TUGAS 1 Mata Kuliah : Termodinamika Program Studi : Pendidikan Fisika Semester : 3 Perhatian!!! 1.

Terjemahkan dan jawablah semua soal pertanyaan berikut ini! 2. Jawaban solusi atas semua soal ini dibuat dalam bahasa Indonesia 3. Teknis Pengerjaan tugas ini boleh dilakukan dengan cara berkelompok 4. Pengumpulan hasil tugas pada saat hari perkuliahan Kamis, 20 Oktober 2011 Thermodynamics 1–1C. What is the difference between the classical and the statistical approaches to thermodynamics? 1–2C. Why does a bicyclist pick up speed on a downhill road even when he is not pedaling? Does this violate the conservation of energy principle? 1–3C. An office worker claims that a cup of cold coffee on his table warmed up to 80°C by picking up energy from the surrounding air, which is at 25°C. Is there any truth to his claim? Does this process violate any thermodynamic laws? Systems, Properties, State, and Processes 1–15C. A large fraction of the thermal energy generated in the engine of a car is rejected to the air by the radiator through the circulating water. Should the radiator be analyzed as a closed system or as an open system? Explain. 1–16C. A can of soft drink at room temperature is put into the refrigerator so that it will cool. Would you model the can of soft drink as a closed system or as an open system? Explain. 1–17C. What is the difference between intensive and extensive properties?

Determine the direction of any heat transfer between the two systems. What is the state postulate? 1–22C. 1–33.1–18C. Is the state of the air in an isolated room completely specified by the temperature and the pressure? Explain. Define the isothermal. 60°C? Explain. For a system to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. Do you think these thermometers will give exactly the same reading at a temperature of. . 1–21C. whereas system B contains 200 kJ of thermal energy at 50°C. R. and °F. The distance between the two points is divided into 100 equal parts in both thermometers. What is the difference between gage pressure and absolute pressure? 1–35C. isobaric. What is specific gravity? How is it related to density? Temperature and Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 1–26C. and isochoric processes. Now the systems are brought into contact with each other. 1–23C. What is a quasi-equilibrium process? What is its importance in engineering? 1–20C. K. and Barometer 1–34C. Express this temperature in R. What is a steady-flow process? 1–24C. What are the ordinary and absolute temperature scales in the SI and the English system? 1–28C. 1–29. 1–31. and °C. The deep body temperature of a healthy person is 37°C. Consider a system whose temperature is 18°C. System A contains 3000 kJ of thermal energy at 20°C. The temperature of a system drops by 45°F during a cooling process. What is it in Kelvins? 1–30E. What is the zeroth law of thermodynamics? 1–27C. Consider an alcohol and a mercury thermometer that read exactly 0°C at the ice point and 100°C at the steam point. Explain why some people experience nose bleeding and some others experience shortness of breath at high elevations. The temperature of a system rises by 15°C during a heating process. 1–32E. Consider two closed systems A and B. Express this drop in temperature in K. Manometer. Express this rise in temperature in Kelvins. do the temperature and the pressure have to be the same everywhere? 1–19C. say. Pressure.

1–43. If the lengths of the sides of the cube are very small. Determine the gage pressure in the same liquid at a depth of 9 m. Determine the pressure this man exerts on the ground if (a) he stands on both feet and (b) he stands on one foot. 1–49.600 kg/m3. one at sea level and the other on top of a high mountain. 1–44. but the snow cannot withstand pressures greater than 0. Answer: 103 kPa . how would you compare the magnitudes of the pressures on the top. 1–48. 1–47E. Consider a 70-kg woman who has a total foot imprint area of 400 cm2. 1–37C. Express Pascal’s law. She wishes to walk on the snow. If the oil-level difference between the two columns is 60 cm and the atmospheric pressure is 98 kPa. A vacuum gage connected to a chamber reads 35 kPa at a location where the atmospheric pressure is 92 kPa. How would you compare (a) the volume flow rates and (b) the mass flow rates of these two fans? 1–40. Determine the minimum size of the snowshoes needed (imprint area per shoe) to enable her to walk on the snow without sinking. determine the absolute pressure of the air in the tank. Take the density of mercury to be 13. and give a real-world example of it. A manometer containing oil (ρ = 850 kg/m3) is attached to a tank filled with air. Someone claims that the absolute pressure in a liquid of constant density doubles when the depth is doubled. bottom. Do you agree? Explain. 1–61. A vacuum gage connected to a tank reads 15 kPa at a location where the barometric reading is 750 mm Hg. running at identical speeds.590 kg/m3.0 kPa.1–36C. Take ρHg = 13. A 200-pound man has a total foot imprint area of 72 in2. Determine the absolute pressure in the tank. 1–39C. Determine the atmospheric pressure at a location where the barometric reading is 750 mm Hg. Determine the absolute pressure in the tank. The gage pressure in a liquid at a depth of 3 m is read to be 28 kPa. Determine the absolute pressure in the chamber.5 kPa. A pressure gage connected to a tank reads 500 kPa at a location where the atmospheric pressure is 94 kPa. 1–51. A tiny steel cube is suspended in water by a string. Consider two identical fans. Answer: 85. and side surfaces of the cube? 1–38C.

The average body temperature of a person rises by about 2°C during strenuous exercise. The amount of heat loss from the apple per °F drop in its temperature is …… (a) 1.5 kJ of heat as it cools per °C drop in its temperature. (b) °F.000 Pa 1–121. Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Problems 1–120. Determine the diameter of the piston on which the weight is to be placed. If the density of air is 1. 5°C rise above the normal body temperature) is considered fatal.50 kJ (c) 5. The increase in the pressure exerted on the fish when it dives to a depth of 45 m below the free surface is … (a) 392 Pa (b) 9800 Pa (c) 50. Hyperthermia of 5°C (i.0 kg/m3.6 kPa (c) 38. (b) °F.Review Problems 1–85. Consider a fish swimming 5 m below the free surface of water.25 kJ (b) 2..0 and 98.. the height of the building is …… (a) 17 m (b) 20 m (c) 170 m (d) 204 m (e) 252 m 1–122.e. and (c) R during strenuous exercise? 1–94E. and (c) R.1 kPa(d) 50. An apple loses 4.0 kPa.000 Pa (d ) 392. The pressure difference between the top and bottom of the pool is …….8 kPa (e) 200 kPa . 1–93E. What is the rise in the body temperature in (a) K.1 kJ (e) 4.1 kJ 1–123. A hydraulic lift is to be used to lift a 2500 kg weight by putting a weight of 25 kg on a piston with a diameter of 10 cm.0 kJ (d) 8.000 Pa (e) 441.0 kPa (b) 19. (a) 12. Consider a 2-m deep swimming pool. The atmospheric pressures at the top and the bottom of an are read by a barometer to be 96. Express this fatal level of hyperthermia in (a) K.

2–2C. What is mechanical energy? How does it differ from thermal energy? What are the forms of mechanical energy of a fluid stream? Forms of Energy 2–1C. List the forms of energy that contribute to the internal energy of a system. How are heat. Explain the energy transformation involved dur-ing this heating process. What is the difference between the macroscopic and microscopic forms of energy? 2–4C. Consider the process of heating water on top of an electric range.1–125. Consider the process of heating water on top of an elec-tric range. internal energy. 2–2C. How are heat. and thermal energy related to each other? 2–7C. the temperature of an object rises by 20°C. What is the difference between the macroscopic and microscopic forms of energy? 2–4C. 2–6C. Portable electric heaters are commonly used to heat small rooms. 2–5C. List the forms of energy that contribute to the internal energy of a system. What is total energy? Identify the different forms of energy that constitute the total energy. What is total energy? Identify the different forms of energy that constitute the total energy. Explain the energy transformation involved during this heating process. What are the forms of energy involved during this process? What are the energy transformations that take place? 2–3C. This temperature rise is equivalent to a temperature rise of (a) 20°F (b) 52°F (c) 36 K (d) 36 R (e) 293 K Forms of Energy 2–1C. internal energy. and thermal energy related to each other? . 2–6C. During a heating process. Portable electric heaters are commonly used to heat small rooms. What are the forms of energy involved during this process? What are the energy transformations that take place? 2–3C. 2–5C.

The amount of energy transferred to the room by the heater is …… (a) 1 kJ (b) 60 kJ (c) 1800 kJ (d) 3600 kJ (e) 7200 kJ 2–128.769 kJ/s (b) 0. 2–22C. If the density of air is 1.242 kJ/s 2–129. and as a result its temperature rises. Is this a heat or work interaction? Take the entire room.325 kJ/s (c) 0. What is an adiabatic process? What is an adiabatic system? 2–18C. Is this a heat or work interaction? 2–19C. A room is heated by an iron that is left plugged in. the air in a well-sealed room is circulated by a 0. A fan is to accelerate quiescent air to a velocity to 12 m/s at a rate of 3 m3/min. Determine the energy required to accelerate an 800 kg car from rest to 100 km/h on a level road. When is the energy crossing the boundaries of a closed system heat and when is it work? 2–17C. (Note that the motor delivers 0.. including the iron. (a) 0. 2–26. An insulated room is heated by burning candles.373 kJ/s (e) 0. What is mechanical energy? How does it differ from thermal energy? What are the forms of mechanical energy of a fluid stream? Energy Transfer by Heat and Work 2–15C. A 2-kW electric resistance heater in a room is turned on and kept on for 30 min.50 hp fan driven by a 65 percent efficient motor.) The rate of energy supply from the fan motor assembly to the room is ……. including the candles. as the system. Is this a heat or work interaction? Take the entire room.15 kg/m3. For a cycle. Answer: 309 kJ 2–34C. Is this a heat or work interaction for the room? 2–21C. On a hot summer day. is the net work necessarily zero? For what kind of systems will this be the case? Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Problems 2–127. 2–20C.574 kJ/s (d) 0. A room is heated as a result of solar radiation coming in through the windows. as the system. In what forms can energy cross the boundaries of a closed system? 2–16C. What are point and path functions? Give some examples. the minimum power that must be supplied to the fan is ……… . A gas in a piston–cylinder device is compressed.50 hp of net shaft power to the fan.2–7C.

Electric power is to be generated in a hydroelectric power plant that receives water at a rate of 70 m3/s from an elevation of 65 m using a turbine–generator with an efficiency of 85 percent. the electric power output of this plant is ………. (a) 3. When frictional losses in piping are disregarded. (a) 0 kW (b) 4. Minimum power rating of the motor should be …….7 kW (d) 26 kW (e) 37 kW 2–131. The elevator of a large building is to raise a net mass of 400 kg at a constant speed of 12 m/s using an electric motor. The additional power needed to achieve this acceleration is …….8 kW (c) 47 kW (d) 12 kW (e) 36 kW 2–132. A 900-kg car cruising at a constant speed of 60 km/s is to accelerate to 100 km/h in 6 s.(a) 248 W (b) 72 W (c) 497 W (d) 216 W (e) 162 W 2–130..9 MW (b) 38 MW (c) 45 MW (d) 53 MW (e) 65 MW Moving Boundary Work Note: . (a) 41 kW (b) 222 kW (c) 1.

Now the steam is cooled. The location of the stops corresponds to 60 percent of the initial volume. Determine the boundary work done during this process.m3 = 1 kJ. For which case is the work done greater? 4–4C.0 MPa and 400°C. 4–5. The nitrogen is now expanded polytropically to a state of 100 kPa and 100°C. An ideal gas at a given state expands to a fixed finalvolume first at constant pressure and then at constant temperature. what does the area under the process curve represent? 4–2C. Is the boundary work associated with constant-volume systems always zero? 4–3C.07 m3 of nitrogen gas at 130 kPa and 120°C. A piston–cylinder device initially contains 0. On a P-V diagram. Show that 1 kPa.3 kg of steam at 1.4–1C. Determine the compression work if the final state is (a) 1. 4–6.0 MPa and 250°C and (b) 500 . A piston–cylinder device with a set of stops initially contains 0.

3 to 0.2 m3 is compressed slowly in an isothermal process to a final pressure of 800 kPa.2 m3 for the case of n = 1. During the quasiequilibrium process. The air is now compressed to a final pressure of 600 kPa. The gas constant for nitrogen is R = 0. 4–12.m6. where n and C are constants.4 kg of air at 150 kPa and 12°C is contained in a gastight. A gas is compressed from an initial volume of 0. 4–18.(c) Also determine the temperature at the final state in part (b). the pressure changes with volume according to the relation P = aV + b. Answer: −89 kJ 4–21. 4–14.03 m3 to a final volume of 0. Calculate the work done when a gas expands from 150 kPa and 0.3. During the process. 4–16. and 0.42 m3 to a final volume of 0. Calculate the work done during this process (a) by plotting the process on a P-V diagram and finding the area under the process curve and (b) by performing the necessary integrations.kPa. the pressure and volume are related by P = aV−2. Carbon dioxide contained in a piston–cylinder device is compressed from 0. 150 kPa. Calculate the work input during this process. frictionless piston–cylinder device.12 m3. where a = 8 kPa. During some actual expansion and compression processes in piston–cylinder devices. The gas constant of air is R = 0.4 = constant until it reaches a final temperature of 360 K. heat is transferred from the air such that the temperature inside the cylinder remains constant.2968 kJ/kg. Calculate the work done on the carbon dioxide during this process. Nitrogen at an initial state of 300 K.K (Table A-1).K (Table A-2a). Determine the work done during this process.1 m3. A frictionless piston–cylinder device contains 2 kg of nitrogen at 100 kPa and 300 K. Answer: −53. Answer: 272 kJ 4–13. A mass of 2. Nitrogen is now compressed slowly according to the relation PV1. Calculate the work input during this process.287 kJ/kg. the gases have been observed to satisfy the relationship PVn = C. During the process. where a = − 1200 kPa/m3 and b = 600 kPa.3 kJ .

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