Document Title: Description


Technical Bulletin

Installation and Inspection Guidelines for the AUS25 Quick-Fill Tank Vents

Revision No: Issue Date:



The objective of this technical bulletin is to detail key information on the correct installation, operation and maintenance of the Banlaw Quick-Fill Tank Vent.

NOTE: Please refer to the dedicated Banlaw Pipeline vent brochure for part numbers and other specific product information. 1. Key Advantages of the Banlaw Vent The Banlaw vent has a number of key advantages over equivalent competitors products i.e. the Wiggins ZV10. The Banlaw vent has: N N N N N N N

2. Function of the Quick-Fill Vent

A ¾” bore breather tube – the ZV10 has only a ½” bore. This enables a single Banlaw vent to be used at flowrates up to 800LPM (210GPM) without appreciable tank pressurisation, whilst flowrates between 800 and 1100LPM require 2 vents per tank Splash tube to provide protection against excessive turbulence or splashing affecting the correct operation and orientation of the float balls. All parts of the vent are manufactured from high quality cast aluminium, machined aluminium, and zinc plated mild steel – selected vent models All Banlaw vents incorporate o’ring seals, thus providing an extended and a more reliable service life. Other manufacturers use flat “gasket” style seals, prone to leakage and premature failure Banlaw manufacture a wide range of standard vent models to cater for most tank designs and applications, including CAT and Komatsu manual fill necks. Banlaw also offer custom designed vents to suit unique installations Banlaw vents are available with a choice of 2 emergency relief pressures; 110kPa (16psi) and 49kPa (7psi), to suit a variety of tank designs. The relief setting of each vent is clearly identified by the colour of the anodised aluminium vent cap; 49kPa (GREEN) and 110kPa (RED). A number of vent accessories are available to ensure the correct installation of the vent is achieved easily

The Quick-Fill tank vent was designed to be installed onto fuel and oil tanks fitted with Dry-Break (or quick-fill) pressurised refuelling equipment. Its primary functions are to:

1. exhaust air from the tank during normal filling, whilst creating minimal backpressure and thus tank pressurisation during filling 2. provide an air-tight seal within the tank once the fuel level has reached the required level, thus creating pressurisation of the tank and upstream delivery line in order to cause the refuelling nozzle to terminate the flow of fuel into the tank
‘The Refuelling Specialists’

Technical Bulletin – Quick Fill Vents 06/01

NOTE: A Banlaw quick-fill tank vent is designed only as a partial relief device for the range of flowrates used. It is designed to exhaust excess vapour pressure from the tank, due to thermal expansion or otherwise. If required to exhaust liquid fuel, the pressure within the tank will increase substantially. A full relief device must be installed if comprehensive protection is required i.e. exhausting of liquid fuel without a substantial rise in tank pressure. The Banlaw vent will begin to open at the stated relief pressure, and will remain open until the tank pressure decreases to a level below the vent relief pressure. Options available with the vent include: N N N N

3. gradually allow the tank pressure to return to atmospheric pressure, by passage of air through the 1/16” bleed hole 4. the emergency relief facility provides protection against overpressurisation of the tank due to excess vapour pressure

3. Components of the Banlaw Vent

a ¾” male nipple threaded into the vent exhaust port. This enables a breather hose to be attached and thus route the discharge of tank vapour to a safe or more convenient location = see also Section 5.2 a 2” NPT female socket (or half coupling) which can be welded into the tank top plate to securely locate the vent a vent box, so that the vent can be mounted on the side wall of a tank, in instances where insufficient space exists on the top surface of the tank, or when ready access to the vent is required a small Ryco air filter cartridge with a serviceable filter element, which conveniently screws into the vent exhaust port. This filter prevents the ingress of dust and other contamination into the vent and thus tank through the otherwise open vent exhaust

Figure 3.1 below details the components and essential features of the vent. Note the 1/16” breather hole in the top flange of the valve.

Figure 3.1: Components of the Banlaw Quick-Fill Vent

Technical Bulletin – Quick Fill Vents 06/01

‘The Refuelling Specialists’

The vent is fully assembled and tested at the Banlaw factory prior to sale. As with all Banlaw products, each vent is covered by a 3 month manufacturers’ warranty and is manufactured in accordance with Banlaw Pipeline company Quality Assurance procedures, accredited by Lloyd’s Register of Quality Assurance Australia (AS/NZS ISO 9001-1994). 4. Application of the Banlaw Vent The vent is designed to accompany the Banlaw (or equivalent) refuelling nozzle and the Banlaw (or equivalent) dry-break fuel receiver. The vents primary function is to support the operation of the quick-fill refuelling system. It is distinct from traditional “free-to-air vents” and other vent designs, and thus cannot be replaced with other vent types or used for other purposes outside the scope of this document without the express permission of Banlaw Pipeline. It can only be classed as a “free-to-air” vent whilst ever the fuel level and thus float balls remain at a low level so as to ensure the free passage of air through the vent valve. If the fuel is at such a level so as to raise the float balls against the o’ring seal at the base of the vent valve, thus effectively sealing the tank, the only unrestricted passage of air from or into the tank will pass through the 1/16” bleed hole in the top flange of the valve. This is to ensure any further filling of the tank is discouraged by the resistance of air through the vent bleed hole and thus pressurisation of the tank contents. If additional fuel is forced into the tank i.e. if the automatic shut-off of the nozzle is manually over-ridden, the emergency relief facility of the vent may be activated. Sustained filling of the tank and thus relief of excess vapour will eventually eliminate the ullage within the tank and hence cause overfilling. Once the ullage in the vicinity of the vent has been eliminated, the vent will be forced to exhaust liquid fuel. As mentioned earlier, such a task will increase the pressurisation of the tank substantially creating the risk of tank rupture or some other catastrophic failure. If in any doubt, contact your nearest 'Authorised Banlaw' distributor or Banlaw Pipeline direct for confirmation of the correct vent application, prior to installation. 5. Correct Installation Guidelines

The correct installation of the tank vent is crucial to the proper operation of the Banlaw refuelling system. Incorrect or otherwise poor installation practice will jeopardise the safety and reliability of the system. The Banlaw Quick-Fill refuelling system is a “pressurised” system, and thus its inherent safety relies on the installation being in accordance with the manufacturers’ guidelines. Following are guidelines on the correct location and installation of the vent within a tank. NB: Refer also to Banlaw technical bulletins on multi-compartment tanks and dual tank configurations for additional vent installation information. 5.1 Positioning the Vent in the Tank The correct location of the vent can best be determined by considering the factors affecting the vents operation:

Technical Bulletin – Quick Fill Vents 06/01

‘The Refuelling Specialists’

a) Action of float balls: once the fluid level within the tank reaches a level approximately equal with the second vent float ball (from the top), the buoyancy force generated by the 3 hollow float balls force the solid ball upwards onto the o-ring seal at the base of the vent valve. This effectively seals the vent and thus subsequent flow of fuel into the tank will pressurise the tanks’ contents. The solid ball remains against the seal whilst ever the fluid level remains above a level approximately equal to that of the second ball. Whilst the vent valve is sealed, air or fuel can only bypass the valve in 2 ways: N Through the 1/16” breather hole N Activating the emergency relief function of the vent, by overcoming the force provided by the relief spring and thus lifting the valve flange from its sealed “home” position. This will occur at any time the pressure within the tank exceeds the emergency relief pressure of the vent. a) generation of tank ullage: the tank ullage is the volume within the top of the tank occupied by air/vapour. Whilst the value does vary, it is generally required to maintain an ullage of 3-5% of the tank volume to account for thermal expansion and the difference in time taken to both pressurise the tank and create sufficient back pressure to close the refuelling nozzle. Due to the standard range of quick-fill vents available and the vast array of tank designs, delivery systems, flowrates etc., the proportion of ullage will vary. The standard length of vent available does cater for the majority of tank designs, although end-users must be aware that ullage will vary. Selection of the correct vent model for an application is important if the required ullage is to be maintained. b) ullage and it’s role in the quick-fill system: as mentioned in point (b), the generation of ullage depends upon the fluid level at which the vent closes, the rate at which that level is rising, and the amount of back pressure required to turn the nozzle off – see Technical Bulletin on Quick-Fill Nozzle Theory. If these factors are too high, the risk of overfilling the tank is a real threat. Such a problem leads to leakage from the vent – even after the nozzle has shut-off – and the rapid overpressurisation of the tank due to the elimination of the compressible air “cushion” normally within the ullage. The overpressurisation of the tank is partially compensated for by the release of excess pressure through the vent’s emergency relief facility, although forcing liquid fuel – rather than air – through the vent relief requires significantly more force, which must be provided by the rapid pressurisation of the tank. ELIMINATION OF ULLAGE CAN CAUSE TANK RUPTURE OR OTHER SIGNIFICANT DAMAGE. To minimise this risk, a number of key points needs to be considered: 1. the position of the vent with respect to the highest point of the tank volume is critical – many examples are shown in the following drawings. In essence, some ullage must be maintained in the region surrounding the vent. Allowing the fuel level reach the underside of the vent body (top of the vent valve) will cause leakage from the vent bleed hole and perhaps exhausting of fuel from the emergency relief valve. To minimise this risk, the vent should be installed in the uppermost section of the tank – see also point 3.

Technical Bulletin – Quick Fill Vents 06/01

‘The Refuelling Specialists’

NOTE: Banlaw manufacture a ¾” ball check valve which can be installed in the fuel return line from the engine. This will prevent the pressurisation of the tank forcing fuel back through the return line.

2. ensure all manual fill caps, flanges, threaded fittings, and all other fittings either mounted on the tank or hydraulically linked with the tank, are airtight. ANY SUCH LEAKS WILL DELAY THE PRESSURISATION OF THE TANK AND HENCE DELAY THE SHUT-OFF OF THE NOZZLE. Such faults will cause overfilling of the tank and perhaps leakage of fuel from either the vent breather hole or relief valve. NB: this also includes fuel supply or return lines from the engine(s) linked to the fuel tank. In extreme circumstances, the engine fuel circuit may delay the pressurisation of the tank due to fuel bypassing the diesel pump etc. Low flowrates and high levels of tank pressurisation further exacerbate this problem. Evidence of this problem occurring is the engine revving or flooding once the tank becomes pressurised.

Detailed below are various tank designs. Shown also are the correct and incorrect locations for the installation of the Banlaw vent. IMPORTANT: Each Figure is accompanied by text explaining the relationship between the tank design and corresponding vent placement. The critical factors of each application are mentioned, in addition to any comments regarding limitations or restrictions for each case. It is important this text is read carefully, as minor variations to tank design from that shown in an example can alter the correct placement of the vent. To confirm the correct installation of the vent prior to installation, contact your nearest 'Authorised Banlaw' distributor or Banlaw Pipeline direct for assistance.

3. There is an inherent time delay between the vent closing and the nozzle turning off. If the rate of fuel level increase surrounding the vent is high (high ratio of flowrate : fluid surface area), then the level at which the vent closes relative to the top surface of the tank is critical to ensure ullage is maintained. Such examples are cylindrical tanks and tall, narrow tank designs, Also, installing a vent into a manual fill tube rising from the top of the tank will certainly cause problems. NB: The vent may be installed in a manual fill tube provided the top of the tube does not rise above the top of the tank – see Figure 5.6. For applications such as tall narrow tanks and cylindrical tanks, Banlaw do manufacture vents with an extended vent valve to ensure the premature closing of the vent does maintain the correct tank ullage.

Technical Bulletin – Quick Fill Vents 06/01

‘The Refuelling Specialists’

Figure 5.1 shows a tank design commonly used in vehicles where the fuel tank is located beneath the engine. The scale of the tank may vary, but generally the correct and incorrect vent locations shown do apply. The only exception to this is when the width (and hence volume) of the upper region(s) at each side of the tank are relatively insignificant compared to the width of the lower (central) level. Such circumstances permit the installation of the vent onto the lower level, provided the key points of this document are considered. NOTE: If minor spillage is detected from the vent bleed hole at the completion of refuelling, an extended series vent may be installed to create earlier vent shut-off and thus a slightly reduced fuel level within the tank. Again, this will depend upon the relationship between the volume differential between the upper and lower regions. Comments on both Figures 5.2 and 5.4 should also be considered.

Figure 5.1: Bi-level Tank (1)

The purpose of the hose linking both upper regions of the tank is to equalise the ullage pressure and thus fluid level between each region during pressurisation of the tank after the vent has closed. This will become of increasing importance at high flowrates and high levels of tank pressurisation.

Figure 5.2: Bi-level Tank (2)
Technical Bulletin – Quick Fill Vents 06/01

‘The Refuelling Specialists’

Figure 5.2 illustrates a similar point to that described in Figure 5.1, and subsequently carries the same precautions. Most importantly, the rate of fuel level increase surrounding the vent must not be excessively high such that the rate of tank pressurisation is rapid. Such events will lead to overfilling of the tank and subsequent spillage of fuel from the vent bleed hole or relief valve if the tank is overpressurised prior to nozzle shut-off.

Banlaw manufacture a vent specifically for cylindrical tanks, or other tanks where the rate of fuel level increase at the vent is high – see also Figure 5.4 below.

Figure 5.3: Cylindrical Tanks

Figure 5.4: Tall Narrow Tank Designs

Technical Bulletin – Quick Fill Vents 06/01

‘The Refuelling Specialists’

The purpose of the extended vent is to create an otherwise premature closure of the vent and hence pressurisation of the tank contents. Such a need exists in cylindrical tanks (Fig. 5.3), thin narrow tanks (Fig. 5.4), or other applications where the standard length of vent is insufficient to create the correct tank ullage. In essence, a rapid rate of fuel level increase in the upper region of the tank – in which the vent is installed – will reduce the length of time between vent closure and elimination of tank ullage (overfilling). This time is increased to that required by extending the length of the vent valve and thus causing the vent to close earlier. Sufficient ullage is created at the completion of refuelling, which would otherwise not have been possible.

Figure 5.5 demonstrates an application typically encountered with lighting plants, drilling rigs, and dewatering pumps. Wide tanks are particularly susceptible to changes in gradient (slope) adversely affecting the quick-fill system.

Figure 5.5: Short / Wide Tanks and the Effect of Gradient

Figure 5.5B will cause spillage from the vent, as the vent will close prematurely and the relatively high percentage of ullage will take a longer period of time to pressurise. By the time sufficient back pressure has been generated and thus forced the nozzle into the off position, fuel has already begun to leak from the vent breather hole.

The success of the situation depicted in Figure 5.5C depends upon the same considerations given to cylindrical and tall, narrow tanks. The vent will not close until the fluid level has reached the float balls, which in this situation is after what would normally be the case with the tank level i.e. Figure 5.5A. Thus the tank will be overfilled, and spillage may occur from the vent if the ullage is eliminated. Locating the vent in the middle of the tank may negate the effect of gradient to some extent, although the objective remains to maintain the tank in a level position whilst refuelling.

Technical Bulletin – Quick Fill Vents 06/01

‘The Refuelling Specialists’

The installation of a quick-fill vent into the manual fill pipe of a tank is a convenient option. The function of the vent and thus the quick-fill system will not be adversely affected provided a simple factor is considered. When installing the vent into the pipe, care must be taken to ensure the level of the float balls, with respect to the main volume of the tank, is approximately the same as if the vent was installed directly into the tank itself. To achieve this Figure 5.6A incorporates the use of an extended vent valve, whilst Figure 5.6B illustrates a truncated (shortened) fill pipe and a standard length vent. Either installation will work, although for the purposes of simplicity, option B is preferred if space permits. NB: Note the downward facing vent exhaust port to minimise the ingress of dust and other foreign material into the vent cap. 5.2 Routing the Discharge of Vent Exhaust Regardless of where the vent is installed, care must be taken to ensure the discharge of tank vapour – and liquid fuel in the case of a problem – is directed away from heat and other ignition sources, and humans. Such a task is made easier by the attachment of a breather tube onto the exhaust port to allow routing of the discharge point to a convenient and safe location. Such a location should also be clearly visible to the refuelling operator to ensure prompt termination of fuel flow if the discharge of fuel is detected.

Figure 5.6: Manual Fill Pipes

A length of breather hose or tube may be attached to the vent exhaust port using either the optional ¾” male hosetail fitting, or directly over the 33mm diameter “olive” at the end of the port. Ideally 1” hose should be used for longer distances, and a minimum of ¾” hose for shorter distances. NB: For flowrates in excess of say 600LPM per vent, a minimum of 1” hose is recommended to minimise the restriction of air flow from the tank.

Technical Bulletin – Quick Fill Vents 06/01

‘The Refuelling Specialists’

The free and unrestricted passage of air through the vent and the vent breather hose (if attached) is critical to the proper operation of the quick-fill system. Any excessive or abnormal restriction is analogous to the partial sealing of the vent and hence partial pressurisation of the tank. Such pressurisation, although appearing minimal, may be sufficient to cause premature shut-off of the refuelling nozzle, thus only partial filling of the tank. Such restriction often comes from dirt and mud built up in the end of the vent exhaust / breather hose, commonly found on rail locomotives and mining vehicles where the breather hose terminates behind a bogey or wheel. Other sources include kinks, small diameter hose, and blocked filters (if fitted).


The Banlaw vent is virtually maintenance free. The only regular maintenance an enduser should perform is the inspection and clearing of the vent exhaust port or breather hose – see section 5.2, and a general inspection to detect any damage to the vent. To do this, the vent may be removed from the tank during prescribed vehicle servicing and inspected for any noticeable defects, in particular damage to the o’ring seal at the base of the vent valve, and the ingress of liquid fuel into any of the hollow float balls. If these defects are detected, the vent must be replaced. Removing the vent for inspection may only be necessary if a refuelling problem associated with the vent is suspected – see section 7.

Vent Maintenance

Based on market research recently conducted, Banlaw have derived a “preventative maintenance plan” for its refuelling equipment. For the quick-fill vent, it is recommended the vent be replaced every 3-4 years for mining use, and every 5-6 years for railway use. These figures represent the recommended exchange period, and will obviously vary according to the nature of the operating environment. 7. Troubleshooting This section is designed to assist the end-user in identifying and rectifying common problems associated with the Banlaw vent – in particular leakage of fuel from the vent breather.

Most problems associated with quick-fill refuelling are incorrectly attributed to the nozzle. Such problems as leakage from the vent exhaust are blamed on the nozzle failing to shut-off at the correct pressure. Although in some cases the nozzle is at fault, the majority of the time the cause of the problem is tank related. For example, overfilling of the tank and subsequent leakage from the vent breather is usually due to either incorrect vent placement or air leaks in the tank i.e. welds, tank flanges, manual fill caps or threaded fittings, delaying the pressurisation of the tank and subsequent nozzle shut-off. Such delays in nozzle shut-off can also lead to rapid overpressurisation of the tank and subsequent venting of vapour or liquid fuel through the emergency relief valve in the vent.

Technical Bulletin – Quick Fill Vents 06/01

‘The Refuelling Specialists’

Performing a few simple checks may resolve the problem of a leaking vent:

NOTE: Refer also to Banlaw technical bulletins on multi-compartment tanks and dual tank configurations for further information on those applications.

1. Check for diesel and air leaks in the tank and associated fittings (particularly manual fill caps) – this is best done during tank pressurisation prior to nozzle shut-off. Rectify any leaks found. 2. If the vent was installed by someone other than the OEM, an ‘Authorised Banlaw’ agent or Banlaw Pipeline itself, confirm the vent is installed in the correct location, as per section 5.1– consult Banlaw Pipeline or an ‘Authorised Banlaw’ distributor for assistance.

NOTE: If the nozzle fails to remain in the open (on) position until the tank is pressurised by the sealing of the vent valve, check for excessive flow restriction in the fuel delivery line between the fuel receiver and the tank i.e. partially closed valve or a recently installed check valve etc. If no cause can be detected, Banlaw Pipeline or your nearest ‘Authorised Banlaw’ distributor agent should be informed promptly and the details of the refuelling application explained. NOTE: For information on the Banlaw refuelling nozzle, refer to the relevant technical bulletin

3. If manufacturing or modifying a tank, confirm the changes with Banlaw prior to commencing work to ensure the quick-fill system will operate correctly 4. Confirm the vent does effectively seal the tank prior to nozzle shut-off. This is best done by placing your hand over the vent exhaust port or breather and detecting the exhaust air from the tank whilst refuelling. Once the fuel level has reached the required level, the float balls should seal the vent thus terminating the flow of exhaust air. Once the vent has sealed, a slight hissing sound will be heard indicating the pressurisation of the tank and subsequent discharge of pressurised air through the 1/16” vent breather hole. The nozzle should shut-off within approximately 5-10 seconds after the vent has sealed – this value may vary according to tank volume, flowrate, and the spring setting of the nozzle. At no stage either prior to or after nozzle shut-off should any leakage be detected from the vent

5. Confirm the flowrate of fuel is within the range recommended for the refuelling nozzle: N Banlaw 21 and 800 series nozzles: 170-800LPM (45-210GPM) N Banlaw 22 and 1000 series nozzles: 400-1000LPM (105-265GPM) 1. N N N Confirm the recommended number of vents is installed on the tank: 80-200LPM (21-53GPM): single vent recommended 200-800LPM (53-210GPM): single vent recommended (4 max.) 800-1000LPM (210-265GPM): 2 vents recommended (4 max.)

Technical Bulletin – Quick Fill Vents 06/01

‘The Refuelling Specialists’


Contact your nearest ‘Authorised Banlaw’ distributor or Banlaw Pipeline direct should problems persist. 8 The Banlaw FillSafe _ System The Banlaw FillSafe System is an electronic level sensing system, used in applications where zero tank pressure is required. Once installed, FillSafe becomes the primary system responsible for termination of fuel flow into the tank. The refuelling equipment used is identical to that used in the standard Banlaw refuelling system – the FillSafe equipment complements existing refuelling equipment. In the vent of a failure to the FillSafe system, or if the system is overridden, the tank will be pressurised thus causing the nozzle to shut-off as would normally occur. The FillSafe System has three key components: N N N Float switch installed into tank (optic sensor or other switch types are optional) Transmitter unit installed on vehicle Receiver unit installed at refuelling depot

1. The maximum number quoted in brackets should not be required, unless either minimal (near zero) tank pressurisation is permitted during refuelling, or the tank compartments / baffling has been incorrectly designed – refer to technical bulletin on multi-compartment tanks 2. These recommendations apply to Banlaw quick-fill vents only

To terminate fuel flow, the receiver unit may be connected to an in-line solenoid valve or the pump control relay.

Further technical advice on the installation and operation of Banlaw equipment is available from Banlaw head office or an authorised Banlaw distributor.

Telephone: +61 (0)2 49714888 Fax: +61 (0)2 49714910 SALES & MARKETING Nick FORAN Mob: 0408 497212 PRODUCTION & QUALITY ASSURANCE Paul BUCKTON Mob: 0409 663072



Disclaimer: The information supplied in this document is meant as a guide only. Banlaw Pipeline Pty Ltd accepts no liability for any damage or event resulting from the implementation of any content of this document. To confirm the correct advice has been received, all details should be checked with an ‘Authorised Banlaw’ distributor or Banlaw Pipeline direct prior to installation.

Technical Bulletin – Quick Fill Vents 06/01

‘The Refuelling Specialists’

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