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INTRODUCTION WHAT IS AUTHENTICATION 4 AUTHENTICATION METHODS 4
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM INNOVATIVE COMPONENT WHAT IS 3D PASSWORD STATE DIAGRAM SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION DESIGN OF 3D VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS 14 APPLICATION 15 SECURITY ANALYSIS 17 ATTACKS 18 CONCLUSION 22 7 8
3D Password Seminar Report’10
FUTURE WORKS REFERENCES 24
Users nowadays are provided with major password stereotypes such as textual passwords, biometric scanning, tokens or cards (such as an ATM) etc. Current authentication systems suffer from many weaknesses. Textual passwords are commonly used; however, users do not follow their requirements. Users tend to choose meaningful words from dictionary or their pet names, girlfriends etc. Ten years back Klein performed such tests and he could crack 10-15 passwords per day. On the other hand, if a password is hard to guess, then it is often hard to remember. Users have difficulty remembering a password that is long and random appearing. So, they create short, simple, and insecure passwords that are susceptible to attack. Which make textual passwords easy to break and vulnerable to dictionary or brute force attacks. Graphical passwords schemes have been proposed. The strength of graphical passwords comes from the fact that users can recall and recognize pictures more than words. Most graphical passwords are vulnerable for shoulder surfing attacks, where an attacker can observe or record the legitimate user’s graphical password by camera. Token based systems such as ATMs are widely applied in banking systems and in laboratories entrances as a mean of authentication. However, Smart cards or tokens are vulnerable to loss or theft. Moreover, the user has to carry the token whenever access required. Biometric scanning is your "natural" signature and Cards or Tokens prove your validity. But some people hate the fact to carry around their cards, some refuse to undergo strong IR exposure to their retinas (Biometric scanning). In this paper, we present and evaluate our contribution, i.e., the 3-D password. The 3-D password is a multifactor authentication scheme. To be authenticated, we present a 3-D virtual environment where the user navigates and interacts with various objects. The sequence of actions and interactions toward the objects inside the 3-D environment constructs the user’s 3-D
that claims made by or about the subject are true.3D Password Seminar Report’10 password. or assuring that a computer program is a trusted one. but no others. and various types of biometrics into a 3-D virtual environment. If your authentication request is approved. that is. you are asking to be authenticated to act on behalf of the account holder. ensuring that a product is what it’s packaging and labeling claims to be. For example. This might involve confirming the identity of a person. when you show proper identification credentials to a bank teller. tracing the origins of an artifact. The 3-D password can combine most existing authentication schemes such as textual passwords. graphical passwords. WHAT IS AUTHENTICATION? Authentication is the act of establishing or confirming something as authentic. The design of the 3-D virtual environment and the type of objects selected determine the 3-Dpassword key space. Page 3 . you become authorized to access the accounts of that account holder.
photographs. which are easy for receivers to verify. an art expert might look for similarities in the style of painting. do a chemical analysis of the materials used. and cheques incorporate hardto-duplicate physical features. A trademark is a legally protected marking Page 4 . distinctive feel. The physics of sound and light. fashion clothing can use either type of authentication method to prevent counterfeit goods from taking advantage of a popular brand's reputation (damaging the brand owner's sales and reputation). The second type relies on documentation or other external affirmations. and are also vulnerable to being separated from the artifact and lost. such as fine printing or engraving. and comparison with a known physical environment. Some antiques are accompanied by certificates attesting to their authenticity. watermarks. The first is comparing the attributes of the object itself to what is known about objects of that origin. or by testimony from the police detectives and forensics staff that handled it. or compare the object to an old photograph. or compare the style of construction or decoration to other artifacts of similar origin. External records have their own problems of forgery and perjury. Bills. For example. perfume. check the location and form of a signature. or videos. the rules of evidence in criminal courts often require establishing the chain of custody of evidence presented. Currency and other financial instruments commonly use the first type of authentication method. Consumer goods such as pharmaceuticals.3D Password Seminar Report’10 AUTHENTICATION METHODS There are two types of techniques for doing this. can be used to examine the authenticity of audio recordings. An archaeologist might use carbon dating to verify the age of an artifact. and holographic imagery. coins. For example. This can be accomplished through a written evidence log.
The choice of what authentication schemes will be part of the user's 3D password reflects the user's preferences and requirements. The sequence of actions and interactions toward the objects inside the 3D environment constructs the user’s 3Dpassword.The 3D password can combine most existing authentication schemes such as textual passwords. This 3D virtual environment contains several objects or items with which the user can interact. It can combine all existing authentication schemes into a single 3Dvirtual environment. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM The proposed system is a multi factor authentication scheme.3D Password Seminar Report’10 or other identifying feature which aids consumers in the identification of genuine brand-name goods. A user who prefers to remember and recall a password might choose textual and graphical password as part of their 3D password. Moreover user who prefers to keep any kind of biometric data private might not interact with object that requires biometric information. and various types of biometrics into a 3D virtual environment. Therefore it is the user's choice and decision to construct the desired and preferred 3D password. Page 5 . graphical passwords. The user is presented with this 3D virtual environment where the user navigates and interacts with various objects. On the other hand users who have more difficulty with memory or recall might prefer to choose smart cards or biometrics as part of their 3D password.
the user’s freedom of selection is important. or token based. 3. biometrics cannot be revoked. Textual passwords are commonly used. The new scheme provides secrets that are not easy to write down on paper. The new scheme provides secrets that can be easily revoked or changed. Moreover. COMPARISON WITH CURRENT AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS Suffer from many weaknesses. Users tend to choose meaningful words from dictionaries. Many biometric authentications have been proposed. Smart cards or tokens can be stolen. The design of the 3D virtual environment and the type of objects selected determine the 3D password key space. users tend to resist using biometrics because of their intrusiveness and the effect on their privacy. The new scheme provide secrets that are easy to remember and very difficult for intruders to guess. This freedom of selection is necessary because users are different and they have different requirements. However. Many available graphical passwords have a password space that is less than or equal to the textual password space. Users have the freedom to select whether the 3D password will be solely recall. 2. User Page 6 . which make textual passwords easy to break and vulnerable to dictionary or brute force attacks. the scheme secrets should be difficult to share with others. Moreover. or combination of two schemes or more. The following requirements are satisfied in the proposed scheme 1. recognition. The 3D password is a multi factor authentication scheme. Therefore. to ensure high user acceptability.3D Password Seminar Report’10 INNOVATIVE COMPONENT The proposed system is a multi factor authentication scheme that combines the benefits of various authentication schemes.
or combination of two schemes or more. It can combine all existing authentication schemes into a single 3-D virtual environment. For example. This is achieved through interacting only with the objects that acquire information that the user is comfortable in providing and ignoring the objects that request information that the user prefers not to provide. This 3-D virtual environment contains several objects or items with which the user can interact. giving the user the freedom of choice as to what type of authentication schemes will be part of their 3-D password and given the large number of objects and items in the environment. it becomes much more difficult for the attacker to guess the user’s 3-D password. the user simply avoids interacting with that item. It is the user’s choice to select which type of authentication techniques will be part of their 3-D password. Thus. Moreover.3D Password Seminar Report’10 have freedom to select whether the 3D password will be solely recall. if an item requests an iris scan and the user is not comfortable in providing such information. the number of possible 3-D passwords will increase. The type of interaction varies from one item to another. or token based. The 3-D password is constructed by observing the actions and interactions of the user and by observing the sequences of such actions. recognition. Page 7 . WHAT IS A 3D PASSWORD? The 3-D password is a multifactor authentication scheme.
3D Password Seminar Report’10 STATE DIAGRAM OF A 3D PASSWORD APPLICATION Page 8 .
This can be done by designing a 3Dvirtual environment that contains objects that request information to be recalled. any user input (such as speaking in a specific location) in the virtual 3Denvironment can be considered as a part of the 3Dpassword. y2 . Then. The 3Dpassword is simply the combination and the sequence of user interactions that occur in the 3Dvirtual environment. The 3Dpassword can combine recognition. For example. then enter a room that has a fingerprint recognition device that exists in a position (x2 . z1 ) position. Moreover. z2 ) and provide his/her fingerprint. and biometrics based systems into one authentication scheme. The user navigates through this environment and interacts with the objects. and biometric data to be verified. open the car door. the user can enter the virtual environment and type something on a computer that exists in (x1 . token. Page 9 .3D Password Seminar Report’10 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION IN BRIEF The 3Dpassword is a multi factor authentication scheme. tokens to be presented. the user can go to the virtual garage. The 3Dpassword presents a 3Dvirtual environment containing various virtual objects. The combination and the sequence of the previous actions toward the specific objects construct the user’s 3Dpassword. recall. information to be recognized. Any obvious actions and interactions toward the real life objects can be done in the virtual3Denvironment toward the virtual objects. Virtual objects can be any object that we encounter in real life. y1 . and turn on the radio to a specific channel.
3) A biometric recognition device. 12) Any real life object. 7) A television or radio where channels can be selected. This means interacting with the same objects that reside at the exact locations and perform the exact actions in the proper sequence. 6) A light that can be switched on/off. 10) A book that can be moved from one place to another. z2 ). 8) A staple that can be punched. the user must follow the same scenario performed by the legitimate user. y1 = y2 . 9) A car that can be driven. z1 ) is different from the actions toward a similar object (another fingerprint recognition device) that exists in location (x2 . 13) Any upcoming authentication scheme.3D Password Seminar Report’10 We can have the following objects: 1) A computer with which the user can type. to perform the legitimate 3Dpassword. sign. y2 . and z1 = z2 . Therefore. y1 . or draw on. 2) A fingerprint reader that requires the user’s fingerprint. 11) Any graphical password scheme. The action toward an object (assume a fingerprint recognition device)that exists in location (x1 .where x1 = x2 . 4) A paper or a white board that a user can write. 5) An automated teller machine (ATM) that requests a token. Page 10 .
130). fingerprint scanner. · (4. 91) Action = Open the office door. . 18) Action = Typing. z) coordinates. . “N”. 18) Action = Typing. · (4. 24. . Let us assume that the user is in the virtual office and the user turns around to the door located in (10. G] × [1. which is the dot (x. · (10. y. 80) Action = Pick up the pen. · (4. 18) Action = Typing. y) coordinate relative to the paper space is (330. The user then finds a computer to the left.3D Password Seminar Report’10 3DPASSWORD SELECTION AND INPUTS Let us consider a 3Dvirtual environment space of size G ×G × G. 24. 18) Action = Typing. consider a user who navigates through the 3Dvirtualenvironment that consists of an office and a meeting room. G] × [1. · (4. “F”. and the user types “FALCON. 24. The 3Denvironment space is represented by the coordinates (x. z) ∈ [1. “C”. 91) and opens it. The user then presses the login button. 91) Action = Close the office door. G]. 18) Action = Typing. We consider the sequence of those actions and interactions using the previous input devices as the user’s 3Dpassword. Page 11 . For example. and microphone. key board. the objects are distributed in the 3Dvirtual environment with unique (x. 18) Action = Typing. “A”. 34. 80) Action = Drawing. 18. 18). 34. iris scanner. Then. 80) and draws only one dot in a paper located in (1. 34. 34. . which exists in the position (4. card reader. “L”. stylus. the user has to follow the same sequence and type of actions and interactions toward the objects for the user’s original 3-D password. y. In order for a legitimate user to be authenticated. The initial representation of user actions in the 3Dvirtual environment can be recorded as follows: · (10. 30). 34. . point = (330. · (4. 18. We assume that the user can navigate into the 3Dvirtual environment and interact with the objects using any input device such as a mouse.” Then. 34. · (1. · (10. 24. “O”. the user closes the door. . 24. 34. · (4. 130). the user walks to the meeting room and picks up a pen located at (10.
3D Password Seminar Report’10 Snapshot of a proof-of-concept 3-D virtual environment. where the user is typing a textual password on a virtual computer as a part of the user’s 3-D password Page 12 .
3D Password Seminar Report’10 Snapshot of an experimental 3-D virtual environment Page 13 .
3D Password Seminar Report’10 Page 14 .
3D Password Seminar Report’10 Page 15 .
Object responses should be realistic. The uniqueness comes from the fact that every virtual object has its own attributes such as position. effectiveness. Possible actions and interactions toward virtual objects should reflect real life situations. in designing a 3Dvirtual environment. The target should have a 3D virtual environment that users can interact. having similar objects such as 20 computers in one place might confuse the user. the prospective interaction with object 1 is not equal to the interaction with object 2. it improves the system usability.3D Password Seminar Report’10 3D VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT DESIGN GUIDELINES The design of the 3 D virtual environments affects the usability. Therefore. Objects used in virtual environments should be relatively similar in size to real objects (sized to scale). acceptability of 3D password. The design of 3D virtual environments should follow these guidelines. the design of the 3D virtual environment should consider that every object should be distinguishable from other objects. 1) Real life-similarity The prospective 3D virtual environment should reflect what people are used to seeing in real life. it should be easy for users to navigate through and to distinguish between objects. The distinguishing factor increases the user’s recognition of objects. However. Similarly. 2) Object uniqueness and distinction Every virtual object or item in the 3D virtual environment is different from any other virtual object. Page 16 . Thus. Therefore. The first step in building a 3Dpassword system is to design a 3Denvironment that reflects the administration needs and the security requirements.
a large3Dvirtual environment can contain a large number of virtual objects. Therefore. performing a 3D password will take less time. 4) Number of objects and their types Part of designing a 3D virtual environment is determining the types of objects and how many objects should be placed in the environment. The types of objects reflect what kind of responses the object will have. it can depict a space as focused as a single room or office. a small 3D virtual environment usually contains only a few objects. we can consider requesting a textual password or a fingerprint as an object response type. For simplicity.3D Password Seminar Report’10 3) Three Dimensional Virtual Environment Size A 3Dvirtual environment can depict a city or even the world. However. and thus. Selecting the right object response types and the number of objects affects the probable password space of a 3D password. Page 17 . On the other hand. the probable 3Dpassword space broadens. The number of objects and the types of objects that have been used in the 3D virtual environment should reflect the importance of the protected system. A large 3¬D virtual environment will increase the time required by the user to perform a 3Dpassword. Moreover. 5) System Importance The 3D virtual environment should consider what systems will be protected by a 3D password.
Airplanes and jet fighters Because of the possible threat of misusing airplanes and jet fighters for religiopolitical agendas. The 3D password has a very large probable password space. biometrics.3D Password Seminar Report’10 3D PASSWORD APPLICATIONS The 3D password can have a password space that is very large compared to other authentication schemes. 3D passwords can be used in less critical systems because the 3D virtual environment can be designed to fit to any system needs. it is a sound choice for high level security locations. 2. Nuclear and military facilitiesSuch facilities should be protected by the most powerful authentication systems. In addition. so the 3D password’s main application domains are protecting critical systems and resources. A 3D password authentication proposes a sound replacement for a textual password. Critical servers Many large organizations have critical servers that are usually protected by a textual password. 1. and since it can contain token. recognition. 3. usage of such airplanes should be protected by a powerful authentication system. A small virtual environment can be used in the following systems like Some other application areas: • ATM • Desktop Computers & laptop logins Page 18 . and knowledge based authentications in a single authentication system.
dates. romantic links (current or past). • How hard it is for the attacker to break such a system A Possible measurement is based on the information content of a password space. ancestors names or dates.3D Password Seminar Report’10 • Web Authentication SECURITY ANALYSIS To analyze and study how secure a system is. It is important to have a scheme that has a very large possible password space which increases the work required by the attacker to break the authentication system. symbols.g. or biographical information (e.. Find a scheme that has no previous or existing knowledge of the most probable user password selection. • Common guidelines for choosing good passwords are designed to make passwords less easily discovered by intelligent guessing: Include numbers. upper and lowercase letters in passwords if allowed by the system Password length should be around 12 to 14 characters if permitted. and longer still if possible while remaining memorable If the system recognizes case as significant. letter or number sequences. dictionary words. . ID numbers.). relative or pet names. however. usernames. Page 19 .. The textual password space may be relatively large.. an attacker might only need a small subset of the full password space is observed to successfully break such an authentication system. use capital and lower-case letters Avoid any password based on repetition. we have to consider.
Pass faces. and not force insecure actions (e. Length is the number of actions and interactions for a 3-D password. we have to count all possible 3D passwords that have a certain number of actions.g.. the number of selections for Pass faces. the very bad and insecure practice of writing the password down on a Post-It note stuck to the monitor) 3D PASSWORD SPACE SIZE To determine the password space. and the number of points that represent the strokes for DAS.3D Password Seminar Report’10 Password should be easy to remember for the user. textual password. The length is up to eight. and inputs towards all objects that exist in the 3D virtual environments. the number of characters for textual passwords. and DAS with grid sizes of 5 × 5 and 10 × 10. FIG: Password space of the 3-D password. Page 20 . interactions.
Point “a” is the bit size of Klein  (3 × 106) dictionary of eight-character textual passwords. Point “b” represents the full password space of eight-character textual passwords.3D Password Seminar Report’10 Fig: Observing the number of possible actions/interactions of a 3-D password within a 3-D environment specified in Section V-A compared to the two critical Points of textual passwords. Page 21 .
more effort is required to build the knowledge of most probable 3D passwords. the attacker has to separately study every 3D password system. Page 22 .3D Password Seminar Report’10 3D PASSWORD DISTRIBUTION KNOWLEDGE Users tend to use meaningful words for textual passwords. Since every 3D password system can be designed according to the protected system requirements. Pass faces users tend to choose faces that reflect their own taste on facial attractiveness. since the 3D password combines several authentication schemes into a single authentication environment. and gender. race. Every user has different requirements and preferences when selecting the appropriate 3D password. This fact will increase the effort required to find a pattern of user’s highly selected 3D password. the attacker has to study every single authentication scheme and has to discover what the most probable selected secrets are. In addition. Therefore. Therefore finding these different words from dictionary is a relatively simple task which yields a high success rate for breaking textual passwords.
Page 23 . Provide secrets that can be easily revoked or changed. Smart cards. hack are extremely difficult. Secrets those are not easy to write down on paper. The 3D password gives users the freedom of selecting what type of authentication techniques. The scheme secrets should be difficult to share with others.3D Password Seminar Report’10 ADVANTAGES Easiness to memorize: Users can memorize a 3D password as a “little” story which makes the password easy to remember Flexibility: 3d passwords allows multi-factor authentication. biometrics and alpha num password can embedded in the 3d password technology Strength: A scenario in a 3D environment offers as almost unlimited combination of possibilities. As such system can have specific 3d world.
the attacker has to acquire knowledge of the most probable 3D password distributions. The high number of possible 3D password spaces leaves the attacker with almost no chance of breaking the 3D password. This is very difficult because the attacker has to study all the existing authentication schemes that are used in the 3D environment. In order to launch such an attack. Therefore. The attacker has to forge all possible biometric information and forge all the required tokens. therefore cracking the 3D password is more challenging. a brute force attack on a 3D password is very difficult and time consuming. Cost of attacks –The 3D virtual environment contains biometric recognition objects and token based objects.3D Password Seminar Report’10 ATTACKS AND COUNTERMEASURES 1) Brute Force Attack The attacker has to try all possible 3D passwords. 2) Well Studied Attack The attacker tries to find the highest probable distribution of 3D passwords. The cost of forging such information is very high. It requires a study of the user’s selection of objects for the 3D password. the size of the 3D virtual environment. Time required to login The total time needed for a legitimate user to login may vary depending on the number of interactions and actions. This kind of attack is very difficult for the following reasons. This environment has a number of objects and types of object responses that differ from any other 3D virtual environment. a well studied attack is very hard to accomplish since the attacker has to perform a customized attack for every different 3D virtual environment design. and the type of actions and interactions. a carefully customized study is required to initialize an effective attack Page 24 . Therefore. Moreover.
This attack is the most successful type of attack against 3D passwords and some other graphical passwords.3D Password Seminar Report’10 3) Shoulder Surfing Attack An attacker uses a camera to record the user’s 3D password or tries to watch the legitimate user while the 3D password is being performed. 4) Timing Attack In this attack. the user’s 3D password may contain biometric data or textual passwords that cannot be seen from behind. the attacker observes how long it takes the legitimate user to perform a correct sign-in using the 3D password. it would probably be launched as part of a well studied or brute force attack. Therefore. Timing attacks can be very effective if the 3D virtual environment is poorly designed. This observation gives the attacker an indication of the legitimate user’s 3D password length. this kind of attack alone cannot be very successful since it gives the attacker mere hints. However. However. Page 25 . Therefore. we assume that the 3D password should be performed in a secure place where a shoulder surfing attack cannot be performed.
it is the user’s choice and decision to construct the desired and preferred 3-D password. The design of the 3-D virtual environment. users who prefer to keep any kind of biometrical data private might not interact with objects that require biometric information. or the combination of both.3D Password Seminar Report’10 CONCLUSION There are many authentication schemes in the current state. Some of them are based on user’s physical and behavioral properties. both authentication schemes are vulnerable to certain attacks. Moreover. The 3-D password is a multifactor authentication scheme that combines these various authentication schemes into a single3-D virtual environment. Additionally. Therefore. The choice of what authentication schemes will be part of the user’s 3-D password reflects the user’s preferences and requirements. and the object’s type reflect the resulted password space. as mentioned before. Among the various authentication schemes. and some other authentication schemes are based on user’s knowledge such as textual and graphical passwords. Page 26 . there are many authentication schemes that are currently under study and they may require additional time and effort to be applicable for commercial use. A user who prefers to remember and recall a password might choose textual and graphical passwords apart of their 3-D password. The virtual environment can contain any existing authentication scheme or even any upcoming authentication schemes by adding it as a response to actions performed on an object. the resulted password space becomes very large compared to any existing authentication schemes. designing a simple and easy to use 3-D virtual environment is a factor that leads to a higher user acceptability of a 3-D password system. user’s who have more difficulty with memory or recall might prefer to choose smart cards or biometrics as part of their 3-D password. Moreover. are commonly applied. It is the task of the system administrator to design the environment and to select the appropriate object that reflects the protected system requirements. such as smart cards. However. there are some other important authentication schemes that are based on what you have. Therefore. Moreover. textual password and token-based schemes. On the other hand. the selections of objects inside the environment.
finding a solution for shoulder surfing attacks on 3D passwords and other authentication schemes is also a field of study. Acquiring the knowledge of the probable distribution of a user’s 3D password might show the practical strength of a 3D password. A 3D password’s probable password space can be reflected by the design of the three-dimensional virtual environment. We are looking at designing different three-dimensional virtual environments that contain objects of all possible authentication schemes. critical servers and highly classified areas can be protected by 3D Password system with large three-dimensional virtual environment. Moreover. many different schemes have been used in specific fields. Other schemes are under study yet they have never been applied in the real world. The main application domains of 3D Password are critical systems and resources. A 3D password gives the user the choice of modeling his 3D password to contain any authentication scheme that the user prefers. However. The motivation of this work is to have a scheme that has a huge password space while also being a combination of any existing. The 3D password is in its infancy. Users do not have to carry cards if they do not want to. which is designed by the system administrator.3D Password Seminar Report’10 FUTURE WORK Textual passwords and token-based passwords are the most common used authentication schemes. ATM's and operating system's logins. or upcoming. The three-dimensional virtual environment can contain any objects that the administrator feels that the users are familiar with. Users do not have to provide their fingerprints if they do not wish to. For example. Moreover. A study on a large number of people is required. football players can use a three-dimensional virtual environment of a stadium where they can navigate and interact with objects that they are familiar with. Users have the choice to model their 3D password according to their needs and their preferences. Critical systems such as military facilities. authentication schemes into one scheme. a small three-dimensional virtual environment can be used to protect less critical systems such as handhelds. Page 27 .
pages 45-58. Page 28 . Foiling the Cracker: A Survey of.3D Password Seminar Report’10 REFERENCES A Novel 3D graphical password schema-Fawaz A Alsulaiman and Abdulmotaleb El Saddik Daniel V. Adrian Perrig. and Improvement to Passwords Security Greg E. Denver. Déjà Vu: A User Study Using Images for Authentication.Klein. United State Patent 5559961 Rachna Dhamija. 2000. Blonder. Graphical Password. Colorado.
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