and the ISPs POP. This may include user authentication, assignment of IP address, etc. In essence, the end users computer becomes an extension of the ISPs IP network, or a fully participating member of the network. PPP is a Data Link Layer (or layer 2) protocol. Since wireless Internet access is very similar to the dial-up ISP access scenario, PPP protocol is being used for wireless access as well.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Routing vs Switching
Routing
! Connectionless ! Each packet contains destination address ! No reserved resources ! Congestion delays ! IP Address 207.69.243.215 ! Domain name www.gtcpro.com ! DNS translates domain name to IP address
10 11 00 ..

001 011 ..

001011..

.. 11 10 00

IP Router

DNS

IP Router

Switching
! Connection based ! Reserved circuit ! Quality of Service (QoS)
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 2-12

Routing, in the case of packets, takes the packet and by using the header information and the address of the packet, it sends the packet to the next appropriate router. Switching, on the other hand, establishes a virtual connection, and the information is switched through the connection for the life of the call. Circuit switching opens a direct, end-to-end connection through the network from the transmitter to the receiver. An example of circuit switching would be CSD or HSCSD. Packet switching does not require an end-to-end connection. The data is sliced up, sent through the network, and reassembled at the other end. The packets may take different routes through the network. Error checking may take place at each node or at the final destination. This varies based on the packet technology. CDPD is one example of packet switching.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

.. 00 11 10

101100..

IP Router

IP Router

2-12

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Packet Switching Protocols


! X.25
" First packet switching technology defined in 1970s " Highly reliable protocol, with error checking, etc. " Has lots of overhead, and thus lower throughput

! Frame Relay
" " " " Defined in 1980s; originally for inter-LAN communications Less error checking, passes responsibility to higher layers Uses variable length frames; operates at Data Link layer Delivers much higher speeds than X.25

! ATM
" Defined in late 1980s; designed for high speed data, voice and video " Uses fixed size cells; allows simultaneous transmission of data, voice and video " Offers high quality of service (QoS) for delay-intolerant applications
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 2-13

There are several WAN packet switching protocols that have been developed in the last 20+ years. X.25 is an ITU (previously called CCITT) protocol, developed in mid 1970s; it is a highly reliable protocol, with error checking, flow control, etc. As a result, it has a significant amount of overhead, and thus lower throughput. Frame Relay standards were defined in the 1980s as an outgrown activity from ISDN. Originally it was intended to interconnect LANs. It provides less error checking and passes responsibility for error-free communication to higher layers. It uses variable length frames. Frame Relay can deliver higher speeds than X.25. ATM is a high-speed, packet-switching technique that uses short fixed length packets called cells. Fixed length cells simplify the design of an ATM switch at the high switching speeds involved. The selection of a short fixed length cell reduces the delay and most significantly the jitter (variance of delay) for delay-sensitive services such as voice and video. ATM is capable of supporting a wide range of traffic types such as voice, video, image and various data traffic. ATM has various features that deliver high Quality of Service (QoS), especially for delay intolerant applications. AAL-5 is part of the ATM protocols operating at the data link layer.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-13

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

How IP Routing Works


Presentation TCP IP Network Access IP Network Access IP Network Access Presentation TCP IP Network Access

Router Data ! Create TCP/IP packet with 4 headers Data ! Strip 2 layers of headers Routing Table Data ! Routing table lookup ! Add 2 layers of header

Router

Routing Table

Data ! Strip 2 layers of headers Data ! Routing table lookup ! Add 2 layers of header Data ! Strip all headers ! Deliver data
2-14

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

This chart shows on a step by step basis, how packets would be routed from point A to point B, using TCP/IP. Each router would have a routing table for determining how to route or forward the packets. These routing tables would be populated based on the routing protocols used. When a TCP/IP packet is created at the originating host, it would have 4 headers, one for each layer of the TCP/IP stack; the lowest layer header would be the left-most header (inserted last). Originating host forwards the packet with these 4 headers to the first router; This router strips the left most 2 headers, does a routing table look up, and insert two new headers and forward it to the next router. Second router would strip the left most 2 headers as well, does a routing table look up and insert 2 new headers, and forward it to the next node, in this case to the destination host. Destination host would strip all the headers and deliver the data in the packet to the application layer.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

IP Routing Protocols
! Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
" Oldest Interior Gateway routing Protocol (IGP), within a domain " Uses # of hops as the criteria - distance vector " Share info between routers periodically

! Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)


" Uses several factors such as # of hops, QoS, data rates, etc. " Uses network wide data base; floods all routers with same info " Faster network recovery

! Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)


" Performs inter-domain (inter-network) routing; it is an Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)
OSPF BGP RIP Routing Protocols Transport Protocols Network Protocols
2-15

TCP Internet Protocol (IP)


January 8, 2001

UDP

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

A protocol defined by RFC 1058 that specifies how routers exchange routing table information. With RIP, routers periodically exchange entire tables. Because this is inefficient, RIP is gradually being replaced by a newer protocol called Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). Open Shortest Path First is a routing protocol developed for IP networks based on the shortest path first or link-state algorithm. Routers use link-state algorithms to send routing information to all nodes in an internetwork by calculating the shortest path to each node based on a topography of the Internet constructed by each node. Each router sends that portion of the routing table (keeps track of routes to particular network destinations) that describes the state of its own links, and it also sends the complete routing structure (topography). The advantage of shortest path first algorithms is that they result in smaller more frequent updates everywhere. The disadvantage of shortest path first algorithms is that they require a lot of CPU power and memory. In the end, the advantages out weigh the disadvantages. OSPF Version 2 is defined in RFC 1583. It is rapidly replacing RIP on the Internet. Border Gateway Protocol is an internet protocol that enables groups of routers (called autonomous systems) to share routing information so that efficient, loop-free routes can be established. BGP is commonly used within and between Internet Service Providers (ISPs) The BGP protocol is defined in RFC 1771.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-15

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Multiplexing
! Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) divides the channel by time ! Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) divides the channel into smaller frequencies ! Statistical Multiplexing divides the channel based on the requirements of the devices ! Code Division Multiplexing(CDM) transmits bits as coded channel-specific sequences of pulses. ! Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) transmits several baseband-modulated channels along a single fiber but with each channel located at a different wavelength
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 2-16

Multiplexing allows two or more signals to be sent out simultaneously over the same channel. Some of the popular techniques used for multiplexing are: TDM - TDM can be accomplished in the electrical or optical domain, with each lower-speed channel transmitting a bit (or allocation of bits known as a packet) in a given time slot and then waiting its turn to transmit another bit (or packet) after all the other channels have had their opportunity to transmit. FDM - Frequency division multiplexing divides the channel into smaller frequencies. Each message is specially formatted so that it can travel within the boundaries of a specific preconceived range. Statistical Multiplexing - Statistical multiplexing provides bandwidth or space on the channel only as needed. CDM - Each channel transmits its bits as a coded channel-specific sequence of pulses. This coded transmission typically is accomplished by transmitting a unique time-dependent series of short pulses. These short pulses are placed within chip times within the larger bit time. All channels, each with a different code, can be transmitted on the same fiber and asynchronously demultiplexed. WDM - WDM enables the utilization of a significant portion of the available fiber bandwidth by allowing many independent signals to be transmitted simultaneously on one fiber, with each signal located at a different wavelength.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Tunneling

! Transfers data packets over the Internet or other public network, providing security and features typical of private networks ! Encapsulates the data packet in a header that provides routing information to enable the encapsulated payload to securely traverse the network
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 2-17

Tunneling is a method for transferring data packets over the Internet or other public network, providing the security and features formerly available only on private networks. A tunneling protocol encapsulates the data packet in a header that provides routing information to enable the encapsulated payload to securely traverse the network. The entire process of encapsulation and transmission of packets is called tunneling, and the logical connection through which the packets travel is known as a tunnel. Although tunneling technologies have been around awhile (e.g., SNA tunneling over IP networks, and IPX tunneling for Novell NetWare over IP internetworks), there are several recently introduced tunneling technologies: !Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) !Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) Protocol !Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) !GTP (GPRS Tunneling Protocol) !IPSec (Internet Protocol Security)

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Firewalls
!Regulates access from one network to another !Allows access to Intranet services, e-mail, FTP, etc., without allowing anyone (without authorization) on the Internet to access a company's internal network ! Two main types of firewalls
" Filtering
#Decides to forward or drop a packet based on its IP header

" Proxy (includes application gateways and circuit-level gateways)


#Explicitly acts on behalf of the machine on either internal or external net Internet Public ISP Firewall
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 2-18

Corporate LAN

A Firewall is a computer system that regulates access from one network to another. It will allow a company to access Internet Services, e-mail, FTP, etc, without allowing just anyone on the Internet to access a company's internal machines. There are two main types of firewalls: filtering and proxy (includes application gateways and circuit-level gateways). A filtering firewall will decide to forward or drop a packet based on its IP header. A proxy firewall is one that explicitly acts on behalf of the machine on either internal or external net. In the beginning, it was believed that the usage of application gateways was disadvantageous due to the potential of reduced performance and incompatibility with true end-to-end encryption. It was thought that packetfiltering gateways were a better security methodology. Lately, this has been proven to be unjustified since packet filtering is insecure and prone to errors. Therefore, the current method of choice for many of contemporary firewall designers is a combination of the two.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Medium Access Control (MAC) Address


! A MAC address is a hardware address that is located in the Network Interface Card (NIC) ! The MAC address is 48 bits long and is fixed ! It is referred to as the physical address

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-19

The MAC addresses are 48 bits long and are configured into the hardware of network cards at the manufacturers, usually on Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM). The MAC addresses are labeled source and destination to identify the network cards that the frame is travelling between. Network cards that are attached to a LAN cable decode all frames that are transmitted on that cable, but the hardware will only accept and process frames with three kinds of MAC addresses: the network cards unicast address, a broadcast address, or a multicast address. The unicast address is the MAC address that was defined by the manufacturer. The broadcast address is represented by hex FF FF FF FF FF FF, and the multicast address refers to a group of LAN cards that are associated in some way.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

IP Addresses - IPv4
01 2 31

. . .
207.69.243.215 57.
Network Address

32-Bit Field. . .
" Divided into four fields

69.243.215
Host Address

! Class A Address (*)


" 126 networks " Up to 17M hosts each

! Class B Address (*) 176.69.


Network Address

243.215
Host Address

" 16K networks " Up to 65K hosts each

! Class C Address
" 2M networks " Up to 254 hosts each

207.69.243.
Network Address
January 8, 2001

215
Host Address

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-20

IPv4 uses a 32-bit address to identify the host computer and the network to which the host is attached. The structure is basically Network address + Host Address. The 32-bit address is divided into 4 fields. Each field, or octet, is represented in decimal format from 0 to 255. IP addresses are classified according to their format. Class A, Class B and Class C are shown in this chart. There are also Class D and E. The first few bits of the address indicate the rest of the address format. Class A addresses are intended for networks with a very large number of hosts. A Class A address allows up to 126 networks, with each network supporting up to 17 million hosts. Class B addresses are intended for networks with intermediate size. In a Class B network 16 bits are used for network id and 16 bits are used for host id. Class C networks contain fewer than 256 hosts, with 24 bits being used for network id. Class D addresses are used for multicasting and Class E addresses are used for experimental purposes . Currently, there are no more Class A addresses to be issued.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-20

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Subnet Masks
Network Subnet + Host

1101 0010. 0011 1000. 0001 0101 210.56.21


Subnet mask of 4 is a applied to the most significant bits of the subnet byte..... giving the subnet of 240 and ......

0000 0000

00000000 = 0

1111 0000 = 240

the user space from 241 to 254 (1111 0001 to 1111 1110)

1111 0000

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-21

Subnetting can be used for better allocation of addresses. Classes A, B, and C networks can be subnetted. Subnetting is simply borrowing addressing space from host address space to create mini-networks. In the above example, the resulting Class C address is 210.56.21.240 using a subnet mask of 4. The following rules apply for subnet masking: Class A - subnet mask size 0 to 22. Class B - subnet mask size 0 to 13. Class C - subnet mask size 0 to 6.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

IPv4 Header
Changed Removed

0 bits Ver

4 IHL

16

24 Total Length Flags Fragment Offset Header Checksum

31

Service Type

Identifier Time to Live Protocol

32 bit Source Address 32 bit Destination Address Options and Padding

20 octets + options: 13 fields, including 3 flag bits


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 2-22

The IP datagram shown above is the standard format for TCP/IP based systems. It is 32 bits wide and transmission is from top left to bottom right. Version IP protocol version. IHL Internet Header Length. Length of the header in 32 bit words. Service Type Flags for Type Of Service and precedence to indicate priority. Total Length Length of the IP datagram in octets including header and data. Identifier Unique integer value used to identify datagram fragments. Flags Specifies whether fragmentation is allowed or not. Fragment Offset Indicates position that the fragmented data occupies in the original message. Time to Live Decremented as routers relay the datagram. When field reaches 0, the datagram is discarded. Used to prevent circular loops. Protocol Indicates the transport layer protocol carried by the datagram. Header Checksum Used for header only and not data to speed up calculation at each router. Source Address The source IP address. Destination Address The destination IP address. Options and Padding Padding of 0s so the header falls on a 32 bit word boundary. Also supports debugging, measurement and security facilities.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

IPv6 Header
0 Version 4 Class 12 16 Flow Label Next Header Hop Limit 24 31

Payload Length

128 bit Source Address

128 bit Destination Address

40 Octets, 8 fields
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 2-23

As with IPv4 on the previous slide, most of the same information is included in the IPv6 header as well. The version, class and length work the same way. The flow label is basically the identifier. The hop limit is the same as the TTL in version 4 and used to prevent circular routing. The one big difference with IPv6 over IPv4 is the size of the addressing fields. In IPv6, the source and destination addresses can be 128 bits long, as compared to 32 in IPv4. This is a huge increase. Basically, IPv4 could support around 4.3 billion addresses (232). With IPv6, you can have 2128. Thats a whole lot of 0s

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

IPv6 Performance Wins


! Fixed size IPv6 header
" Unlike IPv4 - options not limited to 40 bytes

! Fewer fields in basic header


" Faster processing of basic packets " No checksum

! 64 bit alignment header/options ! Efficient option processing


" Option fields processed only when the option present " Processing of most options limited - performed only at destination ! No fragmentation in the network " More router cycles available for forwarding packets " Easier to implement in Silicon

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-24

IPv6 has been designed to enable high performance, scalable inter-networks that should operate as needed for decades. Part of the design process involved correcting the inadequacies of IPv4. IPv6 offers a number of enhanced features, such as a larger address space and improved packet formats. Scalable networking requires careful utilization of human resources as well as network resources; so, a great deal of attention has been given to creating auto configuration protocols for IPv6, minimizing the need for human intervention when assigning IP addresses and relevant network parameters such as link MTU. Other benefits relate to the fresh start that IPv6 gives to those who build and administer networks.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Domain Names - User Friendly Alternatives


IP Address = Domain Name 207.69.243.215 = www.gtcpro.com
Domain Name Server (DNS) Maps Domain names to IP address

Server/ Computer Name

Domain

Suffix

+ sub domains

www. www.

gtcpro. fcc.

com gov

Routers

route on IP addresses

World Wide Web.Federal Communications Commission.Government

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-25

Domain Name System (or Service) is an Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses. Because domain names are alphabetic, they're easier to remember. The Internet, however, is really based on IP addresses. Every time you use a domain name,a DNS server must translate the name into the corresponding IP address. For example, the domain name www.gtcpro.com translates to 207.69.243.215.

The top-level domain (called the suffix in the diagram above) is the first division of names in the hierarchy. The original five domains and purpose were: .com, for commercial, .org, for non-profit organizations, .net, for networks and network providers, .gov, for governmental agencies, and .mil, for the military. With the expansion of the Internet beyond U.S. borders, two-character country designations were adopted as well. The DNS system is, in fact, its own network. If one DNS server doesn't know how to translate a particular domain name, it asks another one, and so on, until the correct IP address is returned.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

DNS Resolvers and Name Servers


! Resolver software on PCs and workstations sends queries - what is the IP address of www.gtcpro.com? ! Resolvers are configured with the IP address of the name server ! Name servers are responsible for portions of the DNS tree and contact other name servers for names for which they are not responsible ! Name servers are distributed throughout the network

dial-up Host

ISP
POP

Internet

Domain Name

DNS Resolver Client


IP Address
January 8, 2001

DNS Name Server

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-26

Domain Name System (or Service) is an Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses. Because domain names are alphabetic, they're easier to remember. The Internet, however, is really based on IP addresses. Every time you use a domain name,a DNS server must translate the name into the corresponding IP address. For example, the domain name www.gtcpro.com translates to 207.69.243.215.

The DNS system is, in fact, its own network. If one DNS server doesn't know how to translate a particular domain name, it asks another one, and so on, until the correct IP address is returned.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)


ISP
POP

dial-up Host

Internet

DHCP Client

DHCP Server

! A protocol for automatically configuring hosts in the network ! DHCP clients in a host obtain an IP address and configuration from a DHCP server

! Enables mobile users to connect anywhere ! Efficiently reuses IP addresses

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-27

DHCP Benefits ! Without DHCP, administrators must rely on distributed methods of address allocation. They must also physically visit each PC to configure it for network use and then manually update the DNS. ! To assign an address to a mobile host, an administrator must reserve an address on each subnet where a mobile host may attach to the network. With DHCP they can connect anywhere. ! Most organizations have access to a limited number of addresses for allocation. To make the most efficient use of address space, organizations need to be able to reclaim and reuse addresses. They can do this with DHCP.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Network QoS: IP Precedence & DiffServ


QoS is a the ability of a service provider network to guarantee a throughput level to meet a customers application requirements.
TOS Precedence Bits (3 bits) D T R 0 Rsvd 0

DiffServ Code Points (8 bits) 64 points DiffServ

VER Ver

HL

TOS Flags

Total Length Frag Offset Hdr Checksum

QoS can be divided into four areas: Data Integrity Precedence Delay Throughput
2-28

Identification TTL Protocol

Source IP Address Destination IP Address


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Short for Quality of Service, QoS is a networking term that specifies a guaranteed throughput level. One of the biggest advantages of ATM over competing technologies such as Frame Relay and Fast Ethernet, is that it supports QoS levels. This allows ATM providers to guarantee to their customers that end-to-end latency will not exceed a specified level.

The second byte in the IP header is known as the Type of Service (TOS) byte. It was part of the original specification, but was rarely used in implementations. IP Precedence is 3 bits in length which allows for 8 different bit patterns or levels of prioritization. DiffServ uses 6 bits as what it calls DiffServ Code Points. 6 bits will support up to 64 different code points. This field is carried with the packet, therefore any intermediate router that supports IP Precedence or DiffServ can prioritize this packet. DiffServ and IP Precedence provide the capability for end-to-end QoS.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)


! RSVP is simplex, i.e., it makes reservations for unidirectional data flows ! RSVP is receiver-oriented, i.e., the receiver of a data flow initiates and maintains the resource reservation used for that flow ! RSVP maintains a "soft" state in routers and hosts, providing graceful support for dynamic membership changes and automatic adaptation to routing changes ! RSVP is not a routing protocol but depends upon present and future routing protocols ! RSVP transports and maintains traffic control and policy control parameters that are opaque to RSVP
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 2-29

A host uses RSVP to request a specific Quality of Service (QoS) from the network, on behalf of an application data stream. RSVP carries the request through the network, visiting each node the network uses to carry the stream. At each node, RSVP attempts to make a resource reservation for the stream. To make a resource reservation at a node, the RSVP daemon communicates with two local decision modules, admission control and policy control. Admission control determines whether the node has sufficient available resources to supply the requested QoS. Policy control determines whether the user has administrative permission to make the reservation. If either check fails, the RSVP program returns an error notification to the application process that originated the request. If both checks succeed, the RSVP daemon sets parameters in a packet classifier and packet scheduler to obtain the desired QoS. The packet classifier determines the QoS class for each packet and the scheduler orders packet transmission to achieve the promised QoS for each stream. RSVP is also designed to utilize the robustness of current Internet routing algorithms. RSVP does not perform its own routing; instead it uses underlying routing protocols to determine where it should carry reservation requests. As routing changes paths to adapt to topology changes, RSVP adapts its reservation to the new paths wherever reservations are in place. This modularity does not rule out RSVP from using other routing services. Current research within the RSVP project is focusing on designing RSVP to use routing services that provide alternate paths and fixed paths. RSVP runs over IP, both IPv4 and IPv6. Among RSVP's other features, it provides opaque transport of traffic control and policy control messages, and provides transparent operation through non-supporting regions.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Policy-Based Networking
Policy based networking determines how a network handles a customers traffic

Best Effort SNA ISP PBX Voice


34
VANGUARD

34

VANGUARD

QoS Network Telnet, Email, FTP, Web


January 8, 2001

ISP (Platinum, Gold), Intranet, Frame Relay

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-30

In a typical network environment, resources are granted without any regard for an application's or user's importance to the corporate objective. Mission critical database traffic is viewed no differently than users looking at stock quotes or sports scores. As a corporate network becomes congested, every user experiences inconsistent and unpredictable network performance. Policy based networking solutions allow network managers to define a relationship between organizational needs and network actions. Awareness of users coupled with awareness of the state of the network allow network managers to optimize end to end network services according to need, revenue generated, or other business requirements. Policy-based routing assumed I have two or more paths that I can route my IP packets over. In this example I have a best-effort ISP, for a fixed monthly cost, that I use for Email and FTP. My second network would carry traffic that needed some Quality of Service guarantees. It could be the company Intranet running over Frame Relay, or it could be a Network Service Provider (NSP), where I am paying extra for some latency guarantees. Policy-based routing is also known as layer 4 switching and it supports all types of nonbroadcast IP traffic. Voice would also need to be encapsulated in IP to be transported over this network. This type of routing uses network administrator defined policies to override routing based on dynamic routing protocols (RIP, RIP2, OSPF). Traffic is categorized by Flow, then predefined policies or actions can be applied to the Flow as well as Time of Week profiles can be applied. Also, it can be used to screen which IP traffic uses backup links.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Integrated Services
! Todays Internet provides Best Effort class of Service ! Integrated Services proposes two additional classes of service: Guaranteed Service and Predictive Service ! Differentiated Services (DiffServ) were introduced because of the problems associated with deploying Integrated Services ! Differentiated Service is a relative-priority scheme ! For a customer to receive differentiated services from an ISP, he must have a Service Level Agreement (SLA) with his ISP
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 2-31

With Best Effort service, traffic is processed as quickly as possible, but there is no guarantee as to timeliness or actual delivery. With the exponential growth of the internet into a commercial infrastructure, demands for service quality have been pushed to the forefront. Companies that do offer services on the web will be willing to pay for a reliable class of service. There may be Gold Service, Silver Service, or Bronze Service, with decreasing quality. Another service class will provide low delay and low jitter to applications such as Internet Telephony and Video Conferencing. Guaranteed Service will be used for applications that require fixed delay bound. Applications requiring Guaranteed Service must set up paths and reserve resources before transmitting their data. Predictive Service will be used for applications that require probabilistic delay bound. The problem with Integrated Services is that they place huge storage and processing requirements on the routers. In order for a customer to receive differentiated services from an ISP, he must have a Service Level Agreement (SLA) with his ISP. An SLA basically specifies the service classes supported and the amount of traffic allowed in each class. An SLA can be static or dynamic. Static SLAs are negotiated on a on a monthly or yearly basis. Dynamic SLAs must use a signaling protocol, like RSVP to request a level of service.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Multiprotocol Label Switching


! Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) provides for the efficient designation, routing, forwarding, and switching of traffic flows through the network. ! MPLS remains independent of Layer 2 and Layer 3 protocols ! MPLS supports IP, ATM, and Frame-Relay Layer 2 protocols

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-32

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a versatile solution that addresses the problems faced by present-day networks-- speed, scalability, quality-ofservice (QoS) management, and traffic engineering. MPLS can exist over existing Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and frame-relay networks. MPLS provides a means to map IP addresses to fixed-length labels used by different packet-forwarding and packet-switching technologies. Data transmission occurs on LSPs (Label Switched Paths) which are a sequence of labels at each node along the path between the source and the destination. MPLS is a forwarding scheme. In the OSI seven-layer model, it lies between Layer 2 and Layer 3. MPLS can be used together with DiffServ to provide QoS.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

SIP vs H.323
! SIP and H.323 are call signaling protocols for services over IP ! SIP and H.323 are competing to be the protocol of choice for VoIP ! The main difference between these two protocols is how the call signaling and control is achieved

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-33

SIP is an application layer control protocol that can establish, modify, and terminate multimedia sessions or calls. SIP message format is based on on Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) message format, which uses a human-readable, text based encoding. SIP was developed by the IETF, the Internet Engineering Task Force. H.323 is a standard that specifies the components, protocols, and procedures that provide multimedia communication services - real time audio, video, and data communications over packet networks, including IP based networks. H.323 was developed by the ITU, the International Telecommunications Union.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

IP-Sec
! Most complete security implementation
" Tunneling " Encryption " Data Integrity " Authentication

! Included in Windows 2000 ! Mandatory in IPv6

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

2-34

IP Sec is a security architecture to which any encryption or authentication algorithms can be easily added, as new ones come along. IP Sec will replace the other tunneling protocols currently available. It provides the most complete network security and supports both remote access and site to site applications. It is entirely standards based and is mandatory in IPv6. It will also be included in Windows 2000.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Lesson 2: Self-Check 1. Describe the 7 layers of the OSI Reference Model.

2. What are the major functions of the TCP and IP protocol layers?

3. Explain the major differences between routing and switching.

4. What benefits will IPv6 provide over and above IPv4?

5. What does a Domain Name Server do and why is it needed?

6. What is a policy-based network and why would you want one?

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Wireless Intelligent Networks Lesson 3

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-1

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Objectives
! ! ! ! Define the wireless intelligent network Examine the evolution of services Define location-based services Define prepaid wireless

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-2

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-2

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

What is the Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN)?


! The extension of wireline IN concepts to the ANSI-41D based wireless network ! Separates service logic and/or feature functionality from the wireless network switch and distributes that functionality ! Specifications of the Telecommunications Industry Associations (TIA) WIN Task Group (TR 45.2.2.4)

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-3

The Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN) is a concept developed by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) Standards Committee TR45.2. As the wireless industry has grown, so has the demand for multiple services that allow subscribers to handle or select incoming calls in a variety of ways. Cellular subscribers have come to expect services such as caller ID and voice messaging bundled into the package when they buy and activate a cellular or PCS phone. IN solutions have revolutionized wireline networks. Rapid creation and deployment of services has become the hallmark of a wireline network based on IN concepts. WIN brings those same successful strategies into the wireless networks.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Driving Forces for WIN

! ! ! ! !

Greater control of wireless network functionality Faster feature introduction Flexibility to choose which features are developed Customized services for subscribers Competitive solutions from multiple vendors

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-4

Because WIN capabilities are located on an off-board server, service creation and customization is a greatly accelerated process. Enhanced services are increasing in popularity. Enhanced services will entice potential customers and drive up airtime through increased usage of personal communications services. Obviously, the reasons behind WIN are to provide the means for greater control over the services provided by the network. They are implemented and administered in a central location as opposed to individually in each switch. This allows for faster introduction of the services and makes customization of the services possible for each and every subscriber. Not only does this provide a competitive advantage but it can also help to lower churn and retain the customer base in addition to providing additional revenue streams.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

WIN Requirements

! Flexible distribution of service logic supporting functions


" Wireless service provider can choose a WIN architecture to match network topology

! New WIN-based services must coexist with existing wireless services


" Switch-based services (e.g., call waiting) " Existing HLR based services (e.g., call forwarding)

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-5

The main requirements of the WIN architecture are to provide a means for flexible distribution of the service logic. This allows network operators to deploy an architecture that fits their network structure. In addition, it is important that any new WIN-based services must be able to work with any existing wireless services, regardless of whether they are switch-based or HLR-based. The goal is to provide a seamless collection of services.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

WIN Concepts

! Based on wireline IN concepts


" During call processing, switch can detect events (triggers) at various points where call processing can be interrupted to request IN processing (e.g., at origination or completion of dialing) " The switch then queries IN service logic for further instructions " Service logic can be programmed to provide new services

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-6

The wireless version of the Intelligent Network is based on the wireline version using the same concepts of trigger detection points (TDPs). The TDPs can be in several different places within the call processing stream, i.e. at origination, at termination or during mid-call.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

What is Driving the Evolution of Wireless Services?


US Wireless 106M+ subscribers in 2000 43 million mobile workers in the U.S. Data today: less than 2% of all wireless traffic; by 2002: 23% of traffic 13 years to achieve 25% penetration Internet Approaching 150 million users 39% of US Internet users want wireless access 75% of laptop users have wireless phones 7 years to achieve 25% penetration

! Global mobility and Internet growth: two exploding phenomena ! Untapped opportunity to offer Internet and IP services to a growing base of advanced wireless subscribers and mobile workers
Sources: Strategis, Yankee Group
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 3-7

The phenomenal growth in wireline Internet subscribers points to the possibility of wireless operators capturing some of this market, provided they can offer comparable price-performance. The two technologies are rapidly merging as wireless subscribers who have been educated to the wonders of data through their wireline Internet experience now desire to make it mobile. On the flip side, wireline Internet subscribers who also tend to have mobile phones now wish to have data on their phone. The common underlying characteristic by both is the drive to take their world with them, wherever they go.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

WIN Architecture Elements


IP

IS-41 Signaling SN SSP SCP Voice Channel

Service Service

Subscriber Subscriber

SSP

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-8

Service Switching Point (SSP) Major function of the SSP is to detect events during call processing, called triggers, that indicate an IN call event After triggering, the SSP suspends call processing and starts a series of transactions with the SCP to determine the handling of the call Service Control Point (SCP) Real-time database and transaction processing system that provides service control and service data functions Performs subscriber or application specific service logic in response to a query from SSP and then sends back instructions to perform specified functions and how to continue call processing Provides mechanisms for introducing new services and customizing services and features Intelligent Peripheral (IP) Performs specialized resource functions such as: Playing announcements Collecting digits Speech recognition Recording and storing voice messages Facsimile services... Under the control of service logic Service Node (SN) A programmable network node that allows the service provider to create new circuit related services Provides both service logic processing and call terminations for specialized resource functions Combines capabilities of SCP and IP

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

A Simple Intelligent Network Service


Uses Global Title Uses Global Title Routing to reach Routing to reach the SCP the SCP
3 4
STP

Translates the 800 Translates the 800 number to a DID number to a DID
SCP

Dials 1-800-333-4444
1

313-456-6789 Rings
7 6
SSP

2 5
SSP

Triggers the SCP Triggers the SCP for routing for routing instructions instructions
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 3-9

A simple example of an intelligent network-based service is when a subscriber dials an 800 number. The originating SSP is triggered off of the 800 number to send a signaling message (TCAP) to the SCP. The message is routed through one (or more) STPs before it reaches the SCP. Once the SCP receives the message, it decodes it and follows the service logic for that particular number. In this case, the logic is a simple number translation that provides the real direct dial number. That number is returned to the originating SSP. At that point, the originating SSP then proceeds to setup the call with the terminating SSP.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Network Roaming Gateways


! Network Roaming Gateways are interworking nodes between ANSI-41 and GSM MAP networks ! They can receive ANSI-41 messages from an ANSI41 network and invoke the corresponding GSM MAP operations towards GSM-based networks ! They can receive GSM MAP messages from a GSM network and invoke the corresponding ANSI-41 operations towards ANSI-41 based networks ! Eventually, they will evolve to support SIP, H.323

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-10

Due to the widespread deployment of GSM and IS-41 networks, the need for interworking between them has become more prevalent than ever. Roaming gateways and conversion nodes provide a translation function between the networks allowing subscribers to roam from one network to the other and vice versa. The contain the message sets of both networks and map corresponding messages prior to transmission within the network. Today, most of these nodes provide GSM to IS-41 translation but they are evolving to include support for SIP and H.323 translation functions as well. This will be a critical element in the all IP network.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Network Roaming Gateway


GSM HLR ANSI-41 HLR

STP 1

STP 2

STP

STP

GSM MSC/VLR
VLR MSC
!Appears as an ANSI-41 HLR to the ANSI-41 MSC !Appears as an ANSI-41 HLR to the ANSI-41 MSC !Appears as a GSM HLR to the GSM MSC !Appears as a GSM HLR to the GSM MSC !Appears as an ANSI-41 MSC to the ANSI-41 HLR !Appears as an ANSI-41 MSC to the ANSI-41 HLR !Appears as a GSM MSC to the GSM HLR !Appears as a GSM MSC to the GSM HLR Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

ANSI-41 MSC/VLR
VLR MSC

January 8, 2001

3-11

The network roaming gateway sits in between the two networks but gives the appearance as though it is a regular part of the network. It is transparent in nature and only exists to provide conversions of messages.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

A New WIN Architecture


Next Generation Network is Focused on Services
Network-Independent service layer Network-Independent service layer

Service Application Layer Call Control Layer

Next Generation Next Generation Network Network


Interconnection of Interconnection of various technologies various technologies and networks based and networks based on open interfaces on open interfaces

Transport (packet-based switching & routing)

Universal Access
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 3-12

The next generation WIN architecture will look quite different from its current form. The networks themselves are evolving to a distinct separation into independent layers. The access network will provide universal access from any medium or device, wireless access or otherwise. The transport layer will be a packet-based network of switches and routers communicating via IP over ATM or some other medium. The call control will be separated from the transport with features being provided from server-based platforms. And the services and applications layer will be separated from the rest of the network connected via standard open interfaces. These services will be network independent and may be part of the operators network or they belong to a third party independent provider.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Next Generation WIN Objective


! Mobility based on the User, not the terminal ! Leverage IP/Internet to provide services across: " Multiple devices " Multiple access technologies " Multiple networks

Access independence: Access independence: 2G, 3G, 802.11, 2G, 3G, 802.11, xDSL, cable, ... xDSL, cable, ...

Internet
Network independence: Network independence: Intranet, extranet, Intranet, extranet, mobile, SOHO mobile, SOHO
Hub

Rtr

Device independence: Device independence: User Addressability User Addressability user@domain user@domain January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Device independence: Device independence: RF access provided RF access provided by wireless NIC by wireless NIC 3-13

The next generation of the Wireless Intelligent Network architecture is coupled with the evolution of the network to high speed packet capabilities along with the influences of the Internet. The services will provide the user with the same look and feel regardless of location (the Virtual Home Environment). The objective is to deliver personal communications based on: !the user, not the device !supporting multiple forms of access !supporting multiple forms of media !communicate seamlessly with the rest of the world via whatever means suits the user vs. the user adapting to the means available.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Devices Will be a Key to the Future


! PDA (Personal Digital Assistant)
# Infrared # Bluetooth # PCMCIA devices $ Sub-laptop / palmtops

" Wireless connectivity/desktop integration

! Thin browsers

! Smartphones / Communicators
" " " " " Symbian (Psion-epoc32) Microsoft pocket PC Palm VII; Web clipping Handspring Qualcomm PDQ, thin phone
# Wireless knowledge

" WAP " Phone.Com " Java 2 micro edition

! Development environments
January 8, 2001

" Neopoint " HP: Jornada - GPRS

" Java, J2ME, downloadable applets


Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 3-14

Today, the power is in the network. Tomorrow, the power will be shared between the devices (downloadable applets and applications) and the network (personal information manager (PIM) functions stored on the network). These are some examples of devices that contain the power for future services: Infrared exists today. Bluetooth will be available in 2000. It is a short distance RF link. Thin browser: reduced browser functionality. J2ME: mini Java virtual machine, that will reside in low power devices, like cell phones, credit cards. Java: Most development of applications is moving towards Java in order to be platform independent.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Location-Based Services
Information Services ! Location-based news ! Traffic alerts ! Weather alerts ! Traffic on route ! Navigation information ! People finder ! Bargain finder ! Safety ! Roadside assistance
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 3-15

E-911

The Wireless location-based services market potential covers all of the current US customer base, and much of the international as well. The location services market will emerge as follows: !Small, niche market up to year 2001 !Europe / North America split $1B market in 2001 !US market gated by introduction of E-911 !Mass-market from 2001 and beyond The consumer market for location services will be driven by: !E-911/safety products - highly attractive to mobile subscribers !Strong consumer interest in location-based billing to provide wireline rates The FCC has mandated that Wireless subscribers be located on 911 calls by 10/1/2001 (handsets begin deployment 3/1/2001).

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

US Federal Regulations
! FCC E-911 Phase I
" April 98 deployment " Multiple solutions are available, yet only 3% penetration " Barriers to deployment have been identified by the FCC, CTIA, Public Safety and the industry as
#Lack of Liability Protection for the Wireless Carrier #Complicated Cost Recovery

! Widespread concern that Phase II will see even lower penetration rates ! FCC has addressed the cost recovery mechanism
" Bill & Keep

! Federal bills passed to provide Wireless Liability Protection


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 3-16

The FCC is making the industry locate mobiles accurately, specifically for 911 calls. Phase II rules have changed to allow for a handset based location solution. Multiple solutions have been available for Phase I since it began deployment on April 1, 1998. Yet, there has been only a 3% penetration of the Phase 1 cell/sector based location service. Reasons for this have been identified as: The PSAPs (Public Safety Answering Points) did not want cell/sector location accuracy. Lack of liability protection for wireless carriers. Complicated cost recovery. The secret service and public safety personnel are anxious to get this service. The FCC ruled for Bill & Keep for Wireless & Wireline carriers in the US. PSAPs will continue to have to demonstrate that they have adequate cost recovery & can technically receive the location information before they can request service of the Wireless Carriers. Wireless/Wireline carriers will have to bill for their own revenue/cost recovery separately in those states/legislatures that have not already provided for their cost recovery. Everyone is trying to figure out how to pay for the location capability, what consumers want and are willing to pay for.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Changed E-911 Phase II Rules


Network-based Solution Requirements

Accuracy requirements: Accuracy requirements:


PDE Neighbor Cell # 1 PDE Serving Cell PDE Neighbor Cell # 2

Penetration allowed over an Penetration allowed over an 18 month period and 18 month period and must begin by October 1, 2001, must begin by October 1, 2001, following a PSAP request: following a PSAP request:
" 50% within 6 months " 50% within 6 months " 100% within 18 months " 100% within 18 months

" 100 meters, 67% of calls " 100 meters, 67% of calls " 300 meters, 95% of calls " 300 meters, 95% of calls

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-17

Lets look at the new FCC rules, which were published in September of last year, as they represent the industry adopted location requirements. The FCC has revised its original ruling on Phase 2 of the 911 bill to allow for a handset based location determination solution in addition to the originally specified network-based solution. A handset solution can take advantage of the extremely popular, widely available and highly accurate Global Positioning System (GPS). For a network-based solution, the requirements did not change much from their original specifications. The accuracy requirements have remained 100 meters for 67% of the calls and 300 meters for 95% of the calls. What was added to the original requirements is the timeframe for when the capability must be available. Deployment must still begin by October 1, 2001 but the coverage rate will depend on when (and/or if) a PSAP makes a request to support the phase II requirements. The only technology that is widely deployed in wireless networks today is cell & sector information. This scheme is used to meet Phase 1 E-911 emergency service requirements in the USA, wireless office location specific billing applications and some location-specific information request services.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Changed E-911 Phase II Rules


Handset-based Solution Requirements
Accuracy requirements: Accuracy requirements:
" 50 meters, 67% of calls " 50 meters, 67% of calls " 150 meters, 95% of calls " 150 meters, 95% of calls

PDE Neighbor Cell # 1

PDE Serving Cell

Penetration allowed over a 4 year Penetration allowed over a 4 year period, but must begin by March 1, period, but must begin by March 1, 2001: 2001: If PSAP requests, 100% of new If PSAP requests, 100% of new activated handsets must be location activated handsets must be location capable within 6 months capable within 6 months Fall back is Phase IIaccuracy for Fall back is Phase accuracy for roamers and non-location capable roamers and non-location capable mobiles mobiles
" 50% activated handsets Oct. 2001 " 50% activated handsets Oct. 2001 " 95% activated handsets Oct. 2002 " 95% activated handsets Oct. 2002

PDE Neighbor Cell # 2

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-18

The revised ruling for E-911 Phase II requirements expanded the options of possible methods that an operator can choose to deploy location capabilities. By allowing handset-based solutions, the FCC has provided the springboard for generating the location accuracies needed for commercial services to be viable. But the requirements are more stringent than for the network-based solution. Handset deployment must begin in the US on March 1, 2001, regardless of PSAP requesting the service. Penetration is allowed over a 4 year period, initially only on activated handsets, then eventually covering the entire subscriber base, with a clause phrased, available best practices, are used to convert all subscribers to be location capable handsets. This frees the wireless carrier of concern for roamers and legacy mobiles. Handset-centric technology solutions include the Global Positioning System (GPS), overlay triangulation technologies based on timing or angle of signal transmission and reception at the handset (E-OTD, TOA) and Cell & Sector information. The location accuracy requirements mandated for handset deployments imply the use of differential GPS technology.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Location Determination Requirements


! Locating a mobile has three basic requirements:
" Measuring the Time of Arrival (TOA) or Angle of Arrival (AOA) between some fixed point and the mobile " Triangulating the TOA from a minimum of three points of reference (more points of reference provide a higher degree of accuracy) " Clear Line of Sight and a strong signal

! Wireless (Cellular & PCS) RF Networks are built and deployed based on voice & data mobile requirements:
" Reduce co-channel interference using such things as power control and antenna down-tilting " Capacity coverage to deliver the voice & data to those areas that require it (but not always 3 cells all the time)

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-19

What are the requirements of locating a mobile unit: !A way to measure either the time difference of arrival or angle of arrival between some fixed point and the mobile is needed. !Then, a minimum of three points of reference in order to triangulate the TDOA in order to determine the mobiles location is needed. !More points of reference will provide a higher degree of accuracy, while less points of reference will degrade location accuracy. A strong signal will facilitate increasing the available points of reference. !A Clear Line of Sight will facilitate higher accuracy's by reducing error which may be introduced by signal bounce and interference. Cellular and PCS networks have been built with very different Voice & Data requirements like: !Reduce cellular interference levels among adjacent cells by using various techniques such as power control, antenna down tilting, and frequency use planning. !In order to provide coverage designed to deliver just enough capacity for consumers communications requirements, not to provide hear-ability to 3 or more cells from everywhere in the network..

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-19

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Time of Arrival Method


Network Network Based Based 3 3
GPS Sync Absolute time information provided by the LMU

2 2

Time stamped TOA information transmitted to the network

LMU

LMU

Wireless Network
LMU

GMLC/SMLC

Time of Arrival information collected by the LMU

1 1

!Each Location Measurement Unit (LMU) measures time-of-arrival of handover access bursts from mobile, sends data to SMLC. LMUs must be synchronized (GPS receiver integrated). !SMLC performs position calculation by triangulation, given LMU coordinates !MS has no new functions to perform
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 3-20

In the Time Of Arrival (TOA) method of positioning, a Location Measurement Unit (LMU) resides next to each base station. It is the job of the LMU to perform the measurement of the mobile based on a forced handover. This measurement data is then sent to a Serving Mobile Location Center (SMLC). The SMLC receives all of the measurements from the various LMUs and calculates the position based on a triangulation of the measurements. The mobile does not have to do anything new or different. Therefore, this method will work with any legacy handset currently used in the network. The advantage to this solution is that it will support any and all legacy handsets since it is a pure network overlay. The disadvantages are that it is expensive (a lot of equipment must be deployed), the accuracy is questionable for commercial services and the signaling load generated on the network could get very high.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-20

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Enhanced-Observed Time Difference


Handset Handset Based Based 3 3
TOA and RTD information transmitted to the network LMU Real Time Difference information collected by the LMU

2 2

Wireless Network
LMU

1 1
Time of Arrival information collected by the MS

GMLC/SMLC

!MS measures difference in time-of-arrival of signals from BTSs, calculates position by triangulation (given BTS coordinates) !Function of LMU is to measure clock drift between BTSs, report them to SMLC !Function of SMLC is to coordinate location request, send assistance info to MS (timing deltas from LMU, BTS coordinates)
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 3-21

The Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD) method of location is somewhat different than TOA. With E-OTD, the mobile must actually perform some of the calculation. It is the mobiles job to measure the difference in the time of arrival of the signals from the base stations. The LMU in this case, measures clock drift between the base stations and provides this information to the SMLC. Here, the LMUs must be synchronized. The SMLC handles the coordination requests and sends the information to the mobile to assist with the measurements. The advantage to this solution is that it will be cheaper to deploy than TOA (less equipment) and has been shown to have slightly higher accuracy. The disadvantages are that it requires modifications to the handset so it will not support legacy handsets already deployed in the network. Also, the accuracy remains in question and may not meet the FCC guidelines.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

GPS (Standard Version)


G PS Sat

Handset Handset Based Based


SM LC

G P S R eferen ce R e c e iv e r

A S S IS T A N C E

BTS G P S LM U MS + GPS Rx

!MS measures signals from 3 satellites to align itself in x,y,z coordinates. MS measures 4th satellite to get accurate time info !Function of LMU is to measure delta in time between BTS clock, satellite clock. Data is sent to SMLC !GPS reference receiver (DGPS) provides ephemeris data, satellite navigation data and differential correction data (SA, ionospheric) to SMLC !Function of SMLC is to provide assistance data to MS (DGPS correction data, satellite ephemeris, timing delta from LMU)
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 3-22

In the standardized version of the GPS method of location, the mobile measures the signals from 3 different GPS satellites to determine its coordinates. A 4th signal is used for timing. The LMU, again synchronized with the network, determines any time shifts between the base stations and sends the information to the SMLC. A GPS reference receiver is used to provide dynamic data such as any signal correction information to the SMLC. The obvious advantage to this solution is the degree of accuracy attainable which makes it very well suited for commercial services. The disadvantages are the requirements on the handset. There is a higher cost and bulky technology (as well as power usage) required to implement a GPS receiver in the handset. Also, GPS does not do well (if at all) inside buildings or in high-rise (multi-floor) buildings.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

GPS (Non-Standard Version)


G PS Sat

Handset Handset Based Based


G P S R e fe re n c e R e c e iv e r SM LC A s s is t a n c e d a t a to M S , p s e u d o ra n g e s to SM LC

No LMUs Required No LMUs Required


BTS

MS + GPS Rx

!MS measures signals from 3 satellites to align itself in x,y,z coordinates. MS takes snapshot of RF spectrum, performs initial post-processing and provides raw pseudorange to SMLC. This requires extra memory, processing power in MS !GPS reference receiver (DGPS) provides ephemeris data, satellite navigation data and differential correction data (SA, ionospheric) to SMLC !Function of SMLC is to provide a subset of assistance data to MS (satellite ephemeris, extensive navigation data) and perform final position calculation, given uncorrected pseudoranges from MS and differential correction data from the GPS ref. receiver.
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 3-23

There is also a non-standardized (at least as of today) version of GPS. This version was developed by SnapTrack and is currently being tested and deployed by a number of operators around the world. The main difference between this version of GPS and the previously discussed version is where the actual calculation is performed. In the standard version, the mobile performs the calculation based on assistance data provided by the SMLC. In this version, the SMLC ultimately performs the calculation. As with the standard version, the obvious advantage to this solution is the degree of accuracy attainable which also makes it very well suited for commercial services. Additionally, no LMUs are required in the network which simplifies deployment and lowers the overall cost. The disadvantages again, are the requirements on the handset. There is a higher cost and bulky technology (as well as power usage) required to implement a GPS receiver in the handset. Also, GPS does not do well (if at all) inside buildings or in high-rise (multi-floor) buildings.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Location Network Configuration


BSC
Lb A-Interface BTS

Serving Mobile Location Center (SMLC)

MSC HLR
SS7

Ls

Location Location Capable Capable Handset Handset BTS

SS7 LMU Lg Lh Lc

PSAP

Commercial Services
January 8, 2001

Gateway Mobile Location Center (GMLC)

External Client
3-24

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Just as there are a number of location technology alternatives available for providing location services to mobile subscribers, there are also different network architecture alternatives as well. There is a network-centric or NSS approach and there is a base station centric or BSS approach. The difference mainly is whether the Location Server (SMLC) is connected to the MSC or to the BSC. There are obvious implications to these network elements but from an architecture standpoint, the deployment of locationenabling components is the same. The new entities are the Location Measurement Unit (LMU), the Serving Mobile Location Center (SMLC) and the Gateway Mobile Location Center (GMLC).

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Wireless Prepaid
Wireless Prepaid gives subscribers the option of paying for a Wireless Prepaid gives subscribers the option of paying for a specified number of airtime minutes, prior to using the service specified number of airtime minutes, prior to using the service Subscriber benefits ! Looks and feels like traditional service ! Can use existing handset and phone number ! Flexibility to switch between prepaid and traditional service ! Voucher or credit card payment options available through customer care or self-serve IVR (Interactive Voice Response)
January 8, 2001

Operator benefits ! Trunkless and switchless ! WIN based ! Real-time rated network solution ! Lowers subscriber acquisition cost ! Rate plan flexibility

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-25

Prepaid Wireless is an IN-based solution which lowers operating costs due to removing switch and voice ports. A mid-call trigger allows a call to be taken down when the account balance reaches zero. The prepaid wireless solution also enables roaming, originations, terminations, and vertical services. Prepaid is expected to be very big in the wireless data world as well. Many subscribers are likely to prepay their data usage.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Prepaid - Who is it for?


! Not just for the credit challenged ! Individuals seeking choice, flexibility and control
" Students/teens " Generation Y " Entrepreneurs " Families on a budget " Retirees " Small, medium and large business

! Operators with a multi-segment strategy reaping greatest benefits of prepaid ! Prepaid applications and high speed packet data will have a major influence on 3G networks
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 3-26

Prepaid has been extremely successful in Europe and has been around in GSM networks for a long time. It has only recently, begun to take off in the US. A lot of the reason for the slow acceptance was the stigma that Prepaid had as a service that was best suited for and only used by those people that could not afford regular cellular service. This image has changed as more and more people now see prepaid as an alternative plan for managing their spending. Prepaid works well for parents who want to provide a fixed level of cellular service for their teenagers or for anyone that wants to better control their budget for wireless service but still receive all of the benefits that wireless brings.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Some Interesting World Forecasts


Wireless Subscribers (World): 1996-2005
700000

600000

CAGR CAGR Contract: 10% Contract: 10%

C ontra ct
500000
Subscribers (000s)

P re pa id

400000

Wireless Wireless subscriptions are subscriptions are being dominated by being dominated by prepaid cards. The prepaid cards. The phenomenal success phenomenal success of prepaid started in of prepaid started in 1996 and will account 1996 and will account for half of the worlds for half of the worlds total wireless total wireless subscriptions by 2005 subscriptions by 2005

300000

200000

CAGR CAGR Prepaid: 34% Prepaid: 34%

100000

0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Source: Ovum, Strategis

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3-27

Much has been publicized about the tremendous growth of Prepaid services around the world. The uptake has been phenomenal in Europe as well as other parts of the world and recently, it has taken off in the US. Although in the US, GSM accounts for a relatively small amount of the wireless subscribers, those same subscribers account for about 60% of the total Prepaid subscribers. This trend does not appear to be slowing. It is estimated that by 2005, just over half of all new wireless subscriptions will be Prepaid.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Lesson 3: Self-Check 1. What is WIN?

2. List some of the WIN requirements.

3. What is the function of a Network Roaming Gateway?

4. What are the two kinds of solutions possible for phase 2 of the E-911 law?

5. List some of the possible applications for commercial location-based services.

6. List some of the different markets for prepaid wireless.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

2G Wireless Networks and Services Lesson 4

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-1

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Objectives

! Examine the path for the evolution of data ! Define the different technology access methods ! Define CSD and HSCSD and differentiate between the AMPS, TDMA and GSM deployments ! Define CDPD and its network elements ! Define SMS and its network architecture ! Review ESMR

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-2

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-2

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Data Evolution Path


Network Evolution Ubiquitous packet coverage
CDPD Packet Service Circuit Switched Data Interactive Messaging !Low bandwidth (9.6-19.2 kbps) !Delivers variety of data services GPRS/EDGE/UMTS !Always available packet service !Performance for evolving market !Seamless coverage !144 kbps - 384 kbps 2Mbps

WAP, Palm O/S, Win CE, Java User Appliances Voice/Data convergence

Applications Verticals markets now moving horizontal Vertical Markets

Business Market

Mass Consumer Market

1998
January 8, 2001

1999

2000

2001

2002
4-3

Simple user interfaces, always on, packet service leveraging Internet growth Simple user interfaces, always on, packet service leveraging Internet growth
Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

The evolution of wireless data can be followed along parallel paths. From the network evolution perspective, circuit-switched data, SMS and CDPD have been predominant. This is giving way to high speed packet data such as GPRS. Always available. Eventually, this will lead to even higher speeds through EDGE and W-CDMA. From the user terminal perspective, voice and data are converging into a single device. Gone will be the days of having to carry separate pagers, mobile phones, PDAs and laptops. And none of this would matter without applications. There is a spread of vertical markets towards more horizontal that will work with leveraging the growth of the Internet. CSD can create greater market penetration by enabling expansion beyond vertical markets addressed by previous wireless data services (e.g. CDPD), with the ability to fulfill a broad range of business and consumer needs.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-3

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Revenue Generation Options


! ! ! ! ! Roaming agreements (with competitors) Creation of partnerships for advertisement offerings Bundling of services (voice and data) Leveraging the Internet hype Using todays 2G products as an introduction to tomorrows 3G products (for example, 14.4 kbps for CSD data today, but 144kbps for data tomorrow)

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-4

Carriers who institute data services with their subscribers today will create the basis for future data services by initiating familiarization and usage of services and providing sales and support organizations and processes that align with data users expectations for quality service. With this foundation, the services, sales, and support will be established and ready to progress as network evolutions enable higher speed access, broader use of existing applications, and new data applications for services expansion. This also means that, once established, the data application platforms established today (intranet access, client/server, web browsing, messaging), will endure and grow as network capabilities and traffic demands increase. Being established as a data provider in 2G circuit switched networks can provide a competitive edge to leverage investments and expertise for a smooth migration of service delivery via 3G technology through the re-use of existing service application platforms. Data subscribers are more loyal than voice. Once they have personalized their access terminal interface, and are familiar with using the service, they are less likely to churn to another service provider. During migration, these loyal subscribers may retain revenue production from existing data services, ultimately transitioning to the same or enhanced application services delivered via a 3G network. Concurrently, new subscribers may be sold directly onto the initial 3G carrier bandwidth. The combination of the existing and new subscribers to data services can help realize the true cost savings beyond initial 3G deployment.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-4

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Multiple Access Schemes - FDMA


Frequency Division Multiple Access
Power

!A channel corresponds to a frequency band and individual channels are assigned to individual users !The entire bandwidth is divided into different frequency bands or channels which are allowed (on request) to each user !No user can share the same frequency band at the same time !Guard bands are maintained between adjacent channels to minimize cross talk between channels
4-5

30 KHz

Time Frequency User 5 User 4 User 3 User 2 User 1

A channel is identified by a carrier frequency

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

In FDMA, a channel corresponds to a frequency band and we assign individual channels to individual users. So in FDMA, all of the entire bandwidth is divided into different frequency bands or channels which are allowed (on request) to each user. No user can share the same frequency band at the same time and guard bands are maintained between adjacent channels to minimize cross talk between channels. In digital wireless systems, users can communicate through channels in full duplex (transmit and receive simultaneously). There are two categories of full duplex : 1. FDD: Frequency division duplexing which provides two distinct bands of frequencies for every user. The forward band provides traffic from the base station to the mobile, and the reverse provides traffic from the mobile to the base. 2. TDD: Time division duplexing uses time instead of frequency to provide both a forward and reverse link. If the time split between the forward and reverse time slots is small, the transmission and reception of data appears simultaneously to the user.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-5

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Multiple Access Schemes - TDMA


Time Division Multiple Access
Power

!One user (mobile user) takes all the frequency bandwidth but during a precise interval of time !Different users can transmit or receive messages, one after the other in the same frequency bandwidth but at different time slots. !Each user occupies a cyclically repeating time slot and a TDMA channel can be thought as a particular time slot that reoccurs every frame !Provides 3 timeslots using 30 KHz wide channels
4-6

Time User 3 User 2 User 1

30 KHz Frequency

User 3 User 2 User 1

A channel is identified by a carrier frequency and a Time Slot assignment. The channel is the set of TS intervals used by the communication

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) makes better utilization of the radio spectrum than AMPS by allowing multiple users to share the same physical channel. More than one person can carry on a conversation on the same frequency without causing interference. TDMA accomplishes this by chopping up the channel into sequentially accessed time slices. Each user of the channel takes turns transmitting and receiving in a round-robin arrangement. In reality, only one person is actually using the channel at any given moment, but he only uses it for short bursts. He then gives up the channel momentarily to allow the other users to have their turn. Channel capacity in a TDMA system is fixed. Each channel carries a finite number of timeslots. Spectral efficiencies vary from one technology to another, but IS-136 provides 3 slots in a channel only 30 kHz wide which means that IS-136 consumes only 10 kHz per user.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-6

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Multiple Access Schemes - GSM


Global System for Mobile Communications
Power 200 KHz

!Before GSM, most all public mobile radio networks used analog technologies, which varied from country to country and between manufacturers !Based on TDMA technology with some differences

Frequency Time

!Can use frequency hopping to minimize co-channel interference, multipath and fading !Provides 8 timeslots using 200 KHz wide channels

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-7

Since radio spectrum is a limited resource shared by all users, methods were devised to divide the bandwidth among as many users as possible. The method chosen by GSM is a combination of time- and frequency-division multiple access (TDMA/FDMA). The FDMA part involves the division by frequency of the (maximum) 25 MHz allocated bandwidth into 124 carrier frequencies spaced 200 kHz apart. One or more carrier frequencies are assigned to each base station. Each of these carrier frequencies is then divided in time, using a TDMA scheme. The fundamental unit of time in this TDMA scheme is called a burst period and it lasts approx. 0.577 ms. Eight burst periods are grouped into a TDMA frame (approx. 4.615 ms), which forms the basic unit for the definition of logical channels. One physical channel is one burst period per TDMA frame.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-7

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Multiple Access Schemes - CDMA


Code Division Multiple Access
Power

!All CDMA users can share the same frequency channel because their conversations are distinguished only by digital code !Uses a special type of digital modulation called Spread Spectrum !Takes the user's stream of bits and splatters them across a very wide channel in a pseudorandom fashion. !The receiver must be able to undo the randomization in order to collect the bits together in a coherent order
4-8

Frequency Time

User 1 & 2 & 3 & ...

A channel is identified by a carrier frequency and a code per user

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) uses codes rather than time division. A CDMA channel is 1.25 MHz in width and all users use this same channel but they are distinguished by codes. CDMA is a form of spread-spectrum transmission techniques. Instead of using frequencies or time slots, it uses mathematical codes to transmit and distinguish between multiple wireless conversations. Its bandwidth is much wider than that required for simple point-to-point communications at the same data rate because it uses noise-like carrier waves to spread the information contained in a signal of interest over a much greater bandwidth. However, because the conversations taking place are distinguished by digital codes, many users can share the same bandwidth simultaneously. Old-fashioned radio receivers separate stations and channels by filtering in the frequency domain. CDMA receivers, conversely, separate communication channels by a pseudo-random modulation that is applied and removed in the digital domain. Multiple users can therefore occupy the same frequency band.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-8

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Todays Data Solutions - CSD


Air Interface Core Network HLR IP Networking & Connectivity

MSC
Interactive Messaging

Voice Gateway SMSC

Packet Core Network

IWF
Web Browsing (WAP)
Optical Ring: OC-3 OC-3 Express CX

PDN

Back Office Enablers

Circuit Data Email/Web Caching

Circuit Switched Data Circuit Switched Data allows dial-up allows dial-up applications to the applications to the Internet and Internet and connectivity to back connectivity to back office enablers such office enablers such as WAP as WAP Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

WAP E-mail Fax Server Server Server

January 8, 2001

4-9

Circuit switched data is supported by AMPS technology, TDMA technology, CDMA technology, and GSM technology. Applications and services vary depending on the network but all offer some form of circuit switched data capabilities providing anywhere between 9.6 kbps and 14.4 kbps speeds. An Interworking Function (IWF), basically a bank of modems, is used to connect the wireless subscriber to the data network.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Market Applications for CSD


Smart Phones Wireless Internet Remote Data Base Access E-mail

CSD Data Services

Telemetry

Corporate Intranet Fax Over IP Access Field Service / Sales


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 4-10

In todays digital mobile networks, data is delivered via circuit switching capabilities, inherent to the current network architecture. Circuit switched data is a dialed up dedicated connection for transfer of data between two points (i.e. server/client, LAN or application host/PC). As proven by the market success of AT&Ts Digital PocketNet service and Sprint PCS Wireless Web, access to the Internet from mobile devices is not only available, but highly desirable without waiting for higher bandwidth solutions of 3G wireless networks. Operators can offer subscribers the ability to send digital data across their digital network. Key applications that can be used by CSD functionality include the following: ! Wireless Email Access ! Wireless Internet/Intranet Access ! Wireless Fax (non-analog) ! Wireless Database Access ! Wireless File Transfer ! Other Wireless Office applications

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-10

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Circuit Switched Data Services


! Digital dial up connection
" Dedicated rates of 9.6 & 14.4 kbps " Available on as-needed basis " Connection remains established during the complete duration of the call " Same usage increments as voice
# Traffic billing (per minute)

! Ability to access a variety of services


" Transfer large files, faxes

" e-mail: complete send and receive " Internet, corporate intranet sites " e-commerce services

! Fax connection

Adds Interworking Function (IWF) " Technology-specific platform " Network Call anchor during wireless handoffs " Modem/PSTN or LAN/PDN connection

" Dedicated rates of 9.6 & 14.4 ! kbps " Analog and digital fax capabilities

Server-based service enhancements


" VPN and WAP

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-11

The growth in the number devices available for use with wireless data applications and networks is expected to continue. This will likely move beyond typical phones and PDA devices to include wearable communications devices, household systems and appliances, bundled combinations of familiar items in new use, some of them voice activated. Additionally, CSD may be enhanced through deployment with VPNs for security, and other server-based applications, such as: ! WAP gateways thin client/server applications that enable text presentation (in WML, Wireless Markup Language) of HDML and/or XML Web sites ! information portals personalized/customized information access (pull) ! E-mail messaging services Internet and server-based email access ! FAX servers transfer of fax messages to email, delivered via wireless device

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

What is AMPS CSD?

PSTN

Cell Site

T1/E1

Circuit Data

MTX

In AMPs technology, one user is allocated a duplex In AMPs technology, one user is allocated a duplex 30 kHz traffic channel for voice or data. 30 kHz traffic channel for voice or data.
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 4-12

AMPS circuit switched data is relatively easy to implement. One 30 kHz channel is required for the data transmission. The modem is located within the mobile station, and it converts the digital output to analog before the information is transmitted over the analog channel.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-12

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

What is TDMA CSD?

PSTN

Cell Site IWF

T1/E1

T1/E1

Async. Data/ Fax

MTX

TDMA Circuit Switched Data provides Asynchronous TDMA Circuit Switched Data provides Asynchronous Data and Fax data services to digital mobile users. Data and Fax data services to digital mobile users. Current speeds range between 4.8 and 14.4 kbps. Current speeds range between 4.8 and 14.4 kbps.
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 4-13

Currently, TDMA data supports data rates between 4.8 and 14.4 kbps for CSD and fax. TDMA CSD requires a new element be added to the network, the Interworking Function or IWF. A CSD session is initialized through call set-up by the end user. Once established the call creates a dedicated circuit for the duration of the call. This means the connection will remain established whether or not there is traffic on the circuit, unless one of the systems in the connection disconnects based on some mode of time-out parameters.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Functional Architecture

HLR
IS41+

PSTN

Mobile Data Path


PSTN PATH

Cell Site

MTX
Signaling Path

IWF

Data Handling Radio Link Protocol 1 (RLP1)

Call Control IS41 IWF Signaling Mobility Billing PSTN Support

Data Handling Data Network Interface

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-14

MTX Call Control Provides the call processing necessary to set up a data call, allocate resources, and monitor the status of the call for error or termination situations. IS41 Protocol which allows inter-MSC roaming. IWF Signaling Provides the messaging interface necessary to set up a data call on the IWF, allocate IWF resources, and monitor the status of the call for error or termination situations. Mobility Provides mobility to the data user w/o knowledge of the mobility occurring on the IWF. This includes inter and intra system handoff. Billing Collects information to be stored in the CDR record that indicates the service capabilities given to this call. PSTN Support Provides all the signaling and interfacing required to deliver and receive calls from the PSTN.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Functional Architecture (cont.)

HLR
IS41+

PSTN

Mobile Data Path


PSTN PATH

Cell Site
Data Handling Radio Link Protocol 1 (RLP1)

MTX
Signaling Path

IWF

Call Control IS41 IWF Signaling Mobility Billing PSTN Support


Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Data Handling Data Network Interface

January 8, 2001

4-15

IWF Data Handling and Data Network Interface Terminates protocol stacks which ensure data integrity between the mobile and the IWF. For circuit-switched calls, data is exchanged between the terminated protocol stack and a modem which is connected through the MTX to a PSTN trunk. BSC Data Handling and Radio Link Protocol Terminates the over-the-air portions of the protocol stacks, and packages the data in ISLP frames for delivery to the IWF. HLR Stores subscriber usage privileges and IS-41+ profile used to screen and control data service and access characteristics on call originations and terminations, e.g. 9600 bps access only.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

CSD IWF (Internetworking Function)

! The main function of the IWF is to provide an interface between the digital traffic in the cellular network and the traffic in the connecting landline network (PSTN) ! It translates the protocols, signals, and data for these dissimilar networks so they can communicate with each other

IWF

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-16

All wireless CSD implementations use an Interworking Function. The data is carried digitally to the IWF and then converted to digital Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) before transmission into the PSTN. The IWF is used to: ! Serve as the protocol translator from the digital airlink format to the landline fax and data modem pool protocol; ! Interface directly with the mobile switch for all IWF inbound and outbound traffic; ! Provide synchronization and buffering so that the user terminals appear to have a single seamless connection between them; ! Anchor a PSTN call for the duration of the call and is unaware of mobility for a circuit switched call, ensuring service continuity. To communicate with the PSTN, the IWF contains its own modem pool that uses V.Series modem protocols. The IWF is a peer of the MTX. It is not integrated with the MTX, but rather is anchored to it.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-16

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

What is GSM CSD?


IWE

Mobile

HLR

E1

PSTN

BTS

Visited MSC/VLR

Gateway MSC/VLR

GSM Circuit Switched Data provides 9.6 kbps GSM Circuit Switched Data provides 9.6 kbps Asynchronous Data and Fax data services to digital Asynchronous Data and Fax data services to digital mobile users. mobile users.
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 4-17

CSD in GSM works the same way as it does in TDMA. In order to interface to the PSTN, GSM CSD also requires a new element be added to the network, the Interworking Element or IWE. A CSD session is initialized through call set-up by the end user. Once established the call creates a dedicated circuit for the duration of the call. This means the connection will remain established whether or not there is traffic on the circuit, unless one of the systems in the connection disconnects based on some mode of time-out parameters. Current data communication services over GSM generally allows transferring files or data and sending faxes at 9.6 kbps.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-17

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

High Speed Circuit Switched Data


!Full rate channels or ! 16 kbit/s timeslots per TRX channel !1 circuit, maximum 64 kbit/s
PSTN

Um

Abis

IWF

Internet

PDN

New frame coding & channel combining

PLMN

Supports up to 56 kbps data rates by Supports up to 56 kbps data rates by combining multiple timeslots. combining multiple timeslots.
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 4-18

High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) is a new high speed implementation of GSM data techniques. It will enable users to access the Internet and other data communication services via the GSM network at considerably higher data rates than at present. With HSCSD the user will find wireless connection to the Internet much faster at 56 kbps (effective rate), which is up to four times faster than today's standard usage. This is accomplished by allocating up to eight time slots to a single user. This is comparable to the transmission rates of usual modems via fixed telephone networks today.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

HSCSD Characteristics
! Providing higher bandwidth to subscriber
"Up to 56 kbps by channel combining "14.4 kbps per channel by new channel coding scheme

! Efficient and flexible use of higher bandwidth possible ! Basis for new services and applications ! Supporting transparent and non transparent transmission mode ! Data compression in non transparent case ! Supplementary services available
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 4-19

For the end-user, HSCSD facilitates a number of new applications for wireless communications. It will speed up web browsing and file transfer. HSCSD also makes it possible to access the Internet and view pages with heavy graphic contents. In addition, users can also take advantage of the higher speeds in accessing corporate LANs and corporate Internets/Intranets. Since HSCSD has very good real-time capabilities, video conferencing is possible and an efficient way to hold meetings.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-19

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

HSCSD Positioning
GSM Data GSM Data
E-mail download E-mail download Fax Fax (Internet access) (Internet access)

Smart Smart Messaging Messaging


Banking Banking Traffic info & guidance Traffic info & guidance News News Weather Weather Ticket ordering Ticket ordering Info- & EntertainmentInfo- & EntertainmentServices Services Fleet management Fleet management

HSCSD

GPRS GPRS
Internet Internet Intranet Intranet E-mail E-mail Scheduler Access Scheduler Access Remote control Remote control Monitoring Monitoring

UMTS --3rd UMTS 3rd Generation Generation


personal, personal, wireless wireless multimedia multimedia

File transfer Corporate access Online e-mail Real-time applications E-cash & payments Audio & video on demand Video surveillance services (e.g. taxi, money transport) Remote healthcare

WAP / WML HTTP / HTML

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-20

HSCSD provides a large middle ground of service capability. With close to 56 kbps data speeds, most of todays applications can be supported. Couple that with the relative ease to deploy HSCSD and makes it an attractive alternative for wireless data.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-20

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Operator Consequences
! Network Elements
" No new network elements required

! Network Planning
" Higher resource consumption per subscriber requires higher capacity " New channel coding 14.4 kbps requires higher coverage

! Network Features
" Support higher user rates " Reduce administration effort by integrating general bearer service
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 4-21

For a mobile operator HSCSD is very easy to implement and rollout as it is designed for the existing GSM infrastructure. Since HSCSD mainly requires software upgrades, it requires limited investment. This makes HSCSD an ideal preparation tool for future wireless data communications services by educating the operators and the end users on the advantages of higher speed data services.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-21

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

HSCSD: Pros and Cons


$ Available today and offers approximately four times higher bandwidth than other circuit switched data services. It is comparable to the standard wireline network connection $ Requires minor network upgrades. No new network elements are required. $ Billing principles are already implemented in the network and well accepted by customers $ Well defined QoS and can thus be used to address the high end user market segment % Still circuit switched (the network load is not as efficiently handled as with GPRS), therefore always on service is difficult % Not the best service to address the mass market with

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-22

As is evident, HSCSD has more positives than negatives when it comes to network implementation. It is a technology that is available today and is simple to implement. This can provide a quick competitive advantage to begin offering higher speed data services. The down side to HSCSD is that it is still circuit-switched technology and as the world is moving toward packet-based, subscribers (and operators) are hesitant to invest in it. Due to the uncertainty of HSCSD, terminals that support the technology have not been available either. These issues coupled with the close proximity to GPRS will make it difficult for HSCSD to gain any mass acceptance other than with specific markets.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-22

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

CDPD Coverage Map

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-23

CDPD has been deployed in over one hundred U.S. cities. Today, it is available to 55% of the US population. There has been a cumulative industry capital investment of over $500 million. Internationally, CDPD has been deployed in: Canada, New Zealand, South America, and Asia. CDPD has been used for telemetry, wireless credit card validation, wireless ATM, intelligent farming, remote monitoring of inmates, dispatch, and many other applications. The challenge has been finding end-to-end solutions.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-23

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

CDPD Characteristics
! ! ! ! ! ! Throughput - up to 19.2 Kbps Low Cost - Overlay to existing voice network Shares channels with AMPS High Quality Data Transmission Market Penetration - 55% of the U.S. population Supports existing protocols (IP, CLNP,TCP)

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-24

CDPD offers data rates of 19.2 Kbps in an ideal situation. In reality, you will see about 12 Kbps on the forward channel and 8 Kbps on the reverse. The throughput is less on the reverse channel because you have multiple Mobile End Systems (M-ESs) competing for the same RF channel. CDPD is an overlay to the existing voice network; therefore, it is a low cost solution. CDPD has been implemented in AMPS/TDMA and AMPS/CDMA systems.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-24

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Todays Data Solutions - CDPD


Core Network Air Interface HLR IP Networking & Connectivity

MSC Voice Gateway SMSC


Interactive Messaging
Optical Ring: OC-3

Packet Core Network

MDIS

IWF
MDBS IS

PDN

Web Browsing (WAP)

Back Office Enablers

CDPD
Circuit Data Email/Web Caching CDPD is an always CDPD is an always on 2-way on 2-way connectionless pipe connectionless pipe allowing utilization of allowing utilization of existing back office existing back office applications applications Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

WAP E-mail Fax Server Server Server

January 8, 2001

4-25

CDPD provides additional services and applications. CDPD overlays the existing voice network; therefore, it is a low cost implementation. Since it is an overlay network, CDPD requires different infrastructure as well as different terminals but can provide data services as fast as 19.2 kbps. Nationwide networks have been deployed and offer a number of services. Some of the more popular uses of CDPD are for law enforcement communication between patrol cars, remote meter reading for utility companies and point-of-sale (POS) terminals like credit card readers at department stores.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-25

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

CDPD Network Overlay


Shared Facilities
MDBS F-ES
PDN

M-ES

IS IS
MDIS

Voice
Voice

Voice transceivers Cell Site

PSTN

MTX

CDPD is designed to overlay the existing voice network so that the CDPD is designed to overlay the existing voice network so that the data network doesnt interfere with the voice network data network doesnt interfere with the voice network

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-26

CDPD is an overlay to the existing voice network. CDPD radios are housed in the existing radio frame. The Mobile Data Intermediate System (MD-IS) functionality is housed in the MTX and its peripherals. The CDPD system was designed to operate harmoniously with the existing voice network. The Mobile End System (M-ES) is used to gain access to the CDPD network. An M-ES could be a laptop with a CDPD modem, or it could be a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), credit card reader, mobile phone, etc. Basically, any wireless device that contains a CDPD modem. A Fixed End System (F-ES) is usually a host computing platform. For example, in a dispatch application, when a police officer pulls someone over for a traffic violation, the officer is able to communicate with a database to determine if the detainee has a prior record or if the vehicle has been stolen. The database that the officer is communicating with would be considered the F-ES. The MDBS is the radio. It provides the airlink interface to the CDPD modem. The MD-IS provides mobility management. It also provides accounting functionality, and access to the outside world. The Intermediate Systems (IS) are routers.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-26

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Short Message Service


! Collection of services that provides the capability to receive and send limited-size data messages to your cellular phone ! The terminating end of the network can be a mobile subscriber ! Messages are transmitted using IS-41C standardized encoding ! SMS uses the applicable interface standard to encode messages sent over the air ! Provides the capability to deliver data messaging services over digital and analog interfaces ! Text messaging, numeric paging, alerting or notification information
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 4-27

In North America, SMS was initially made available on digital wireless networks built by early pioneers. In 1998, when the buildout of personal communications service (PCS) networks based on GSM, code division multiple access (CDMA), and time division multiple access (TDMA) methods was completed, SMS enjoyed full-fledged deployment. The point-to-point SMS provides a mechanism for transmitting short messages to and from wireless handsets. The service makes use of a Short Message Service Center (SMSC), which acts as a store-and-forward system for short messages. The wireless network provides for the transport of short messages between the SMSC and wireless handsets. In contrast to existing text message transmission services such as alphanumeric paging, the service elements are designed to provide guaranteed delivery of text messages to the destination. A distinguishing characteristic of the service is that an active mobile handset is able to receive or submit a short message at any time, independent of whether or not a voice or data call is in progress. SMS also guarantees delivery of the short message by the network. Temporary failures are identified, and the short message is stored in the network until the destination becomes available. SMS is characterized by out-of-band packet delivery and low-bandwidth message transfer. Initial applications of SMS focused on eliminating alphanumeric pagers by permitting two-way generalpurpose messaging and notification services, primarily for voice mail. As technology and networks matured, a variety of services were introduced, including electronic mail and fax integration, paging integration, interactive banking, and information services such as stock quotes. Wireless data applications include downloading of Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) cards for activation, debit, and profile-editing purposes.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-27

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Todays Data Solutions - SMS


Air Interface Core Network HLR IP Networking & Connectivity

MSC

Voice Gateway SMSC


Packet Core Network

PDN
Optical Ring: OC-3 OC-3 Express CX

Interactive Messaging

SMS allows interactive messaging with digital handsets and is the first step towards the wireless Internet

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-28

Short message service (SMS) is a globally accepted wireless service that enables the transmission of alphanumeric messages between mobile subscribers and external systems such as electronic mail, paging, and voice mail systems. SMS appeared on the wireless scene in 1991 in Europe, where digital wireless technology first took root. The European standard for digital wireless, now known as the Global Standard for Mobile communication (GSM), included short messaging services from the outset. SMS has enjoyed huge success in Europe due to this early availability and is still extremely popular with teenagers as a form of communication with friends.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-28

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

SMS System View


MTX
MSC Platform
T1/E1

BTS

MS

V.35 Link

TCP/IP

Conne ction

SS7 Network
SS7 Link SMSC Platform

SMSC
TAP I/F Terminal SMPP Entry I/F I/F DTMF I/F TNPP I/F Application System
WEB /Internet VMS/IVR

SMS Applications

Modem

Operator

Fax VMS/IVR

Paging

E-mail PC E-mail MMG WEB /Internet

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-29

MSC platform This provides the networking and the mobility functions for delivering an SMS message. SMS Message Center This provides the interfaces to several messaging specific applications. SMS Applications This provides different messaging applications such as e-mail interworking, Web page text entry, and Voice Mail System inter-working (third party software).

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

SMS System

4-29

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio SMR Spectrum Licenses


0.5 1.5 A
816 MHz Up Link Down Link

3.0 C

40
Unlicensed

0.5 1.5 A B

3.0 C
866 MHz

Block A is 1 MHz (Uplink + Downlink) Block B is 3 MHz (Uplink + Downlink) Block C is 6 MHz (Uplink + Downlink)

175 EAs 3 licenses per EA


(525 total SMR licenses)

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-30

The radio frequency spectrum that is used for ESMR is split into paired bands of 10 MHz for the uplink and 10 MHz for the downlink. 3 blocks of licenses were issued across 175 Economic Areas (EAs). SMR was introduced in the USA in 1979 and is designed for closed user group voice services with support for overlay packet data. It operates in the 800 MHz and 900 MHz spectrum and the radio equipment for the two bands are incompatible. There are many local and regional operators but there is only one national operator. Digital services with data services as a common feature are being used either as proprietary technology from the leading suppliers or following the USA APCO25 standard. ESMR service providers offer both circuit-switched and packet-switched data services. Another key element of an ESMR network is the time-proven technology of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). In the ESMR system, each radio channel uses approximately 25 KHz of radio spectrum and can support 6 separate simultaneous calls.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-30

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Major Elements of an ESMR System


Simplified Interconnect and Dispatch Traffic Paths

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

4-31

DAP The Dispatch Application Processor (DAP) is responsible for the overall coordination and control of dispatch communications. When a subscriber unit is turned on, its identification and location are automatically registered at the DAP and tracked until the unit is turned off. The DAP provides dynamic site allocation which intelligently illuminates only those sites which are required to complete dispatch calls, minimizing precious RF channel usage. MSC The Mobile Switching Center (MSC) provides the interface between the PSTN and the iDEN network. The MSC is the telephone switching office for all calls that are sent or received by subscriber units. The MSC controls the call set-up and routing procedures by functioning much like a land network switching office. To protect against fraud, the MSC supports advanced security procedures which control access to the radio channels, ensuring that critical identification parameters are never transmitted over the air. MMS Message Mail Service (MMS) encompasses all the software and hardware required to store and deliver alphanumeric text messages. The MMS is a form of paging that is displayed on the subscriber unit. The subscriber units can store up to 16 messages of 140 characters each.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Lesson 4: Self-Check 1. Circuit Switched Data (CSD) is supported by which technologies?

2. Which technology uses High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) and how is it different from CSD?

3. Define some applications that can be supported by HSCSD.

4. What applications has CDPD been used for?

5. What is SMS?

6. What is Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio (ESMR)?

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Wireless Applications and Enablers Lesson 5

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-1

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-1

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Objectives

! ! ! ! !

Identify current and future wireless data applications Understand the role of WAP Understand the role of Bluetooth Understand XML Understand the role of Wireless LANs

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-2

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-2

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

E-commerce Applications
Top E-Commerce Sites Top E-Commerce Sites
1. Amazon.com 7,045 1. Amazon.com 7,045 2. eBay 4,674 2. eBay 4,674 3. eToys.com 2,256 3. eToys.com 2,256 4. buy.com 1,907 4. buy.com 1,907 5. Barnesandnoble.com 1,868 5. Barnesandnoble.com 1,868 6. Toysrus.com 1,746 6. Toysrus.com 1,746 7. CDNow.com 1,492 7. CDNow.com 1,492 8. Ticketmaster.com N/A 8. Ticketmaster.com N/A 9. walmart.com N/A 9. walmart.com N/A 10. half.com 10. half.com * visitors in thousands as of Nov. 30, 2000; * visitors in thousands as of Nov. 30, 2000;

Site Site

'99 visitors* Nov. 00 buyers* Nov. 00 Users* '99 visitors* Nov. 00 buyers* Nov. 00 Users*
3,019 3,019 487 487 460 460 554 554 N/A N/A 466 466 568 568 313 313 642 642 Source: PC Data Online Source: PC Data Online 26,302 26,302 23,700 23,700 5,634 5,634 5,985 5,985 7,014 7,014 Defunct Defunct 8,241 8,241 5,159 5,159 6,713 6,713 10,742 10,742

Average Average annual annual growth growth

Current hurdles: Current hurdles: ! American e-commerce stores lose $4B revenue per year due to interrupted ! American e-commerce stores lose $4B revenue per year due to interrupted downloads or excessive transmission time. downloads or excessive transmission time. ! Payment security ! Payment security ! No interactivity with sales agent ! No interactivity with sales agent
The psychological hurdle is about 88 sec. per page The psychological hurdle is about sec. per page Source: Zona Research 99 Source: Zona Research 99

Somewhere between $12M and $19M spent online during the 2000 Somewhere between $12M and $19M spent online during the 2000 Source: eMarketer 2001 holiday season alone Source: eMarketer 2001 holiday season alone
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-3

Electronic commerce and e-commerce web sites are growing at an enormous rate. The top e-commerce sites are averaging more than 1000% annual growth. This is an astounding figure when you consider that they literally burst onto the scene only a couple of years ago. IDC Research predicts that the number of people using e-commerce in some form will grow from 60 million today to nearly 200 million within 2 years. But that doesnt mean it will be an easy growth. These same businesses are losing tremendous amounts of money at the same. The unpredictability and instability of the Internet disrupts communication transactions adding to the skepticism of the general population. This directly impacts companies bottom line as they fight for the customers. Although people are still untrusting of these types of purchase and payment systems, more and more of them are accepting the idea as they strive to make their world more mobile. This is creating the m-commerce world based on e-commerce expectations.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-3

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Entertainment and Information


Interactive TV with related information

TV broadcast window

Related Web information

Web TV Web TV AOL and Time Warner are merging the virtual and the real world to AOL Time Warner. AOL and Time Warner are merging the virtual and the real world to AOL Time Warner. TV will vanish in the Web. Steve Case, President of AOL Time Warner TV will vanish in the Web. Steve Case, President of AOL Time Warner

Interactive Web TV increases the demand for high speed access


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-4

In the future, it is likely that virtually all Internet capable terminals, fixed or mobile, (e.g. PCs, TVs, mobile radios), will support streaming signals. In the long run there may no longer be any TV programs in todays sense. Instead, the user will gain access to content consisting of a variety of information including streaming broadband multimedia as well as interactive components based on IP. Already today more than 3,500 Web-based radio stations are active with some providing interactive multimedia content. Because of the low available throughput (e.g. by modems or ISDN) and the lack of QoS, video quality is still fairly limited with regard to picture size and resolution. The streaming solutions are generally proprietary (RealNetworks, Microsoft, Apple Quicktime...) and, although the decoding SW is normally available for free, this is not the case for the encoding SW. Every day, new products and ventures are appearing on the market and Web-TV will likely blossom, once most of the shortcomings that are currently limiting the quality over the Internet have been addressed.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-4

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Potential Applications
Information Access Emergency Call
Sports Results Stock News Weather

Order and Booking Services


Ticket Reservation & Booking

Traffic

Remote Control

Tourist Phonebook, InformationDictionaries

Shopping, Mail Order

Pizza Service

Phone Services

Banking, Brokerage, Payment

Teen Messaging Entertainment, Games


Timetables, Appointments

Prepaid Teleworking

Unified Messaging
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-5

The potential applications are virtually endless. Ending with a multimedia device supporting all types of media, they run the gamut covering almost everything we do today. Basic voice services. Remote control of household devices and Internet-connected appliances. A huge array of information access services such as traffic, weather and stocks. Emergency services, on-line banking and brokering as well as e-payments. Teleworking and telelearning. On-line ordering and booking services such as ticket reservations, shopping and restaurant delivery service. And finally, entertainment. Games such as Trivial Pursuit as well as gambling.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-5

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Mobile Information Services


! Interactive services
" Fetch information from Internet or Intranet anywhere, anytime, personalized and scaleable (Pre-trip, On-Trip planning and booking, Weather Info, Stock, News, ) " Share corporate data (phonebook)

! Synchronization Services
" Calendar, common data

! Incident Warning
" Traffic alerts, stock alerts

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-6

The applications will not only be accessible through new types of media devices such as videophones and personal communicators but through modifications to non-telecom devices. One example of the merging of different conveniences via common applications will be in automobiles, commonly referred to as telematics. Two forms of mobility are coming together that will result in a greatly enhanced lifestyle when on the go. Many of the mobile information services that will be available are well suited for use while driving (or on a boat, for that matter). Location-based information that provides up-to-theminute status of traffic situations as well as navigation and advertising will be common. One big aspect of these automobile applications will be for comfort, convenience and entertainment. Integrated communication devices will allow for downloading of information (such as games and movies) to the car so that the kids can entertain themselves while traveling. Interactive gaming through keyboards and other input devices will enhance the experience. The first hint at the kinds of applications came from General Motors OnStar which provides assistance through customer service, immediately based on your present location. Most other automobile manufacturers are working on integrating telematics capabilities into their cars.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-6

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Performance Rating of Applications vs Next Generation Standards


Technology
3G EDGE 1XRTT GPRS HSCSD 2G Data Rates (Kbps) 9.6 14.4 32 64 128 384 2000

Technology Transmit Speed Capability

Applications
Voice, SMS E-mail Internet Web Database Access On-Line Banking E-Commerce Location Services Still Image Transfer Video Lower Quality Video High Quality

Application Performance Rating

+ 0

+
0

0 + 0 0

+ + 0 0 0 0 + + 0 -

+ + 0 + + + + + + 0

+ + + + + + + + + 0

+ + + + + + + + + +

+ + + + + + + + + +

Source: KPMG, UMTS Forum

+ = Excellent

0 = Fair

- = Poor
5-7

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

So, we have a number of competing technologies and each with an evolution path towards 3G. Lets look at how they compare for various applications requiring different levels of data rates. Todays rates are only sufficient for simple voice and SMS. Some levels of other applications are possible, but not efficient. When we introduce GPRS, we immediately see that most of these applications can be easily supported with sufficient quality to provide commercial services. In order to support Internet Web browsing and true multimedia services, EDGE and 3G, i.e. W-CDMA will be required in order to provide the necessary high speed bandwidth. As you can see, many of these applications will not require 3G speeds but in order to offer the real 3G experience, anywhere, anytime, any media services, all of these applications will need to be supported.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-7

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Value Added Services, Platforms and Applications


Prepaid/wallet Restaurant Directory Prepaid/wallet Restaurant Directory recharge Finder Services Finder recharge Services Mobile Mobile Commerce Commerce Auctioning Auctioning Banking Banking own/3rd party Brokerage Brokerage

Online/Mobile applications

Application Plane

Shopping, Gaming & Advertisement Platforms Shopping, Gaming & Advertisement Platforms Portal Platform Portal Platform Payment Platform Payment Platform Location Platform Location Platform
Security/Public Key Infrastructure Services/IN Platforms Security/Public Key Infrastructure Services/IN Platforms Voice, WAP, WWW, IVR, UM, Fax, SMS GPRS EDGE UMTS PSTN SMS CSD IP

Value Added Services Plane

Core Core Services Services Access Access Services Services

Any Device
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-8

The value-added services empowered through the next generation wireless network will be the key to its success. The applications and services will be accessible via any type of device: mobile phone, computer, PDA, etc. Likewise, the bearer used for the access will be independent of the application as well. It could be GSM, TDMA or CDMA. Circuit-switched data, GPRS, EDGE, W-CDMA, IP, etc. Existing access and core services, such as voice, security, intelligence, will form the base for the new platforms. Portals for location-based services, entertainment, payment, e-commerce will run these applications. Another key to this new architecture is the open APIs to 3rd party applications and services which may reside within the operators domain or could exist virtually anywhere in this new Internet-connected world.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-8

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Key Functions of a Portal


Portal Portal

Access Access Control Control


! AAA Server ! RADIUS Server ! Firewall ! Load control

Profiling Profiling
! Operator specific ! User specific

Information Information Processing Processing


! Filtering ! Branding ! Personalizing ! Presenting

Charging Charging
! Prepaid ! Postpaid ! Payment Broker ! 3rd Party Transaction

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-9

So, with all of these discussions on platforms, applications and portals, what exactly does a portal do? In essence,a portal is a doorway to the applications/services. It provides the necessary functions to enable the application. Access control determines availability to the user through authentication and protects the user as well as the operator from outside effects. Profiling allows for operators as well as subscribers to set up specific profiles that describe their needs and characteristics. Information processing handles the content of the services, based on the profiles to filter, personalize and present the info. And, what good would a service be without the ability to bill it.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-9

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Requirements for Legally Binding Communications


(2)
Hacker

(3)
IP Network

(5)

(1) Mary

1. Authentication
Verifies the identity of communicating parties

2. Privacy

(1)

Joe

Protects sensitive information from being viewed indiscriminately

3. Integrity Guarantees that information is not tampered with or altered 4. Non-Repudiation (4)
Inability to deny a transaction

5. Access Control
Determines who may have access to information within a system
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-10

In order for transactions to be secure and legally binding over the Internet or other IP-based network, including wireless, certain requirements must be met: Authentication must be performed to verify the user. The users privacy must be maintained. The integrity of the information must be guaranteed. It must be guaranteed that transactions can be legally enforced. Access to the information must be controlled.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Secure Communications - Public and Private Keys


Digital Certificate ! Owner Identity ! Access Control ! Signature Authorization ! Public Key Data ! Expiry Date ! CA Signature

Private Key (Smart Card, e.g.)

! Trusted Third Party (TTP) needs to vouch for individuals identities


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-11

For digital signatures, there are 2 types of keys, public and private. Public keys are are known on a wide basis and are issued and controlled by the Certification Authority (CA). Private keys are known only to the operators and users and are in the form of smart cards such as SIM, WIM or USIM. Need for a Trusted Third Party (TTP) to vouch for individuals identities, and their relationship to their public keys. In a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), this entity is called a Certification Authority (CA).

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Wireless Public Key Infrastructure Process Flow


A

WTLS Certificate

CA

Certification Authority Registration System


Binds mobile devices to their certificates
Lookup Table

X.509 CRL

Trusted Center
Validation System

Certificate retrieval and validation Optimized for minimal bandwidth and storage requirements Pickup URL or Cert ID application and prove identity

WPKI Portal

Pickup URL: da#*+s$%7?fdga&

Pickup URL: da#*+s$%7?fdga&5 Check status and validity A certificate

Certificate ok

Reliable Party (B)

4
Mobile Subscriber with SIM/WIM (A)
January 8, 2001

Pickup URL: da#*+s$%7?fdga&


Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

(Subscriber/ Application)
5-12

PKI Process Flow: Step 1. - Subscriber applies to Certification Authority for Digital Certificate. Step 2. - CA verifies identity of Subscriber and issues Digital Certificate. Step 3. - CA publishes Certificate to Repository. Step 4. - Subscriber digitally signs electronic message with Private Key to ensure Sender Authenticity, Message Integrity and Non-Repudiation and sends to Reliant Party. Step 5. - Reliant Party receives message, verifies Digital Signature with Subscriber's Public Key, and goes to Repository to check status and validity of Subscriber's Certificate. Step 6. - Repository returns results of status check on Subscriber's Certificate to Reliant Party.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Wireless Networking Landscape


Overall Range
Packet Data 3G Vision

WAN (outside-in)

Cellular

LAN (inside-out) PAN (between)

HomeRF Vision Cordless

WLAN

ss Cable-le

Bluetooth Vision

WPAN
Latency

Real-time Streaming TCP/IP Voice Media Data


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-13

Just as applications are enablers for wireless data, so are the myriad of wireless access technologies. Each has its own purpose. This slide compares different technologies and how they are suited for voice and data compared to their range. Bluetooth is suited for small, local areas (the so-called Personal Area Network) but it supports the entire range of media applications. Wireless LAN and Home RF cover a broader physical distance over the same applications but are still limited in coverage. The Wide Area Network (WAN) is the mobile network operators domain. Each of these areas will be discussed in more detail.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Technology Positioning
! HomeRF
" Networking mobile data and voice devices to PCs anywhere in the home

! Home PNA & Power Line


" Networking fixed PCs/devices in the home

! Bluetooth
" Wireless data and voice cable replacement for mobile business devices

! 802.11 & OpenAir


" Wireless enterprise networking in the office

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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These technologies will be explored in more detail throughout the course of this chapter. Each on is positioned to enable wireless data applications through various access techniques and methodologies. In the end, we will see how our ability to connect and communicate without the aid of wires will fundamentally change our lives.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

WAP Definition

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) is a specification for a set of communication protocols to standardize the way that wireless devices, such as cellular telephones and radio transceivers, can be used for Internet access, including e-mail, the World Wide Web, newsgroups, and Internet Relay Chat
Source: WAP Forum

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-15

The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is an open, global specification that empowers mobile users with wireless devices to easily access and interact with information and services instantly. WAP services and applications include: Customer care, call management, unified messaging, weather and traffic alerts, news, sports and information services, electronic commerce transactions and banking services, online address book and directory services, as well as corporate intranet applications.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

WAP Beginnings
! In 1996 mobile phone vendors rushing to sell wireless information
" Smart Messaging for GSM SMS " HDML & HDTP

! Carriers had split personality


" Looking to find added value services
# Bring in more money # Increase customer loyalty

" Ultraconservative
# Very concerned about use of bandwidth and network resources # Concerned about investment cost # The Internet is alien and even a scary thing

! Terminal technology very constrained


" Low cost critical particularly in the US market " Available spare processing and battery power rather marginal
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-16

WAP provides a medium to connect in a secure fast, nimble, online, interactive way with services, information and other users. WAP, with the wireless industry behind it, provides necessary technology for developers to develop, deploy and support applications for users of wireless devices, which by the end of 2000 will exceed 100 million worldwide. This will result in significant revenue gains for developers. Content providers can extend their business model to include a huge untapped market of mobile customers. End users benefit through easy, secure access to relevant Internet/intranet information and other services through mobile phones, pagers or other wireless devices. With minimal risk & investment, WAP enables operators to decrease churn, cut costs, and increase revenues by improving existing value-added services and offering exciting new information services. Being a global open specification suite, WAP has generated the critical mass for manufacturers that is opening up new product and marketing opportunities in the wireless industry, providing new revenue to participating companies.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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January 8, 2001

Common New Specification


! Proprietary solutions had limited success in some areas
" Being tied to a single vendor unacceptable to carriers and users " User base not large enough to attract 3rd party content and services

! A common specification looked like the solution ! What would be the common ground?
" Use of an existing proprietary solution unacceptable to competitors
# None of them addressed the all of the possible uses

" True Internet not feasible


# Research said that TCP was bad for the envisioned major application # Some carriers not ready to go IP at that point # Terminal manufacturers could not do features using standard Internet protocols

! Necessary to create something new


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-17

The WAP architecture was designed to enable standard off-the-shelf Internet servers to provide services to wireless devices. In addition, when communicating with wireless devices, WAP uses many Internet standards such as XML, UDP and IP. The WAP wireless protocols are based on Internet standards such as HTTP and TLS but have been optimized for the unique constraints of the wireless environment. Internet standards such as HTML, HTTP, TLS and TCP are inefficient over mobile networks, requiring large amounts of mainly text based data to be sent. Standard HTML web content generally cannot be displayed in an effective way on the small size screens of pocket-sized mobile phones and pagers, and navigation around and between screens is not easy in onehanded mode. HTTP and TCP are not optimized for the intermittent coverage, long latencies and limited bandwidth associated with wireless networks. WAP has been optimized to solve all these problems, utilizing binary transmission for greater compression of data, and is optimized for long latency and low to medium bandwidth. WAP sessions cope with intermittent coverage and can operate over a wide variety of wireless transports using IP where possible and other optimized protocols where IP is impossible.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Objectives for the Design of WAP


! Only a single new box for operators => WAP gateway
" Minimal initial investment " Minimal disruption to existing network infrastructure

! Do not force all the protocol stacks on the Internet to change ! Do not force IP on carriers at that point in time (1997)
" WDP & WTP

! Keep IP as an option
" Escape hatch for the future

! Make sure carriers are willing to run it on existing networks


" Incredible paranoia about protocol overhead

! Provide security compatible with limited devices ! Make the content work on one-handed devices ! Integrate telephony functions
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-18

The goals of WAP are: !Independent of wireless network standard !Open to all !Proposed to the appropriate standards bodies !Scalable across transport options !Scalable across device types !Extensible over time to new networks and transports WAP will also be accessible to (but not limited to) the following: !GSM-900, GSM-1800, GSM-1900 !CDMA IS-95 !TDMA IS-136 !3G systems - IMT-2000, UMTS, W-CDMA, Wideband IS-95

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Wireless Optimized Protocols


Internet and WA P Protocols
! Runs only on the wireless portion ! Runs on all networks, including IP networks ! Works over SMS ! Protocol stack is optimized for wireless
Wired Internet
HTML J avaScript HTTP T LS - SSL T CP IP Physical
Wireless B earers: S MS US S D CS D IS -136 CD MA iD E N CD PD PDC -P E tc..

Wireless Network D ynamic Protocol T ran slation


W ML (X ML Language) W ML (X ML Language) W ML SScript W ML cript
Wire les ssSSes sion Wire les es sion PProtocol (WS P) rotocol (WS P) Wire les ssTT ra nsa ctionn Wire les ra nsa ctio PProtocol (WT PP) ) rotocol (WT Wire les ssTT ra nsport Wire les ra nsport LL a yerSSecurity (W TT L S) a yer ecurity (W L S) UU D P// IP D P IP WD PP WD

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-19

WAP enables easy fast delivery of relevant information and services to mobile users. Almost any device can use WAP. Handheld digital wireless devices such as mobile phones, pagers, two-way radios, smart phones and communicators -from low-end to high-end. WAP is designed to work with most wireless networks such as CDPD, CDMA, GSM, PDC, PHS, TDMA, FLEX, ReFLEX, iDEN, TETRA, DECT, DataTAC, Mobitex. WAP is a communications protocol and an application environment. It can be built on any operating system including PalmOS, EPOC, Windows CE, FLEXOS, OS/9, JavaOS etc. It provides service interoperability even between different device families.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

WAP Adopts IP to Requirements of Wireless Networks


Wireless Networks and Phones have specific needs and Wireless Networks and Phones have specific needs and requirements requirements
Wireless Networks and Phones have specific needs and requirements Wireless Networks and Phones have specific needs and requirements ! Expensive and limited radio capacity ! Expensive and limited radio capacity ! Small displays ! Small displays $ WAP brings Internet applications efficiently to the mobile subscriber $ WAP brings Internet applications efficiently to the mobile subscriber
WTLS WSP WDP HTML HTTP TCP IP WAP WML WTP Wireless Transport Layer Security Wireless Session Protocol Wireless Datagram Protocol Hyper Text Mark-up Language Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Transport Control Protocol Internet Protocol Wireless Application Protocol Wireless Mark-up Language Wireless Transaction Protocol

WAP Protocol

Internet Protocol HTML HTML

Internet

WML WML WSP, WTP, WTLS WSP, WTP, WTLS WDP WDP

HTTP HTTP TCP/IP TCP/IP Copper, fiber Copper, fiber WAP Gateway

Wireless Bearers Wireless Bearers

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-20

The WAP Protocol Stack is implemented via a layered approach (similar to the OSI network model). These layers consist (from top to bottom) of: !Wireless Application Environment (WAE) The WAE defines the user interface on the phone. !Wireless Session Protocol (WSP) A sandwich layer that links the WAE to two session services !Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) Part of the standard suite of TCP/IP protocols, to provide a simplified protocol suitable for low bandwidth mobile stations. !Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) WTLS incorporates security features that are based upon the established Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol standard. !Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP) Allows WAP to be bearer independent by adapting the transport layer of the underlying bearer. !Bearers (GSM, IS-136, CDMA, GPRS, CDPD, etc.)

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

WAP Functional Components


WAP Gateway: WAP Gateway: ! Serves as Proxy ! Serves as Proxy ! Provides Protocol mapping ! Provides Protocol mapping between standard and WAP protocol between standard and WAP protocol ! Provides encoding/decoding for efficient transfer of data ! Provides encoding/decoding for efficient transfer of data ! Provides access to mobile data bearers ! Provides access to mobile data bearers WAP Client: WAP Client: ! Supports WAP protocol stack ! Supports WAP protocol stack ! Provides encoding/decoding ! Provides encoding/decoding ! Enables browsing of WAP contents ! Enables browsing of WAP contents ! Enables user interaction with SIM ! Enables user interaction with SIM

WAP WAP Server Server

WAP WAP Gateway Gateway

Wireless Wireless Network Network Infrastructure Infrastructure

WAP WAP Client Client

WAP Server: WAP Server: ! Supports standard Internet ! Supports standard Internet protocols protocols ! Provides application contents ! Provides application contents and scripts in WAPand scripts in WAPspecific or standard Internet specific or standard Internet formats formats
January 8, 2001

WTA WTA Server Server

WTA Server: WTA Server: ! Located within secure network operator domain ! Located within secure network operator domain ! Communicates with client via gateway ! Communicates with client via gateway ! Able to 'Push' WAP contents to WAP client ! Able to 'Push' WAP contents to WAP client

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-21

The WAP Gateway provides the bridge between Wireless Networks and the Internet: !Serves as Proxy which fetches the requested data from Internet sites !Provides Protocol mapping between standard Internet and WAP protocol !Provides encoding/decoding for efficient transfer of data bearers !Provides filtering/converting of non-WAP content formats WAP Servers make the whole world of information and services of the Internet accessible for subscribers using mobile phones equipped with a WAP browser. WAP Clients have to include a WAP browser in order to support WAP based Mobile Services. These Terminals: !Support the WAP protocol stack !Provide encoding/decoding !Enable browsing of WAP contents !Provide execution environment !Enable user interaction !Support interaction with SIM The WTA Server hosts specific WAP applications provided by the mobile operator. The Mobile Data Applications Server: !Is located within secure network operator domain, !Communicates with client via gateway, !Is able to Push WAP contents to WAP client,

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Microbrowser Optimized for Handsets

! Requires minimal RAM, ROM, display, CPU and keys ! Provides carrier with consistent service user interface across devices ! Provides Internet compatibility ! Enables wide array of available content and applications

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-22

Client software designed to overcome challenges of mobile handheld devices that enables wireless access to services such as Internet information in combination with a suitable network server. WAP was designed specifically with the wireless environment in mind. Limited RAM and CPU in mobile phones was a hard constraint in the development of the protocol. WAP incorporates no compression techniques for the textual content, although the WML markup commands are compressed. Additionally, the "deck"- the smallest unit of downloadable information in Wireless Markup Language- is limited to a maximum of 1400 bytes. This means that applications need to be specifically designed to be very code efficient by using templates and variables and keeping information on the server and using the cache on the phone. WAP is compatible with todays Internet standards enabling a wide array of applications.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

WAP Pipe Optimization


Internet
<HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>NNN Interactive</TITLE> <META HTTP-EQUIV="Refresh" CONTENT="1800, URL=/index.html"> </HEAD> <BODY BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF" BACKGROUND="/images/9607/bgbar5.gif" LINK="#0A3990" ALINK="#FF0000" VLINK="#FF0000" TEXT="000000" ONLOAD="if(parent.frames.length!=0)top.location='ht tp://nnn.com';"> <A NAME="#top"></A> <TABLE WIDTH=599 BORDER="0"> <TR ALIGN=LEFT> <TD WIDTH=117 VALIGN=TOP ALIGN=LEFT>

Wireless Network
<WML> <CARD> <DO TYPE="ACCEPT"> <GO URL="/submit?Name=$N"/> </DO> Enter name: <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" KEY="N"/> </CARD> </WML>

HTTP/HTML

WAP

Content Encoding
010011 010011 110110 010011 011011 011101 010010 011010

<HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE >NNN Intera ctive< /TITLE > <META HTTPEQUIV= "Refre sh" CONTEN T="180 0, URL=/i ndex.h tml">

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-23

HTTP sends its headers and commands in an inefficient text format instead of compressed binary. Wireless services using these protocols are often slow, costly and difficult to use. The TLS security standard requires many messages to be exchanged between client and server which, with wireless transmission latencies, results in a very slow response for the user. The WML language used for WAP content makes optimum use of small screens and allows easy navigation with one hand without a full keyboard, and has built-in scalability from two-line text displays through to the full graphic screens on smart phones and communicators.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

WAP Forum Activities


! More than 500 companies have joined the WAP forum
" The first worldwide forum in wireless telephony

! Smart card integration endorsed as major evolution of WAP specifications


" Creation of WIM subgroup within WAP Security Group (WSG) " Creation of a Smart Card Expert Group (SCEG)

! WAP specification releases


" June 1999 : WAP 1.1
# WTLS layer (transport security layer)

" December 1999 : WAP 1.2


# WAP identity module (WIM) # Integration of smart card within WTLS and application security layers

" WML Script Crypto library (application security layer)


# Access to cryptographic functions through WML Script

" July 2000: WAP 1.2.1


# End-to-end security and support for PKI
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-24

The initial Wireless Application Protocol partner companies - Nokia, Ericsson, Motorola and Phone.com (formerly Unwired Planet)- formed a limited company called WAP Forum Limited to administer the global Wireless Application Protocol specification process and get new companies involved in developing the protocol. By April 2000, the WAP Forum had over 250 member companies comprising of phone manufacturers, network operators, SMS Center suppliers and SMS software suppliers, amongst others.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Security Within WAP 1.2

Web Web Server Server

SSL

WAP WAP Proxy Proxy

WTLS WTLS
Web Web Server Server WAP WAP Proxy Proxy

Wireless Network

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-25

Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) incorporates security features that are based upon the established Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol standard. It includes data integrity checks, privacy on the WAP Gateway to client leg and authentication. The Wireless Transport Layer Security defines encryption between the Mobile Station and the WAP Gateway. The "endpoint" of the encrypted WTLS data is the WAP Gateway proxy server. To have a secure connection to a content host (e.g. banking server) the Gateway proxy server has to establish secure (https) connections to this host. In this case the proxy server has access to the decrypted data received via WTLS from the mobile station or from the content host via https.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

WIM Security Capabilities


! WIM means WAP Identity Module ! WIM plays 2 strategic roles for security in WAP 1.2
" Supports client authentication and session management within WTLS layer
# Authentication of WAP client
% Storage of private key % Execution of associated public key algorithm % PIN protection

# Storage of CA and user certificates # Generation of session keys


% Secure long-living WTLS sessions

" Generation of true random numbers supports digital signature function within the application security layer
# Digital signature of a text string
% Storage of private key % Execution of public key algorithm % PIN protection

# Storage of user certificates


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-26

Security is a major concern with WAP due to the fact that some of the key applications and services are e-commerce, e-transactions, e-payments as well as remote services such as access to corporate data and access to corporate networks. WIM is on the client side and provides protection of private keys. SIM and WIM functions are on the same smart card. SIM is the subscriber ID only trusted in the domain of the GSM operator (secret key authentication). WIM is the subscriber ID trusted in a more wider domain regulated by Certification Authorities (PKI).

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

XML Objectives
! Extensible Markup Language (XML) describes a class of data objects called XML documents which are stored on computers, and partially describes the behavior of programs that process these objects ! XML is a subset or restricted form of SGML, the Standard Generalized Markup Language (ISO 8879) ! The goal of XML is to enable generic SGML to be served, received, and processed on the Web in the way that is now possible with HTML ! Designed for ease of implementation and for interoperability with both SGML and HTML
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-27

XML is a markup language for documents containing structured information. Structured information contains both content (words, pictures, etc.) and some indication of what role that content plays (for example, content in a section heading has a different meaning from content in a footnote, which means something different than content in a figure caption or content in a database table, etc.). Almost all documents have some structure. A markup language is a mechanism to identify structures in a document. The XML specification defines a standard way to add markup to documents

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

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Why XML?
! XML was created so that richly structured documents could be used over the web ! HTML and SGML are not practical for this purpose ! HTML comes bound with a set of semantics and does not provide arbitrary structure ! SGML provides arbitrary structure, but is too difficult to implement just for a web browser ! XML isnt expected to completely replace SGML ! Some of the features XML lacks, make SGML a more satisfactory solution for the creation and long-time storage of complex documents
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-28

XML is designed to make it easy and straightforward to use SGML on the Web: easy to define document types, easy to author and manage SGMLdefined documents, and easy to transmit and share them across the Web. It defines an extremely simple dialect of SGML which is completely described in the XML specification. The goal is to enable generic SGML to be served, received, and processed on the Web in the way that is now possible with HTML. For this reason, XML has been designed for ease of implementation, and for interoperability with both SGML and HTML. XML removes two constraints which are holding back Web developments: !Dependence on a single, inflexible document type (HTML) !The complexity of full SGML, whose syntax allows many powerful but hard-to-program options XML simplifies the levels of optionality in SGML, and allows the development of user-defined document types on the Web

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

What is XML?
! Developed by the SGML Editorial Board formed under the auspices of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) beginning in 1996 ! XML customizes SGML in a number of significant ways
" First, a specific choice of syntax characters was made so that everyone using XML will use the same concrete syntax. For example all start tags must begin with "<" and end with ">" " Second, a new empty-element tag may be used to indicate that this is an empty element and that an end tag is not expected. This new empty-element tag is like a start tag with a slash character just before the closing greater-than angle bracket " Third, tag omission is not allowed as it is in SGML. This means that each non-empty element will have both a start tag and an end tag " Finally XML does not require that a Document Type Definition be present
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-29

XML is defined as an application profile of SGML. SGML is the Standard Generalized Markup Language defined by ISO 8879. SGML has been the standard, vendor-independent way to maintain repositories of structured documentation for more than a decade, but it is not well suited to serving documents over the web (for a number of technical reasons beyond the scope of this article).

Defining XML as an application profile of SGML means that any fully conformant SGML system will be able to read XML documents. However, using and understanding XML documents does not require a system that is capable of understanding the full generality of SGML. XML is, roughly speaking, a restricted form of SGML.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Simple XML Document


XML declaration XML declaration

<?xml version="1.0"?> <oldjoke>

<burns>Say <quote>goodnight</quote>, Gracie.</burns> <allen><quote>Goodnight, Gracie.</quote></allen> <applause/> </oldjoke>

XML content XML content

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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XML documents are composed of markup and content. There are six kinds of markup that can occur in an XML document: elements, entity references, comments, processing instructions, marked sections, and document type declarations. The basic structure is very similar to most other applications of SGML, including HTML. XML documents can be very simple, with no document type declaration, and straightforward nested markup of your own design. Or they can be more complicated, with a DTD specified, and maybe an internal subset, and a more complex structure. A DTD is a file (or several files to be used together), written in XML, which contains a formal definition of a particular type of document. It sets out what names can be used for element types, where they may occur, and how they all fit together. Or they can be anywhere between: a lot will depend on how you want to define your document type (or whose you use) and what it will be used for.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

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HTML vs. XML


HTML
<h1>Byte</h1> <h1>Byte</h1> <h2>March 1998 <h2>March 1998 Vol. 23 No.3</h2> Vol. 23 No.3</h2> <h3> <h3> ISSN: 0360-5280 ISSN: 0360-5280 Publisher: Publisher: The McGraw-Hill Companies The McGraw-Hill Companies </h3> </h3> <p>TITLE: <p>TITLE: Weaving a Better Web Weaving a Better Web AUTHOR(S): Mace, Scott; AUTHOR(S): Mace, Scott; Flohr, Udo Flohr, Udo PAGES: 58-68 PAGES: 58-68
<SerialInfo> <SerialInfo> <SerialTitle>Byte <SerialTitle>Byte </SerialTitle> </SerialTitle> <Issue> <Issue> <IssueDate> <IssueDate> March 1998 March 1998 </IssueDate> </IssueDate> <IssueVol>23</IssueVol> <IssueVol>23</IssueVol> <IssueNo>3</IssueNo> <IssueNo>3</IssueNo> </Issue> </Issue> <PubInfo> <PubInfo> <ISSN>0360-5280</ISSN> <ISSN>0360-5280</ISSN> <Publisher> <Publisher> The McGraw-Hill Companies The McGraw-Hill Companies </Publisher> </Publisher> </PubInfo> </PubInfo> </SerialInfo> </SerialInfo> <TOC> <TOC> <ID value="5"> <ID value="5"> <ArticleTitle> <ArticleTitle> Weaving a Better Web Weaving a Better Web </ArticleTitle> </ArticleTitle> <ArticleAuthor order="1"> <ArticleAuthor order="1"> <Last>Mace</Last> <Last>Mace</Last> <First>Scott</First> <First>Scott</First> <ArticleAuthor order="2"> <ArticleAuthor order="2"> <Last>Flohr</Last> <Last>Flohr</Last> <First>Udo</First> <First>Udo</First> <PageNo>58-68</PageNo> <PageNo>58-68</PageNo> </ID> </ID> </TOC> </TOC>

XML

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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In this example, you can see that HTML and XML are cousins. They draw off the same inspiration, SGML, they both identify elements in a page and they both use a very similar syntax. The big difference between HTML and XML is that HMTL has evolved into a markup language that describes the look, feel and action of a web page. An <H1> is a headline that is displayed in a certain size, for example. In contrast, XML doesn't describe how a page looks, how it acts or what it does. XML describes what the words in a document ARE. This is a critical distinction. While HTML combines structure and display, XML separates them. This means that XML documents are more portable and can be used in many different types of applications. In the near future, there will be both XML and HTML documents used widely. Eventually, XML may even replace HTML, or HTML will become an application of XML.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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January 8, 2001

What is WML?
! WML is a standard based on the Handheld Device Markup Language (HDML), which in turn is a subset of HTML ! XML allows the document creator to define any set of tags. This set of tags is then grouped into a set of grammar "rules" known as the Document Type Definition, or DTD ! WML follows this convention ! If a phone or other communications device is said to be WAPcapable, this means that it has a piece of software loaded onto it (known as a microbrowser) that fully understands how to handle all entities in the WML 1.1 DTD ! WML predefines a set of elements that can be combined together to create a WML document. These elements can be broken down into two groups: the Deck/Card elements and the Event elements
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-32

WML is based on XML, a markup language that has garnered enormous support due its ability to describe data (HTML, meanwhile, is used to describe the display of data...a big difference). XML is a meta-language defined by the W3C. This means that it is a series of rules for how to create other languages for specific applications. Content is not directly encoded in XML, but in a specific markup language defined using XML. WML is an example of a specific language for wireless applications that is fully compliant with XML's rules. WML is thus an XML application.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

WML-Based Applications
! WML was designed for low-bandwidth, small-display devices ! A single WML document (i.e. the elements contained within the <wml> document element) is known as a deck ! A single interaction between a user agent and a user is known as a card ! WML has the ability to dynamically connect to remote servers which opens up every WAP device to the world of Internet messaging, enterprise data, and ecommerce
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-33

The applications available for WML are virtually endless. Almost any application written in HTML or similar markup language can be converted to WML. In addition, any application that can be thought up as a web-based application can also be written in WML in order to format and display on WAP-capable phones. The possibilities are limited only by ones imagination.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Who Was Bluetooth?


Harald Blaatand Bluetooth II
! King of Denmark 940-981
" Son of Gorm the Old (King of Denmark) and Thyra Danebod (daughter of King Ethelred of England)

This is one of two Runic stones erected in his capitol city of Jelling (central Jutland)
! This is the front of the stone depicting the

chivalry of Harald
! The stones inscription (runes) says:
" Harald christianized the Danes " Harald controlled Denmark and Norway " Harald thinks notebooks and cellular phones

should seamlessly communicate (wirelessly)


Source: Bluetooth SIG
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-34

In 908, King Gorm, the old ruler all of Jutland, the main peninsula of Denmark and his wife Thyre give birth to a son, Harald. Harald Bluetooth - probably taken from two old Danish words, 'bl' (blue) meaning dark skinned and 'tan' meaning great man. When Harald was at the height of his rule he created a monument that read: "King Harald raised this monument to the memory of Gorm his father and Thyre his mother. Harald conquered all of Denmark and Norway and made the Danes Christian.. These words were carved in stone as rune symbols. Such symbols were also carved onto weapons and jewelry. The Vikings believed they were protected by secret magical symbols on objects kept close to them. During the later Viking age, memorial stones were raised providing a permanent record of rune inscriptions.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Bluetooth Working Group History


! ! ! ! ! ! February 1998: The Bluetooth SIG is formed May 1998: The Bluetooth SIG goes public July 1999: 1.0A spec (>1,500 pages) is published December 1999: version 1.0B is released December 1999: The promoter group increased to 9 August 2000: There are 1,900+ adopters
" Adopters "enjoy" royalty free use of the Bluetooth technology
#Products must pass Bluetooth certification

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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The Bluetooth SIG is a group of companies, led by telecommunications and computing industry leaders, working together to define and promote an open, royalty-free specification for seamless wireless connectivity and cable replacement for a wide variety of mobility-enhancing devices. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), is comprised of companies from the telecommunications, computing, and network industries and is driving development of the technology and bringing it to market.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Bluetooth Goals
! One of the best low-cost radio link technologies ! Perfect for mobile devices
" Small, low power and low cost, but good performance

! Open, royalty free specification ! IEEE Standard (via the 802.15.1 working group)

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Bluetooth was designed to be a low cost radio link technology that provides connectivity without cables or wires. It was designed with mobile devices in mind such as mobile phones, laptop computers, PDAs, etc. The Bluetooth specifications are open and free to the public to be used for designing products and applications. The number of members of the Bluetooth Special Interest Group grows larger everyday as more and more companies join the list of developers.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Bluetooth Vision
! Open specification for wireless data and voice communication ! Technology will be used for short range connections
" Transmission of voice and data " Cable replacement between devices " Establishing ad hoc networks

! Specification describes a solution considering requirements for hardware and software interoperability ! Global Standard due to the use of the world-wide available 2.4 GHz band

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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The vision behind Bluetooth is to develop an open specification for a technology that supports voice and data for short range, I.e. less than 10 meters connections. This allows for the creation of ad-hoc networks as any Bluetooth enabled device can connect to any other like enabled device. Both hardware and software are considered within the specification to ensure interoperability problems are minimized. By default, Bluetooth is a global standard since the 2400 MHz frequency range that it uses is available world wide.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Bluetooth - Integrated Cable Replacement Technology

Compact FLASH Card

! Technology targeted at mobile users


" " " "

25 mm dia

17x33mm

36x43mm

Goes where users go (global use, 2.4GHz ISM band, airline safe) Highly secure (business data) High capacity (High interference immunity to itself and others) Integrated feature in notebooks, cell-phones and handhelds (low cost, very small, low power) " Replace the cables common to mobile devices (short range)
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-38

First and foremost, Bluetooth acts as a short-range replacement for wired cable connections. But this is much more than infrared capability. It uses a frequency that is applicable anywhere. It is secure making it acceptable for business applications. It has higher capacity than other alternatives and can be easily and cheaply integrated into virtually any device.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Cable Replacement
Other Dev s ice

Data Network (LAN)


Telephone Network (PSTN)

Cable Replacement

Cel l r lu a Network (GS M)

Data Network (LAN)

Cel l r lu a Network (GSM)

Bluetooth
Telephone Network (PSTN) Othe r Dev s ice

! Need for (mostly proprietary and incompatible) cables is obviated ! Linkage to device carried out immediately and maintained even if one of the devices leaves the transmission range ! Transmission range will be at least 10 meters and potentially up to 100 meters
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January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

The transmission range between Bluetooth devices is short (less than 10 meters). But with this short range, interference is minimal and the link connections are maintained as devices enter and leave the transmission range. Not only does this free up the user from being tied to and dealing with physical cabling, but it also eliminates the need for many different types of proprietary cables that are not compatible with each other.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Ad Hoc Networks
! When one Bluetooth device reaches the transmission range of another, the user is asked for his permission for transmitting or receiving data. Only if he accepts will a connection between the devices be established. A so called pico-network is created. ! Allows point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections
" Enables connections between pico-networks

Personal Ad-hoc Networks

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-40

This allows for the creation of ad-hoc networks. As Bluetooth devices come within range of each other, the user is asked if they want the connection to be set up. If it is accepted, then devices begin networking in a pico network. It is possible to have point-to-point or point-to-multipoint connections thereby providing the capability to join networks together in a network of networks configuration. The user has total control of what devices should be allowed to connect to the network. Since any Bluetooth enabled device can be a member of the pico network, users can create their own private and personal network. The sharing of information between devices is made simple.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Base Station Access Points for Voice and Data


! Allows easy and automatic connection of mobile and stationary communication terminals
" In the office, laptop connects automatically (prior authorization assumed) to the installed infrastructure, i.e. LAN or PBX, via a Bluetooth Access Point " At home, the laptop connects automatically to the Public Network via cellular phone or a PSTN/ISDN Access-Point " On the move, the laptop can be connected to the Network via cellular phone

! Provides convenient and efficient access to the Internet for surfing, email, etc.
Landline

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Another benefit/function of Bluetooth is the establishment of base station access points. The access point is a fixed device connected to the fixed infrastructure but has Bluetooth capability. When a mobile Bluetooth-enabled device comes within range, a connection is automatically established. This works well for office environments and LAN connections and could be true for cordless phones as well. Any type of communication, voice or data can be utilized.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Bluetooth Comparison

Bluetooth
Topology Flexibility Data rate Power Size/Weight Cost Range Universal Security
January 8, 2001

Cable
Each link requires another cable Line of sight or modified environment Varies with use and cost 0.05 watts active power or higher Size equal to range. Typically 1-2 meters. Weight varies with length. ~ $3-$100/meter (end user cost) Range equal to size. Typically 1-2 meters Cables vary with local customs Highly secure (its a cable)
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Supports up to 7 simultaneous links Goes through walls, bodies, clothing, etc. 720 Kbps 0.1 watt active power 25 mm x 13 mm x 2 mm, several grams Ultimately $5 endpoints 10 meters or less Up to 100 meters with PA Intended to work anywhere in the world High, link layer security, SS radio

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Bluetooth can support up to 7 simultaneous connections without any cables. The transmission can penetrate through walls and doors without a direct line of sight. The throughput can be as high as 720 kbps while requiring minimal power. The technology can be implemented in a very small space and with very low cost. It can be used anywhere and is highly secure.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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January 8, 2001

Bluetooth-Enabled Products

! Mobile (and other) PCs ! Mobile phones ! Handheld PCs ! Peripherals products
" Headsets, cameras... " Pointing devices, printers...

! Network access points


" A universal bridge to other networks

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-43

Virtually any electronic device can be Bluetooth enabled thus providing a connection to other devices. A vast array of companies and products have plans for or have already included Bluetooth connectivity in their products. In the beginning, mobile phones, laptops and handheld devices (computers, PDAs, etc) will be the first to be Bluetooth enabled. Following that, other peripheral equipment will follow. Things like printers, digital cameras, headsets, mice, scanners, and backup devices. Ultimately, computers in appliances and automobiles will join the list creating the possibility to like virtually all of the household devices.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Wireless LANs
.

A flexible data communication system implemented as A flexible data communication system implemented as an extension to, or as an alternative for, aawired LAN an extension to, or as an alternative for, wired LAN within aabuilding or campus. within building or campus.

WLAN

WLAN products are currently used in addition to WLAN products are currently used in addition to classical (wired) LANs. classical (wired) LANs.

Corporate LAN

WLAN radio technology is capable of being used as aa WLAN radio technology is capable of being used as complement to aapublic access network (e.g. UMTS). complement to public access network (e.g. UMTS). WLAN

Public Fixed and/or Mobile Network

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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A wireless local area network (LAN) is a flexible data communications system implemented as an extension to, or as an alternative for, a wired LAN. Using radio frequency (RF) technology, wireless LANs transmit and receive data over the air, minimizing the need for wired connections. Thus, wireless LANs combine data connectivity with user mobility. While most of the wireless LAN networks currently implemented are extensions to existing wired LANs, more and more installations are going completely wireless. Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton, Florida recently turned on a 100% wireless LAN network for their campus and all professors have laptops with wireless NICs in them. In the future, WLANs will likely play a complementary role with public Wide Area Cellular Networks. UMTS services will support the mobility for high speed data while WLANs will offer the high speed data for fixed and low mobility environments. Wireless LANs have gained strong popularity in a number of vertical markets, including the health-care, retail, manufacturing, warehousing, and academia. These industries have profited from the productivity gains of using hand-held terminals and notebook computers to transmit real-time information to centralized hosts for processing. Today wireless LANs are becoming more widely recognized as a general-purpose connectivity alternative for a broad range of business customers.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

WLAN Standards Evolution


2.4 GHz (BW 80 MHz)
Proxim OpenAir FH 1.6 Mb/s

5 GHz (BW 450 MHz)


ETSI BRAN H1 23 Mb/s

1996

1997

IEEE 802.11 FH 1, 2 Mb/s

IEEE 802.11 DS 1, 2 Mb/s

1998

WLAN products
HomeRF FH 1.6 Mb/s IEEE 802.11b HR 1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mb/s IEEE802.11a 9-54 Mb/s

1999

2000

IEEE 802.11 standard extensions - tbd


Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

ETSI BRAN H2 9-54 Mb/s


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January 8, 2001

Wireless LAN standardization began in the mid 90s on two fronts. Proxim developed their OpenAir frequency hopping standards to be used in the 2400 MHz frequency range. At the same time, ETSI began work on HiperLAN/1 which is a Broadband Radio Access Network specification. The next year, IEEE came out with their 802.11 specification with two variants, one for frequency hopping spread spectrum and one for direct sequence spread spectrum. HomeRF joined the fray later with their SWAP protocol. ETSI is now in the process of standardizing HiperLAN/2 which is the evolution of HiperLAN/1.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Complementing Wireless Data Communication Solutions


Wide Area Network (WAN) - Coverage

Mobility

GSM, IS-95, D-AMPS

Vehicle

Outdoor

Walk Fixed

Local Area Network (LAN) - Hot spots, high speed Wideband Cellular W-LAN Bluetooth 0,1 1 10 Personal Area Network (PAN) - Connectivity, cable replacement

Indoor

Walk Fixed/ Desktop

BRAN
100 Mbps

User Bitrate, Datacom services


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-46

This slide shows the positioning of the different wireless LAN technologies and shows them in relation to area coverage and applicability. The different systems and technologies complement each other, resulting in a complete system solution for wireless connectivity for tomorrows applications and its flexibility of use. Personal Area Networks (PAN), with very low mobility, point-to-point, and short distance: Bluetooth. Local Area Networks (LAN), with short range (local) mobility, any point, serving virtually any application needs for connectivity, bandwidth, and QoS: HiperLAN. Wide Area Networks (WAN), with long range mobility, global roaming, supporting most applications, especially voice but also data communications: UMTS.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

The Wireless LAN Solution


CORPORATE CAMPUS
Horizontal Applications: Horizontal Applications: ! High speed Internet / /Intranet access ! High speed Internet Intranet access ! Temporary offices, meetings ! Temporary offices, meetings ! Fairs, exhibitions ! Fairs, exhibitions

BRANCH OFFICES

COMMON AREAS MEETING ROOMS TRAINING CENTERS TEMPORARY OFFICES HOT SPOTS

CONNECTIVITY TO CORP FACILITIES, ACCESS FOR ROAD WARRIORS HOME OFFICE

Vertical Applications: Vertical Applications: ! Warehousing and retailing ! Warehousing and retailing

AIRPORTS, HOTELS CONVENTION CENTERS BUSINESS TOWERS


January 8, 2001

! Industrial applications ! Industrial applications ! Health care, education ! Health care, education

QUICK CONNECTION PORTABLE EASY START-UP


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Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Wireless LAN applications have mainly been used in environments where using conventional PCs and wired LANs have been impractical or almost impossible. These environments include for example warehousing, retail stores, car rental agencies, and other special vertical solutions. The wireless LAN has provided a solution for many administrational problems in hospitals and a flexible connection method to schools and colleges. The following list describes some of the many applications made possible through the power and flexibility of wireless LANs: ! Doctors and nurses in hospitals are more productive because hand-held or notebook computers with wireless LAN capability deliver patient information instantly. ! Network managers in dynamic environments minimize the overhead of moves, adds, and changes with wireless LANs, thereby reducing the cost of LAN ownership. ! Training sites at corporations and students at universities use wireless connectivity to facilitate access to information, information exchanges, and learning. ! Training sites at corporations and students at universities use wireless connectivity to ease access to information, information exchanges, and learning. ! Senior executives in meetings make quicker decisions because they have real-time information at their fingertips.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

How Does a Wireless LAN Work?


Wireless LAN PC Card
! Each wireless station and access point has a wireless LAN card ! Provides an interface between an end-user device and radio waves
+

Radio signal

Internet

Wireless LAN Access Point


! Connected to the wired network ! Acts as bridge between wireless and wired network ! Enables high-performance network access
January 8, 2001

Security solution
WWW server

E-mail server

Firewall
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Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Wireless LANs use electromagnetic airwaves (radio and infrared) to transfer information from one point to another without relying on any physical connection. Radio waves are often referred to as radio carriers, because they simply perform the function of delivering energy to a remote receiver. The data being transmitted is superimposed on the radio carrier so that it can be accurately extracted at the receiving end. This is generally referred to as modulation of the carrier by the information being transmitted. Once data is superimposed (modulated) onto the radio carrier, the radio signal occupies more than a single frequency, since the frequency or bit rate of the modulating information adds to the carrier. Multiple radio carriers can exist in the same space at the same time without interfering each other if the radio waves are transmitted on different radio frequencies. Wireless LANs tune to (or select) one radio frequency while rejecting all other radio signals on different frequencies.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

ISO Model Applied to the LAN World


Application Presentation Session Transport Logical Link Control Network Datalink Physical
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

!LLC provides traditional HDLC type


protocol

!MAC controls access to the physical


channel according to a predetermined set of rules

(LLC) Medium Access Control (MAC)

Main differences: Main differences: ! Radio link unreliable ! Radio link unreliable ! Higher error rate ! Higher error rate ! Eavesdropping risk ! Eavesdropping risk ! All traffic goes via ! All traffic goes via access point access point
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Data Link Control Layer The Data Link Control (DLC) layer constitutes the logical link between an access point (AP) and the mobile terminals (MTs). The DLC includes functions for both medium access and transmission (user plane) as well as terminal/user and connection handling (control plane). Thus, the DLC layer consists of a set of sublayers: !Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol. !Error Control (EC) protocol. !Radio Link Control (RLC) protocol with the associated signaling entities DLC Connection Control (DCC), the Radio Resource Control (RRC) and the Association Control Function (ACF).

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

IEEE802.11 MAC Overview


IP Packets MAC Layer Management Entity (MLME) MAC DSAP Fragmentation & ARQ WEP (RC4) Encryption ! Retransmission, ! Retransmission, error correction error correction

Radio Mgmt e.g. Scanning Power Management Management Info Base (MIB) !48 bit MAC address !48 bit MAC address !Ethernet compliant !Ethernet compliant !Unique identifier !Unique identifier !Multicast & !Multicast & broadcast support broadcast support
January 8, 2001

Association Management Shared-key Authentication

Addressing

Framing

! Radio link security ! Radio link security ! Data authentication ! Data authentication ! Data encryption ! Data encryption ! Simple scrambling ! Simple scrambling ! Peer-to-peer ! Peer-to-peer ! Radio link QoS ! Radio link QoS ! Dedicated real! Dedicated realtime support time support
5-50

CSMA/CA Channel Access PHY SAP


Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

The MAC protocol is the protocol used for access to the medium (the radio link) with the resulting transmission of data onto that medium. The control is centralized to the AP which informs the MTs at which point in time in the MAC frame they are allowed to transmit their data, which adapts according to the request for resources from each of the MTs. The air interface is based on time-division duplex (TDD) and dynamic timedivision multiple access (TDMA). Time slots for downlink and uplink communication are allocated dynamically depending on the need for transmission resources. The basic MAC frame structure on the air interface has a fixed duration of 2 ms and comprises transport channels for broadcast control, frame control, access control, downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) data transmission and random access.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Wireless Ethernet Extension

Application Level Data Application Level Data Applications Applications

Seamless support for fixed IP Seamless support for fixed IP features features
Network addressing, routing Network addressing, routing

Application Application

TCP/IP TCP/IP stack stack

Bridge control Bridge control


802.11 802.11 WLAN Ethernet WLAN Ethernet radio radio

IP routing IP routing

TCP/IP TCP/IP

Other Other LAN LAN interface interface

802.11 802.11 WLAN WLAN radio radio

Ethernet Ethernet

Ethernet Ethernet

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Most wireless LANs provide for industry-standard interconnection with wired networks such as Ethernet or Token Ring. Wireless LAN nodes are supported by network operating systems in the same fashion as any other LAN only the access points of wireless LANs require cabling, network managers are freed from pulling cables for wireless LAN end users. Lack of cabling also makes moves, adds, and changes trivial operations on wireless LANs. Finally, the portable nature of wireless LANs lets network managers pre-configure and troubleshoot entire networks before installing them at remote locations. Once configured, wireless LANs can be moved from place to place with little or no modification.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Typical Obstacles for IP Roaming


How can I get an IP address How can I have a secure connection? How to find services, printers? How to authenticate the user? How to protect corporate data?

Roaming WLAN User How to bill the user?

Internet Corporate LAN Firewall

IT manager

Public ISP
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-52

Wireless communication is limited by how far signals carry for a given power output. WLANs use cells, called microcells, similar to the cellular telephone system to extend the range of wireless connectivity. At any point in time, a mobile PC equipped with a WLAN adapter is associated with a single access point and its microcell, or area of coverage. Individual microcells overlap to allow continuous communication within wired network. They handle lowpower signals and hand off users as they roam through a given geographic area. As one can imagine, there are a number of issues that have to be addressed in order to provide the ability to move IP addresses with users who are roaming around.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

WLAN Mobility Support


DHCP server (Xx.x)

Sub-network A

Sub-network B

DHCP server (Yy.y)

Access Point A

Access Point B WLAN terminal IP = Y.y.y)

Access Point C

WLAN terminal IP = X.x.x)

WLAN terminal IP = X.x.x)

! IEEE 802.11 defines LAN ! IEEE 802.11 defines LAN ! level (AP-2-AP) mobility ! level (AP-2-AP) mobility ! Forward handover ! Forward handover ! Same IP address stays ! Same IP address stays
January 8, 2001

MOBILE IP complements WLAN mobility functions and enables full WLAN mobility with minimum latency

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-53

In a typical wireless LAN configuration, a transmitter/receiver (transceiver) device, called an access point, connects to the wired network from a fixed location using standard cabling. At a minimum, the access point receives, buffers, and transmits data between the wireless LAN and the wired network infrastructure. A single access point can support a small group of users and can function within a range of less than one hundred to several hundred feet. The ability of users to move seamlessly among a cluster of access points is called roaming. Access points hand the user off from one to another in a way that is invisible to the user, ensuring unbroken connectivity.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

WLAN Security Components


Client Client app. app.
Optional end-to-end data encryption -> privacy Optional end-to-end data encryption -> privacy

Host Host

TCP/IP stack IP packet encryption / /authentication IP packet encryption authentication 802.11 WLAN supports 802.11 WLAN supports radio link packet radio link packet authentication and authentication and data encryption data encryption WLAN encryption WLAN encryption

Access Access Controller Controller AP AP

! Key management ! Key management and PKI needed and PKI needed for secure ad-hoc for secure ad-hoc networking networking ! IPsec aware QoS ! IPsec aware QoS

! IPsec and IKE ! IPsec and IKE used for security used for security critical access critical access ! IPsec policy mgmt ! IPsec policy mgmt defined defined ! AAA needed for ! AAA needed for global roaming global roaming ! Remote access ! Remote access IPsec needed IPsec needed

WLAN WLAN

WLAN WLAN

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-54

Because the wireless technology has roots in military applications, security has long been a design criterion for wireless devices. Security provisions are typically built into wireless LANs, making them more secure than most wired LANs. Complex encryption techniques make it impossible for all but the most sophisticated systems to gain unauthorized access to network traffic. In general, individual nodes must be security-enabled before they are allowed to participate in network traffic.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Multiple Authentication Needed


Banks etc.

Internet
Service provider authentication

AAA server

Global AAA & PKI Global AAA & PKI architecture for architecture for roaming roaming
Local AAA server

WLAN network
WLAN terminals WLAN terminals with integrated with integrated smart card reader smart card reader

ISP Network
ISP service authentication

! Authentication done in company/ISP AAA server ! Smart cards supported ! Standards to support several AAA mechanisms
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January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Just as is the case with cellular mobile operators and their subscribers, WLAN users require multiple forms of authentication to protect themselves and their corporate network. This is especially true while roaming. WLAN terminals can have integrated smart card readers in them and in conjunction with AAA servers at the local ISP and the global roaming points, authentication can be performed and secured.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Quality of Service in WLANs

! Current WLAN devices mostly used for best effort data transmission, but in the future ! WLANs will support wireless voice
"Radio link QoS is essential

! Operators would like to apply traffic based Billing "QoS support needed

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Wireless data technologies have been proven through more than fifty years of wireless application in both commercial and military systems. While radio interference can cause degradation in throughput, such interference is rare in the workplace. Robust designs of proven wireless LAN technology and the limited distance over which signals travel result in connections that are far more robust than cellular phone connections and provide data integrity performance equal to or better than wired networking. The connection-oriented nature of WLAN makes it straightforward to implement support for QoS. Each connection can be assigned a specific QoS, for instance in terms of bandwidth, delay, jitter, bit error rate, etc. It is also possible to use a more simplistic approach, where each connection can be assigned a priority level relative to other connections. This QoS support in combination with the high transmission rate facilitates the simultaneous transmission of many different types of data streams, e.g. video, voice, and data.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Mapping IP QoS onto Radio Link


Application Data
IP Packet

RSVP

Differentiated Services

Packet Filters

DS-field (or TOS-octet) (8 bits)

Ethernet Frame Ethernet priority (3 bits)

Wireless link
Radio queues

Real-time queue

Best-effort data

VoIP All the rest

Real-time Best Effort

!Separate radio link queues and priority scheduling !Separate radio link queues and priority scheduling !IP packet filters and Diffs bits define the queue !IP packet filters and Diffs bits define the queue
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-57

The connection-oriented nature of WLAN makes it straightforward to implement support for QoS. Each connection can be assigned a specific QoS, for instance in terms of bandwidth, delay, jitter, bit error rate, etc. It is also possible to use a more simplistic approach, where each connection can be assigned a priority level relative to other connections. This QoS support in combination with the high transmission rate facilitates the simultaneous transmission of many different types of data streams, e.g. video, voice, and data.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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January 8, 2001

3G & WLAN Integration


!Integrated authentication !Integrated authentication and billing and billing !WLAN security and !WLAN security and mobility with IP terms mobility with IP terms !AAA interworking !AAA interworking

Internet

3G/"HLR"

Gateway "WLAN GGSN"

GGSN SGSN

Access Router WLAN RAN WLAN AP Multimode terminal with 3G user identity
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 5-58

3G/GPRS RAN BTS

Wireless LANs can be used as an alternative access technology to a 3rd generation cellular network. One may think of the possibility to cover hot spots and city areas with WLAN and the wide area with W-CDMA technology. In this way, a user can benefit from a high-performance network wherever it is feasible to deploy WLAN and use W-CDMA elsewhere. The core network sees to that the user is automatically and seamlessly handed over between the two types of access networks as the user moves between them.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-58

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

WLAN Technology Comparison


UTRAN TDD HiperLAN/2 IEEE 802.11aIEEE 802.11b Bluetooth Product Availability Spectrum Availability Mobility QoS Control Price Data Rates Medium < 2 Mbps 2002
(Infrastructure)

2001

Available

2000

Licensed operation Cellular


(UTRAN)

455 MHz unlicensed Unlicensed (80+ MHz) available in 5 GHz range (ISM band - 2.5 GHz range) Limited velocity and area Local (100 m) (10 m) Yes Partially (voice) Low 20 Mbps Medium (high end mobile data market) Partially Very low < 1 Mbps Ubiquitous
5-59

Market Supplement to Penetration UTRAN FDD


January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

This slide provides a comparison between different wireless radio technologies and looks at key characteristics of each.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-59

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Lesson 5: Self-Check 1. What are some potential wireless data applications?

2. What platforms make up the Value Added Services plane?

3. List 3 of the technologies that will provide the necessary data rates for the high-speed wireless data applications.

4. What is Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)?

5. What is XML?

6. What is the vision of Bluetooth?

7. List some applications made possible through the power and flexibility of the wireless LAN.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

5-60

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

2.5G Wireless Networks and Services Lesson 6

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-1

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-1

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Objectives
! ! ! ! ! Examine the wireless network evolution impacts Understand General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Understand GPRS-136 Define the GPRS network components Describe the classes of GPRS terminals

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-2

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-2

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

3G Standards Evolution
2G 2G Next Generation Next Generation
EvNet ol wo ut r io k n

IS-136
9.6kbps fax/circuit/ CDPD

GPRS-136
45kbps: packet data over 8PSK 30 kHz channel

EDGE-136

Voice over EDGE Single Evolved 3G.IP Multimedia Network

EDGE/3G.IP

384kbps GPRS based packet data

GSM
9.6kbps fax/circuit

Data convergence with EDGE and GPRS, Data convergence with EDGE and GPRS, Voice Inter-working via GAIT, 3G.IP Voice Inter-working via GAIT, 3G.IP provides complete voice/data convergence provides complete voice/data convergence

GPRS
114kbps: packet

EDGE
384kbps GPRSbased packet data

Voice over EDGE or W-CDMA

EDGE/3G.IP
Convergence
W-CDMA vs cdma2000 3X

W-CDMA/3G.IP

IS-95
14.4kbps fax/circuit

cdma2000 3xRTT cdmaOne


115kbps: packet

cdma2000 1xRTT
144kbps packet data Mobile IP

384kbps

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-3

From a standards point of view, this shows how TDMA, CDMA and GSM networks are evolving. Essentially all have Circuit Switch, SMS (1 and 2 way messaging capabilities). TDMA had GPRS 136 in its original evolution plans, however, the TDMA industry decided to skip this and go directly to EDGE. GPRS will initially provide 45 kbps for data, however, by the time the networks are ready, some believe that vendors will have equipment compatible with EDGE and will have rolled it out. Therefore, the demand will be for higher bandwidths. EDGE GPRS will deliver 384kbps over GPRS based packet data in 2001. This will evolve to packetized voice over the same channel in 2003. GSM will deliver this capability in 2000.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-3

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

3G Data Evolution Impacts


GPRS EDGE Compact Real-Time RealIP Core Network

Core Network Radio Access Network


GPRS GSM 144kbps

EDGE 384kbps GPRS EDGE Simple IP 1xRTT 144kbps W-CDMA 384kbps Enhanced 1xRTT 2002

VoIP EDGE

VoIP W-CDMA

Global 3G 2003
6-4

1999
January 8, 2001

2000

2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

When looking at the network impacts to introduce the new packet data technologies, the changes can be categorized as either to the core network or to the radio access network. Since TDMA and GSM are joining the same path through EDGE, they will experience the same impacts. The introduction of GPRS affects mainly the core network due to the introduction of new packet nodes. EDGE follows on by building on top of the GPRS infrastructure. Therefore, EDGE is mainly a radio access network impact. Likewise, W-CDMA is also a radio access impact, again utilizing the currently deployed core network. By the time we get to voice over IP or real-time multimedia, we will have impacts to both the core network and the radio access. For CDMA, most of the impacts fall in the radio access as these new packet data services have little impact to the core network.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-4

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

2G to 3G Data Evolution Forecast


Wireless Data Users by Technology
2004
22% 3%
2G 2.5G 3G
110M 3G Data Users

2010
15%

42%

75%

43%
Source: Strategy Analytics
6-5

!In 2000, almost 100% of data users are on 2G systems !In 2000, almost 100% of data users are on 2G systems !2.5G includes HSCSD and GPRS/EDGE !2.5G includes HSCSD and GPRS/EDGE
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

According to Strategy Analytics, the number of users of wireless data services is growing to row dramatically over the next 10 years. This seems to be the general view of most of the research firms that periodically present forecasts for the industry. The trend is also to revise the forecast and increase the numbers every few months. But the message remains the same. High speed wireless data will explode over the coming few years. Most users will migrate their existing data service (if any) to a 2.5G technology like GPRS or 1xRTT. As W-CDMA and 3xRTT (or its equivalent) get deployed, some will users will upgrade depending on their needs. Most new users will sign up for the newest services available, bringing them into 3G more quickly.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-5

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Which Data Applications will be Successful?


! Low bandwidth data services already in demand (SMS-based messaging, consumer-oriented novelty applications) ! Messaging (from short-message to full e-mail) will continue to offer greatest short-medium term opportunity (business & consumer) ! Growing Internet penetration will drive portal-related content delivery
" Push services (customized, regular delivery) e.g. sports scores " Pull services (irregular, e.g. flight schedules, gates) " Location-based services (local restaurants, in-car navigation) " Advertiser sponsorship will be key for consumer market

! High-end interactive multimedia will ultimately succeed (some limiting factors are network evolution, terminals, tariffs)
Source: Strategy Analytics

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-6

There is an obvious progression to the types of data services that will be successful and when they will achieve mass-market acceptance. Judging by the success of SMS and the hype around WAP, the low-bandwidth consuming services will fare the best. Messaging will continue to be the most prominent but there will be a rapid increase in other types of services as the networks evolve and the terminals become available to support them. Push services are those services that are sent to the user without having immediately requested them. They may subscribe to the service but they dont request the information each time. Pull services are those services that the user requests on demand. Location-based services can be a combination of either push or pull and provide information to the user that is relevant to his or her current location. The true multimedia services have a number of hurdles to overcome but in the end they will succeed .

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-6

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

What is GPRS?
! GPRS = General Packet Radio Service ! A high speed, IP based, data packet network which overlays a GSM network and connects to the Internet and Intranets
" GPRS can theoretically transport packets at up to 160 kbps " Actual throughput will be much lower, especially at launch at around 28.8 kbps " GPRS is a bearer service and must have applications in order to do something useful

! Service offerings include:


" Direct IP connectivity " Point-to-Point or Point-to-Multipoint
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 6-7

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is the GSM equivalent to sending packet data in a GSM network. It is a high speed, IP-based packet network that is overlayed on top of the existing GSM network. Theoretically, GPRS can handle 170 kbps data rates but the actual throughput will be much lower due to the overhead and the fact that, in the beginning, the new coding schemes used will only support a limited number of channels. The basic benefit of GPRS is the direct IP connectivity to packet data networks (Internet, Intranets, etc.). This can be in a point-to-point fashion such as direct Internet connections or as point-to-multipoint, such as for broadcast purposes.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-7

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Goals of Data Usage - GPRS Benefits


More than one MS can use one TS simultaneously General Bearer Service Up to 8 channels can be used by one MS New coding schemes CS1 .. CS4
6-8

Increase of radio resource efficiency

Packet switched transmission

Reduction of administration effort

Higher transmission rates

Channel combining

Channel coding
Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

January 8, 2001

The major goals behind GRPS are to increase radio resource efficiency and to provide higher speed transmission rates. The radio efficiency comes from packet-based transmission and the reduction in administration. It is a general bearer service where more than one mobile can use the same Time Slot at the same time. The transmission increase comes from new channel combining and new channel encoding schemes. Up to 8 channels (ultimately) can be used by a single mobile. New coding schemes will increase the amount of data that can be carried on the same time slot over the same period of time.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-8

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Enhanced Coding Schemes Optimize the GPRS Channel Capacity


CS: Coding Scheme 20 CS 4 16
Throughput per GPRS 12 channel (kbps) 8

CS 3 CS 2 CS 1

4 0 27dB 23dB 19dB 15dB 11dB 7dB 3dB

C/I

!CS1 guarantees connectivity under all conditions (signaling and start of data) !CS2 enhances the capacity and may be utilized during the data transfer phase !CS3/CS4 will bring the highest speed but only under the best RF conditions
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 6-9

For the different GPRS coding schemes, the actual and realized data throughput is highly dependent on the Carrier to Interference ratio (signal to noise). Only near the antenna (27 dB) will the coverage be good enough to reach the theoretical data rates. The coding schemes have different dependencies on the C/I ratio because of the possibility to calculate back the data/header through a number of Block Check Sequences. As coding schemes go up, the impact on C/I causes some data packet loss and requires retransmission resulting in lower throughput. Only with excellent coverage or signal to noise ratio can CS3 and CS4 provide the highest data rates. This will be acceptable for indoor applications. To realize these speeds outdoors requires about 9 dB higher reception. In this region only CS1 and CS2 can guaranty a high quality data transfer. Only CS1 can guaranty a successful call setup.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-9

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

GPRS Implementation Today


! Operators are currently implementing GPRS networks around the world ! The first GPRS networks will commercially launch as islands in a sea of GSM ! Operators may offer customers voice over GSM and packet data services over GPRS
" Operators may continue to offer HSCSD over their GSM networks to compliment GPRS

! The GSM and GPRS networks will co-exist as separate, but integrated networks

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-10

GPRS is currently being deployed in networks all around the world. It has been in trials for the last year or so and it is expected that most deployments will be in islands within the GSM networks. GPRS will offer a complementary solution to HSCSD in order to allow operators to provide their customers with choices for higher data speeds.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-10

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Current GSM Network Architecture


SS7 Network (Links)
SCP

PSTN
SMS AC EIR HLR

BS

B S C

T R A U

MSC/VLR

GMSC

PLMN

SS7 Links Trunks carrying circuit switched data and voice

Other PLMN
Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 6-11

January 8, 2001

This is the view of the current GSM network. The MSC, BSC and BTS as well as the Gateway MSC provide todays circuit switching. The ancillary components such as SMS, AC, EIR and HLR provide the supporting mobility and authentication capabilities.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-11

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Architectural view of GPRS Network Voice and Data


SS7 Network (Links)
SCP

PSTN
SMS AC EIR HLR

BS

B S C

T R A U

MSC/VLR

GMSC

Global IP Network

PLMN
Packet Data SS7 Links Trunks carrying circuit switched data and voice

IP Network

SGSN

GGSN

Other PLMN
6-12

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

The first step in the evolution towards the 3rd generation architecture is the introduction of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Based on the current network architecture, 2 new network elements are added. The SGSN and the GGSN. The SGSNs connect the base stations to a local IP network and perform the routing of packets as well as querying the GR (HLR equivalent) for mobility purposes. The GGSN connects to the external IP world (the Internet). A new function is added in the BSCs called the PCU (packet Control Unit). Voice follows the traditional path and data is packetized and goes through the IP world. This will provide up to 115 kbps data access eventually.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-12

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

GPRS Protocol Interfaces


MSC PSTN/ ISDN
TRAU A MC Abis Gs, Gs A Gd, Gd Gb, Gb Gr, Gr Gn Gc Gi

BTS

MAP-D

HLR

PDN
Gp SGSN of other PLMN

BSC

GGSN SGSN

New Components
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-13

The GPRS backbone network will permit point-to-point GPRS calls, interworking with the BSS, HLR, MSC, SMSC, and the Internet. These services will be supported via the following interfaces: ! Gb, between PCU and SGSN, using Frame Relay, ! Gr, between SGSN and HLR, extension of MAP, ! Gn, between SGSN and GGSN using GTP protocol (tunnel), ! Gi, between GGSN and PDNs (IP and X25), ! Gs, between SGSN and MSC/VLR, for some simultaneous GPRS and GSM operation, (same as BSSMAP but optional), ! Gd, to deliver SMS messages via GPRS (same as MAP), ! Gc, between GGSN and HLR (same as MAP but optional). The TRAU frames going out of the BTS are transparently conveyed by the BSC to the PCU, which handles the GPRS specific packet processing (Frame Relay).

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-13

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

GPRS - Protocol Stacks


GPRS Backbone

PDN

Fixed DTE Mobile DTE


Application IP (X.25) SNDCP LLC RLC MAC GSM RF MS Um Relay RLC BSSGP MAC Frame Relay GSM RF T1 BSS Gb Relay SNDCP GTP Um Gb

BSS

Serving GSN

Gn

Gateway GSN
Relay IP (X.25) GTP UDP / TCP IP Frame Relay T1 Frame Relay T1 IP (X.25)

Gi

Application

IP (X.25)

LLC UDP/TCP IP BSSGP Frame Frame Relay Relay T1 T1 SGSN Gn

Frame Relay T1 Gi
6-14

GGSN

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

The new protocols used in the stack for GPRS network elements. MAC (Medium Access Control) provides access to RF RLC (Radio Link Control) handles error detection and correction. LLC (Logical Link Control) provides an encrypted link to the SGSN. SNDCP (Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol) handles header compression for network layer. Relay functions relay the packets across the interfaces. BSSGP (BSS GPRS Protocol) handles routing between the BSS and SGSN. It also takes care of QoS. GTP (GPRS Tunneling Protocol) provides a tunnel between the GPRS nodes to handle the mobility of the end terminal.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-14

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

The Different Backbones Used


GGSN Gi Frame Relay Network
B IP k ac ne bo

Gn

IP or X.25

Gn

SGSNs

Gb, Gb Gb, Gb

Ethernet, Token-Ring, FDDI, ISDN or ATM BSCs

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-15

Each SGSN is linked to PCU in the BSC via a Frame Relay network: !The only protocol possible in the ETSI specifications !Simpler than X25 !Data rates up to 2 Mbps The SGSN and GGSN are linked together within the GPRS backbone, based on IP routing; the GPRS tunnels the PDU using the GPRS Tunnel Protocol (GTP). GTP IPv4 is used as a GPRS backbone network-layer protocol. The GTP header contains a tunnel end-point identifier for point-to-point and multicast packets as well as a group identity for point-to-multipoint packets. Additionally, a type field in which the PDU type is specified and QoS parameter are included. Three routing protocols are available: static, RIP2 and OSPF. Network architectures may be used below IP: Ethernet, Token-Ring, FDDI, ISDN links, or ATM. GPRS will support interworking of MSs with IP first and X.25 later, and transmit the corresponding Packet Data Units (PDUs) transparently by encapsulation and decapsulation. If the Gi interface between the PLMN/GPRS and the Intranet/ISP is carried out via public network, then IP Security (IPsec) protocol may be used to provide authentication and encryption of the link; this will allow confidential transport of the Gi interface over public domains such as Internet.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-15

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Typical GPRS Implementation


MSC PSTN/ ISDN
TRAU A MC Abis A Gd, Gd Gs, Gs Gi

BTS

MAP-D

HLR

Internet

Gr, Gr

Gc Gi

Gb, Gb

Private IP Gn Backbone GGSN SGSN


Charging Gateway/ Radius Server NetID
DHCP & DNS

Intranet

BSC
OMC

Gp SGSN of other PLMN

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-16

The first GPRS product releases will support IP and interworking with Internet/Intranet. Only one SGSN will likely be required initially due to the relatively low number of users. A NetID server will manage IP address by performing these two functions: ! Domain Name Server (DNS) to translate Domain Names to IP addresses and vice versa ! Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to allow automatic re-addressing for mobile hosts.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-16

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

The Packet Control Unit (PCU)


BTS Abis
P C U

SGSN Gb

BSC GPRS GPRS Function Function RLC #Segmentation/Re-assembly #ARQ MAC RLC Packet Switching

MAC #Multiplexing (different mobiles) #Contention resolution (u/l) - QoS #Scheduling/queuing (d/l) - QoS
6-17

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

The Packet Control Unit (PCU) in the BSC is the packet assembler and disassembler. For the Radio Link Control (RLC) layer, it handles the segmentation of the user data into packets and vice versa. For the Media Access Control (MAC) layer, it performs multiplexing of different mobiles data traffic onto the Gb interface. It also supports the QoS parameters for contention resolution and scheduling.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-17

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

IP Addressing in GPRS
! GPRS backbones and GPRS subscriber terminals use different IP addresses
" Operators GPRS intranet backbone network addresses are invisible and inaccessible " Operators determine and assign intranet and GPRS terminal addresses

! GGSN, SGSN, DNS require public IP addresses from Regional Internet Registries (RIPE, ARIN, APNIC) operators must apply for these public IP addresses

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-18

IP addressing is a new and major change to the mobile operators network. The GPRS terminals and the backbone network elements will use different IP addresses. The operators addresses will be hidden from the general population but they will be responsible for assigning IP addresses for the GPRS terminals in their network. The public IP addresses for the backbone will have to be requested and applied for through the public Internet registries.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-18

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Domain Name Systems in GPRS


! DNS is used to map logical names to IP addresses in the GPRS backbone networks (both Intra and Inter) ! Each SGSN has access to DNS functionality through a local DNS server
" DNS servers may talk to each other directly or through Root DNS

! Root DNS holds IP mapping addresses for all GPRS operators ! Root DNS operation/management will likely be done by a controlling body (like the GSM Association)

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-19

The Domain Name System is for mapping IP addresses in the backbone. A DNS server will maintain the access and control the mapping for all of the IP addresses in the network. The main issue is the root DNS function. This will have to maintain all IP addresses for all of the operators and will likely have to be controlled by some higher controlling body.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-19

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Domain Name System Architecture


BTS BTS BSC BSC SGSN SGSN DNS DNS

VPLMN
Domain Name System Domain Name System (DNS) used by SGSN to (DNS) used by SGSN to find the correct GGSN find the correct GGSN

Border Gateway Border Gateway connects autonomous connects autonomous IP networks together IP networks together

Visited Operator PLMN BG BG GGSN GGSN FW

BTS BTS

BSC BSC

SGSN SGSN BG BG Home Operator PLMN DNS DNS

Inter-PLMN Backbone Root Root DNS DNS

Internet

FW

GGSN GGSN

HPLMN

Root DNS server Root DNS server location and location and management is management is currently under currently under study study
6-20

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

This is a graphical representation of the DNS architecture showing how the different mobile operators will connect together, one to allow for GPRS roaming and two for access to the root DNS server. Border Gateways will connect the different IP PLMN networks together across the inter-backbone network.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-20

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

SGSN Functions
Gateway MSC/VLR MC GSM/ANSI-41 HLR

Can be combined

Gd, Gd
DNS, DHCP, RADIUS

Gr, Gr Gs, Gs
SGSN GGSN

GPRS HLR

Um
Base Station

Gb, Gb

Gn

Gi

Packet Data Network

!Session and Mobility Management "Subscriber attachment and session activation processing including GGSN selection "Subscriber state and location tracking "Intra-System hand-over processing "Support for compression and ciphering of GPRS messaging ! Gateway to the serving GPRS MSC supporting tunneling of signaling messages ! Interfaces supported "Gb and Gb - Interface to BSC "Gs and Gs - Allowing GPRS support of circuit network services: voice, SMS, etc. "Gr - Interface to GPRS HLR "Gn - Interface to GGSN "Gp - Interface supporting inter-PLMN roaming
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 6-21

These are the major functions performed by the SGSN. In the GPRS world, the SGSN provides the mobility management for a GPRS subscriber. It is the hub that connects and controls all packet data functions towards the wireless subscriber.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-21

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

GGSN Functions
Gateway MSC/VLR MC GSM/ANSI-41 HLR

Can be combined

Gd, Gd
DNS, DHCP, RADIUS

Gr, Gr Gs, Gs
SGSN GGSN

GPRS HLR

Um
Base Station

Gb, Gb

Gn

Gi

Packet Data Network

!Responsible for termination of tunnels to the SGSN and to the data network "Supports user ID and password via Radius authentication capability "Support for GSM 1215 Accounting !Open Interface support for Gi and Gn !Virtual Private Networking Features "Packet data tunneling: L2TP, PPTP, IPsec "LDAP directory based policy management "Firewall, multiple GTP to IPsec mappings !Tunnel termination and management !DHCP (IP allocation) functionality as a client
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 6-22

These are the major functions performed by the GGSN. The GGSN provides the access to other (outside) packet networks including the Internet. It provides basic routing procedures and supports standard authentication procedures as defined by IETF.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-22

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

GPRS HLR Functions


Gateway MSC/VLR MC GSM/ANSI-41 HLR

Can be combined

Gd, Gd
DNS, DHCP, RADIUS

Gr, Gr Gs, Gs
SGSN GGSN

GPRS HLR

Um
Base Station

Gb, Gb

Gn

Gi

Packet Data Network

! Supported on the HLR via Gr interface to the SGSN ! Supports GPRS subscriber profile ! Supports GSM-based GPRS subscriber authentication and encryption functionality

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-23

These are the major functions performed by the GLR. The GLR provides the subscription information for a GPRS subscriber and functions exactly as the HLR. In many cases, the GLR and HLR functionality can be combined in the same platform.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-23

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Current GSM Radio Resource Usage


HLR
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Timeslots

Visited MSC/VLR

Gateway MSC/VLR

PSTN

BTS
Mobile

MS 1 MS 2 MS 3 MS 4 January 8, 2001

MS 5 MS 6 MS 7 MS 8

Internet Intranet PSPDN One MS occupies complete TS Only 8 MS can be supported simultaneously
Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 6-24

The way that radio resources are used in the current GSM network, each mobile user occupies one time slot in the GSM channel. Therefore, only 8 mobiles can be supported simultaneously. This provides 9.6 kbps data rates.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-24

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

GPRS Radio Resource Usage

! Shared use of radio resources ! Shared use of radio resources

! Channels are used only during data transfer ! Channels are used only during data transfer

"100 or 1,000 MS can share aaphysical radio channel "100 or 1,000 MS can share physical radio channel " Subscriber does not need to occupy aacomplete TS " Subscriber does not need to occupy complete TS

! Higher efficiency of radio resources ! Higher efficiency of radio resources ! Direct connections to other packet data networks ! Direct connections to other packet data networks " Data services are no longer routed through PSTN or ISDN " Data services are no longer routed through PSTN or ISDN ! Four different coding schemes ! Four different coding schemes
" Allows rates from 9.05 to 21.4 kbit/s " Allows rates from 9.05 to 21.4 kbit/s

" Packets are queued and then transferred through the network " Packets are queued and then transferred through the network " The resource is free after data transfer " The resource is free after data transfer

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-25

As explained earlier, GPRS shares radio resources among a number of different mobile users. The channels are used only during data transfer thereby more efficiently using the resources. There are four different coding schemes defined ranging from 9.05 to 21.4 kbps per timeslot thus providing the higher data rates.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-25

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

GPRS Radio Resource Usage


HLR
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Timeslots

Visited MSC/VLR

Gateway MSC/VLR PSTN GR

BTS
Mobile
MS 1-10 MS 11-20 MS 21-35 MS 36-50 MS 51-55 MS 56-80 MS 81-100 MS 101-133

Serving GSN

Gateway GSN

Internet Intranet PDN

Coding Coding Scheme 1 Scheme 1


6-26

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Using coding scheme 1, multiple users are sharing the same timeslots for their data transfer but the effective data rate is 9.05 kbps.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-26

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

GPRS Radio Resource Usage with Channel Combining


HLR
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Timeslots

Visited MSC/VLR

Gateway MSC/VLR PSTN GR

BTS
Mobile DTE

Serving GSN
MS 37-55 MS 56-80 MS 81-100 MS 101-133

Gateway GSN

MS 1-10 MS 11-20 MS 21-35 MS 36 January 8, 2001

Internet Intranet PDN

Coding Schemes Coding Schemes 1 and 2 1 and 2


6-27

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Using coding scheme 2, users are still sharing timeslots but now, a single user can occupy as many as 4 timeslots which provides a throughput of 40 kbps.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-27

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

GPRS Radio Resource Usage with Channel Combining


HLR
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Timeslots

Visited MSC/VLR

Gateway MSC/VLR PSTN GR

BTS
Mobile DTE

Serving GSN

Gateway GSN

! Max. data rate (theoretical) of ~ 170 kbit/s for one subscriber during data transmission ! The resource will be free after data transmission
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Internet Intranet PSPDN

Cod Co ing Sch ding Sch m em e e4 e4

6-28

Coding scheme 4 is the last and biggest of the 4 schemes. With it, one user can occupy all 8 timeslots at once providing him with effective data rates of 144 kbps (170 kbps is the theoretical maximum). These rates would only occur for a single user in a perfect radio environment, therefore real data rates are likely to be much lower, Terminals supporting this coding scheme will not be available initially.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-28

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

GPRS Terminals

! Type A: GSM attached AND GPRS attached


" Simultaneous voice and packet data " Two radio chains required

! Type B: GSM attached AND GPRS attached


" Alternate voice and packet data " Required for mass market applications " Complex implementation

! Type C: GSM attached OR GPRS attached


" Manually switched " Simple to implement

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-29

GPRS terminals can be grouped in three Mobile Station classes, each having different capabilities to fulfill the different market needs: ! Class A: MS that is allowed to make and/or receive calls on both GSM and GPRS simultaneously. ! Class B: MS can make and/or receive calls on either of the two services sequentially but not simultaneously. ! Class C: MS can be either in GPRS or in GSM mode (manually selected). Class A mobiles are the most complex and will not be available initially.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-29

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

What is After GPRS?


! GSM EDGE Implementation ! EDGE (E-GPRS) specified by ETSI in GSM Release 99
" Preservation of GPRS architecture / features " Re-use of GSM / GPRS Core Network " New 8 Phase radio modulation (multi-standard GSM / GPRS / EDGE radio transceivers) " Software upgrades of BTS / BSC

! EDGE allows higher packet speeds


" Up to 384 kbps effective rate (8 timeslots @ 59.2 kbps)

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-30

What lies beyond GPRS? The next step is EDGE which will provide 384 kbps packet data capabilities. We will examine EDGE in more detail in the next chapter.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-30

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Lesson 6: Self-Check 1. What are the different evolution paths for the three major competing wireless access technologies?

2. What is GPRS?

3. What are the major goals behind GPRS?

4. What new components are needed for the GPRS network architecture?

5. Describe the three different classes of GPRS terminals.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

6-31

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

3G Wireless Networks and Services Lesson 7

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-1

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-1

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Objectives
! Examine the evolution towards the third generation network and the all IP solution ! Define IS-2000 ! Define EDGE ! Define GERAN (Voice over EDGE) ! Define Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) ! Define Mobile IP ! Examine what 4G technology might bring

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-2

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-2

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

The Move of Mobility to All-IP Solutions


ALL-IP UMTS/3G
MPLS LSP

3G

Multimedia Broadband Node B

RNC IPSec

GTP tunnel

INTERNET

Narrowband Packet SMS 2.5G switching WAP

DNS BTS

SGSN

IP Network

GGSN

BTS

HLR
PSTN/ISDN

Circuit Data 2G switching


Voice
January 8, 2001

Low speed
BTS

BSC

MSC VLR

GMSC

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-3

The evolution of mobility networks begins with its roots in the circuit switching days of the past. Todays 2G mobile networks were designed around the notion of offering simple mobility with some level of low speed data services. This was fine. For awhile. Now, with the explosion and mania surrounding the Internet, people desire more information at their fingertips, regardless of where they are located at the time. This was the genesis for the so-called 2.5G networks which are beginning deployment now. Focusing on higher speed data rate connections that are packetoriented so as to allow for access to the wonders of the Internet. But it doesnt stop there. True 3G promises real-time multimedia services over broadband wireless pipes. The all-IP packet network that is access technology independent.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-3

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

The Networks Direction


Packet Core Network

MSC
Interactive Messaging MDIS

SMSC

Web Browsing (WAP)

Optical Ring: OC-3

IWF
MDBS

PDN

Back Office Enablers

Circuit Data Email/Web Caching

Packet Data

IS
Circuit Switched

WAP E-mail Fax Server Server Server

Video Streaming Interactive Web Music Media

OA&M Network Management Mobility Management Provisioning & Subscriber Management

Corporate Network

Video Chat Interactive Purchasing Multi-Media Access

Portal Providers 7-4

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

We begin where we left off in the previous chapter. The migration towards voice over IP. Throughout the course of this chapter, we will examine the different technologies and networks and look at how each will evolve to not only support voice over IP, but how they become true all-IP networks.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-4

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

What Does the Network Evolution Really Mean?


Telecommuting The New Mobile Office

Computer Industry

Internet/Intranet Telephony

Convergence
Telecommunications Industry

Entertainment and Media Industry

Any time Any place Any thing

Mobile Multimedia Communication E-Commerce Online Trading Mobile Banking Mobile Travel Services Mobile Entertainment

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-5

It is clear that the two mass market trends of mobile and Internet communication will converge. Simultaneously the more sophisticated capabilities of these networks will highlight the importance of content providers such as the entertainment and media industries. The main 2nd generation services, in particular voice, will remain very important based on circuit oriented as well as IP-based transmission. In addition, the 3G user will have access to packet based networks without the GPRS disadvantage of limited bandwidth for the masses. Currently, Internet browsing for the mass market and Intranet access for the business market segment are envisioned as key applications for the initial launch of 3G. It is also expected that most of the 3G suppliers will have applications based on Internet technology by the start of commercial operation. Furthermore, multimedia services like content streaming from the Internet will emerge during this time. All the wonders of the Internet combined with the mobility of wireless to offer the true multimedia experience.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-5

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Some Interesting World Forecasts


By 2004, there will be more wireless subscriptions than wired subscriptions. By 2004, there will be more wireless subscriptions than wired subscriptions. Shortly thereafter, wireless Internet users will pass wired Internet users. Shortly thereafter, wireless Internet users will pass wired Internet users. Wired vs. wireless subscriptions and Internet users
Source: Strategis, Yankee Group

1,600 1,400 1,200


Subscribers (M)

Wired Subscribers 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Total Wireless Subscribers
(including analog & 3G)

Wired Internet Users Wireless Internet Users

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-6

There are literally dozens of forecasts made all the time covering the explosive growth of wireless subscribers and now wireless Internet users as well. These forecasts tend to be taken somewhat lightly since every few months, a new forecast comes out greatly exceeding the previous one. But they all tend to show the same general trend. Wireless usage around the world is booming and it wont be long before wireless users pass their wired counterparts everywhere. The same is true with Internet users and it is expected that soon after total wireless users, wireless Internet users will also pass their wired counterparts.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-6

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Some Interesting World Forecasts


Africa Eastern Europe 5% 3% Mideast 2% Asia/

2,000,000

L atin A m eri ca 2% N orth A m eri ca 20% A s i a/ Pa c ifi c 33% We ste rn E urope 42% E a s te rn E urope 1% A fri ca 1%

Western Europe 28%

Pacific 33% North America

1,600,000
Subscribers (000s)

W-CDMA will W-CDMA will dominate 3G starting dominate 3G starting in 2001 in Japan and in 2001 in Japan and in 2002 in Europe in 2002 in Europe

Latin America 9%

20%

1,200,000

Mi dea st 1%

800,000

2005 (3G Total: 200 M)

2010 (3G Total: 1,100 M)

EDGE-136 12.4 % cdma2000 23.4 %

400,000

W-CDMA 64.3 %

0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Source: KPMG, Cahners In-Stat, Ovum

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-7

When it comes to forecasting subscribers using 3rd generation technologies, it can take a real crystal ball to be accurate. What is more important to look at than the numbers themselves are the general trends. For 3rd generation technologies (W-CDMA, cdma2000 and EDGE), the trends are pretty consistent. Since GSM is the predominant technology worldwide, W-CDMA will lead the way in 3G. The first to deploy it will be Japan, followed by Europe. The US will likely come later. Cdma2000 and its variants (3xRTT, HDR, 1xEV, etc.) will be second with a sizable portion coming from North America. EDGE and EDGE-136 will garner a sizable share in North America and likely Latin America.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-7

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Some Interesting World Forecasts


CAGR Total CAGR Total Wireless: 11% Wireless: 11%
T o ta l Wire le s s
S ubs cribers (000s )
1 500 000

2 000 000

Wire le s s Inte rne t

1 000 000

500 000

Accessing the Accessing the Internet wirelessly Internet wirelessly will grow as higher will grow as higher data rates are data rates are provided. provided. By 2006, one half of By 2006, one half of all subscribers will all subscribers will access the Internet access the Internet through wireless through wireless means means
CAGR Wireless CAGR Wireless Internet: 31% Internet: 31%

0 1 999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 201 0

Source: Strategis Group, Ovum

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-8

Another very interesting set of numbers comes from the comparison between total wireless subscribers and wireless Internet subscribers. A wireless Internet subscriber is defined as a subscriber who access the Internet through wireless means (excluding WLANs). Wireless Internet growth is growing almost three times as fast as wireless itself and within the next 10 years, close to half of all subscribers will access the Internet through a wireless device.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-8

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Some Interesting World Forecasts


Selected Wireline and Wireless Penetration Rates
80%

Germany
60% P e ne tration

USA

Finland

40%

Turkey Portugal Malaysia

Wireless penetration Wireless penetration will have passed will have passed wireline penetration wireline penetration in most countries by in most countries by 2005*. There is, 2005*. There is, however, no clear however, no clear pattern concerning pattern concerning when, which country when, which country or at what level. or at what level.
* Exceptions are e.g. India, * Exceptions are e.g. India, China, Russia, USA China, Russia, USA

20%

Philippines
0% 1 997 1 998 1 999 2000 2001 2002 2003

China
2004 2005
Source: Ovum, Cahners In-Stat

Wireless Penetration

Wireline Penetration

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-9

The last few charts and forecasts have obviously painted a bright future for wireless growth around the world. And a lot has been said about how and when it is expected that wireless penetration will pass wireline penetration in various countries. Finland was the first country in the world where this occurred and that was several years ago. Today they have passed 70% wireless penetration. And many other countries are quickly following suit. The US will be one of the countries that takes a little longer for this to occur mainly due to the large population and the fact that most people already have or have access to a wireline phone. But wireless will cross this threshold here to. It will just take a while longer.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-9

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

What is IS-2000?
! IS-2000 is the evolution of IS-95B ! Sometimes referred to as:
" IS-95C " 3G1x and 3G3x " 1xRTT and 3xRTT

! cdma2000 refers to the air interface specified by the IS-2000 standard, plus all of the relevant ancillary standards
" IS-707 packet data " IS-127 enhanced variable-rate codec

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-10

IS-2000 is the standard evolution of IS-95B. It is referred to by many different names but all mean the same thing. The evolution of CDMA to support the UMTS requirements for the third generation network.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-10

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Why Does IS-2000 Exist?


! cdma2000 3xRTT was the alternate proposal to the wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) proposal from the ARIB group in Japan ! After months of development (and intense operator push) IS-2000 emerged
" Totally different than ARIBs 4.096 MHz W-CDMA system " IS-2000/cdma2000 was not accepted by ARIB

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-11

IS-2000 cdma2000 3xRTT came about as an alternate proposal to WCDMA. It is quite different than W-CDMA although the OHG (Operators Harmonization Group) is working to bring the two together.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-11

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Whats the Difference Between IS-2000 and W-CDMA/UMTS/G3G?


! cdma2000 is evolved IS-95 which supports ANSI-41 core networks
" Signal sets and spectrum compatible with IS-95

! G3G refers to the wideband CDMA standard derived from ARIBs W-CDMA and UMTS standards
" Signal sets support GSM features, but new spectrum, base stations and BSCs are required " Essentially IS-95/IS-2000 with different numerology & nomenclature due to political and competitive issues

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-12

Some fundamental differences between the competing standards of CDMA and GSM/TDMA when they reach UMTS services.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-12

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

What is EDGE?
! EDGE
" New modulation scheme (8PSK)

! EGPRS (Enhanced GPRS)


" GPRS with the EDGE modulation " Scheme data rate per time slot: 22.8 up to 69.2 kbps " Peak Rate 384 kbps

! ECSD (Enhanced Circuit Switched Data)


" HSCSD with EDGE modulation " Data rate per timeslot: 28.8 or 32 kbps " Peak rate: 64 kbps

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-13

EDGE will provide data rates up to 384 kbps by using new modulation schemes to greatly increase the data carries in the timeslot. It builds off of the existing GPRS infrastructure and does not require any new hardware except for the EDGE radio. New software is required in the BTS only.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-13

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Services Covered with GPRS, EDGE and UMTS


UMTS EDGE Provided service GPRS
Video conferencing Video telephony e-shopping Electronic newspaper Images / sound files e-banking Financial services Database access Information services E-mail Voice

10 kbps

100 kbps

1 Mbps

10 Mbps

! EDGE covers almost the same data services as UMTS


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-14

When looking at the basic services and applications to be considered over the mobile environment, due to the required bandwidth speeds for the services, most of them can be accommodated by EDGE. Therefore, most of the UMTS capabilities can be covered with EDGE. Only true, real-time multimedia may require higher sustained speeds.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-14

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

EDGE Network Architecture


EVEN HIGHER USER RATES via Air-IF using TRAFFIC CHANNEL COMBINING and NEW CODING SCHEMES and MODULATION SMS AC (384 Kbps)

SS7 Network (Links)

SCP

PSTN
EIR HLR

BS

B S C

T C U

MSC/VLR

GMSC

Global IP Network

PLMN
IP Network

SGSN
SS7 Links Trunks carrying circuit switched data and voice. Packet Data

GGSN

Other PLMN
Same GPRS Core Network 7-15

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

When EDGE is added to the network, this will affect the radio portion of the network. EDGE builds off of and utilizes the existing GPRS infrastructure for the routing of data. To implement EDGE, all that will be needed is a software download to the BTSs and new carrier units will be needed in place of the GSM carriers. They can be mixed and matched to offer both in the same BTS. With EDGE, it will be possible to get 384 kbps packet data access. Again, voice follows the traditional path and the data goes through the IP world.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-15

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

EDGE Network Reference Model


MC Mobile Switching Center Home Location Register Message Center Serving Serving GPRS MSC/VLR Support Node GGSN - Gateway GPRS Support Node EIR Equipment Identity Register Gd, Gd' MSC HLR MC SGSN GSM/ANSI-41 HLR
C-D C-D

Gateway MSC/VLR
Gs, Gs' Gr, Gr

GPRS HLR
Gc

Voice
Um*

SGSN
Gb, Gb Gn

EDGE Data Base Station


Gn

Gi

GGSN

Packet Data Network

Gp Gf

Signaling and Data Signaling

SGSN

GGSN

Other PLMN

EIR
7-16

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

A view of the EDGE network reference model shows the various standard interfaces. The only change from the GPRS reference model is the Gs interface between the SGSN and the MSC. This is to support the EDGE radio interface but these are minor modifications. All other functions and services work as they did with GPRS.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-16

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Coding Rates for GPRS & EDGE


GPRS
GMSK (1 bit/symbol) CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 Rate 9.05kb/s 13.4kb/s 15.6kb/s 21.4kb/s Code 0.5 0.66 0.75 1.0

EDGE - Key Aspects


! A new modulation scheme ! A new modulation scheme " 8-PSK " 8-PSK ! 200 KHz channel spacing ! 200 KHz channel spacing " Unchanged " Unchanged ! Symbol rate unchanged ! Symbol rate unchanged " 270k symbols/s " 270k symbols/s BUT BUT " 3 bits/symbol " 3 bits/symbol
EDGE = GMSK + PSK EDGE = GMSK + PSK
7-17

EDGE
GMSK (1 bit/symbol)

MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 MCS4

Rate 8.8 kb/s 11.2 kb/s 14.8 kb/s 17.6 kb/s

Code 0.53 0.66 0.80 1.00

EDGE
MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 8-PSK (3 bits/symbol)
January 8, 2001

Rate 22.4 kb/s 29.6 kb/s 44.8 kb/s 59.2 kb/s

Code 0.37 0.49 0.76 1.00

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

The new coding schemes for EDGE are the key to offering the higher data speeds. In GSM and GPRS, GMSK is used for coding. With EDGE, PSK is combined with the GMSK. The channel spacing is still 200 KHz. The real difference is in the number of bits per symbol. Whereas with GPRS it was 1, its now 3 bits per symbol with EDGE. In effect, what that means is that it is now possible to send more information within the same timeslot thus providing the higher data rates.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-17

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

EDGE Classic
EDGE Classic EDGE Classic

! Minimal spectrum ! Minimal spectrum requirement of 2.4 requirement of 2.4 MHz (+ guard band) MHz (+ guard band) ! EDGE Classic = ETSI ! EDGE Classic = ETSI EDGE EDGE ! Constant power on ! Constant power on BCCH carrier BCCH carrier

! 4/12 Reuse on 1st ! 4/12 Reuse on 1st Carrier (BCCH) Carrier (BCCH)

" Additional carriers may " Additional carriers may use Lower reuse use Lower reuse " 51 multiframe structure " 51 multiframe structure

! TN0 for BCCH/CCCH ! TN0 for BCCH/CCCH

! TN1-7 for ! TN1-7 for DTCH/PTCCH/PACCH DTCH/PTCCH/PACCH


" 52 multiframe structure " 52 multiframe structure

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-18

The main highlights of EDGE Classic which is also known as ETSI EDGE. EDGE Classic is defined by using continuous BCCH carriers that are typically in a 4/12 or 3/9 reuse pattern and which requires at least 2.4 MHz bandwidth in each direction. Time slot 0 is used for the Broadcast Control Channel and Common Control Channel following a 51 multiframe structure. Time slots 1 through 7 are used for the traffic channels for the packet data and these are based on a 52 multiframe structure.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-18

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

How Do EDGE Carriers Compare to TDMA Carriers?


EDGE Classic (200 KHz RF carrier) TDMA (30 KHz RF carrier)

E1

E2

E3

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7

Guard Band Guard band = 100 KHz

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-19

A TDMA RF carrier uses a 30 KHz wide channel. Since EDGE is based on GSM technology, it uses a 200 KHz carrier. The guardband is 100 KHz wide.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-19 15

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Fitting EDGE Classic into PCS 1900MHz


!If an operator has 15 MHz spectrum (1900 MHz) where 497+3 TDMA 30 KHz carriers are possible !How much spectrum needs to be cleared for a minimal EDGE Classic allocation?
EDGE Classic (4/12) TDMA

0.1 MHz

2.4 MHz

0.1 MHz

12.4 MHz, 412+3 carriers

15 MHz Band A

~85 TDMA carriers are cleared ~85 TDMA carriers are cleared
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-20

As stated earlier, EDGE requires 0.1 MHz spacing between TDMA voice carriers and EDGE carriers. In order to deploy EDGE Classic in a 4/12 reuse pattern within an existing 1900 PCS TDMA operators spectrum, roughly 85 TDMA voice carriers would have to be cleared to provide EDGE services.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-20

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

EDGE Enables High Speed Data


MSC
Interactive Messaging MDIS

SMSC Policy Policy management management IWF

Packet Core Network

PDN

Web Browsing (WAP)

MDBS

IS
Circuit Data Email/Web Caching

Subscriber Subscriber profile profile management management

Back Office Enablers

Packet Data Circuit Switched

WAP E-mail Fax Server Server Server

Video Streaming Interactive Web Music Media

EDGE radios - EDGE radios overlay or overlay or upgrade existing upgrade existing

OA&M Network Management Mobility Management

Corporate Network

Video Chat Interactive Purchasing Multi-Media Access

SGSN SGSN provides provides mobility mobility

Provisioning & Subscriber Management

Portal Providers 7-21

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

The big picture for the EDGE network. Having built on top of the GPRS network infrastructure, EDGE takes advantage of the IP-based packet network to offer higher speed data services. Once the EDGE radios are deployed, numerous data services can be offered including multimedia video. Even UMTS services will only offer 384 kbps when moving (the 2 Mbps is for stationary access). Thus, EDGE is truly a 3G solution and it does not require near the network impacts that UMTS does.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-21

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Wireless Internet Evolution


2G Circuit Switched (1999)
1999 - -239M Subs 1999 239M Subs 2004 - -909M Subs 2004 909M Subs CAGR - -31% CAGR 31%

GSM GSM

2.5G Packet Data Overlay (2000-01)

GPRS Circuit/Packet GPRS/EDGE Circuit/Packet 1xRTT Circuit/ATM

3G Integrated Multimedia (2001-02)

UMTS ATM/IP EDGE Multimedia 3xRTT IP

End Game (2003+)


Software Defined BTS Core IP Network

1999 - -36M Subs 1999 36M Subs 2004 - -190M Subs 2004 190M Subs CAGR - -39% CAGR 39%

TDMA IS-136 TDMA IS-136

1999 - -39M Subs 1999 39M Subs 2004 - -265M Subs 2004 265M Subs CAGR - -47% CAGR 47%
January 8, 2001

CDMA IS-95 CDMA IS-95

Application Portfolio Application Portfolio


Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-22

As we have seen, the wireless Internet evolution has many forms due to the complexity and propensity of different wireless technologies, particularly in the US. Each has its own evolution plan but, in the end, they all are working towards a common goal; a network that supports real-time mobile multimedia. This will be accomplished through packet networks with software defined products. No more proprietary technologies and protocols. A universal language of mobile communications.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-22

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Introduction of EDGE - Phase 0


Traditional TDM Core Network
! Voice Services ! Dedicated Infrastructure ! Limited Flexibility
Voice Services
G-MSC Common HLR MSC MSC PSTN

Transit layer

EDGE Cell sites


EDGE Data

Internet

Parallel Packet Network


! Build out data infrastructure ! IP applications via GPRS/EDGE ! Internet and Corporate Intranet
services
January 8, 2001 SGSN SGSN

Packet Backbone

GGSN Intranets

SGSN

Common GPRS Access Network


Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-23

As has been discussed earlier, the introduction of EDGE into the network is laying the foundation for the evolution to the all-IP network. The first step has voice following the traditional route through the circuitswitched MSCs. The EDGE packet data follows the packet backbone network utilizing the existing GPRS infrastructure.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-23

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Transition Backbone Traffic to Packet


Voice Gateway
! Compressed Voice ! IP and ATM Protocols
MSC

EDGE - Phase 1

Call Server

New

New

Transit Applications 2G CS Domain Services Common HLR

EDGE Cell sites

VG
Internet Packet Backbone SGSN GGSN

New

Intranets

Call Server
! MGCP Protocol ! 2G Circuit Switched Voice
Services
VG
SGSN SGSN PSTN

Common GPRS Access Network

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-24

The second phase of the evolution of the EDGE network is likely to bring end-to-end QoS-enabled real time IP services. This will come about through the introduction of call servers initially supporting MGCP protocols. These will be used to support the legacy 2G circuit switched services. The packet backbone network will be expanded to include Voice Gateways that provide VoIP translation from circuit to packet services. All of the network traffic will eventually be carried over the backbone packet network.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

EDGE - Phase 2 (GERAN)


VoIP and Multimedia
Legacy Circuit Access Network

EDGE Phase 3
! Iu-ps interface to SGSN for
supporting voice over packet
MSC
Voice

Call Server

Enhanced

Add SIP Capability to Call Server

Common HLR

EDGE Cell sites

Migrate to VoIP

VG Enhanced
SIP MGCP

SIP

Internet GGSN
SIGTRAN

Packet Backbone

Intranets SS7 GW Cable/DSL

SGSN

Highlighted Enhancements
! Migrate voice to VoIP over EDGE ! Higher voice capacity ! SIP capability added to call server
January 8, 2001

VG
PSTN

SGSN

SGSN
SS7

Common All IP Core Network

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-25

The third and final phase is where we get to voice over EDGE (GERAN). This is true VoIP and multimedia capabilities over the EDGE interface. The traditional circuit switched voice will be migrated to the packet network using the call and mobility servers for switching. The SGSN will be updated to include the new Iu-ps interface based on UMTS Release 200 standards for supporting voice over packet. At the same time SIP protocols will be added to the call servers and GSNs to support real-time voice over IP.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-25

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

EDGE Phase 2 - 3G.IP Enhancements


Distributed ERAN Architecture
BTS
! ! ! ! Extension of GTP tunnel to BTS Ciphering and compression MAC/RLC Phase 2 Enhancements QoS Enhancements New for Voice
Call Server MGC SIP

SS7/IP
PSTN

Core Network
! ! ! GSN software enhancements ERAN RF management server (e.g. HO) QoS Enhancements

Mobility & IP Services All IP Core Network

New for Voice MG

Gr
Distr AN d ER ibute
PDN

Iu-ps

Gn

E-SGSN
! Software Upgrade to Radio

E-GGSN

Future
Alternate Access Networks (cable, xDSL) 7-26

!GSN Software Upgrades !Additional Hardware Capacity

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Now we have a new interface between the BTS and the SGSN, known as the Iu-ps which is the Iu (UMTS) interface for ps (packet) services which will support voice as well as data. This will be accomplished through software updates to the base station in order to provide an extension of the GTP protocol from the SGSN to the base station. These updates will also include QoS enhancements as well as support for ciphering and compression.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

R00 EDGE/UMTS Reference Diagram


Applications & Services

IP Core Network Access Independent

GSN Access Network Common for EDGE/UMTS

HSS HSS

CSCF CSCF MGCF MGCF MRF MRF


Gi Gi

Multimedia IP Network SGW SGW

Radio Access Network 50% Common for EDGE/UMTS


Gr Um

MS MS

ERAN ERAN

Iu-ps

MS MS

Um

E-SGSN E-SGSN URAN URAN


Iu Gn

E-GGSN E-GGSN
Gi

MGW MGW

PSTN/ Legacy/External

Signaling Signaling/Data

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-27

This slide shows the new interfaces between the Release 00 based network components and how EDGE and UMTS compare. For the radio access network, EDGE and UMTS share about 50% commonality, at least in the initial phases. The packet access network (the GPRS support nodes) are the same for both EDGE and UMTS. Likewise, the backbone network is all-IP and is common for both EDGE and UMTS (as well as any other type of access).

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-27

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

What is UMTS?
! UMTS stands for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System ! UMTS is a part of the International Telecommunications Unions IMT2000 vision of a global family of third-generation (3G) mobile communications systems ! UMTS will play a key role in creating the future mass market for highquality wireless multimedia communications that will approach 2 billion users worldwide by the year 2010 ! UMTS will enable tomorrows wireless information society, delivering high-value broadband information, commerce and entertainment services to mobile users via fixed, wireless and satellite networks ! UMTS will speed convergence between telecommunications, IT, media and content industries to deliver new services and create fresh revenue-generating opportunities ! UMTS will deliver low-cost, high-capacity mobile communications offering data rates up to 2Mbit/sec with global roaming and other advanced capabilities
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-28

UMTS is all about the future third generation wireless network. It is the set of standards defined to provide high speeds packet data services combined with mobility to be used anywhere in the world.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-28

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Architectural view of UMTS Network


SS7 Network (Links)
SCP

PSTN
SMS AC EIR HLR

PLMN
BS B S C T C U MSC/VLR GMSC

Global IP Network

R N C NODE B IP Network IWF

GGSN Packet Data SGSN SS7 Links Trunks carrying circuit switched data and voice. Circuit switched voice/data and packet data in the ATM packet form January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Other PLMN

7-29

The final step in the initial introduction of 3G technology will be the deployment of UMTS based systems. In this picture, we introduce the 3rd generation radio components. The UTRAN (Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network) consists of the Nodeb and the RNC (Radio Network Controller). The Nodeb is the new W-CDMA radio that will offer 2Mbps speeds. The RNC is the equivalent of the BSC and will control the radios. Also introduced is an Interworking function between the SGSN and the MSC. Functionally, this new entity is known as the U-MSC and will provide both MSC and SGSN functions. This will be a UMTS-based system with new interfaces and full interworking between GSM and UMTS services such as roaming and handovers. It will be backwards compatible to support 2G subscribers as well as UMTS subscribers. The new interface will be ATM-based and transport both voice and data to the U-MSC. The data will go through the SGSN packet portion and the voice will be transported via the IWF to the MSC portion.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-29

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

UMTS Network Interfaces - Phase 1


Release 99
OMC R UTRAN ACCESS NETWORK (ATM Based)
Radio Site

Core Network
(GSM/GPRS NSS Based)
HLR

RNC
Iub

Radio Site

Radio Network Controller (G)MSC


ATM
MAP

ATM Concentrator

Iu

MAP

Node B Node B
Iub

A
MAP MAP

CAP

Iu
SGSN

CAP

Uu

Iur
Gb
Gn

GGSN

Camel Service Environment

Node B
Radio Site

Iub

RNC Iu
Iub ATM

Iu, Iub, Iur and Uu are open interfaces Iu, Iub, Iur and Uu are open interfaces
OMC B OMC B
7-30

Node B
UTRAN: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Phase 1 of the UMTS deployment includes a number of new interfaces. The Iu interfaces will connect the new Radio Access Network (RAN) to the MSC. The Iub interface connects the base stations to the Radio Network Controller (RNC). The Iur interface connects the RNCs together. According to the standards, these interfaces will be transported over ATM so the use of concentrators may be included in the network to connect several base stations to the RNC (this is optional, though). The Node B is the new UMTS W-CDMA base station.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-30

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

UMTS Network Architecture - Phase 2


Release 2000
RNC
Iub

UTRAN ACCESS NETWORK (ATM Based)


Radio Site

OMC R OMC R

Core Network
(Packet Network)
UMTS Call Server HLR Mobility Manager OAMP Billing IN

Radio Site

Radio Network Controller

ATM Concentrator

PSTN/TDM Gateway

Node B Node B
Iub

ATM

Iu

Uu

Iu Iur
UTRAN Gateway
VHE Server Application Servers/Services GGSN /Packet Gateway

Node B
Radio Site

Iub

RNC Iu
ATM

Iub

Optimized Packet Core Network Optimized Packet Core Network OMC B OMC B
7-31

Node B
UTRAN: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

The second phase of the introduction of UMTS completely removes the circuit switching components. All network elements are server based connected to the IP backbone network. All voice is now carried over the packet network.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-31

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Multiple Access IMT-2000 Spectrum


Unpaired Spectrum
1850 1900
1885 MHz

1950

2000

2050

2100
2110 MHz

2150

2200
2170 MHz
MSS

2250

2010 MHz

ITU

IMT 2000
1920 MHz

MSS

IMT 2000
2025 MHz

Europe

GSM 1800 DECT TDD


1805 MHz 1880 MHz

UMTS
FDD

MSS

TDD

UMTS
FDD

MSS

1980 MHz 1990 MHz 2160 MHz


Broadcast auxiliary Reserved

USA

PCS
A D B E F C A D B EF C

MSS

1850

1900

1950

2000

2050

2100

2150

2200

2250

Paired Spectrum
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-32

The IMT-2000 spectrum that was designated for UMTS services in Europe is split into 2 sections of spectrum. A paired band and an unpaired band. As we will see, different W-CDMA technology variants have been designated for each. What is also evident and quite well known is the fact that the US does not have the same frequencies available for UMTS services since that portion of the spectrum is already occupied by PCS. There is debate and talk about releasing the 2100 MHz range through auctions in a year or two as well as the current plan for the 700 MHz range but this too will take time to emerge.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-32

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

UMTS Physical Channels - FDD and TDD


Power
Cch76

Time

Code Multiplex
UMTS USER 2
Cch15

W-CDMA FDD

Cch31

UMTS USER 1
Cch15

Frequency
1920 MHz

5 MHz Uplink Spectrum

1980 MHz

2110 MHz

5 MHz Downlink Spectrum

2170 MHz

Duplex Spacing : 190MHz

Power
Cch38 Cch61

Cch91

Time

Cch25

DL UL DL DL

TD-CDMA TDD
5 MHz
1900 MHz or 2010 MHz

Code Multiplex & Time Division


UMTS USER 2 UMTS USER 1

UL
625 ms
1920 MHz or 2025 MHz

Frequency

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-33

This slide depicts how the physical channels look between FDD and TDD mode. Both modes use a wideband CDMA 5 MHz channel for transmission. FDD uses paired spectrum so that one 5 MHz slice is used for the uplink path and the other 5 MHz slice is used for the downlink path. For the TDD mode, it takes the same 5 MHz channel and segments it into slices over time so that different slots can be used for uplink or downlink.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-33

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

LCD And UDD Services For FDD Bearers


Power
C74 C100

Time

User 3
UDD service

W-CDMA FDD
C11

C32

User 2
UDD service C15 C100

User 1
LCD service

Frequency

UL

DL

C25

! LCD: Long Constrained Delay


" Circuit connection emulation (for speech services also) " Code(s) allocated for the unique use of one user communication " Fixed services: LCD64, LCD144, LCD384 and LCD2048

! UDD: Unconstrained Delay Data


" Packet connection (shared codes like GPRS has shared channels) " Code(s) can be re-allocated to an another user during a communication " Flexible data services: UDD64, UDD144, UDD384 and UDD2048
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-34

There are two sets of bearer types for W-CDMA in the FDD mode. LCD and UDD depending on whether the connection required is for services that can handle delay or not. Long Constrained Delay bearer services are defined for services that are intolerant to delay. Unconstrained Delay Data bearer services are for those services that can tolerate delay. LCD is for voice and UDD is for packet, basically.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-34

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

The Principle Behind TDD


Symmetric Services
Timeslot pair for Duplex connection

TX timeslots

RX timeslots

TDD structure like in cordless systems

Asymmetric Services
Timeslot pairs for 2 Duplex connection

TX timeslots
January 8, 2001

Asymmetric data connection

RX timeslots
7-35

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

In TDD mode the sender and receiver can operate on the same frequency like in DECT. The difference between uplink and downlike is just done by timeslots. Therefore it is not neccessary to have a duplex frequency pair for the TDD Mode. The assignment of timeslots can be done with a great deal of flexibility according to the demanded data service and even for assymetric services e.g. internet surfing. TDD provides high data rate downlinks and relatively low data rate uplinks.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-35

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Applications for UTRAN's Modes


! FDD mode (using W-CDMA)
"In public macro and micro cell environment "For data rates up to 384 kbps

! TDD mode (using TD-CDMA)


"In public micro and pico cell environment "For unlicensed cordless and public wireless local loop "For data rates up to 2 Mbps and asymmetric traffic

! Multimode terminals: GSM and UTRA in FDD and TDD mode

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-36

The applications targeted for the different modes of UTRA mean that they complement each other well. FDD is good for wide areas, high mobility but lower data rates. TDD is good for smaller areas with less mobility but much higher data rates.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-36

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Code Planning (UMTS) vs Frequency Planning (GSM)


! W-CDMA distinguishes users
by codes, the same channel can be deployed in adjacent cells.
" Preferred configuration for initial deployments
UMTS: N=1 Means UMTS: N=1 Means Minimal Frequency Minimal Frequency Planning is Required Planning is Required
1 1 1 5 6 CELL 1 7 5 6 CELL 1 7 2 January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-37 3 4 2 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

! Every UMTS cell site can use


the same 5 MHz band " N = 1 reuse ! Channel reuse problem encountered in GSM is eliminated ! Greatly simplifies frequency planning in a fully W-CDMA environment

GSM N=7 GSM N=7 Reuse Pattern Reuse Pattern

RF planning is much easier with UMTS since every cell uses the same 5 MHz band. There is no longer any channel reuse problems. This is how current CDMA networks are planned but W-CDMA is based on CDMA technology so the concept is the same.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-37

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Enabling Radio Network Technologies


Smart Adaptive Antennas !Quantum leap in capacity
By interference reduction and extremely tight spectrum reuse especially in macrocells

!Increased coverage (quality)


Indoor penetration and high range with respect to distance / data rates

Hierarchical Cell Structures Pico

!Capacity enhancement
By deploying micro and pico cells

Macro Micro Satellite


January 8, 2001

!Universal coverage
Indoor, urban, rural, satellite

!Support of all mobility types


From high mobility vehicular to pedestrian speeds

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-38

The capabilities promised to be provided by the future UMTS network is not just about packet networks alone. There are a number of advances in radio technology that, combined with UMTS will greatly enhance the services and bring to life the next generation of wireless communication. Smart or adaptive antenna arrays will enable much more efficient usage of the radio spectrum which will be extremely important for UMTS services as higher bandwidths will require higher spectrum usage. Beam forming to focus the radio signal on a particular subscriber is just one example. The usage of hierarchical cell structures will also be key. The radio network planning isnt just about providing blanket coverage across the region. It is also about covering hot spots and high usage areas that demand more resources.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-38

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Enabling Radio Network Technologies


Information Compression !Save precious radio capacity
Improved voice coding

!Enabling new services


e.g. video transmission (MPEG 2/4)

Multi-mode, -band / Software Radios

!Common hardware platforms


Smooth migration

Base station

!GSM/UMTS dual mode


Digital signal processor RF hardware

GSM
1900 MHz 2 GHz

S UMT A TDM

Enables hotspot introduction of UMTS

!Global roaming with one terminal


7-39

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

With more and more information being transmitted over the same space and time, effective usage of the space is critical. New coding schemes help this problem but likely wont be enough by itself. Compression of the information is also a viable alternative. Just as we have seen with the explosive growth of the Internet, compression using zip mechanisms for speeding transmission and storage space savings will also benefit wireless data. MPEG2/4 can compress the code for video data to less then 50 kbps. Finally, multi-mode, multi-band radios and terminals will be fundamental to enable global roaming in this world of mixed frequencies. To speed the introduction and ease the problems, software definable radios will make this more realistic in a fast growing environment.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-39

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

3G (UMTS) Release 00 Unified Network


GSM BTS MSC MSC BSC PSTN

Voice Gateway

HLR SCP SS7 GW

Gb

PSTN Gateway

Packet Network
Wireless Gateway

Packet Gateway

Iub Iu Iur

Intranets
Call Server

Internet

UMTS BTS January 8, 2001

UMTS RNC

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-40

The release 2000 based UMTS 3G network. Much the same as we saw with the EDGE network (which is also part of Release 2000), the UMTS network also is packet based. All traffic, voice and data are carried via the backbone and all network elements connect to the backbone. The UMTS BTS and RNC connect directly. The legacy GSM BTS connect via the SGSN (wireless gateway) and through the voice gateways. Call servers support both UMTS based features as well as some legacy GSM services although the 2G MSCs are still supported in the network as well.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-40

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

A Summary of Network Evolution


Voice & Data (CS)

EDGE
US
Packet Data (384 Kbps)

Voice & Data (CS)

Voice & Data (CS)

R99

GSM

GPRS
Packet Data Packet Data (115 Kbps) (100+ Kbps)

Voice and Data over Packet G E R A N/U M TS

A L L I P

R98

OR LD
Voice & Data (CS)

R00
UMTS
Packet Data (2 Mbps)

Converged Wireless Network

R99
2G
January 8, 2001

2.5G
Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

3G
7-41

So, to summarize how we got to UMTS in the GSM network The first step was the introduction of GPRS, based on Release 98 standards that gave us 115 kbps packet data as well as circuit-switched voice and data. The next step along the path diverges depending on the country and the availability of new 3G spectrum. In the US, it is envisioned that EDGE will be the likely path due to no spectrum currently allocated. With EDGE, based on Release 99, we get 384 kbps packet data in addition to circuit switched voice and data. The other path, likely to be followed in Europe will lead to UMTS, again based on Release 99. With UMTS, we get circuit switched voice and data as well as 2Mbps packet data. What comes next? Based on Release 00, we end up with the converged wireless network with voice over packet. In UMTS, this is UMTS. In EDGE, this is known as GERAN. Beyond that, we have the all-IP network.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-41

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

UMTS R99, 3G.IP and UMTS R00


UMTS R00 Standard 3GIP Focus PS-Domain UMTS R99 Standard

H.323 SIP H.323 SIP


CS-Domain

Unspecified Unspecified Real-Time Real-Time Services Services

IP IP GPRS GPRS UMTS Lower Layers

Unspecified Unspecified R99 Best-Effort R99 Best-Effort Speech Services Speech Services (DTAP) (DTAP)

! R99 delivers:
" PS-domain Real-Time & Best-Effort data services " CS-domain DTAP based voice services

! 3G.IP focus is PS-domain VoIP services based on SIP and/or H.323 ! 3G.IP provides two options for operators and vendors:
" Option 1: PS-domain voice and data services only " Option 2: PS-domain voice & data services and CS-domain voice services

! R00 encompasses 3G.IP output


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-42

Two organizations have been focusing on different aspects of the multimedia network. UMTS has covered the circuit domain for voice and the packet domain for data. 3G.IP has focused on the packet domain for voice. Release 00 of the standards encompasses both together.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-42

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

What is Mobile IP?


! A technology that allows mobile computing devices to exchange packet data as they change their physical location ! A suite of standards that adapt the existing Internet infrastructure to support mobility
RFC2002 RFC2003 RFC2004 RFC1701 RFC2344
January 8, 2001

The basic mobile IP protocol IP-in-IP encapsulation Minimal encapsulation in IP Generic routing encapsulation Reverse tunneling
7-43

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Mobile IP is a solution for the Internet mobility problem that re-uses the existing infrastructure and protocols of the Internet. Mobile IP is defined in a series of proposals, or Request for Comments (RFC) prepared by the mobile IP working group, which is part of the routing area of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The following RFCs are published: RFC2002: defines mobile IP protocol RFC2003: IP encapsulation within IP RFC2004: minimal encapsulation within IP RFC1701: generic routing encapsulation (GRE) protocol GRE is a generic protocol that allows the encapsulation of packets of any protocol within any other protocol. It is very flexible but adds additional overhead compared with IP-in-IP encapsulation. RFC2006: management information base (MIB) for mobile IP RFC2344: reverse tunneling for mobile IP RFC2005: applicability statement for mobile IP support

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-43

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Mobile IP: High Level View


! Confirm a change in location
" This is a non-standard process

! Discover a foreign agent on the new network


" Agent discovery (agent advertisements and/or agent solicitations)

! Obtain a temporary care-of address (COA)


" Obtained from the foreign agent

! Inform home agent of new location and care-of address


" Registration procedures

! Send and receive IP packets


" Packet tunneling and de-tunneling
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-44

This slide is a high-level summary of how mobile IP works. Invocation of the mobile IP protocol begins when a mobile discovers that it has moved. RFC 2002 does not mandate a specific technique for this step. Typically one of two things happen. One is that the mobile node goes for a pre-determined time without receiving an agent advertisement message from an agent it was previously in communication with. The other is that it receives an agent advertisement message with a different network prefix from the network that it last connected to. The mobile locates the foreign agent on the new network, and by exchanging messages with the FA, it obtains a new care-of address for the visited network. The mobile node must then tell its home network what care-of address it is using on the foreign network. Mobile IP defines a registration process for this step. The home agent then can reroute packets destined for the mobile to its new location The mobile node can send packets from the foreign network exactly the same as it would from its home network. However, for it to receive packets, the home agent that forwards its packets must create an IP tunnel that lets the IP network treat these packets as if they had originally been directed to the visited network.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-44

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

The Mobility Problem of Simple IP


10.0.0.1 65.123.6.15 65.123.6.12 65.123.6.18 65.123.6.18

Network B Network A

Network C

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-45

In the traditional implementation of IP, IP addresses are dependent on the network topology. In this example, the mobile user with IP address 65.123.6.18 moves from Network A to Network B. Another user, on Network C, sends packet data to Network A. Routers look at the mobiles IP address and deliver the packets to Network A. When the packets arrive at Network A, they find the mobile gone. This situation causes a problem for a user who takes a lap top on a trip and plugs into a landline network connection in a distant facility. In order to receive packets, the visitor must register for a new IP address specific to the new location, and then forward this address to any correspondent that might want to send him or her a packet. The situation is even more complicated for a roaming wireless user. To continue to receive packet data, the subscriber must get a new IP address for every MTA he or she registers with. Each provider of data services that he or she subscribes to must register a new destination IP with each change of service area. Whats more, packet data sessions would get dropped each time the roamer handed-off across an MTA border.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-45

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Mobile IP in 3G: An Example


A server delivers content to my home IP address. I dont need to tell it that Ive moved to a new radio network. Home Agent Foreign Agent

Home Radio Network

Internet

Visited Radio Network

I subscribe to a push service, for example, stock quotes


January 8, 2001

As I drive from one MTA to another, the stock quotes follow me

In the new network I use a care-of-address assigned to me by the visited networks Agent
7-46

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

I can subscribe to a service that continuously pushes packets at my mobile computing device. The content could be stock quotes, traffic information, etc. Or coworkers could be using a file transfer protocol to drop files into a shared folder on my mobile computer. Regardless of the type of service I am receiving, I dont have to tell the source of my incoming packets that I am moving to another IP address on another radio network. My mobile detects that I am being served by a different PDSN/SGSN. I get a care-of IP address from the foreign agent running on the PDSN/SGSN. The PDSN/SGSN notifies my home agent (which could be on another PDSN/SGSN) that I have a care-of address on its network. Until further notice, my home agent takes my incoming packets, wraps them in a larger packet, applies to the encapsulating packet my care-of address and sends the packet to the visited network. The home network can be another radio network (as in this example), or it could be a corporate network (either wireline or wireless). In the latter case, any radio network becomes the visited network, and the wireless carrier provides the mobile user with secured corporate access in other words, it becomes a virtual extension of a corporate Intranet.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-46

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Growth in Bandwidth Capacity: Transmission Revolution


Increase in Capacity of a Single Fiber
OC-768 (40 Gbps) OC-768 (40 Gbps) 16 Channels = 640 Gbps 16 Channels = 640 Gbps 40 Channels = 1600 Gbps 40 Channels = 1600 Gbps

US network capacity explodes by more than 8,000%

1600
Single Fiber Capacity (Gbps)

1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99


OC-48 (2.4 Gbps) OC-48 (2.4 Gbps) 40 Channels = 100 Gbps 40 Channels = 100 Gbps 96 Channels = 240 Gbps 96 Channels = 240 Gbps OC-192 (10 Gbps) OC-192 (10 Gbps) 16 Channels = 160 Gbps 16 Channels = 160 Gbps 40 Channels = 400 Gbps 40 Channels = 400 Gbps 80 Channels = 800 Gbps 80 Channels = 800 Gbps 128 Channels = 1280 Gbps 128 Channels = 1280 Gbps

Approaching 25 Million telephone calls or 200,000 typical web pages/second on a single fiber
January 8, 2001

Fortune Magazine, 3/15/99 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-47

This chart depicts how rapidly the capacity of a single fiber is escalating. This capacity will increase approximately 8 fold just within the next 12 months. A large part of this is due to the Internet but the wireless (and other wireline networks as well) will benefit from this growth. The backbone network was once a source of major congestion as the capacity was far outweighed by the demand. That trend has changed 180 degrees. For the wireless networks, the last mile, or the air interface to the mobile devices will be the source of congestion and the focus of future bandwidth demand.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-47

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Core Networking Evolution


Multiplexing, Protection and Management at Every Layer
IP Over ATM
IP

B-ISDN
IP

IP Over SONET/SDH
IP

ATM

IP Over Optical
IP Optical

SONET/SDH Optical

ATM Optical

SONET/SDH Optical

Lower Equipment Cost and Operational Cost


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-48

The evolution of the core network can take many forms. Regardless of which form, the outcome is lower equipment and operational costs. IP can run over almost any medium and which is chosen is up to the operator.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Common Open & Standard IP Architecture


Services
Unified Communications Voice Features E-Commerce Web Hosting Location Services Other Feature Servers

Core Network
Call Agent

Internet

Core IP

Mobility Management

PSTN

Access Network(s)

Access Control
Fixed Wireless iDEN/ TETRA

TDMA

GSM

CDMA

3G

Access layer Independence


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-49

The vision is to see access networks, such as cellular, wireless local loop, DSL and cable are all operated independently from the core network and the service layers. There are many advantages to this. Leveraging the same core network and service architecture for more than one access network. Increase network deployment flexibility - pay as you grow investment. Simplify control and management. The service provider can start to use this IP core network and service architecture to differentiate their services. One example includes putting all message boxes (voice mail, fax, e-mail) in to an all-IP network.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-49

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

The Converged IP Network Voice/Data Convergence: All IP Network


ONE NETWORK ONE NETWORK New Call Model New Call Model Scope Scope IP Based Bearer Transport

Voice Voice Data Data Image Image Video Video

Call Call Control Control

Bearer Bearer Transport Transport

IP Based Call Control IP Based Mobility Management

Applications Applications

IP Based Security & Authentication Core Network Backbone Core Network Backbone (may be up to BSS) (may be up to BSS)
7-50

Radio Radio
January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

What is the all IP network? It is the convergence of voice and data into a single network providing traditional voice services as well as data, imaging and full motion video. This implies that a new call model will be required. Whereas in the past, the network was unified, we now have a separation of the call control from the bearer transport and the applications. The scope of this separation implies an IP-based transportation of the bearer services, an IP-based transportation of the call control as well as the mobility management functions and security and authentication. This migration towards IP will (has already) begin in the backbone network. This will be followed by its migration into the core network, perhaps as far as the radio. The final step will be within the radio network itself.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Separation of Transport, Control and Applications


Applications Server based applications

Control

ISUP, BICC, MGC, SG in the form of soft-switches

Packet based with ATM or IP as the backbone network Transport

Integrated

Separated networks, but still integrated

Separated

MG provides TDM to packet conversion

2G
January 8, 2001

2.5G/3G

3G+ (ATM/IP)
7-51

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

The first generation networks were completely integrated with all signaling and bearer information transported along the same path. The second generation separated the signaling and call control information but the network was/is still integrated. In the next generation, we will have 3 distinct network layers. The transport layer will be packet-based ATM or IP serving as the backbone network. Media Gateways will provide TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) conversion to packets. The call control layer will include Media Gateway Controllers and Signaling Gateways in the form of soft switches. These elements will handle the signaling information such as ISUP or BICC. In the upper layer will reside the applications based on server platforms.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

New Network Entities


Media Gateway Controller (MGC)/Signaling Gateway (SG) : Softswitch
" Provides call control " Provides feature control " Provides digit translation and routing " Performs billing related timings " Performs the selection and release of Media Gateway trunks " Maintains the busy/idle status of Media Gateway Trunks " Provides call control related signaling functions

Media Gateway (MG):


" Performs bearer conversion from TDM to packet (IP or ATM) " For ATM: Provides the user-side of UNI signaling protocol to set up the SVC # Provides DS0 to VPI/VCI mapping # Provides AAL1 or AAL2 functions " For IP: Provides the RTP/RTCP functionalities
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-52

This slide is pretty self-explanatory. As has already been briefly described, the function of the Media Gateway Controller will be to provide the call control independently of the bearer information. This also includes feature control and routing information as well as billing. The selection of the trunks/paths to be used is also performed here. The Media Gateway handles the bearer conversion from TDM to packet (either IP or ATM). In the case of ATM, it will be the user side of UNI protocol for establishing the SVCs. Mapping will be performed between DS0 and VPI/VCI and will provide AAL1 and AAL2 layer functions. In the case of IP, it will provide RTP/RTCP functions.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Introducing Soft Switches


ATM
ISUP C MGCP/MEGACO E ATM L (VPI/VCI) L U TDM L (DS0) MG UNI A R MG: Media Gateway

Control
BICC (Bearer Independent Call Control) ISUP

ATM Edge Switch

ATM (VPI/VCI)

ATM (VPI/VCI) ATM Core Network


NNI

MGCP/MEGACO

ATM ATM Edge (VPI/VCI) Switch


UNI

NNI

MGCP: Media Gateway Control Protocol

VPI: Virtual Path Identifier VCI: Virtual Channel Identifier

C E L TDM L (DS0) U L MG A R

IP
ISUP C MGCP/MEGACO E L L RTP/RTCP U TDM (DS0) L MG A R MEGACO: Media Gateway Controller

Control
BICC

IP based Core Network

C E MGCP/MEGACO L L RTP/RTCP U TDM L (DS0) A MG R


ISUP
RTP: Real Time Protocol RTCP: Real Time Control Protocol

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-53

As mentioned, in this new network we introduce the concept of soft switches. There is no traditional MSC as we know it anymore. In the case of an all-IP network, the Media Gateway converts TDM to RTP/RTCP for transmission of the bearer information via an IP-based core network. The call control is handled by the Media Gateway Controllers that take ISUP from the TDM world and convert it to BICC. In the ATM world, the Media Gateway converts TDM to User-to-Network Interface for establishing the SVCs for transmitting the bearer information via the ATM core network. Again, the call control is handled by the Media Gateway Controllers converting ISUP to BICC.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Call Scenario Using Traditional Switching

Home
GMSC

Today Today

ISUP

ISUP

Visiting

MSC

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-54

Lets take a look at a simple example of how a Mobile terminated call is made today. A wireline subscriber calls a wireless subscriber somewhere in the country. The call is set up using ISUP signaling through the PSTN where it is routed to a Gateway MSC. The G-MSC sends the call set-up to the Visiting MSC where the subscriber is currently located. The bearer information (the voice) is then established through the PSTN via the G-MSC. In this case, it criss-crosses the country. Not the most elegant use of network resources.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Call Scenario Using Soft Switches


Home
GMSC Server

Voice over Packet Voice over Packet

BICC BICC
MGC

Visiting

MSC Server

ISUP

Actual Voice Transport (Voice over Packet)


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-55

Now, lets take a look at an example using soft switches. Again, we have a wireline subscriber calling a mobile subscriber somewhere in the country. Instead of a G-MSC, we have a G-MSC server acting as the Media Gateway Controller. The call set up is sent using BICC signaling to the MGC. The MGC then routes it to the Visiting MGC currently serving the subscriber. The bearer information (voice) is then sent over the packet network using Media Gateways. The call control information has no idea that the bearer information is being transported over the packet network nor does it care. This is a much more efficient use of network resources.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Seamless Services Across IP-based Networks


IN Servers Mobility Servers SG & Call Feature Servers 3rd Party Applications

Service plane

POTS/ISDN xDSL IP/ATM Network Wireless Optical

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-56

The network of the future being aggressively pursued by the standardization bodies as well as the equipment manufacturers and the operators too. It is a simple transport network with intelligence at the periphery.This intelligence residing at the edges of the network come in the form of mobility management, application services, operations, administration and provisioning. Such a simple transport based on IP and/or ATM and optimized for all services. The anywhere, anytime, any media service network.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-56

Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

From 3G Cellular to Ad-Hoc Networks 4G?


Adaptive multi-hop ad-hoc network Adaptive multi-hop ad-hoc network

Relaying by other mobiles used to route Relaying by other mobiles used to route packets to an access point packets to an access point

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-57

One example of an ad-hoc network is one where the network sort of creates itself as needed, hence the term ad-hoc. It adapts to its environment and changes as the requirements change. In this example, the network is composed of the wireless terminals that currently are within a given area. When one wants to send packets of information to the network, it might relay them through other terminals that are within the are until the information reaches an access point. As the terminals enter and leave the area, the network re-organizes itself so that it is constantly changing.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Reasons for Ad-hoc Networking


! Today, the PC world requires literacy to use remote services based on an IP connection
" A wireless notebook user wants to use the nearest wireless LAN services " He needs to look for the nearest printer " He needs to identify the printer (e.g. printer LaserJet01 at PRD70345) " He has to install the printer drivers (e.g. for HP LaserJet 4) using a CD-ROM or by download from the Internet

! If he isnt PC literate, he wont be able to do it ! Ad-hoc Networking solves these problems


" To get offered the best service (a print service selected by location, availability and resolution) " To use this service with a simple plug and play (without any administration or installation of printer drivers)

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

7-58

The world of personal computers and all of the devices associated with these networks can be intimidating at best. As sophisticated and as intelligent as these devices have become, they still require a rather detailed understanding of how to set up and administer them. Loading the proper device drivers, for example, is critical to making them work but can be very confusing and even dangerous if you dont know what you are doing. An ad-hoc network maintains this information for the user so that he doesnt have to know or understand it. The network maintains the information for the user. As devices enter and leave, the profile of information required to use the device is stored in the network. When a user requests a service, the network provides the profile to the user device which automatically configures according to the profile.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Plug and Play of an Ad-hoc Network

I need to use a color printer

plug and play

Sorry, I support only black and white

plug and play

Ad-hoc Network of Printer Services

plug and play

plug and play


Here, I am available Sorry, I am busy
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-59

In this example, a device needs to access a color printer. The ad-hoc network as a number of printers registered to it and has the necessary driver and address information stored. It may also know the status of the different printers so that it can direct the device to the one that is best suited for it. This can be especially essential for wireless LANs where devices are moving in and out. With an ad-hoc network, the need for pre-defined knowledge and set up of the devices is eliminated since the network maintains the information.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Ad-Hoc Networking Scenarios


! Smart Home
" Plug and play " Support different end devices (mobile phone, microwave, etc.) " Zero network administration

! Small Office / Home Office (SOHO)


" Remote use of company services " Zero service installation and software upgrade

! Large Enterprises
" Spontaneous use of projectors and printer services by different internal and external participants " Location dependent ad-hoc access of campus services for mobile terminals (mobile phone, PDA, notebook)

! Others like airports, hospitals, shops, museums


January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. 7-60

There are many potential uses and applications for ad-hoc networks and they cover just about any possible location. The network and the devices continue to get more intelligent thus relieving the user from having to know, understand and practice the art of device administration within a network. Whether this is a step in the evolution towards a fourth generation network or whether it is the fourth generation network remains to be seen. In any event, it is certain that networks and devices will get smarter, people will have less to worry about and the quality of the mobility of their lives will continue to be enhanced.

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Lesson 7: Self-Check 1. What is IS-2000?

2. What is the difference between IS-2000 and WCDMA/UMTS/G3G?

3. Define EDGE and explain its three phases.

4. Explain how many TDMA carriers need to be cleared for EDGE.

5. What is UMTS?

6. What is Mobile IP?

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 4, 2001

Appendix A - Acronyms
1G 1xRTT 2G 2.5G 3G 3xRTT AAA AAL AC AC ACF ACL AMPS ANSI AOA AP API APNIC ARIB ARIN ARP ARPANET ARQ ATM BCCH BG BGP BHCA BICC BRAN BS BSC BSM BSS BTA BTS CA CAMA CAMEL CCCH CDM CDMA First-generation analog cellular telephone systems One times Radio Transmission Technology Second-generation cellular telephone systems (todays digital cellular technologies) Interim cellular telephone technologies appearing during the evolution from 2G to 3G Third-generation cellular phone service Three times Radio Transmission Technology Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting ATM Adaptation Layer Authentication Center Alternating Current Association Control Function Asynchronous Connectionless Advanced Mobile Phone Service American National Standards Institute Angle of Arrival Access Point Application Programming Interface Asian-Pacific Network Information Center Association of Radio Industries & Businesses American Registry for Internet Numbers Address Resolution Protocol Advanced Research Projects Agency Network Automatic Request for Retransmission Asynchronous Transfer Mode Broadcast Control Channel Border Gateway Border Gateway Protocol Busy Hour Call Attempt Bearer Independent Call Control Broadband Radio Access Network Base Station Base Station Controller Base Station Manager Base Station Subsystem Basic Trading Area Base Transceiver System Certification Authority Centralized Automated Message Accounting Customized Applications for Mobile Network Enhanced Logic Common Control Channel Code Division Multiplexing Code Division Multiple Access

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

A-1

Course 221 Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology CDPD CIA CLNP CORBA CPE CPU CPCI CS CSD CSMA/CD CTIA DC DCC DECT DHCP DL DLC DNS DSL DTAP DTCH DTE DTMF DTX EA EC ECSD EDGE EGP EGPRS EIR E-OTD ERAN ESMR ESN ETSI FBI FCC FDD FDDI FDM FDMA FES FH FHSS FR

January 4, 2001

Cellular Digital Packet Data Central Intelligence Agency Connectionless Network Protocol Common Object Request Broker Architecture Customer Premise Equipment Central Processing Unit Compact PCI Coding Scheme or Capability Set Circuit Switched Data Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association Direct Current DLC Connection Control Digital European Cordless Telecommunication Dynamic Host Control Protocol Down Link Data Link Control Domain Name Server Digital Subscriber Line Direct Transfer Application Part Dedicated Traffic Channel Data Terminal Equipment Dual Tone Multi Frequency Discontinuous Transmission Economic Area Error Control Enhanced Circuit Switched Data Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution Exterior Gateway Protocol Enhanced GPRS Equipment Identity Register Enhanced Observed Time Difference EDGE Radio Access Network Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio Electronic Serial Number European Telecommunication Standards Institute Federal Bureau of Investigations Federal Communications Commission Frequency Division Duplex Fiber Distributed Data Interconnect Frequency Division Multiplexing Frequency Division Multiple Access Fixed End System Frequency Hopping Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Frame Relay

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

A-2

Course 221 Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology FTP GGSN GHz GIX GMSC GMSK GPRS GPS GR GSM GTP HCI HDLC HDML HDTP HLR HPLMN HSCSD HTML HTTP ID IEC IEEE IETF IGP IMEI IMSI IMT2000 IN INAP IP IPsec ISDN ISM ISO ISOC ISP ISUP IS-2000 IS-95 IT ITU IVR IWF L2CAP

January 4, 2001

File Transfer Protocol Gateway GPRS Support Node Gigahertz Global Internet Exchange Gateway Mobile Switching Center Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying General Packet Radio Service Global Positioning System GPRS Register Groupe Spciale Mobile or Global System for Mobile Communications GPRS Tunneling Protocol Host Controller Interface High Level Data Link Control Handheld Devices Markup Language Handheld Device Transport Protocol Home Location Register Home Public Land Mobile Network High Speed Circuit Switched Data Hyper Text Markup Language Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Identification International Electrotechnical Committee Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force Interior Gateway Protocol International Mobile Equipment Identifier International Mobile Stations Identifier International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 Standards Intelligent Network Intelligent Network Application Protocol Internet Protocol or Intelligent Peripheral Internet Protocol Security Integrated Services Digital Network Industrial, Scientific & Medical International Standards Organization Internet Society Internet Service Provider ISDN User Part Interim Standard 2000 Interim Standard 95 Information Technology International Telecommunications Union Interactive Voice Response Interworking Function Link Layer Control & Adaptation

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

A-3

Course 221 Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology L2TP LAC LAES LAN LCD LCS LDAP LLC LMU Kbps MAC MAE MAN MAP MC MCPA MDBS MD-IS M-ES MG MGC MGCP MHz mA A s MIB MIP MIPS MOC MPEG MPLS MS ms MSC MT MTA MTC MTX NAP NEBS NIC NMS NNI NNTP NOC

January 4, 2001

Level 2 Tunneling Protocol Link Access Control Lawfully Authorized Electronic Surveillance Local Area Network Long Constrained Delay Location Services Lightweight Directory Access Protocol Logical Link Control Location Measurement Unit Kilobits per second Media Access Control Metropolitan Area Exchange Metropolitan Area Network Mobile Application Part Message Center Multi-Carrier Power Amplifier Mobile Data Base Station Mobile Data Intermediate System Mobile End System Media Gateway Media Gateway Controller Media Gateway Control Protocol Megahertz Milli-Ampere Micro-ampere Micro-second Management Information Base Mobile IP Micro Instructions per Second Mobile Originated Call Moving Picture Experts Group Multi-Protocol Label Switching Mobile Station Milli-Second Mobile Switching Center Mobile Terminal Major Trading Area Mobile Terminated Call Mobile Telephone Exchange Network Access Point Network Equipment Building System Network Information Center or Network Interface Card Network Management System Network-to-Network Interface Network News Transfer Protocol Network Operation Center

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

A-4

Course 221 Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology NPDB NSF NSP NSS OA&M OHG OMC ONC OSI OSPF PA PAN PACCH PBCCH PBX PC PCS PCU PDA PDC PDE PDN PDTCH PDU PHS PIN PKI PLMN PMA PoP POTS PPP PPTP PRI PROM PSAP PSK PSPDN PSTN PTCCH QAM QoS RADIUS RAM RAN RARP Number Portability Database National Science Foundation Network Service Provider Network Switching Subsystem Operation Administration & Maintenance Operators Harmonization Group Operation Maintenance Center Optical Network Controller Open Systems Interface Open Shortest Path First Power Amplifier Personal Area Network Packet Associated Control Channel Packet Broadcast Control Channel Private Branch Exchange Personal Computer Personal Communications Service Packet Control Unit Personal Digital Assistant Personal Digital Cellular Position Determining Equipment Packet Data Network Packet Data Traffic Channel Packet Data Unit Personal Handyphone System Personal Identification Number Public Key Infrastructure Public Land Mobile Network Parked Member Address Point-of-Presence Plain Old Telephone Service Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Primary Rate Interface Programmable Read Only Memory Public Safety Answering Point Phase Shift Keying Packet Switched Public Data Network Public Switched Telephony Network Packet Timing advance Control Channel Quad Amplitude Modulation Quality of Service Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service Random Access Memory Radio Access Network Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

January 4, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

A-5

Course 221 Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology RAS RF RIP RIPE RLC RLP RMI RNC ROM RRC RSVP RT RTCP RTP RTT SCF SCO SCP SCS SDH SDP SG SGSN SIG SIM SIP SLA SLIP SMA SMLC SMS SMSC SMTP SN SNMP SOHO SONET SS7 SSF SSL SSP STP SVC SW TA TAG Remote Access Server Radio Frequency Routing Information Protocol Rseaux IP Europens Radio Link Control Radio Link Protocol Remote Method Invocation Radio Network Controller Read Only Memory Radio Resource Control Resource Reservation Protocol Real Time Real Time Control Protocol Real Time Protocol Radio Transmission Technology Service Control Function Synchronous Connection Oriented Service Control Point Service Creation System Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Service Discovery Protocol Signaling Gateway Serving GPRS Support Node Special Interest Group Subscriber Identity Module Session Initiation Protocol Service Level Agreement Serial Line Internet Protocol Smart Mobile Access Serving Mobile Location Center Short Message Service Short Message Service Center Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Service Node Simple Network Management Protocol Small Office Home Office Synchronous Optical Network Signaling System 7 Service Switching Function Secure Socket Layer Service Switching Point Signaling Transfer Point Switched Virtual Circuit Software Technical Advisors Technical Advisory Group

January 4, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

A-6

Course 221 Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology TB TCAP TCP TCS TCU TDOA TDD TDM TDMA TDP TETRA TIA TLS TOA TOS TRU TS TTP UDD UDP UDS UM UMTS UNI URL USB USIM USNC UTRA UTRAN UUID VBNS VCI VHE VLR VoIP VPI VPLMN VSELP WAE WAN WAP W-CDMA WDM WDP WIM TeraByte Transaction Capabilities Application Part Transmission Control Protocol Telephony Control Protocol TransCoding Unit Time Difference of Arrival Time Division Duplex Time Division Multiplexing Time Division Multiple Access Trigger Detection Point Terrestrial Trunked Radio Access Telecommunications Industry Association Transport Layer Security Time of Arrival Type of Service Transceiver Radio Unit Time Slot Trusted Third Party Unconstrained Delay Data User Datagram Protocol Unified Directory Server Unified Messaging Universal Mobile Telecommunication System User-to-Network Interface Uniform Resource Locator Universal Serial Bus UMTS SIM United States National Committee UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Universally Unique Identifier Very high speed Backbone Network System Virtual Channel Identifier Virtual Home Environment Visitor Location Register Voice over IP Virtual Path Identifier Visited Public Land Mobile Network Vector Sum Excited Linear Prediction Wireless Application Environment Wide Area Network Wireless Application Protocol Wideband Code Division Multiple Access Wave Division Multiplexing Wireless Datagram Protocol Wireless/WAP Identity Module

January 4, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

A-7

Course 221 Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology WIN WLAN WML WPKI WSP WTA WTLS WTP WWW XML Wireless Intelligent Network Wireless LAN Wireless Markup Language Wireless Public Key Infrastructure Wireless Session Protocol Wireless Telephony Application Wireless Transport Layer Security Wireless Transaction Protocol World Wide Web Extensible Markup Language

January 4, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Standardization Appendix B

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

B-1

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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January 8, 2001

Objectives
! Define the standardization process ! Review major standards bodies ! Define the roles these bodies play in the development of future wireless data networks

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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January 8, 2001

Definition of a Standard

ISO/IEC Guide 2:1996 defines a standard as a document, established by consensus and approved by a recognized body, that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context.

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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January 8, 2001

Roles Filled by Standards


! Represent a level of know-how and technology which is indispensable to the industry ! A reference document used in particular in the context of public contracts or in that of international trade and on which the majority of commercial contracts rely
"A factor for rationalization of production "A factor for clarification of transactions "A factor for innovating and developing products "A factor for transferal of new technologies "A factor for strategic choice for companies

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

B-4

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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January 8, 2001

Characteristics of Standards
! Cover several disciplines ! Are coherent and consistent ! Result from participation ! Are a living process ! Are up to date ! Have a reference status ! Have national or international recognition ! Are available to everyone "As a general rule, standards are voluntary not mandatory but in certain cases, implementation may be obligatory
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. B-5

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Major Phases of a Standard


! Identification of the needs of the partners ! Collective programming ! Drawing up of the draft standard by the interested parties ! Consensus ! Validation ! Approval ! Review

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Factors Affecting Standardization


! Recognized as being an essential discipline
"European economic integration - the free movement of goods and services within the Union "Quality increasing importance asserts itself more and more as a determining factor of competitiveness "Emergence of new techniques and technologies - common rules which facilitate interoperability

! Drawn up at international (e.g ISO), regional (e.g. ETSI) and national level (e.g. ANSI) ! Generic management system standards
"Standards requirements can be applied to any organization, regardless of the product it makes "ISO 9000 series for managing quality systems "ISO 14000 series for environmental management systems
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. B-7

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Certification of Conformity to Standards


Certification is a procedure by which a third party gives written assurance that a product, process or service conforms to specified requirements. (Definition: ISO/IEC Guide 2:1996) ! Certification is an asset and an advantage, both for the producer and for the purchaser ! Product certification attests that a product complies with the safety, fitness for use and/or interchangeability characteristics defined in standard(s) ! Organization certification demonstrates the conformity of an organization's management system to the relevant model (e.g. ISO 9000)
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. B-8

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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January 8, 2001

Standards Bodies and Fora

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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January 8, 2001

Standards Bodies Relationships

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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American National Standards Institute


! Administrator and coordinator of the United States private sector voluntary standardization system for more than 80 years ! ! ! ! Public/Private sector partnership since 1918 1000+ Member Companies Revenues of $1.2+ trillion 280+ Professional, Trade, Educational, Consumer, and Labor institutions ! 30+ Government agencies

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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January 8, 2001

ANSI
! Does not develop standards ! Facilitates development by establishing consensus among qualified groups ! More than 175 distinct entities currently accredited under one of the Federations three methods of accreditation (organization, committee or canvas) ! In 1999, the number of American National Standards increased by nearly 5.5% to 14,650

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

B-12

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

ANSI
! Promotes the use of US standards internationally ! Advocates US policy and technical positions in international and regional standards organizations ! Encourages the adoption of international standards as national standards where these meet the needs of the user community ! Sole US representative and dues-paying member of the two major non-treaty international standards organizations, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and, via the US National Committee (USNC), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. B-13

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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January 8, 2001

ANSI
! Accredits US Technical Advisory Groups (TAGs) or USNC Technical Advisors (TAs) ! The US TAGs (or TAs) primary purpose is to develop and transmit, via ANSI, US positions on activities and ballots of the international technical committee ! Promote US Standardization Policies Globally
" GOAL: Global standards that reflect US that reflect US interests " US standards used abroad " US positions (policy and technical) accepted in international and regional standards organizations " International standards adopted as national standards where these meet the needs of the user community
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. B-14

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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January 8, 2001

ANSI Organization

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

B-15

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions


! North American standards body leading the development of telecommunications standards, operating procedures and guidelines through its sponsored committees and forums ! Member companies are North American and World Zone 1 Caribbean providers of telecommunications services, and include:
" Telecommunications service providers " Competitive local carriers, Cellular carriers " Inter-exchange companies, local exchange companies " Manufacturers, software developers " Resellers, enhanced service providers, and providers of operations support
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. B-16

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January 8, 2001

Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions


! Established at the divestiture of the Bell System in 1984 ! Mission
" Actively promote the timely resolution of national and international issues involving telecommunications standards and the development of operational guidelines " Initiate and maintain flexible, open industry forums to address technical and operational issues affecting the nation's telecommunications facilities and services and the development of innovative technologies " Promote industry process and harmony with minimal regulatory or legislative intervention
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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions


! Over 3,000 industry company representatives ! Focus on solutions to numerous new challenges
" Y2K interoperability testing " Global wireless communications " Number portability " Improved data transmission " Toll fraud " Convergence of new technologies

January 8, 2001

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions


! Carrier Liaison Committee (CLC) Executive oversight for the Network Interconnection Interoperability Forum, the Ordering and Billing Forum, the Industry Numbering Committee and the Toll Fraud Prevention Committee
" Network Interconnection Interoperability Forum (NIIF) Provides an open forum to encourage the discussion and resolution, on a voluntary basis, of industry-wide issues associated with telecommunications network interconnection and interoperability which involve network architecture, management, testing and operations and facilitates the exchange of information

" Ordering and Billing Forum (OBF)


Provides a venue for customers and providers in the telecommunications industry to identify, discuss and resolve national issues that affect ordering, billing, provisioning and exchange of information about access services and other connectivity and related matters

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions


! Carrier Liaison Committee (CLC) (continued) " Industry Numbering Committee (INC) Provides an open forum to address and resolve industry-wide issues associated with the planning, administration, allocation, assignment and use of resources and related dialing considerations for public telecommunications within the North American Numbering Plan (NANP) area " Toll Fraud Prevention Committee (TFPC) Dedicated to the identification and prevention of toll fraud vulnerabilities in our national public switched network, and resolves issues involving fraud pertinent to the telecommunications industry. ! Committee T1-Telecommunications (T1) Accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Develops technical standards for telecommunications network interconnection, interoperability and performance. More than 1,500 scientists and engineers

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions


! Committee O5 - Wood Poles (O5) Develops standards and specifications for industry use in areas dealing with wood poles, crossarms and other wood products ! Data-Aware Transport Activity (DATA) Addresses multi-vendor interoperability focusing on interface compatibility, service, interworking and end-to-end management ! Generic Requirements Users Group A consensus-based industry committee that seeks improvements in the generic requirements process. The group identifies and recommends solutions to improving task definition in the front-end planning of generic requirements, minimizing unwarranted duplication between generic requirements and other related documents, and improving the technical content of generic requirements and their quality

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions


! Internetwork Interoperability Test Coordination (IITC) Committee Provides strategic planning, industry funding, and management mechanisms for test coordination as well as a forward-looking test coordination program in recognition of the expanding issues of increased network interconnection. Oversees the Network Testing Committee ! Network Reliability Steering Committee (NRSC) Performs analyses of network outages and provides recommendations for corrective actions. NRSC issues quarterly and annual reports to the industry and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in liaison with the FCC's Network Reliability Council ! Network and Services Integration Forum (NSIF) Resolves interoperability issues to promote wide deployment of SONET, including IP over SONET, ATM over SONET, and ATM over optical networks
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. B-22

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions


! Protection Engineers Group (PEG) Provides guidance in efforts to improve the safety and reliability of telecommunications networks. Recommends standards for electrical protection of communications facilities, including broadband service architectures and cellular systems ! Telecommunications Industry Forum (TCIF) Promotes electronic commerce, electronic data interchange, improvements in bar coding of telecommunications products for inventory control, and electronic bonding

January 8, 2001

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Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Standards Committee T1 Telecommunications


! Established in February 1984 ! Develops technical standards and reports regarding interconnection and interoperability of telecommunications networks at interfaces with end-user systems, carriers, information and enhanced-service providers, and customer premises equipment (CPE) ! Membership and participation open to all parties with a direct and material interest in the T1 process and activities

January 8, 2001

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Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Standards Committee T1 Telecommunications


! Responsibilities
" Developing proposed American National Standards " Voting on approval of such proposed standards " Maintaining and updating the standards developed by the Committee " Interpreting the standards developed by the Committee " Adopting and revising Committee polices and procedures " Other matters requiring Committee action as provided in the Bylaws

January 8, 2001

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Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Standards Committee T1 Telecommunications


! Six technical subcommittees that are advised and managed by the T1 Advisory Group (T1AG)
" T1A1 - Performance and Signal Processing
# Performance and Signal Processing; Network Survivability; Multimedia Communications

" T1E1 - Interfaces, Power and Protection of Networks


# Power Systems/Interfaces; Analog Access; Wideband Access; Electrical and Physical Protection DSL Access

" T1M1- Inter-network Operations, Administration, Maintenance & Provisioning


# Testing and Operations, Systems and Protocols; Internetwork Planning and Engineering; OAM&P
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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Standards Committee T1 Telecommunications


! Six technical subcommittees that are advised and managed by the T1 Advisory Group (T1AG)
" T1P1 - Wireless/Mobile Services and Systems
# Personal Communications; Wireless Access and Terminal Mobility; Wireless/Mobile Services & Systems

" T1S1 - Services, Architectures and Signaling


# Architecture, Services and Control; Switching and Signaling Protocols; Number Portability

" T1X1 - Digital Hierarchy and Synchronization


# Synchronization Interfaces; Metallic and Optical Hierarchical Interfaces

January 8, 2001

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Telecommunications Industry Association


! Trade Association representing US Suppliers and Manufacturers of communications and information technology products ! Over 1,000 members, large and small ! Normal Trade Association Activities
" Public Policy to Congress, Regulators " Education (Seminars, Conferences) " International trade support " Represent industry on FCCs North American Numbering Council (NANC), Network Reliability and Interoperability Council (NRIC), Public Safety National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. B-28

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Telecommunications Industry Association


! Standards Developer - activities open to participation worldwide, not only North America ! Accredited by ANSI ! Over 1,300 experts participate ! 12 Engineering Committees, about 70 Formulating Groups ! Over 400 companies/organizations participate ! Active in CITEL, NAFTA Consultative Committee Telecommunications (CCT), ITU, APEC ! Recognized by ITU-T under Recommendations A.5 and A.6 ! TIA standards form part of ITU-R IMT-2000 Recommendation ! Participant in Global Standards Collaboration/RAdio STandardization (GSC/RAST) meetings
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. B-29

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Telecommunications Industry Association


! TIA Engineering Committees
" TR-8 Mobile and Personal Private Radio Standards " TR-14 Point-to-Point Communications Systems " TR-29 Facsimile Systems and Equipment " TR-30 Data Transmission Systems and Equipment " TR-32 Personal Radio Equipment " TR-34 Satellite Equipment and Systems " TR-41 User Premises Telephone Equipment Requirements " TR-42 Telecom. Cabling Infrastructure " TR-45 Mobile and Personal Communications Systems " TR-46 Mobile and Personal Communications 1800 Standards " FO-2 Optical Communications Systems " FO-6 Fiber Optics
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January 8, 2001

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Telecommunications Industry Association


! TIA Engineering Committees
" TR-8 Mobile and Personal Private Radio Standards Responsible for private radio communications systems, services and equipment including voice and data applications
# TR-8.1 Equipment Measurement Procedures # WG-8.3 Encryption # WG-8.4 Vocoder # TR-8.5 Signaling and Data Transmission # TR-8.6 Equipment Performance Recommendations # TR-8.10 Trunking and Conventional Control # TR-8.11 Antennas # TR-8.15 Common Air Interface # TG-8.16 EDACS System and Standards Definition # TR-8.17 RF Exposure # TR-8.18 Wireless Systems Coverage & Compatibility # TR-8.19 Wireline Systems Interfaces
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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Telecommunications Industry Association


! TIA Engineering Committees
" TR-45 Mobile and Personal Communications Systems Performance, compatibility, inter-operability, and service standards for mobile and personal communications systems. These standards pertain to, but are not restricted to, service information, wireless terminal equipment, wireless base station equipment, wireless switching office equipment, ancillary apparatus, auxiliary applications, inter-network and inter-system operations and interfaces
# TR-45.1 Analog Technology - Mobile and Personal Communications Standards # TR-45.2 Wireless Intersystem Technology - Mobile and Personal Communications Standards # TR-45.3 Time Division Digital Technology # TR-45.4 Radio to Switching Technology # TR-45.5 Spread Spectrum Digital Technology # TR-45.6 Adjunct Wireless Packet Data Technology
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. B-32

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Telecommunications Industry Association


! TIA Engineering Committees
" TR-46 Mobile and Personal Communications 1800 Standards Performance, compatibility, inter-operability, and service standards for mobile and personal communications systems. These standards pertain to, but are not restricted to, service information, wireless terminal equipment, wireless base station equipment, wireless switching office equipment, ancillary apparatus, auxiliary applications, inter-network and inter-system operations and interfaces # TR-46.1 Wireless Multimedia and Messaging Services (WIMS)
$ TR-46.1.1 Working Group User Requirements/Performance Specifications Wireless Multimedia and Messaging Services $ TR-46.1.2 Working Group Common Air Interface - Baseband Wireless Multimedia and Messaging Services $ TR-46.1.3 WIMS WG III - Common Air Interface - RF $ TR-46.1.4 Working Group Link and Network Control/Interfaces Wireless Multimedia and Messaging Services

# TR-46.2 Network Interfaces # TR-46.5 PCS 1900 # TR-46.6 Composite CDMA/TDMA


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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Telecommunications Industry Association


! Standards for Cellular and for Personal Communications Services (PCS) at 1900 MHz
" TIA developed, AMPS, NAMPS, CDMA and TDMA, ANSI-41 " Related standards for local number portability, location, emergency services, etc.

! Original Joint Technical Committee (JTC) PCS Standards


" J-STD-007: Personal Communications Services - PCS1900 - Air Interface Specification " J-STD-008: Personal Station-Base Station Compatibility Requirements for 1.8 to 2.0 GHz Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Personal Communications Systems " J-STD-011: PCS IS-136 Based Air Interface Compatibility 1900 MHz Standard " J-STD-014: Personal Access Communications System Air Interface Standard " J-STD-017: Composite CDMA/TDMA Air Interface Compatibility Standard for Personal Communications in 1.85 - 1.99 GHz for Licensed Applications " J-STD-015: W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) Air Interface Compatibility Standard for 1.85 to 1.99 GHz PCS Applications " J-STD-025: LAES (Lawfully Authorized Electronic Surveillance) Standard
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. B-34

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

3G.IP
! A group of Operators and Vendors that share a common 3G Network architecture strategy ! Operator-lead initiative ! Objectives:
" Define a 3G network architecture based on packet technologies and IP telephony for simultaneous real and nonreal time services " Common core network for EDGE and UTRA - based on evolved GPRS " Seamless service support between EDGE and UTRA networks " Personal mobility and interoperability between Mobile and Fixed networks
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January 8, 2001

3G.IP Mission
! Develop the technical direction for an all IP-based wireless network architecture ! To actively promote a common IP-based wireless system for third generation mobile communications technology ! Develop services requirements, priorities, and implementation direction ! To have an all IP-based architecture standardized by end of year 2000 ! To define the high level direction and evolution of future releases of the all IP network beyond year 2000 ! Promote alignment between wireless and fixed IP architectures

January 8, 2001

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

3G.IP Organization
Brian Daly, AWS

Peter Musgrove, AWS

Fred Harrison, BT

Peter Musgrove, AWS

January 8, 2001

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

3G.IP Group Descriptions


Standards Strategy Expert Group
! ! ! ! Standardization work plan and schedule 3G.IP schedule alignment with SDO work plans Monitor 3GPP and SDOs as required Develop plans for coordination and interaction with technical SDOs 3GPP, SMG, IETF, ETSI TIPHON, ITU, Packet Cable Address standardization issues within and between SDOs Transfer of EDGE and related SMG matters into 3GPP Identify key contributions required into SDOs, submitted by participating companies !

Carrier Requirements Expert Group


! Develop agreements between carriers for specific topics (e.g. network requirements, service requirements) Service and network interoperability such as roaming and legacy support with 2G networks and handover Terminal requirements Base line terminal configurations Prioritization of requirements

! ! !

! ! !

January 8, 2001

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

3G.IP Group Descriptions


Call Control Protocol Selection AdHoc Group
! SIP versus H.323 !

Charging/Billing AdHoc Group


! Define high level charging and billing requirements Define role model scenarios Develop contributions to appropriate SDO

Post-2000 AdHoc Group


! ! Evolution from the 3GPP release 00 starting point Alignment between IP solutions being adopted by fixed networks and mobile networks Harmonization with 3GPP2 IP architecture Further development of alternative access means !

Home Control of Services AdHoc Group


! Analyze options and alternatives for the home control of services for the all-IP based 3G.IP architecture

! !

January 8, 2001

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Mobile Wireless Internet Forum (MWIF) Mission


! Drive a single open mobile wireless internet architecture that:
" Enables seamless integration of mobile telephony and internet-based services (voice, data, video, web, etc.) " Meets the needs of network operators and Internet service providers " Is independent of the wireless access technology

! Influence & align standards with target architecture ! Promote interoperability of IP equipment, services, subsystems, client & service systems with target mobile architecture ! Promote development & investment in target architecture ! Optimize applications available to customers
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. B-40

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

Mobile Wireless Internet Forum (MWIF) Mission


! Open to all operators, service providers and suppliers who have a desire to produce a global, common vision for an Internet-based mobile wireless network and related service capabilities ! Act as a driver that is complementary to the existing standards working groups and will provide a common voice of global operators ! Ensure that key regional and global standards groups address requirements that global operators see critical to early and economic deployment of IP-based mobile wireless network ! Mobile technology neutral and not biased towards any particular standards

January 8, 2001

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

MWIF Working Groups


! Operator and ISP Requirements
" Specify operator and ISP requirements " Include subscriber, regulatory requirements

! Wireless Internet Architecture


" Develop MWIF reference architecture
# To meet Architecture Principles # Catalyst for consolidation of existing architectures # Produce gap analysis # Benchmark existing architectures against principles # Adopt best in class # Submit to 3GPP and 3GPP2

January 8, 2001

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

MWIF Working Groups (continued)


! Influencing Standards
" Define mechanism for contributing to relevant standards groups
# Focus on 3GPP, 3GPP2 and IETF initially for IP to the BTS

! IP to the BTS
" Develop the technical solution to support IP to the BTS
# To support plug and play base stations # To support software definable core network # To support single IP based backhaul network

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

European Telecommunications Standards Institute


! Non-profit organization whose mission is to produce the telecommunications standards that will be used for decades to come throughout Europe and beyond ! Based in Sophia Antipolis, France ! 773 members from 52 countries inside and outside Europe representing administrations, network operators, manufacturers, service providers, research bodies and users ! Any European organization proving an interest in promoting European telecommunications standards has the right to represent that interest in ETSI
January 8, 2001 Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc. B-44

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

European Telecommunications Standards Institute


! Work Program based on and coordinated with the activities of international standardization bodies, mainly the ITU-T and the ITU-R ! Consists of a General Assembly, a Board, a Technical Organization and a Secretariat. The Technical Organization produces and approves technical standards. It encompasses ETSI Projects (EPs), Technical Committees (TCs) and Special Committees ! More than 3500 experts working for ETSI in over 200 groups

January 8, 2001

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

European Telecommunications Standards Institute


General Assembly
BOARD
Technical Committees
TC AT Access and Terminals ECMA TC32 Communication, Networks & Systems Interconnection TC ERM EMC and Radio Spectrum Matters TC MSG Mobile Standards Group TC Safety Telecommunications Equipment Safety TC SES Satellite Earth Stations & Systems JTC Broadcast EBU/CENELEC/ETSI Joint Technical Committee TC EE Environmental Engineering

ETSI Projects
EP BRAN Broadband Radio Access Networks EP PLT PowerLine Telecommunications EP TIPHON
Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks

EP DECT Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication EP TETRA Terrestrial Trunked RAdio UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

TC HF Human Factors TC MTS Methods for Testing & Specification TC SEC Security

Special Committees
Finance Committee OCG Operational Co-ordination Group SAGE Security Algorithms Group of Experts ETSAG European Telecommunications Standards Awareness Group JEEC Joint ETSI/ECMA committee User Group

ETSI Partnership Projects - 3GPP


TSG-CN Core Network TSG-RAN Radio Access Networks TSG-SA Services and System Aspects TSG-T Terminals

SMG Special Mobile Group

TC SPAN Services and Protocol for Advanced Networks

TC STQ Speech processing Transmission & Quality TC TMN Telecommunications Management Networks

TC TM Transmission and Multiplexing

January 8, 2001

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

ETSI
! STANDARDIZATION STRATEGY
" Shape future of Mobile/Radio communications
# 3 GPP - IPV4/V6 in Release 2000 # EPPs - Bluetooth/WAP/IPV6/APCO # Satellite - partner with VSAT Forum # Spectrum management ETSI/ERO/ERC # UMTSF frequency extension - support at WARC

" Be a driver in fixed networks " Target INTERNET contribution


# Access - xDSL, BRAN, 3GPP,CATV, etc. # VOIP / MessagingOIP / FaxOIP # IP over existing networks # IPv6 Forum # Internet Governance - ICANN # SDLs for IETF RFCs # Global peering arrangements for ISPs # IP Phone numbers
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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

ETSI
! STANDARDIZATION STRATEGY
" Bridge Fixed/Mobile/Internet Convergence
# Electronic Signatures # Addressing # Wireless e-commerce - ICC partnership # Bridging / Interoperability

" Partner for global success


# Optimize member resource in fora/SDOs # Way forward with IETF # ITU MOU finalization # EPPs - use the tool more # Simplify PAS procedures # Focused MOUs & External Relations

January 8, 2001

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

International Telecommunications Union


! Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland ! International organization within which governments and the private sector coordinate global telecom networks and services ! Three sectors: ITU-T, ITU-R, ITU-D ! The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) was created on 1 March 1993 within the framework of the "new" ITU, replacing the former International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee (CCITT) whose origins are over 100 years old ! At present, more than 2500 recommendations (ITU-T alone) ! Three priorities:
" IP-based networks " IMT-2000 (3rd generation mobile systems) " Accounting rates
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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

January 8, 2001

ITU Landmarks
! 1837 Invention of the first electric telegraph ! 1844 Samuel Morse sent his first public message over a telegraph line between Washington and Baltimore ! 1865 Foundation of the International Telegraph Union by twenty States with the adoption of the first Convention. First Telegraph Regulations. ! 1876 Alexander Graham Bell patents his invention of the telephone ! 1924 Paris - Creation of CCIF (International Telephone Consultative Committee) ! 1925 Paris - Creation of CCIT (International Telegraph Consultative Committee) ! 1927 Washington - Creation of the CCIR (Intl. Radio Consultative Committee) ! 1932 Madrid - Plenipotentiary Conference. Telegraph Union changes name to International Telecommunication Union ! 1947 ITU becomes a Specialized Agency of the United Nations ! 1956 Geneva - CCIF and CCIT merged into CCITT (International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee) ! 1992 Geneva - Plenipotentiary Conference. Creation of 3 Sectors: ITU-T replaces CCITT, ITU-R replaces IFRB, CCIR, and ITU-D replaces TCD
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January 8, 2001

ITU Structure
P ip te tiary len o n C n re c o fe n e

R d c m un a n a io o m ic tio S to ec r

T lec m u ica n e o m n tio S nd rd tio S c r ta a iza n e to

Dv p e Sc r e elo m nt e to

C u cil on

W rld eg na o /R io l C n re c s o fe n e R d c m un a n a io o m ic tio As b s em ly

W rld o T lec m u ica n e o m n tio S n a iz tio ta d rd a n A s m ly(W S ) se b T A

W rld eg na o /R io l C n re c s o fe n e

W rldC n n e o o fere c s o In rn a n te ation l T lec m u ica n e o m n tio s

R d R g latio s a io e u n Ba o rd

S dy tu G us ro p

S dy tu G us ro p

S dy tu G us ro p

C o in n o rd atio C m itte om e

S re ry-G e l ec ta en ra D p S c ry en l e uty e reta -G era G n l S c ria e era e reta t

D irecto r B rea u u

Av o d is ry Gu ro p

D irecto r B rea u u

Av o d is ry Gu ro p

D irecto r B rea u u

Av o d is ry Gu ro p

January 8, 2001

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January 8, 2001

ITU Study Groups


! Study Group 2 ! Study Group 3 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Study Group 4 Study Group 5 Study Group 6 Study Group 7 Study Group 8 Study Group 9 Study Group 10 Network and service operation Tariff and accounting principles including related to telecommunications economic and policy issues TMN and network maintenance Protection against electromagnetic environment effects Outside plant Data networks and open system communications Characteristics of telematic systems Television and sound transmission Languages and general software aspects for telecommunication systems Signaling requirements and protocols End-to-end transmission performance of networks and terminals General network aspects Transport networks, systems and equipment Multimedia services and systems Telecommunication Standardization Advisory Group
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! Study Group 11 ! Study Group 12 ! ! ! ! Study Group 13 Study Group 15 Study Group 16 TSAG

January 8, 2001

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January 8, 2001

Third Generation Partnership Project


!Standards organizations and other related bodies have agreed to co-operate for the production of a complete set of globally applicable Technical Specifications for a 3rd Generation Mobile System based on the evolved GSM core network and radio access technologies supported by 3GPP partners (i.e., UTRA both FDD and TDD modes) !Established for the preparation and maintenance of the above mentioned Technical Specifications !It is not a legal entity

January 8, 2001

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January 8, 2001

Scope and Objectives


!Technical Specifications (TSs) developed in view of global roaming and circulation of terminals !The 3G Mobile System and its capabilities will be developed in a phased approach, initially to elaborate, approve and maintain the necessary set of TSs for the first phase of a 3rd Generation Mobile System including:
" UTRAN (including UTRA, W-CDMA in Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) mode and TD-CDMA in Time Division Duplex (TDD) mode) " 3GPP core network (3rd Generation networking capabilities evolved from GSM including mobility management and global roaming " Terminals for access to the above (including specifications for a UIM) " System and service aspects
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January 8, 2001

Scope and Objectives


! The set of global specifications for the first phase of the 3GPP core network and the specifications for the GSM core network should be common to the largest extent possible ! The results of the 3GPP work will form the basis of member contributions to the ITU in accordance with existing procedures ! 3GPP will take into account any emerging ITU recommendations on interworking between IMT-2000 family members ! In the framework of agreed relationships, 3GPP will elaborate TSs that will form the basis of standards, or parts of standards, of the Organizational Partners

January 8, 2001

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January 8, 2001

Partnership and Membership

!Partners
"Organizational Partners
$ 3GPP is open to all standards organizations irrespective of the geographic location

"Market Representation Partners "Individual Members

January 8, 2001

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Organizational Partner
! An open standards organization with a national, regional or other officially recognized status (in their country or region)
" Has the capability and authority to define, publish and set standards nationally or regionally and " Has signed (or whose sponsor has signed) the Partnership Project Agreement

! Organizational Partners will meet as appropriate and make decisions by consensus


" ARIB, CWTS, ETSI, T1, TTA, TTC

! 3GPP will not contribute directly to the ITU ! Formal contributions to ITU Study Groups are made by ITU members following existing national/regional processes
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Market Representation Partner


! A Market Representation Partner is an organization invited to participate by the Organizational Partners to offer market advice to 3GPP and to bring into 3GPP a consensus view of market requirements (e.g. services, features and functionality) falling within the 3GPP scope ! A Market Representation Partner:
" Does not have the capability or authority to define, publish or set standards nationally or regionally " Has signed (or whose sponsor has signed) the Partnership Project Agreement " Has committed itself to the 3GPP scope " Global Mobile Suppliers Association - GSA, GSM Association, UMTS Forum, Universal Wireless Communications Consortium (UWCC), IPv6 Forum
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Individual Member
! Membership in an Organizational Partner is a prerequisite for Individual Membership ! Individual Membership is open to legal entities (e.g. companies) committed to support 3GPP and to:
" Contribute technically or otherwise to one or more of the Technical Specification Groups within 3GPP " Use the 3GPP results to the extent feasible

! Individual Membership in 3GPP will be terminated by dissolution, abolition, resignation or expulsion from the related Organizational Partner
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Observers
! In order to ensure globally applicable Technical Specifications, the status of Observer may be granted by the Organizational Partners to an entity which has the qualifications to become a future Organizational Partner ! The status of Observer includes obligations to:
" Identify as early as possible any regulatory requirements that may lead to options within Technical Specifications " Make their IPR policy available for consideration " Contribute to the common objective of 3GPP and avoid duplication of work related to 3GPP

! The participation rights of an Observer will be decided on a case by case basis

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International Recommendations

External Interfaces

3GPP
ITU
Project Co-ordination Group
IMT 2000 Contributions via existing processes

Regulators/ Governments
Mandates

PARTNERS
Market Organizational Representation Partners Partners

Technical Specification Groups INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS


Technical Contributions Support Functions

Technical Specifications Organizational Partners deliverables

Organizational Partners Standardization Process


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Course 221 - Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology

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Internal Structure

3GPP
Project Coordination Group

TSG
Radio Access Network

TSG
Core Network

TSG
Terminals

TSG
Service and System Aspects

Technical Specifications Technical Specifications


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Work Areas Covered by the Core Network TSG


! Mobility management, call connection control signaling between the user equipment and the core network ! Core network signaling between the core network nodes. the signaling supports functionality such as user location information, subscription information and control of network services ! Definition of interworking functions between the core network and external networks ! Packet related questions such as mapping of QoS ( e.g. transparency for IP domain applications, general for bearer types, special for optimized applications such as Voice over IP) ! Core network aspects of the lu interface ! Core network O&M requirements

January 8, 2001

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Work Areas Covered by the Radio Access Network TSG


! Radio Layer 1 specification ! Radio Layer 2 specification ! Radio Layer 3 RR specification ! lub specification ! Iur Interface ! Iu Interface ! UTRAN O&M requirements ! Base station radio performance specification ! Conformance test specification for testing of radio aspects of base stations ! Specifications for radio performance aspects from the system point of view
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Work Areas Covered by the Terminal TSG


! Service capability protocols ! Messaging ! Services end-to-end interworking ! USIM to Mobile Terminal interface ! Model/framework for terminal interfaces and services (application) execution ! Conformance test specifications of terminals, including radio aspects

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Work Areas Covered by the Service and System Aspects TSG


" Service capabilities
" Definition of services and feature requirements " Development of service capabilities and a service architecture for cellular, fixed (and cordless) applications

! Stage one and two descriptions for


" Charging and accounting " Network Management " Security Aspects

! Architecture
" Definition, evolution, and maintenance of overall architecture, including assignment of functions to particular sub-systems and identification of key information flows " In co-operation with other TSGs, define required services, service capabilities and bearer capabilities offered by the different sub-systems

! Codec aspects
" Principles for definition of end-to-end transmission " Definition, evolution and maintenance of relevant specifications

! Project co-ordination
" High level co-ordination of the work performed in other TSGs and monitoring of progress
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3GPP2
! Spearheaded by the International Committee of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ! Establish a 3G Partnership Project (3GPP) for evolved ANSI/TIA/EIA-41 ! ANSI was concerned that the ETSI proposal was too limiting, and as a result, established a 3G ad hoc committee ! The original ETSI proposal (3GPP) focused on global system for mobile (GSM) communications technology ! ETSI was unwilling to include other "non-GSM" technologies in its proposal (3GPP)
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3GPP2
! Multilateral collaboration among national and regional Standards Development Organizations (SDOs)
" To facilitate the development of globally applicable technical specifications for 3G mobile systems " Based on the evolution of the two globally deployed mobile architectures: GSM/Mobile Application Part (GSM/MAP) and ANSI/TIA/EIA-41

! 3GPP1: Global specifications for GSM/MAP network evolution to 3G and the UTRA Radio Transmission Technology (RTT) ! 3GPP2: Global specifications for ANSI/TIA/EIA-41 network evolution to 3G and global specifications for the RTTs supported by ANSI/TIA/EIA-41
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3GPP2 Organization

January 8, 2001

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IMT-2000
! International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 also known as the Third Generation Mobile System aims to fulfill one's dream of anywhere, anytime communications ! A flexible standard for wireless access to the global telecommunications infrastructure which will serve both mobile and fixed users in both public and private networks
" Linking the diverse systems of terrestrial and/or satellite based networks to exploit the potential synergy between the digital mobile telecommunications technologies and those systems for Fixed Wireless Access (FWA)

! The primary ITU objectives for IMT-2000 are:


" Flexible/seamless global service provision " Improved operational efficiencies, particularly for data and multimedia services " Suitable technology for reducing the telecommunications "gap", i.e. offers cost effective access for the more than 4 billion people who do not presently have a phone

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IMT-2000

G lobal C ollaboration
N etw orks: Industry Fora :

G SM M AP

3GPP

OHG
W P-C D M A TD -SC D M A cdm a2000

O perators H arm o nization G roup

3G P artners hip P rojects

Satellites

IM T-2000

3GPP2 AN SI-4 1
U W C -136 TC P/I UWC C P DE CT
EP

(IT U R eco m m endation s) )


IT U M em bership

DECT IP
January 8, 2001

3 G.IP

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IMT-2000

IMT-2000 Harmonization
CDM A II, W-CDMA CDMA2000 TD-SCDMA W -CDM A/NA CDMA I UTRA, WIM S UW C-136 DECT
JUNE98

CDMA FDD TDMA/CDMA TDMA (HYBRID WP-CDM A UW C-136 TDD) CDMA MARCH99 TD-CDM A DECT 2000 TD-SCDMA Paired DS/MC/SC Unpaired TDD
January 8, 2001

2000 and beyond

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IMT-2000

IMT-2000 Terrestrial Radio Standards

CDMA

TD/CDMA

TDMA

FDD -DS
(Direct Sequence)

TDD
(Hybrid)

FDD-SC
(Single Carrier)

FDD-M C
(Multi-Carrier)

January 8, 2001

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IMT-2000
Modular IMT-2000 Harmonization (Terrestrial Component)
FDD-DS (Direct Sequence) FDD-MC (Multi-Carrier) TDD (TD/CDMA) FDD-SC TDD TD/CDMA (TDMA)

Flexible connection between RTT modes & Flexible connection between Radio modules CoreCore Networks based on operator needs & Networks based on operators needs

Core Networks

Evolved GSM (MAP)

Evolved ANSI-41

IP-based Networks

Inter-Network Roaming

Network-to-Network Interfaces

January 8, 2001

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IMT-2000 Organization

January 8, 2001

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Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)


! International and independent body, uniquely committed through the building of cross-industry consensus to the successful introduction and development of UMTS/IMT-2000 third generation mobile communications systems ! Established in 1996 ! Non-profit global organization that currently has over 200 member organizations drawn from the mobile operator, supplier, regulatory, IT and media/content communities ! Works as a catalyst with other specialist organizations to examine issues such as technical standards, spectrum, market demand, business opportunities, terminal equipment circulation and convergence between the mobile communications and computing industries

January 8, 2001

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Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)


! UMTS is one of the major new third generation mobile communications systems being developed within the framework which has been defined by the ITU and known as IMT-2000 ! UMTS is part of the ITUs IMT-2000 vision of a global family of third-generation (3G) mobile communications systems standards ! UMTS builds on todays significant investments in second generation mobile systems ! UMTS is a global system comprised of both national terrestrial and global satellite components

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UMTS Spheres of Influence

IPv6F

3G.IP

UMTSF

MWIF

JIMM

GSMA

W@PF

UMTS/3G UMTS/3G
GSA
GMCF

3GPP / 3GPP2
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UMTS Standardization Scenario


Proprietary ITU-related addressing IP-related addressing Standards Proprietary

Defacto Standards

ITU
3GPP ETSI, ANSI-TA, ARIB, TTA etc..

IETF1 W3C2 P3P3 Internet Internet

Terminal
Windows WindowsCE EPOC etc.

Radio/Core Radio/Core
UTRA CDMA2000 EDGE UWC-136 MAP IS-41 GPRS ATM

Content

WAP

IP, Mobile IP SMTP, HTTP, FTP, NMTP, CHAT, H.323, HTML, XML
3P3P

1IETF

= Internet Engineering Task Force

2W3C

= World Wide Web Consortium

= Platform of Privacy Preferences

January 8, 2001

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Course 221 Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology Course Evaluation


Customer Satisfaction Survey Thank you for attending the Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology Course. Please take a moment to complete this survey so that GTCI may use the information to continue to meet the highest expectations of our customers. Course Content 1. List one or two expectations that you had for this course. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. Describe how well the course met the expectations listed above. _________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. Which of the modules did you find to be the most informative? Why? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 4. Did you find any of the modules to be unnecessary? If so, which sections do you feel could be removed from the course and why? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 5. Was there any material not covered in the course that should have been included? Please explain. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 6. Which of the concepts presented in this course could you expect to use in your job? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.

Course 221 Introduction to Wireless Data for 3G Technology Course Evaluation

Instructor 1. Was the amount of content appropriate for the time allowed? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. How well did the instructors respond to questions from the participants? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. Did the instructors explain key concepts in a clear and concise manner? If not, please enumerate those areas that may need further explanation. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

If you have any comments to help us improve this course, please add them below. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

Copyright 2001 by Gordon Technical Consultants, Inc.