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TUTORAT 3 SEMESTRUL I
A B BR E V I A T I O N S CAPITALIZATION NUMBERS SPELLING
LECTOR DRD. RAMONA MIHĂILĂ
A B BR E V I A T I O N S
The names of organizations, firms, agencies, universities, colleges, groups, clubs or governmental bodies may be abbreviated in second or subsequent references if the abbreviation is standard and will be easily understood by readers. NOW = National Organization for Women
an abbreviation or acronym is not used in parentheses after a full name. names must not be reduced to unfamiliar initials or acronyms to save a few words. initials or acronyms must not be created. A short form of a name should be used in second subsequent references rather than an unfamiliar abbreviation or acronym. For example the first reference might be: International Court of Justice, University of Pennsylvania Second and subsequent references would be: the world court, Pennsylvania in street addresses, abbreviate these: street avenue boulevard St. Ave Blvd.
The following words must not be abbreviated: alley, drive, plaza, circle, road, terrace, place, lane
The points of the compass in street addresses are abbreviated: 274 S. 38th St. However, in general references where no street number is used, it should be spelled out the compass point: on South 38th Street
points of the compass used to indicate direction must not be abbreviated : They lived north of the city. - 1-
the months of March, April, May, June and July.
- Other months are abbreviated only when they are used with a date:
Sept. 14 but beautiful September day Oct.19, 1993 but in October 1993
Names of countries are usually not abbreviated, although there are some exceptions. United States is abbreviated when it modifies a noun: Romanian President Visits the United States This Week He served in the U.S. Army.
- the days of the week, given names, points of the compass in city names, parts of city names or city names must not be abbreviated: Monday or Tuesday, never Mon. or Tues. East St. Louis, never E. St. Louis Los Angels, never L.A. The following words must not be abbreviated: assistant, associate, association, attorney or attorney general, assemblyman, department professor; or Xmas for Christmas
Mr. and Mrs. must be abbreviated and capitalized before names: Mr. Johnson Mrs. Thatcher military titles and titles of police and fire officials must be abbreviated before names: Sgt. Tom Williams retired Army Gen. John Look fired Capt. Johnny Thomson detective Lt. Mary Williams Navy Capt. Steve Clark the word president is never abbreviated: Former president William Jefferson Clinton President Vladimir Putin
World War I or World War II must not be abbreviated. (Note that the numbers are Roman numerals, not Arabic figures).
- as a general rule, there are capitalized both distinguishing and non-distinguishing words in the names of places and things:
University Square; Golden Gate Bridge;
- there are capitalized the names of holidays, historic events, church feast days, special events: Mother’s Day; Labor Day; Veterans Day
there are capitalized the names of nationalities, peoples, races and tribes: Romanian, Caucasian, Negro, Hispanic, Oriental, Asian, Arab
words like black or white are not capitalized capitalize the titles of books, plays, poems, songs, lectures or speeches, hymns, movies, television programs, holidays and special days: “ A Street Car Named Desire “ (play) “ Your Lucky Star “ (television program) “ With or Without You “ (song)
note that these are also enclosed in quotation marks. prepositions and conjunctions in titles are capitalized if they have four or more letters: “ Walk All Over You” names of newspapers, magazines, sacred books and reference works are capitalized but not enclosed in quotation marks: the Bible, World Almanac, Webster’s New World Dictionary, The New York Times
note that the word the is capitalized in the names of newspapers prefers that usage: The New York Times, but the Times on second reference.
the word magazine is capitalized only when it is a part of the names of the publication Women’s Magazine, but Time magazine there are capitalized the names of universities, colleges, independent schools, institutes and programs within a university: School of Journalism, College of Education. Survey Research Center
the names of academic and administrative units within a college or university are not capitalized except where a word should ordinarily be capitalized:
department of Romanian language names of campus and other public buildings are capitalized:
the Pentagon, Memorial Hall, the Capitol, Journalism Building, High Court of Justice
a general rule, there are spelled out both cardinal and ordinal numbers from one through nine. Arabic figures are used to express caliber, dates, dimensions, heights, highway numbers, percentages, scales, scores of sports, speeds, temperature and time: caliber dates dimensions height highways latitude longitude percentages scales scores speed temperature time 32-caliber pistol Jan. 3, 1995 3 feet by 7 feet 4 feet tall Interstate 95 45 degrees north 50 degrees west 5 percent 4.1on the Richter scale Manchester United 3, Inter Milan 3 5 miles an hour 39 degrees 9 a.m., 7:25 p.m.
- use Arabic figures for numbers 10 and larger one student five days
10 students 11 days
zero is spelled out except in scores: The temperatures fell below zero last night. Ajax Amsterdam defeated F.C. Barcelona, 1-0
Arabic figures are used to express sums of money: 5 cents, $ 100, $ 3,000 sums of money over a million may be rounded off and expressed thus: $3.5 million, $1.5 billion
- sums of money under a million are not rounded off or expressed in words $27,000, $425,000 when a number is used at the beginning of a sentence, it should be spelled out. Arabian figures are not used to start a sentence. Fifty people were marching in the streets yesterday. Ten thousand were on the stadium.
in news writing, there are not used signs or symbols for these: cents, degrees, 5 feet, 2 inches, 12 cents, 37 degrees
inches, feet, number, percent. The only exception is the dollar sign: plural numbers are written as Arabic figures followed by a lower-case s. It is not used an apostrophe: the 1890s, clothes in the 80s but it is used an apostrophe to indicate any omission, thus: during the ‘60s
Arabic figures are used in ages: Sam Brown, 13, who… Smith, 60, was… A 4-year-old boy
words ending in –ent or –ant and in –ence or –ance cause spelling difficulties because of the unstressed vowel in the suffix: acquiescent competent consistent different exorbitant independent insistent precedent relevant resistant acquiescence = to consent or comply without protest competence consistence difference exorbitance independence insistence precedence relevance resistance
- words ending in –ible and –able that frequently cause difficulty: accessible admissible compatible discernible indispensable inseparable resistible
accessibility admissibility compatibility
these words are often troublesome because of doubled consonants: accommodate affidavit = a written declaration made under oath before a notary public or other authorized officer. bailiff = a court attendant entrusted with duties such as the maintenance of order in courtroom during a trial = an official who assists a British sheriff and who has the power to execute writs, processes, and arrests ballistic = the study of the dynamics of the projectiles = the study of the functioning of firearms bookkeeper = accountant colossal = enormous in size or degree dissertation = a treatise drunkenness embarrass harass = to disturb or to wear out; exhaust inflammation = localized heat, redness and pain resulting from injury, infection innuendo = an indirect or subtle, usually derogatory implication in expression = an insinuation (law) = a parenthetic explanation of a word or charge in a legal document miscellaneous = various, diverse occur = to develop or to happen questionnaire = a set of questions asked of a number of people in order to gather statistical information sheriff = the chief-law enforcement official of a county surveillance = watch, lookout tariff = tax, duty uncontrollable = undisciplined, wild, recalcitrant
Words ending in –er or –or that are often misspelled: adviser = consultant, counsel conquer = to defeat or to overcome coroner = a public officer whose function is to investigate any death thought to be of other than natural causes
impostor = pretender, charlatan, fraud, fake observer = spectator, watcher counselor = adviser, consultant, mentor sponsor = backer, guarantor -Words of Greek or Latin origin that frequently appear in news stories: deity = a god or goddess diphtheria = a serious, contagious bacterial disease fluoridation = the addition of a fluorine compound hemorrhage = bleeding hygiene rhetoric subpoena = a legal writ requiring appearance in court to give testimony
These words cause trouble when –ing is added: die – dying dye – dyeing eye – eyeing tie – tying
These words have doubled consonants because of their prefixes: innocuous = having no adverse effect, harmless irreligious = hostile or indifferent to religion misspelled offense = the act of offending
When it is used as one element in a compound word, full is spelled with a double l. When it is used as a prefix or suffix spell it with one l. armful = as much as an arm can hold awful = very bad fulfill = to bring into effect masterful = given to playing the master playful = full of fun skillful = possessing skill
Words with the suffixes –ege and –edge are often misspelled: knowledge privilege sacrilege sacrilegious
These words from names are in common use: nemesis = one that is the cause of just punishment; avenger philistine = a member of an ancient people in Palestine
These words are also susceptible to misspelling but do not fit any of the previous categories: accidentally, anecdote, aura caricature, categorically, cemetery, chauffeur, coconut, complexion, consensus defunct, dietitian, disease drought = a long period of little or no rain dumbbell = a weight lifted for muscular exercises edifice gauge = a scale of measurement goodbye hypocrisy immersion, inaugurate, incalculable, inoculate indict = to accuse of an offense indictment intramural = existing or carried on within an institution kidnap, kidnapped minuscule oriented, orientation paraphernalia = personal belongings, equipment peninsula, penitentiary, picnic, plaque, predator, prejudice, preventive rehearsal = the act of rehearsing rarefied, restaurateur satellite, sergeant soluble = capable of being dissolved; capable of being solved strict, strictly supersede = to replace or succeed supposed = considered to be so tentacle verbatim = verbal, literal, word-for-word vernacular = dialect, jargon Some troublesome plurals: alumna (= a female graduate of a school, college, or university) - alumnae alumnus - alumni attorney - attorneys attorney general – attorneys generals court-martial – courts-martial
datum - data phenomenon – phenomena tomato – tomatoes tornado – tornadoes
Homophones, words that sound alike but that have different written forms, can cause spelling problems: aural, oral bear, bare bus, buss canvas, canvass capital, capitol compliment, complement cue, queue principle, principal rite, right, write shear, sheer site, sight, cite straight, strait their, there, they’re to, two, too
-Words that are similar in their written forms and often similar in pronunciation can cause difficulties when their meanings are quite different: affect - effect allude (= to make an indirect reference) - elude allusion - illusion anecdote - antidote apposite (= suitable, appropriate) - opposite appraise (= to put a value on) - apprise censor - censure consul – council, counsel continual - continuous eminent - imminent empathy = (identification with and understanding of another’s situation, feelings, and motives) - apathy expatiate (= to speak or write at length) – expiate (= to make amends for) flout (= to show contempt for) – flaunt (= to exhibit ostentatiously) healthful - healthy historical - historic illusive - elusive imply - infer ingenious (= inventive) – ingenuous odious - odorous
perspective - prospective populous (= thickly populated) - populace straight – strait-laced tenet (= fundamental principle or dogma) – tenant uninterested – disinterested
THE F O R M:
The present perfect simple tense is formed with the present tense of have +the past participle They have written their memories. The past participle in regular verbs has exactly the same form as the simple past (-ed) In irregular verbs, the past participles (the 3rd form) vary. I N T E R O G A T I V E: HAVE+ SUBJECT (I, We, You, They) +VERB (3rd form / -ed)? Have you written? Have they met at the conference? HAS+ SUBJECT (She, He, It) +VERB (3rd form / -ed)? Has she written? Has it rained?
N E G A T I V E: SUBJECT (I, We, You, They) + HAVE NOT ( HAVEN’T) +VERB (3rd form / -ed) They have not (haven’t) written. I have not (haven’t) met him.
SUBJECT (She, He, It) +HAS NOT (HASN’T) + VERB (3rd form / -ed )
She has not (hasn’t) written. It has not (hasn’t) rained. - this tense has a strong connection with the present and is used in conversations, letters, newspapers, television or radio reports: The accident has just happened. ( in newspapers and broadcasts to introduce an action which will then be described in the simple past tense: The strikers have marched for five hours.)
just must be placed between the auxiliary and the main verb and it is used for a recently completed action (see the above example ) present perfect is used for recent actions when the time is not mentioned: Have you finished the English class?
present perfect as a result: recent actions in the present perfect often have results in the present I have written the book. (it is published)
it is also used for actions which took place further back in the past, provided the connection with the present still remains, so that action could be repeated in the present
That script writer has written many stories. (but if the script writer is dead we use past tense: That script writer wrote many interesting stories.)
it is used for actions taking place in an incomplete period of time: today, this morning /afternoon/evening/week/month/year/century, lately, recently, ever, never, always, occasionally, often, several times, yet(negative sentences),already They have called the witnesses this morning.
- since –is used for a moment in time and means that the action has started from that point : 1993, one’s birthday, May, two o’clock, one’s schooldays, one’s wedding day She has written many books since 1990.
for – is used for actions which express a period of time :a long time, many days/weeks/months/years, an hour They have started writing for three days.
a conversation about a past action often begins with a question and answer in the present perfect, but normally continues in the simple past, even when no time is given
“Where have you been?” - “I’ve attended the conference” “Did you listen to that lecturer?” - “Yes, I did. He was very interesting. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE -It is formed by the present perfect of the verb to be + the present participle AFFIRMATIVE: SUBJECT (I, We, You, They) + HAVE + BEEN +VERB-ing I have been writing a report for two hours. SUBJECT (He, She, It ) + HAS + BEEN + VERB-ing She has been interviewing them for an hour. INTERROGATIVE: HAVE + SUBJECT 1 + BEEN + VERB-ing? How long have you been writing? HAS + SUBJECT 2 + BEEN + VERB-ing? How long has she been interviewing them? NEGATIVE: SUBJECT 1 +HAVE NOT (HAVEN’T) + BEEN + VERB-ing I haven’t been reading an article. SUBJECT 2 + HAS NOT (HASN’T) + BEEN + VERB-ing She hasn’t been taking photos. USE: - perfect continuous is used for an action which began in the past and is still continuing: He has been waiting for 15 minutes to be interviewed.
- it is used for an action which has only just finished: He has been waiting 20 minutes to be interviewed. it is used to express a repeated action started in past which lasts till present: I have been skating for ten years. a past action whose results are seen in present: “Why are you so tired? “I have been writing all the morning.”
-the difference: the present perfect simple vs. the present perfect continuous may depend on the contrast between completed and uncompleted action:
Who’s been using my desk? The activity of using the desk can be already finished or it can continue. I. TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO ENGLISH 1. Ai urmărit ştirile la televizor săptămâna aceasta? 2. Tocmai am cumparat ziarul de care ai nevoie. 3. El este foarte ocupat; scrie un articol de 2 ore. 4. Am publicat articolul nostru în revista de luna aceasta. 5. De cât timp esti reporter? 6. Ce film bun ai văzut în ultima vreme? Am văzut “Interviu cu un vampir”. 7. Conferinţa de presă se desfaşoară de 3 ore. 8. Personalului de la Ştiri Externe i s-a acordat o primă. 9. X comentează meciul de jumătate de oră. 10. Articolul pe care l-au scris a apărut într-un ziar de scandal. 11. Incerc de mai multa vreme să scriu un articol senzaţional. 12. Prezentatoarea de ştiri se bâlbâie de un minut. 13. Câte întrebări ai pregătit pentru interviu? 14. Am scris deja articolul, dar nu l-am corectat încă. 15. Mi-a cerut ziarelesi revistele pe care le-am cumpărat săptămâna aceasta. 16. Te-a interesat vreodată pagina de anunţuri din acest ziar? 17. Ai asistat la dezbaterile adunării electorale? 18. Directorul publicaţiei la care lucrez mi-a cerut sa-i iau un interviu ministrului justiţiei. 19. Nu orice persoană care a semnat un articol într-un ziar este jurnalist. 20. Nu am avut timp să citesc ziarul astăzi. 21. Ascultam această emisiune la radio de 50 de minute. 22. ¥ntreaga emisiune a fost consacrată intervievării unui singur invitat. 23. Mă gândesc de 3 zile pe cine să invit la talk-show-ul de duminică. 24. Cine a realizat acest reportaj? 25. Nu am avut răbdare să urmăresc emisiunea TV până la sfârşit. 26. Unde ai pus revistele? Nu le găsesc nicăieri. 27.Nici unul din candidaţii la preşedenţie nu a votat încă. 27. La circumscripţia electorala nr.431 nu s-au prezentat la vot decât 7 persoane. 28. Ei tocmai au terminat de făcut un sondaj de opinie. 29. Preşedintele României urmăreşte meciul de rugby Romania-New Zealand de jumătate de oră. 30. Numele preşedintelui S.U.A. încă nu a fost aflat. II. PUT THE VERBS IN BRACKETS INTO THE RIGHT TENSE: 1. She (not read) your article yet. 2. He (to interview) him for 10 minutes. 3. They (to like) the TV program this week. 4. He (to watch) the documentary about the journalists’ life and work since 3 o’clock. 5. The journalist ( to report ) quickly what they ( to find out).
6. We (to have ) quite a dangerous life as a journalists. 7. I (to watch) all the educational program broadcast till now. 8. You (to work ) ever as a journalist for a quality paper? 9. You ( to read ) the headlines? 10. They (to write ) his article for an hour. 11. You ( to interview) a famous person lately? 12. What (to be) the role of the press in the election process? 13. She (to hear ) the news, yet? 14. He ( to write) the article but he (not sign ) yet. 15. I never (met) a famous politician. 16. The journalists (to wait) for a half an hour the conference to start. 17. The Prime Minister (to speak ) to the audience since 3 o’clock 18. This month all the president candidates ( to visit) all the towns. 19. Three candidates ( not talk ) too much this show. 20. An opinion survey just ( to show ) that Iliescu is in the lead. 21. She ( to be ) in the polling-booth for 10 minutes. 22. They ( to debate ) a politic issue since 1 o’clock. 23. The politicians (not to carry ) these laws yet. 24. This party (to back) this candidate for many years. 25. MPs (to be) under public pressure to discuss the Bill. 26. The two presidents just (to sign) this agreement. 27. This politician just (to admit) taking bribe. 28. The people (to sign) the referendum against dictatorship. 29. These statesmen (to be) corrupt since the beginning of the campaign. The former president (to explain) the motifs of the crisis for 2 hours.
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