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into which Banlaw refuelling equipment is used. It is meant as a reference guide for inter-office use only.

BANLAW PIPELINE TECHNICAL BULLETIN Basic Fluid Mechanics Theory

1. Head: The term head refers to energy generated by fluid by either static (no flow) or dynamic (flow) means. It can be given in terms of pressure (Pa) or metres (m) of fluid, however the meaning remains the same.

2. Pressure: The SI (Standard International) unit for pressure is the Pascal (Pa), with one kiloPascal (kPa) equal to 1,000Pa and one megaPascal (MPa) equal to 1,000,000Pa. One Pascal is described as one Newton (N) of force applied over an area of one square metre: F: total force applied on given area (units N) Where force F (units N) = mass (units kg) * acceleration (units m/s2) A: area (units m) p: pressure (units Pa) i.e. 1.0Pa=1.0N/m2 p = F/A

For example, weight is a force. A person having a mass of 90kg has a weight of: Weight (units N) = 90kg * acceleration due to gravity (units m/s2) Therefore weight = 90*9.8 Weight = 882N

Say that persons combined footprint (both feet) occupied an area of 0.06 square metres, then the total pressure exerted by that person standing on two feet is: P = 882/0.06 P = 14,700Pa (14.7kPa)

Since standing on one foot occupies only half the area, the pressure would double if the person was standing on one foot i.e. 29.4kPa. 3. Static Head: Static head is potential energy a fluid possesses. It is in essence the pressure created by the weight of the fluid. The magnitude of static head a volume of fluid holds is a function of the vertical height of the fluid and the density of the fluid. h: vertical height of fluid from the point of head measurement (units m) g: acceleration due to gravity (constant @ 9.8 m/s2) 7: density of fluid (units kg/m3) Hs: static head (units Pa)

Hs = 7.g.h

Technical Bulletin Fluid Theory 04/00

The Refuelling Specialists

Figure 1: Theory of Static Head

Figure 1 shows 2 different tanks, filled with the same liquid to heights h1 and h2 with pressure gauges installed in each tank at the same level. The static head (units Pa) registered at gauge p1 is: Hs(1)= 7.g.h1 Hs(2)= 7.g.h2 The static head (units Pa) registered at gauge p2 is: Since the properties 7 and g are constant for each tank, the difference between p1 and p2 is: Hs(2)-Hs(1)= 7.g.(h2-h1) Note that the volume of fluid is not considered, only the height of fluid. Thus despite tank 1 containing considerably more liquid than tank 2, the static head produced by tank 2 is more than that generated by tank 1. The ratio of this difference is simply: Hs(1):Hs(2) = h1:h2 Figure 2 shows a U shaped device containing a volume of liquid, with one end of the device open to atmosphere (at p1) and the other end closed (at p2) and pressurised by air. By knowing the density of the fluid and by measuring the height h1, we can calculate the difference in pressure between p2 and p1. Since the open end is open to atmosphere and hence atmospheric pressure, gauge p1 will be zero and the pressure registered by gauge p2 will be some quantity above atmospheric pressure.

Technical Bulletin Fluid Theory 04/00

The Refuelling Specialists

Figure 2: Pressure measurement p2-p1 = 7.g.h Hs = 7.g.h Hence:

The difference between p2 and p1 is simply: Where the static head produced by the height h of the liquid is:

Hs = p2-p1

For example, if the liquid was water (7=1000kg/m3) and the height h the water was displaced was 0.1m, then: Hs = p2-p1 = 1000*9.8*0.1 p2-p1 = 980Pa (0.98kPa) Therefore p2 = 980Pa (gauge pressure), since p1 = 0Pa (gauge pressure)

If the fluid was now changed to diesoline (7=860kg/m3) and the pressure p2 was maintained at 980Pa, the height h would be: Since Hs = 7.g.h Therefore: h = Hs/(7.g) h = 980/(860*9.8) h = 0.116m

The increase in height has occurred due to the fact that per unit volume, diesoline weighs less than water, i.e. the density of diesoline is less than the density of water. For a liquid denser than water, say liquid mercury (7=13,600kg/m3), the height would be less than that achieved by water (h=0.00735m for the mercury).

The Refuelling Specialists

Technical Bulletin Fluid Theory 04/00

4. Dynamic Head: Dynamic head as the term dynamic suggests is the energy possessed by a fluid due to its movement i.e. its kinetic energy. Put simply, the dynamic head of a fluid is the momentum of the fluid as it is moving, thus stationary fluid produces no dynamic head. 7: density of fluid (units kg/m3) v: velocity (speed) of the moving fluid (units m/s2) Hd: dynamic head of the fluid (units Pa)

Hd = 0.5*7*v2

Fluid flowing through a pipe possesses dynamic head supplied by either a pump or the static head stored within the liquid. For example, if a valve were opened at the base of a tank filled with liquid, the liquid would flow from the valve thus converting the static head (potential energy) of the liquid into dynamic head (kinetic energy). The pressure and velocity at which the liquid exits will decrease as the height of liquid in the tank decreases due to the corresponding decrease in static head.

5. Head Loss: One of the laws of physics states that no process is 100% reversible i.e. additional energy is required to reverse or repeat a process due to some energy always being lost (destroyed) during each cycle usually in the form of heat. The same applies to fluid mechanics. Whenever fluid flows through a pipe, valve, pump, even an open drain, there is some loss of energy. This loss of energy is classed as head loss. It is a loss due to the fact that it requires energy input to overcome the necessity to transfer the fluid. Whenever fluid moves, some of the energy the fluid possessed prior to it moving is lost. The magnitude of this loss is dependent mainly upon 4 factors: N N N N viscosity of the liquid (i.e. its ability to flow) a property of the fluid speed at which the liquid is travelling indication of whether flow is laminar or turbulent rate at which the fluid is required to change direction i.e. bends, valves etc. roughness of surfaces in contact with the fluid i.e. rusty pipes Vs new pipes

Head loss can be classified into three categories:

Each type of head loss can be determined separately, however for most applications the combined loss (total loss) of a system is referred to. Total Loss = (Dynamic Loss) + (Static Loss)

1. Dynamic loss due to the nature i.e. physical make-up, of the fluid itself i.e. its viscosity and density 2. Dynamic loss due to the interaction of the fluid with other surfaces i.e. pipe walls, valves, pumps, etc. 3. Static loss as fluid is lifted to a different height. NOTE: If fluid falls to a different level, this is a negative static loss, or a static head gain.

Technical Bulletin Fluid Theory 04/00

The Refuelling Specialists

Figure 3 below shows how the dynamic head loss into a length of pipe linking two tanks can be calculated by determining the static head of the fluid existing between each tank.

Figure 3: Conversion of static head into dynamic head

Height h determines the amount of static head driving the fluid from tank 1 through the pipework into tank 2. The greater the height h, the greater the driving force behind the fluid.

The dynamic head loss of the liquid through the pipework is equal to the static head between the tanks. The dynamic head loss through the pipework is a function of the internal diameter of the pipe and the number and type of fittings i.e. valves etc. The magnitude of this loss is dependent upon the characteristics of the fluid and the speed at which it flows through the pipework being proportional to the amount of static head. 6. Pump Head: A pump is a device, which adds energy (head) to fluid. There are many types of pump, each with their own method of transferring mechanical energy into fluid head. Some pumps are designed to handle various types of fluid e.g. either water, fuel, molasses etc., whilst certain pumps are designed to perform certain specific tasks e.g. metering pumps, submerged spear-point pumps, superchargers, etc. Regardless of their design, they each transfer fluid from one location to another by adding energy to the fluid.

Pump design also determines the type of energy supplied to a fluid. Some pumps create little static head yet can develop high dynamic head e.g. axial flow fans, whilst others such as vane pumps develop high static head with the amount of dynamic head proportional to the rotational speed of the pump. Such positive displacement pumps as the vane pump, incorporate a bypass valve which limits the pump head generated in order to protect the pump, motor, and delivery system from pressure overload.

Pump head can be measured by observing the static pressure within the delivery line under no-flow conditions i.e. turning the pump on with the nozzle locked off. Under this condition, the dynamic head and thus dynamic head loss is zero, therefore the pump head registered by the gauge on the delivery line of the pump refers to the total pump head available. Note however that any difference in height between the pump and the level at which you observe the head measurement, will

Technical Bulletin Fluid Theory 04/00

The Refuelling Specialists

be affected by the static head between those points. Indeed the pump head could also be determined by installing a large vertical length of pipe onto the pump outlet and observing the height at which the fluid reaches with the pump on. The static head existing between the pump and the surface of the liquid is equal to the pump head.

When selecting a pump for an installation, there are a number of points to be considered. Firstly one must determine the pressure and/or flowrate required at a certain point within the system i.e. at entry to the refuelling nozzle. Based on the total head required at that point, a suitable pump design and size is selected. For example, an installation incorporating high total loss will require a pump developing high static head. Thus the type and size of the pump is dependent upon the effectiveness of the pipework to transfer the pump head into the nozzle. Minimising the total loss of a system is one of the key objectives of the design engineer.

Figure 4: Head loss through a refuelling system

Figure 4 shows a typical refuelling system. The system incorporates both dynamic and static head loss, due to the need for the pump to supply energy to force fuel through pipework and upwards to a higher level. Bernoullis equation was devised as an energy balance that can be applied between 2 points in an incompressible (liquid) fluid system. For example, between points 2 and 3 in Figure 4: (TOTAL HEAD)2 = (TOTAL HEAD)3 + HL2-3

Total fluid head consists of three parts; pressure head, velocity (dynamic) head, and potential (static) head. Basically, the total head at point 2 is equal to the total head at point 3 plus the total head loss between the two points.

Analysing Figure 4, there exists dynamic head loss between; p1 to p2, p2 to p3, and p3 to p4, whilst static head loss occurs between; p2 to p3, and p3 to p4. The total loss of the system is the sum of all dynamic losses and all static losses. The pump must supply sufficient head to account for the total loss of the system, thus delivering the required rate of fuel through the nozzle into the tank. Increasing the head loss between p1 and p2 by partially closing the valve, would increase the

Technical Bulletin Fluid Theory 04/00

The Refuelling Specialists

pressure at p1 and reduce the pressure available at p2, p3, and inevitably p4. Alternatively, reducing the loss between say p1 and p3 by installing fewer bends or larger diameter pipe would increase the head available at p3 and thus p4. The total loss of the nozzle and receiver has been determined from flow testing on the Banlaw test tank. In most applications, this loss is the major cause of head loss between points p3 and p4.

The pressure at p4 is zero until such time as the vent closes. Immediately prior to nozzle shut-off once the vent has closed the pressure at p4 will be the difference between the pressure observed at p3 before the vent had closed, and the pressure p3 that initiates nozzle shut-off. For every rate of fuel delivery through the nozzle, there is a pressure p3 which will initiate nozzle shut-off. These values have been determined by flow tests conducted on the Banlaw test tank. Banlaw offers different back spring settings to cater for varying head loss between p3 and p4. High static head loss, remote receiver location, and drop tubes all increase the total loss between the nozzle and the top of the tank. High loss between p3 and p4 increase the pressure at p3, thus requiring a heavier spring setting to maintain the nozzle on until the vent has closed. To minimise the pressure p4 i.e. the level of tank pressurisation, it is imperative to match the correct spring setting with the pressure observed at p3. 6. Pressure Measurement Terminology: There are 3 types of pressure when dealing with fluid flow through a pipe. Each pressure describes a different characteristic of the fluid, namely:

1. Static pressure (pst): is a measure of the potential energy maintained within the fluid. The static pressure is measured normal (perpendicular) to the flow direction, usually along the internal surface of a straight length of the pipe i.e. a pressure tap. This pressure is normally quoted when describing the characteristics of a system i.e. line pressure 2. Dynamic pressure (pdyn): is a function of the momentum of the fluid, i.e. combination of a fluids density and velocity (speed). The dynamic pressure of a fluid is calculated after measuring the average flow velocity over the pipe bore, or can be determined by the formula below. 3. Stagnation pressure (pstag): is the total head pressure of a fluid at a point within the pipe. The stagnation pressure is measured in-line with the flow direction of the fluid, by the use of a special pressure probe called a pitot tube. This pressure is rarely used when describing the characteristics of a system. pstag = pst + pdyn

Technical Bulletin Fluid Theory 04/00

The Refuelling Specialists

Figure 5: Pressure measurements for fluid flow within a pipe.

Taken close to the pump discharge, the stagnation pressure will represent the total pump head available. Note that in a no-flow situation with the pump running, the stagnation pressure is equal to the static pressure, as the dynamic pressure is equal to zero. As flow is initiated, the static pressure is reduced and accounted for by the increase in dynamic pressure i.e. pressure head is converted to velocity head. If the location of the measurements was now moved further away from the pump i.e. downstream, both the static pressure and stagnation pressure are reduced by the total head loss present between the two points. NOTE: Most references to line pressure refer to the static pressure. There is different terminology used to describe the same property. Whichever term you use, be sure to note the flowrate and distinguish between values obtained during flow and no-flow conditions. Static Pressure (NO-FLOW) = Head Pressure Static Pressure (FLOW) = Line Pressure

NOTE: Please ensure that any technical information or advice given out is factual and accurate. Confirm with me should you have any doubts. Adam Peattie Product & Design Engineer BANLAW PIPELINE PTY LTD adam@banlaw.com.au

Technical Bulletin Fluid Theory 04/00

The Refuelling Specialists

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