CEE 320 Transportation I

Dr. Muhammet Vefa Akpınar, PhD, P.E

Fall 2011

Transportation Engineering

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Syllabus

Instructor: Muhammet Vefa Akpınar, PhD., P.E. Assistant Prof. e-mail: mvakpinar70@yahoo.com  http://www.muhfak.ktu.edu.tr/insaat/akademisyenler/ mvakpinar/akpinar.htm Textbook: Nadir Yaylalı, İTÜ, Birsen Yayınevi, 2010

Transportation Engineering

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Grading Component Percentage  Midterm Exam 25%  Project Homework 25%  Final Exam 50%

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Lesson 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Topic Introduction to Transportation Engineering Road Vehicle Design and Performance Geometric Design of Highways (Horizontal Curve) Geometric Design of Highways (Vertical Curve) Fundamental Curve Properties: Parabolic Formulation and Offset Application of Superelevation Midterm Exam Stopping Sight Distance Crest Vertical Curves and Sag Vertical Curves Passing Sight Distance Cross Sections and Volume Computation Cut and Fill Mass Balance Class Demonstrations Final Exam and Term Project Submission

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Overview of Transportation Engineering

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What is TRANSPORTATION?

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Transportation
A B

Transportation: movement of people and goods from one location to another. Primary need: economic. 7

Transportation Engineering

Users / Content
People  Goods

Share of total passengers or tons-km
Commuting Shopping Recreation

Passenger Transportation Freight Transportation

Waste disposal Local distribution Business Tourism Migration

Trade Energy & Raw Materials

Distance

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Users / Content
Passengers
Board, get off and transfer without assistance

Freight
Must be loaded, unloaded and transferred

Process information and The information must be act on it without assistance processed through logistics managers Make choices between Logistics managers make means of transport often choices between means of irrationally transport rationally
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Source: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University.

Transportation Engineering

Transportation modes:

- Land transportation
- Highway - Rail

- Air transportation
- Domestic - International

- Water transportation
- Inland - Coastal - Ocean

- Pipelines
- Oil - Gas - Other

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Vehicles / Services

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Infrastructure

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Control System

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Evolution of Transportation

1500-1840 Average speed of wagon and sail ships: 16 km/hr
1850-1930 Average speed of trains: 100 km/hr. Average speed of steamships: 25 km/hr

1950 Average speed of airplanes: 480-640 km/hr 1970 Average speed of jet planes: 800-1120 km/hr

1990 Numeric transmission: instantaneous
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Transportation Engineering

What is a mode?
Major transportation subsystems

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Example Modes

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Transportation System
Major transportation subsystems  Land transportation: highway, rail  Air transportation: domestic, international  Water transportation: inland, coastal, ocean  Pipelines: oil, gas, other

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Land

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Air

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Water

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Road transport Advantages of Road transport (i) It is a relatively cheaper mode of transport as compared to other modes. (ii) Perishable goods can be transported at a faster speed by road carriers over a short distance. (iii) It is a flexible mode of transport as loading and unloading is possible at any destination. It provides door-to-door service. (iv) It helps people to travel and carry goods from one place to another, in places which are not connected by other means of transport like hilly areas. Limitations of Road transport (i) Due to limited carrying capacity road transport is not economical for long distance transportation of goods. (ii) Transportation of heavy goods or goods in bulk by road involves high cost.

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Advantages of Rail transport (i) It is a convenient mode of transport for travlling long distances. (ii) It is relatively faster than road transport. (iii) It is suitable for carrying heavy goods in large quantities over long distances. (iv) Its operation is less affected by adverse weathers conditions like rain, floods, fog, etc. Limitations of Railway transport (i) It is relatively expensive for carrying goods and passengers over short distances. (ii) It is not available in remote parts of the country. (iii) It provides service according to fixed time schedule and is not flexible for loading or unloading of goods at any place. (iv) It involves heavy losses of life as well as goods in case of accident. 22 Transportation Engineering

Evolution of Transportation
1000 Road Rail Maritime Air Jet Plane

750 500

HST
250 Propeller Plane

Automobile
100 Rail 50 Stage Coach Clipper Ship 1800 1850 1900 Transportation Engineering Liner Containership 1950
23 2000

What is TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING ?
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Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering
One of the specialty areas of civil engineering • Development of facilities for the movement of goods and people • Planning, design, operation and maintenance  Multidisciplinary study

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Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

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Transportation System
Definition of Transportation Modes  A transportation system is an infrastructure that serves to move people and goods efficiently. The transportation system consists of fixed facilities, flow entities, and a control component.  Efficient = safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, environmentally compatible.
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Transportation System consisted of the fixed facilities, the flow entities and the control systems that permit people, and goods to overcome the friction of geographical space efficiently in order to participate in a timely manner in some desired activity

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Highway Transportation Engineering

Definition
The application of technology and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation, and management of roads, streets and highways, their networks, terminals, abutting lands, and relationships with other modes of transportation.

Areas of highway transportation engineering: • Planning of streets and highways • Geometric design of road facilities • Traffic operations and control • Traffic safety • Maintenance of road facilities and controls Transportation Engineering
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Traffic Concepts

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Flow in vehicles per hour
1000 Highw ay Capacity 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

0

Time of Day

Selected Table Factoids

Traffic Typically Peaks twice per day.

Transportation Engineering
Highly Congested

12 :3 0 A 1: M 30 A 2: M 30 A 3: M 30 A 4: M 30 A 5: M 30 A 6: M 30 A 7: M 30 A 8: M 30 A 9: M 30 1 0 AM :3 0 1 1 AM :3 0 1 2 AM :3 0 P 1: M 30 P 2: M 30 P 3: M 30 P 4: M 30 P 5: M 30 P 6: M 30 P 7: M 30 P 8: M 30 P 9: M 30 1 0 PM :3 0 1 1 PM :3 0 1 2 PM :3 0 A M

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Outline
1.

2. 3.

Basic Concepts a. Flow Rate b. Spacing c. Headway d. Speed e. Density Relationships Example

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Flow Rate (q)

The number of vehicles (n) passing some designated roadway point in a given time interval (t)

q

n t

Units are typically vehicles/hour Flow rate is different than volume

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Density (k)

The number of vehicles (n) occupying a given length (l) of a lane or roadway at a particular instant Unit of density is vehicles per mile (vpm).

k

n l

q u
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Transportation Engineering

Other Concepts
Free-flow speed (uf)  Jam density (kj)  Capacity (qm)

Density veh / km vehicles spacing mt / veh

Headway s / veh
Flow rate veh / hr

spacing mt / veh speed km/ hour
1 headway s / veh
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Transportation Engineering

Speed vs. Density
u
uf Free Flow Speed
Speed (km/hour)

k uf 1 kj

Density (veh/km)

kj Jam Density

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Flow vs. Density
q
Optimal flow, capacity, qm
FLow (veh/hr)

uf k

k kj

2

Congested Flow

Uncongested Flow

km Optimal density
Density (veh/km)

kj Jam Density
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Transportation Engineering

Speed vs. Flow
q
uf Free Flow Speed
Speed (mph)

u kj u uf

2

Uncongested Flow
um

Congested Flow

Optimal flow, Flow (veh/hr) capacity, qm

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Traffic – Time of Day Patterns
9.00% 8.00%

Percent of Daily Traffic

7.00% 6.00% 5.00% 4.00% 3.00% 2.00% 1.00% 0.00% 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Rural Cars Business Day Trucks Through Trucks Urban Cars

Hour of Day
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Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering WSDOT 2003 Annual Traffic Report From

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Transportation Engineering WSDOT 2003 Annual Traffic Report From

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Volume Patterns (contd.)

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Volume Patterns (contd.)

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Traffic Stream Characteristics

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Volume
Traffic volume is defined as the number of vehicles that pass a point on a highway, or a given lane or direction of a highway, during a specified time interval.

A. Daily volumes: - Average Annual Daily Traffic: (AADT): - Average Annual Weekday Traffic (AAWT): - Average Daily Traffic (ADT): - Average Weekday Traffic (AWT):
Note: The unit is vehicles per day (vpd).

Daily volumes are used to establish trends over time and for planning purposes. Daily volumes generally are not differentiated by direction or lane but are totals for an entire facility at the specified location.
Transportation Engineering
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Daily Volumes
-

Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT): is the average 24 hour traffic volume at a given location over a full 365-day year – that is the total number of vehicles passing the site in a year divided by 365

- Average Annual Weekday Traffic (AAWT): is the average 24-hour traffic volume occurring on weekdays over a full year. AAWT is computed by dividing the total weekday traffic volume for the year by 260. This volume is of considerable interest where weekend traffic is light, so that averaging higher weekday volumes over 365 days would mask the impact of weekday traffic.
Transportation Engineering
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Daily Volumes (contd.)
-

Average Daily Traffic (ADT): is an average 24-hour traffic volume at a given location for some period of time less than a year. While an AADT is for a full year, an ADT may be measured for six months, a season, a month, a week, or as little as two day. an ADT is a valid number only for the period over which it was measure. Average Weekday Traffic (AWT): is an average 24-hour traffic volume occurring on weekdays for some period of time less than one year, such as for a month or a season. The relationship between AAWT and AWT is analogous to that between AADT and ADT
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-

Daily Volumes

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Sub hourly Volumes

rate of flow q =

number of vehicles during observatio n veh/h observatio n time

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Sub hourly Volumes (contd.)
Example of volumes and rate of flow Time interval 5:00-5:15 PM 5:15-5:30 PM 5:30-5:45 PM 5:45-6:00 PM For the hour 5:00-6:00 PM Volume (vehicles) 950 1150 1250 1000 Rate of flow (vehicles/h) 950*4(15 minutes)=3800 1150*4=4600 1250*4=5000 1000*4=4000

4350 (veh/h)

A facility may have capacity adequate to serve the peak-hour demand, but short-term peaks of flow within the peak hour may exceed capacity, thereby creating a 51 breakdown.
Transportation Engineering

Relationships among Flow Rate, Speed and Density
v=S*D Where v – rate of flow, veh/h or veh/h/ln t S – Space Mean Speed (mi/s) D – Density, veh/mi or veh/mi/ln

Space mean speed and density are measures that refer to a specific section of a lane or highway, while flow rate is a point measure This relationship is most often used to estimate density, which is difficult to measure directly, from measured values of flow rate and space mean speed
Transportation Engineering
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Vehicle Dynamics

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Main Concepts
    

Resistance Tractive effort Vehicle acceleration Braking Stopping distance

F

ma Ra

Rrl

Rg

Transportation Engineering

Resistance
Resistance is defined as the force impeding vehicle motion 1. What is this force? 2. Aerodynamic resistance 3. Rolling resistance 4. Grade resistance

F

ma Ra

Rrl

Rg

Transportation Engineering

Grade Resistance Rg
Composed of • Gravitational force acting on the vehicle Rg W sin g θg
For small angles,

sin
g

g

tan

g

Rg
Rg

W tan
tan
g

Rg θg
W

G

WG

Transportation Engineering

Available Tractive Effort
The minimum of: 1. Force generated by the engine, Fe 2. Maximum value that is a function of the vehicle’s weight distribution and road-tire interaction, Fmax
Available tractive effort min Fe , Fmax

Transportation Engineering

Diagram

θg Transportation Engineering

Braking Distance

Theoretical S • ignoring air resistance
Practical Perception Total
V12 V22 a 2g G g

V12 V22 b 2g b f rl sin

g

d

For grade = 0

d

V12 V22 2a

dp ds

V1t p d dp

Transportation Engineering

Stopping Sight Distance , SSD

Length of roadway that should be visible ahead of you in order to ensure that you will be able to stop if there is an object in your path Calculate the SSD for a vehicle traveling on your roadway at the design speed, and then make sure the actual sight distance that you provide is at least as great as the stopping sight distance
Transportation Engineering

Stopping Sight Distance (2)

Assume • Driver eye height of 3.5 feet • Height of object between 2.0 and 3.5 feet Reaction distance + braking distance

SSD( ft )

1.47 V( mph ) t r ( s ) 30

V( mph ) a( ft / s 2 ) 32.2

2

G

Design standard: tr=2.5, a=11.2
Transportation Engineering

Other Sight Distances

Decision sight distance • Allow longer tr for information processing for different maneuver conditions Passing sight distance • Ensure safe passing maneuver • 4 distance components At 70 mph • SSD = 730 ft • DSD = 1445 ft (maneuver E) • PSD = 2480 ft

Transportation Engineering

Stopping Sight Distance (SSD)
Worst-case conditions • Poor driver skills • Low braking efficiency • Wet pavement  Perception-reaction time = 2.5 seconds V12  Equation SSD V1t r

a 2g g

G

Transportation Engineering

Stopping Sight Distance (SSD)

from ASSHTO A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2004

Note: this table assumes level grade (G = 0)
Transportation Engineering

SSD – Quick and Dirty
1. Acceleration due to gravity, g = 32.2 ft/sec2

2. There are 1.47 ft/sec per mph
3. Assume G = 0 (flat grade)
d V12 V22 2g a g G 1.47 V12 0 2 32.2 11.2 32.2 0 1.47 2 1 V2 2 11.2 V2 V2 1.075 1.075 11.2 a

d p 1.47 V1 t p 1.47Vt p
ds V2 1.075 1.47Vt p a

V = V1 in mph a = deceleration, 11.2 ft/s2 in US customary units tp = Conservative perception / reaction time = 2.5 seconds

Transportation Engineering

Sight Distance

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Lecture Outline
The ability to see ahead is critical for traffic safety and efficiency.  Four cases are to be discussed: 1. Stopping sight distance, 2. Passing sight distance, 3. Sight distance in complex situations, and 4. Provided sight distance.

Transportation Engineering

Stopping Sight Distance
Stopping Sight Distance = Reaction Distance + Braking Distance
The reaction distance is calculated as:
dr 0.278 tr V

where: dr = break reaction distance, m; tr = reaction time, s; V = initial speed, km/h.

The median reaction time is 0.7 s, and the 90th percentile is 1.5 s. In unexpected situations the 90th percentile tends to be one second longer. The Policy recommends the 2.5-second reaction time.
Transportation Engineering

Stopping Sight Distance
Braking distance on a level roadway is calculated as:
db V2 0.039 a

where: db = braking distance, m; V = initial speed, km/h; and a = 3.4 m/s2, deceleration rate.
Transportation Engineering

Stopping Sight Distance

d

0.278 2.5 V

V2 0.039 3.4

Transportation Engineering

Stopping on Grades
A stopping distance on grades G is calculated as follows:
d 0.278 t V V
2

a 254 ( G) 9.81

where G is the percent of graded divided by 100 with the minus sign for downgrades and the plus sign for upgrades.
Transportation Engineering

Stopping on Grades

Transportation Engineering

Trucks Stopping
A stopping distance of trucks is longer than of smaller vehicles. A higher position of seats in trucks than in other vehicles recompenses the longer stopping distance.

Above-minimum design for trucks is recommended where sight distance is reduced by horizontal obstructions, particularly at downgrades.
Transportation Engineering

Sight Distance in Complex Conditions

Transportation Engineering

Passing Sight Distance
Sight distance is determined for a single vehicle passing a single vehicle with the assumption that cover majority of situations observed in the realworld conditions.

Exhibit 3-4

d1

0.278t1 ( v m at1 / 2); d 2

0.278vt2 ; d 3

30 90 m; d 4

2d 2 / 3

where: t1 = time of initial maneuver, s; a = average acceleration, km/h/s; v = average speed of passing vehicle, km/h; m = difference in speed between passing and passed vehicles, km/h; t2 = time passing vehicle occupies the left lane, s. Transportation Engineering

Provided Sight Distance

Potential sight obstructions • On vertical curves: road surface at some point on a crest vertical curve, range of head lights on a sag curve • On horizontal curves: barriers, bridgeapproach fill slopes, trees, back slopes of cut sections

Transportation Engineering

Provided Sight Distance
Assumed heights:

Height of the drivers eye = 1080 mm

Height of the object for stopping distance = 600 mm (the lowest object that can create hazardous conditions)
Height of the object for passing distance = 1330 mm (15th percentile height of passenger car body)
Transportation Engineering

Sight Distance

Transportation Engineering

Consider a typical example of a driver approaching a STOP sign. The driver first sees the sign (perception), then recognizes it as a STOP sign (intellection), then decides to STOP (emotion), and finally puts his or her foot on the brake (volition).

Why is perception-reaction time important in design?
(i) Used to determine safe stopping distance (ii) Used to determine minimum sight distance (iii) Used to determine the length of the yellow phase at a signalized intersection AASHTO recommends a perception-reaction time of 2.5 seconds for design

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Sight Distance: Sight distance = length of highway visible to the driver Stopping sight distance = the sight distance required to safely stop a vehicle traveling at design speed

Passing sight distance = the sight distance required (two-lane highway) for a vehicle to execute a normal passing maneuver as related to design conditions and design speed
Decision sight distance = the sight distance required for a driver to detect an unexpected or difficult-to-perceive information source or hazard, interpret the information, recognize the hazard, select and appropriate maneuver Entering sight distance = the sight distance along a roadway that an object of specified height is continuously visible to a driver entering a roadway from a driveway or cross street.
80

Transportation Engineering

Stopping Distance

Distance ahead of the driver in which the driver can bring the vehicle to a stop after seeing an object in the vehicle’s path without hitting the object perception SSD = reaction distance

+

braking distance


Perception reaction distance: distance traveled during the perception reaction time process Braking distance: distance to stop a vehicle once the brakes are applied
Transportation Engineering

Stopping Distance (contd.)
SSD Where v t 3.6 v v 254( f G)
0 2 2

(metric)

v – speed (km/h) t - perception reaction time (typically 2.5 s) f - longitudinal coefficient of friction G - upgrade (+) or downgrade (-)

Table 1.2.5.3 – minimum stopping sight distance for vehicle and trucks on level terrain and wet pavement Table 1.2.5.4 – minimum stopping sigh distance for trucks with conventional braking systems Tables from TAC Geometric Design Guide for Canadian roads Transportation Engineering

Stopping Distance (contd.)

or
SSD 1.47 * t
2 0 2

Where

30( f

G)

u – speed (mile/h) t - perception reaction time (typically 2.5 s) f - longitudinal coefficient of friction (f = a/g) G - upgrade (+) or downgrade (-)

Table 3.4– minimum stopping sight distance for different design speeds (grade considered is zero) Table from class textbook
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Passing Distance (contd.)

Where: • d1 = distance traversed during perception-reaction time and during initial acceleration to the point where the passing vehicle just enters the left lane • d2 = distance traveled during the time the passing vehicle is traveling in the left lane • d3 = distance between the passing vehicle and the opposing vehicle at the end of the passing maneuver • d4 = distance moved by the opposing vehicle during two thirds of the time the passing vehicle is in the left lane (usually taken to be 2/3 d2 )

Transportation Engineering

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Geometric Design

Transportation Engineering

Km P = 0+170 Kot P = 764,69 m e = 0,15 m
46 44

14

1

1

01

1

0

44

1

57

1

69

0

04

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2

12

Outline
1.
2.

Concepts Horizontal Alignment
a. Fundamentals b. Superelevation

3.

Vertical Alignment
a. b. c. d. Fundamentals Crest Vertical Curves Sag Vertical Curves Examples

4.

Volume Table and Earthwork
Transportation Engineering

What are the four basic elements of geometric design? a. Horizontal alignment b. Vertical alignment c. Cross-section design Horizontal and vertical alignment are controlled by two basic design criteria: a. Design speed b. Sight distance

Transportation Engineering

Design speed Design speed is defined as the maximum safe speed that can be maintained over a specified section of a highway when conditions are so favorable that the design features of the highway govern. Sight distance There are two types of sight distance used in designing highways: a. Stopping sight distance b. Passing sight distance

Transportation Engineering

Stopping sight distance Stopping sight distance is the distance required to see an object 15 cm high on the roadway. It is intended to allow drivers to stop safely after sighting an object on the roadway large enough to cause damage to the vehicle or loss of control Passing sight distance Passing sight distance is the distance required to see an oncoming vehicle of a certain minimum size. A passing driver must have sight distance to observe an oncoming vehicle at a distance sufficient to allow him or her to enter the opposing lane, pass a moving vehicle, and return to the travel lane safely.

Transportation Engineering

Highway Components
Highway plan and profile

Transportation Engineering

Concepts

Alignment is a 3D problem broken down into two 2D problems
• Horizontal Alignment (plan view) • Vertical Alignment (profile view)

Stationing
• Along horizontal alignment • 12+00 = 1,200 mt.

Piilani Highway on Maui

Transportation Engineering

Vertical Alignment
Objective: • Determine elevation to ensure • Proper drainage • Acceptable level of safety  Primary challenge  Transition between two grades Sag Vertical Curve • Vertical curves

G1 G2
G1 G2 Crest Vertical Curve Transportation Engineering

Vertical Curves
To provide transition between two grades  Consider • Drainage (rainfall) • Driver safety (SSD) • Driver comfort  Use parabolic curves  Crest vs Sag curves

Transportation Engineering

Vertical Curves
   

Controlling factor: sight distance Stopping sight distance should be provided as a minimum Rate of change of grade should be kept within tolerable limits Drainage of sag curves is important consideration, grades not less than 0.5% needed for drainage to outer edge of roadway

Transportation Engineering

Specifies the elevation of points along a roadway Provides a transition between two grades Sag curves and crest curves Equal-tangent curves - half the curve length positioned before the PVI; half after

Transportation Engineering

Vertical Curves
Vertical curves provide a gradual change between two adjacent road grades

Components of the equal tangent vertical curve

Transportation Engineering

Vertical Curves
Given
– G1, G2: initial & final grades in percent – L: curve length (horizontal distance)

Develop the actual shape of the vertical curve
PVI

point of vertical intersect

point of vertical curvature
G1%

point of vertical tangency
G2%

Transportation Engineering

Vertical Curves
• Define curve so that PVI is at a horizontal distance of L/2 from PVC and PVT • Provides constant rate of change of grade: r G2 G1 L A

EP

EPVC

G1 Ax2 x 100 200 L

G1%

G2%

Transportation Engineering

Vertical Curve Fundamentals
PVI PVC G1 δ

G2
PVT

L/2

L x

y ax2 bx c
•y is the roadway elevation x stations

Choose Either:
• G1, G2 tangent grades

Transportation Engineering

Choose Either:

Relationships
At the PVC: x 0 and Y c

• G1, G2 in decimal form, L in mt • G1, G2 in percent, L in stations

dY At the PVC : x 0 and b G1 dx d 2Y G2 G1 G2 G1 Anywhere: 2a a 2 dx L 2L
PVC L/2 G1 PVI δ G2 PVT

L

Transportation Engineering x

Vertical Alignment Relationships
y ax 2 bx b 0: c

Y Ym Yf K xhl

dy 2ax dx atPVC , x b

dy G1 dx d2y 2a 2 dx G2 G1 a 2L

A x2 200 L AL 800 AL 200 L A K G1

Transportation Engineering

Example
A 400 ft. equal tangent crest vertical curve has a PVC station of 100+00 at 800 m elevation. The initial grade is 2.0 percent and the final grade is -4.5 percent. Determine the elevation and stationing of PVI, PVT, and the high point of the curve.
PVI PVT

PVC: STA 100+00 EL 800 m.

Transportation Engineering

PVI PVT PVC: STA 100+00 EL 59 ft.

Transportation Engineering

PVI PVT PVC: STA 100+00 EL 59 ft.

Determine the elevation and stationing of PVT, and the high point of the curve.
400 ft. vertical curve PVT is at STA 104+00

Equal tangents: Elevation of the PVI is 59’ + 0.02(200) = 63 ft. Elevation of the PVT is 63’ – 0.045(200) = 54 ft. Transportation Engineering

PVI PVT PVC: STA 100+00 EL 59 ft.
High point elevation requires figuring out the equation for a vertical curve At x = 0, y = c => c=59 ft. At x = 0, dY/dx = b = G1 = +2.0% a = (G2 – G1)/2L = (-4.5 – 2)/(2(4)) = - 0.8125 y = -0.8125x2 + 2x + 59 High point is where dy/dx = 0 dy/dx = -1.625x + 2 = 0 x = 1.23 stations Find elevation at x = 1.23 stations y = -0.8125(1.23)2 + 2(1.23) + 59 y = 60.23 ft

Transportation Engineering

Other Properties
G1
x

•G1, G2 in percent •L in mt

PVC Y Ym PVI G2 Yf

PVT

A

G1 G2

A is the absolute value in grade differences, if grades are -3% and +4%, value is 7
Transportation Engineering

Crest Vertical Curves
SSD
PVI

Line of Sight
PVC

G1

PVT

G2

h1 L

h2

For SSD < L

For SSD > L

L

A SSD 100 2h1

2

Transportation Engineering

2h2

2

L 2 SSD

200 h1 A

h2

2

Sag Vertical Curves
Light Beam Distance (SSD)

G1

headlight beam (diverging from LOS by β degrees)
PVC PVT PVI

G2

h1

h2=0

L

For SSD < L

For SSD > L

L

A SSD 200 h1 S tan

2

L

2 SSD

200 h1

SSD tan A

Transportation Engineering

Sag Vertical Curves

Four criteria for establishing length of sag curves • Headlight sight distance • Passenger comfort • Drainage control • General appearance

Transportation Engineering

Sag VC - Design Criteria
Headlight sight distance  Rider comfort  Drainage control  Appearance

Transportation Engineering

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Example 1
A car is traveling at 30 mph in the country at night on a wet road through a 150 ft. long sag vertical curve. The entering grade is -2.4 percent and the exiting grade is 4.0 percent. A tree has fallen across the road at approximately the PVT. Assuming the driver cannot see the tree until it is lit by her headlights, is it reasonable to expect the driver to be able to stop before hitting the tree?

Transportation Engineering

Example 2
Similar to Example 1 but for a crest curve.
A car is traveling at 30 mph in the country at night on a wet road through a 150 ft. long crest vertical curve. The entering grade is 3.0 percent and the exiting grade is -3.4 percent. A tree has fallen across the road at approximately the PVT. Is it reasonable to expect the driver to be able to stop before hitting the tree?

Transportation Engineering

Example 3
A roadway is being designed using a 45 mph design speed. One section of the roadway must go up and over a small hill with an entering grade of 3.2 percent and an exiting grade of -2.0 percent. How long must the vertical curve be?

Transportation Engineering

Example Problem: Vertical Curve
A vertical curve crosses a 4’ diameter pipe at right angles. Pipe at sta 110+85 with centerline elevation of 1091.60’. PVI at sta 110+00 elevation 1098.4’. Equal tangent curve, 600’ long with initial and final grades of +1.2% and -1.08%. Using offsets determine the depth below the surface of the curve the top of the pipe and determine the station of the highest point of the curve.
Transportation Engineering

Example
G1 = 2%  G2 = -4%  Design speed = 70 mph  Is this a crest or sag curve?  What is A?

Transportation Engineering

Horizontal Alignment
Objective: • Geometry of directional transition to ensure: • Safety Δ • Comfort  Primary challenge • Transition between two directions • Horizontal curves  Fundamentals

Transportation Engineering

Horizontal Curves
Provide transition of a roadway between two straight sections  Two key factors • Superelevation е – number of vertical feet of rise per 100 feet of horizontal distance • Coefficient of side friction fs - function of design speed

Transportation Engineering

Horizontal Curve Fundamentals
PI Based on circular curve • R: radius of curve • D: degree of curve • : central angle • T: length of tangent • L: length of curve • LC: long chord • M: middle ordinate dist • E: external dist

T
E

Δ

M
PC
Point of Curvature

L

Δ/2

PT
Point of Tangency

R Δ/2 Δ/2

R

Transportation Engineering

Horizontal Curve Fundamentals
100 D 180 R 18,000 R
PI

T
E

Δ

L
T
E

180

R

100 D
2

M
PC L Δ/2 PT

R tan
R

1 1 cos 2

R Δ/2 Δ/2

R

M

R 1 cos

2

Transportation Engineering

Horizontal Curve

Minimum Curve Radius
• Curve requiring the most centripetal force for the given speed • Given emax, umax, Vdesign R

min R( ft )

V (2 ) mph 15 e u
Transportation Engineering

Stopping Sight Distance & Horizontal Curve Design
  

Adequate sight distance must be provided in the design of horizontal curves Cost of right of way or the cost of moving earthen materials often restrict design options When such obstructions exist, stopping sight distance is checked and measured along the horizontal curve from the center of the traveled lane

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Stopping Sight Distance
SSD
s

180 180 SSD Rv

Rv

s

100 D

SSD
s

Ms

Ms

90 SSD Rv 1 cos Rv Rv cos 90
1

Obstruction Rv

SSD

Rv

Ms Rv

Δs

Transportation Engineering

Horizontal Curve Sight Distance
Recall SSD 1.47Vtr V2 a 30 G 32.2


R

M

28.65 SD R 1 cos R

Sight line is a chord of the circular curve Sight Distance is curve length measured along centerline of inside lane

Transportation Engineering

Horizontal Alignment

Basic controlling expression
e u V (2 ) mph 15 R( ft )

e = rate of superelevation u = side friction factor (dep. on pavement, speed, …) V = vehicle speed R = radius of curve
Transportation Engineering

Horizontal Alignment

Overall design procedure • Determine a reasonable maximum superelevation rate. • Decide upon a maximum side-friction factor. • Calculate the minimum radius. • Iterate and test several different radii until you are satisfied with your design. • Make sure that the stopping sight
Transportation Engineering

Side Friction

Design based on point where centrifugal force creates feeling of discomfort for driver
Speed 20 30 40 umax udesign 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.50 0.35 0.32

50
60

0.30
0.29

0.14
0.12

70

Transportation Engineering

0.28

0.10

Example 4
A horizontal curve is designed with a 1500 ft. radius. The tangent length is 400 ft. and the PT station is 20+00. What are the PI and PT stations?

Transportation Engineering

Superelevation

Transportation Engineering

Superelevation

Tilting the roadway to help offset centripetal forces developed as the vehicle goes around a curve General Practice
• Highways, no ice/snow e emax = 0.10 1 • Highways, snow/ice emax = 0.06 • Traffic congestion or roadside development, limit speeds emax = 0.04 ~ 0.06
Transportation Engineering

Centripetal or Centrifugal?
As a vehicle moves in a circular path • Centripetal acceleration acts on the vehicle in the direction of the center of the curve  The acceleration is sustained by • Component of the vehicle’s weight related to the roadway superelevation • Side friction developed between the vehicle’s tires and the pavement surface Transportation Engineering

Centrifugal Force
Imaginary force that drivers believe is pushing them outward while maneuvering a curve  In fact, the force they feel is the vehicle being accelerated inward towards the center of the curve

Transportation Engineering

Centripetal Acceleration

Is counter-balanced by two factors:
• Superelevation • Side Friction Factor

Research has been conducted (dated) that has established limiting values for superelevation rate (e max) and side friction demand (f max) Applying the limiting values results in the minimum curve radius for various design speeds
Transportation Engineering

Superelevation

Limits of the rate superelevation are related to
• Climate
• Ice and snow can slow vehicles. Should not create a situation where these vehicles slide into the center of the curve when traveling slowly or standing still.

• Constructability (cost) • Adjacent land use • Frequency of slow moving vehicles

Transportation Engineering

Superelevation

Too much super
• When traveling slowly, must steer up the slope or against the horizontal curve to maintain proper path • Undesirable to have such situations when slow traveling traffic can occur often (urban areas with congestion) • Considerations for SUV traffic, high center of gravity, can cause roll-overs on such designs

Transportation Engineering

Side Friction Factor
The vehicle’s need for side friction to maintain path on curve  Upper limit of side friction is the point at which a tire would begin to skid, point of impending skid  We design for safety, so f values substantially less than this

Transportation Engineering

Side Friction Factor
How do we choose maximum side friction factors for use in design?  We measure the level of centripetal or lateral acceleration that causes drivers to react instinctively to choose a lower speed.  We set this as the maximum side friction factor.

Transportation Engineering

Maximum Rates of Superelevation

Controlled by four factors:
• • • • Climate conditions (snow/ice regions) Terrain conditions (flat, rolling, mountainous) Type of area (rural, urban, suburban) Frequency of very slow-moving vehicles

 

Conclusion: no universal e max can be set However, for similar areas, a consistent maximum superelevation should be selected

Transportation Engineering

Recommended Practice
12 percent superelevation should not be exceeded  4 or 6 percent superelevation is applicable for urban design with little constraints  Superelevation may be omitted on lowspeed urban streets where severe constraints exist

Transportation Engineering

Minimum Radius
Controls design speed  Can be determined from the max superelevation and the max side friction factor  Can be calculated from equation 3.34 or determined from Table 3.5

Transportation Engineering

Example – Minimum Radius
70 mph design speed; e = 8%; fs = 0.10 Determine the minimum radius of curve (measured to the traveled path).

Transportation Engineering

Superelevation
Rv
Fc

Wp

Ff

Fcp

e W

1 ft

α

W sin

WV 2 f s W cos sin Transportation gRv Engineering

WV 2 cos gRv

Superelevation
W sin f s W cos WV 2 sin gRv
tan e fs fs Rv
Transportation Engineering

WV 2 cos gRv
V2 1 f s tan gRv V2 1 f se gRv V2 g fs e

Selection of e and fs
Practical limits on superelevation (e) • Climate • Constructability • Adjacent land use  Side friction factor (fs) variations • Vehicle speed • Pavement texture • Tire condition

Transportation Engineering

Minimum Radius Tables

Transportation Engineering

Design Side Friction Factors
For Open Highways and Ramps

Transportation Engineering

from the 2005 WSDOT Design Manual, M 22-01

Design Superelevation Rates - AASHTO

Transportation Engineering Design of Highways and Streets 2004 from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric

Design Superelevation Rates WSDOT
emax = 8%

Transportation Engineering 2005 WSDOT Design Manual, M 22-01 from the

Supplemental Stuff
Cross section  Superelevation Transition • Runoff • Tangent runout  Spiral curves  Extra width for curves

Transportation Engineering

Superelevation Transition

Transportation Engineering 2001 Caltrans Highway Design Manual from the

Superelevation Transition

Transportation Engineering Design of Highways and Streets 2001 from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric

from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001

Superelevation Runoff/Runout

Transportation Engineering

Superelevation Runoff WSDOT

New Graph

Transportation Engineering 2005 WSDOT Design Manual, M 22-01 from the

Spiral Curves

No Spiral

Spiral

Transportation Engineering Design of Highways and Streets 2001 from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric

No Spiral

Transportation Engineering

Spiral Curves
WSDOT no longer uses spiral curves  Involve complex geometry  Require more surveying  Are somewhat empirical  If used, superelevation transition should occur entirely within spiral

Transportation Engineering

Desirable Spiral Lengths

Transportation Engineering Design of Highways and Streets 2001 from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric

Transition Curves

Gradually changing the curvature from tangents to circular curves
Without Transition Curves With Transition Curves

Transportation Engineering

Transition Curves

Gradually changing the curvature from tangents to circular curves • Use a spiral curve
L: min length of spiral (ft) V: speed (mph) R: curve radius (ft) C: rate V 3 increase of centrifugal accel of 3.15 3 L(ft/sec ), 1~3
RC
Transportation Engineering

Transitional Curves

Gradually changing the cross-section of the roadway from normal to superelevated

Keep water drainage in mind while considering all of the available cross-section options Transportation Engineering

Vertical Alignment

Grade • measure of inclination or slope, rise over the run • Cars: negotiate 4-5% grades without significant speed reduction • Trucks: significant speed changes • 5% increase on short descending grades • 7% decrease on short ascending grades
Transportation Engineering

Grade Considerations

Maximum grade – depends on terrain type, road functional class, and design speed
Rural Arterials
Terrain 60mph 70mph

Level
Rolling Mountainous

3%
4% 6%

3%
4% 5%

Transportation Engineering

Example
horizontal curve with 2000’ radius; 400’ tangent length; PI is at station 103+00 Determine the stationing of the PT

Transportation Engineering

Example continued
Determine the central angle, ∆. Next determine the Length of Curve, L.
T 400 R tan

2 2

2000 tan 22.62

L L

180 3.1416 2000 (22.62) 180

R

789.58 ft

Transportation Engineering

Example continued
Knowing tangent length is 400’ and PI is at 103+00: stationing PC=103+00 minus 4+00=99+00 Horizontal curve stationing is measured along the alignment of the road: stationing of PT = stationing of PC+L =99+00 plus 7+89.58 = 106+89.58
Transportation Engineering

In-Class Problems
Calculate the maximum degree of curve and minimum radius of a simple circular curve with an external angle of 100º. Design speed of 50mph; fmax 0.14; max e =0.10.

Transportation Engineering

Sight Distance Example
Horizontal curve with 2000’ radius; 12’lanes; 60mph design speed. Determine the distance that must be cleared from the inside edge of the inside lane to provide sufficient stopping sight distance.

Transportation Engineering

Example Problem
70mph design speed; equal tangent vertical curve needed to connect +1.0% with -2.0%. Determine min length of curve to meet SSD requirements.

Transportation Engineering

Project Example 1

Transportation Engineering

Tablo 1. Örnek yol geometrik standartları

K AR AYO LU G E O M E TR İK S TAN D AR TLAR I
P R O JE E LE M AN LAR I
H izm et S ev iyesi
Y . O

K E N T D IŞ I İK İ Ş E R İTLİ YO LLAR

S1 Ü Ç Ü N C Ü S IN IF

B İR İN C İ S IN IF
D 12000 1200 Düz 100 80 400 250 160 130 4 4 107-56 44-26 51-35 30-23 8 8 155 110 670 550 3,50 3,50 2,50 2,50 12,00 12,00 D 6500 650 D 4000 400 D 11000 1100
ü n n . T r a f ik ü

İK İN C İ S IN IF
D 5500 550 D 3000 300 D

H S (A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,F )
Yıllık
. G . T O . r t a la m T a . G a ş ı t / G

D 4500 450

D 2500 250

8000 800

T rafik*

P roje S aatlik T rafiği
P . S . T . ( T a ş ı t / S a a t )

T opografik M odel T M (D z,D l,D ğ) P roje H ızı V p (km /saat) M inim um kurb yarıçapı R (m ) M inim um klotoit param etresi A (-) M aksim um boyuna eğim m (% ) kapalı kurb K k ( - ) D üşey katsayısı L = G K açık kurb Ka ( - ) M aksim um dev er** n (% ) E m niyetli duruş uzaklığı Ld (m ) E m niyetli geçiş uzaklığı Lg (m ) Ş erit genişliği L (m ) B anket genişliği*** b (m ) P latform genişliği P G (m )
k u r b

D alg alı D ağ lık Düz D alg alı D ağ lık Düz D alg alı D ağ lık 80 70 70 60 80 70 70 60 60 40 70 60 60 50 50 30 250 200 200 150 250 200 200 150 150 60 200 150 150 90 90 30 130 120 120 100 130 120 120 100 100 60 120 100 100 70 70 30 6 6 7 7 5 5 7 7 8 8 6 6 8 8 9 9 44-26 29-20 29-20 17-15 44-26 29-20 29-20 17-15 17-15 6-6 29-20 17-15 17-15 10-9 10-9 5-5 30-23 22-19 22-19 16-15 20-23 22-19 22-19 16-15 16-15 8-8 22-19 16-15 16-15 12-11 12-11 7-7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 110 90 90 70 110 90 90 70 70 40 90 70 70 55 55 25 550 480 480 420 550 480 480 420 420 270 480 420 420 340 340 190 3,50 3,50 3,50 3,50 3,50 3,50 3,25 3,25 3,25 3,25 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 2,00 2,00 2,00 2,00 1,50 1,50 1,50 1,50 1,50 1,50 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 11,00 11,00 11,00 11,00 10,00 10,00 9,50 9,50 9,50 9,50 8,00 8,00 8,00 8,00 8,00 8,00

K öprü genişliği
K ö p r ü p r o j e y ü k ü

K ısa köprüler (0 - 45 m ) W k (m ) U zun köprüler ( 45 m ) Wu (m ) h (m ) 5,00 5,00
b

9.50

9.50

7.00

H : 20 - S : 16

8.50 5,00
%2 2L PG

8.50 5,00
b

7.00 5,00
b

A lt geçit (m inim um h:5) G abari

5,00

5,00

5,00

5,00
b

5,00
%2 2L PG

5,00

5,00

5,00

5,00
b

5,00
%2 2L PG

5,00

5,00
b

5,00

T oplam genişlik K am ulaştırm a
g e n i ş l i ğ i K G ( m )

N orm al 60.00 m . P rojenin gerektirdiği kadar
L e

N orm al 40.00 m . P rojenin gerektirdiği kadar KS KS 20.00 E 20.00 KS

N orm al 15.00 m . P rojenin gerektirdiği kadar KS 7.50 E 7.5 KS

E ksen uzaklığı
( m )

KS

23.00

E

37.00

* P rojelendirilen yolun yapım ın bitim inden itibaren 20 yıl sonra ulaşılacağı hesaplanan trafik değeri ** K ar ve B uzlanm a olm ayan kesim lerde % 10"a kadar artırılabilir. *** D ağlık arazideki karışık kesitlerde banket genişlikleri dolgularda 50 cm . fazla , yarm a tarafında 50 cm . eksik uygulanır.

Transportation Engineering

800

800

798 796

794 792

790

788 786 784

782

780

778

776

774

772

770

768

766

764

762

760

758

756

754

752

750

748 746

798 796 794 792 790 788 786 784 782 780 778 776 774 772 A 770 768 772 766 764 762 760 758 756 754 752 750 748

TEPE
K

744

B

744 744 742 740 738 736 734 732 730 728 726 724 722 720 718 716 714 712 712 714 716 718

746 744 742 740
0 20 40 60 80 100

738

K5

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

800

800

798 796

794 792

790

788 786 784

782

780

778

776

774

772

770

768

766

764

762

760

758

756

754

752

750

748 746

798

TEPE
K

744

796 794 792 790 788 786 784 782 780 778 776 774 772 A 770 768 772 %5 766 764 762 760 758 756 754 752 750 748

%4
% 4

%4

B

744 744 742 740 738 736 734 732 730 728 726 724 722 720 718 716 714 712

K5

%5

%5

%4

%4

%4

%5

746 744 742 740
0 20 40 60 80 100

%

4

Sıfır Poligonu

738

712 714 716 718

Transportation Engineering

800

800

798 796

794 792

790

788 786 784

782

780

778

776

774

772

770

768

766

764

762

760

758

756

754

752

750

748 746

798

TEPE
K

744

796 794 792 790 788 786 784 782 780 778 776 774 772 A 770 768 772 %5 766 764 762 760 758 756 754 752 750 748

%4

%4

B

744 744 742 740 738 736 734 732 730 728 726 724 722 720 718 716 714 712

%

4

K5

%5
%5
%5

%4

%4

%4

746 744 742 740
0 20 40 60 80 100

%

4

Sıfır Poligonu

738

712 714 716 718

Transportation Engineering

183

800

800

798 796

794 792

790

788 786 784

782

780

778

776

774

772

770

768

766

764

762

760

758

756

754

752

750

748 746

798 796 794 792 790 788 786 784 782 780 778 776 774 772 A 770 768 772 766 764 762 760 758 756 754 752 750 748

TEPE
K

744

B

744 744 742

A4 A3 A1 A2 S

740 738 736 734 732 730 728 726 724 722 720 718 716 714 712

746 744 742 740
0 20 40 60 80 100

K5

Geçkiler

738

712 714 716 718

Transportation Engineering

800

800

798 796

794 792

790

782

780

778

776

774

772

770

768

766

764

762

760

758

756

754

752

750

748 746

O

798 796 794 792 790 788 786 784 782 780 778 776 774 772 A 770 768 772 766 764 762 760 758 756 754 752 750 748

TEPE

744

K

? R T D Bs

= = = = =

51,75° 200m 97,55m 180,55m 22,2m

B

744 744 742 740 738 736 734 732

0m

200 R=

R= 20

m

K5

O T
Bs

F T
51,75°

S

730 728 726 724 722 720 718 716 714 712

746 744 742 740
0 20 40 60 80 100

Yatay Kurp

738

712 714 716 718

Transportation Engineering

800

800

798 796

794 792

790

782

780

778

776

774

Kurp Merkezi

798

TEPE
26°
51,75°

796 794 792 790 788 786 784 782 780 778 776 774 772 A 90° 770 768 772 766 O 764 T 762 Kurp Başlanğıcı 760 758 756 754 752 750

26°

R T D Bs

= 51,75° = 200m = 97,55m = 180,55m = 22,2m

0m

20

R=

90°

K5

Kurp Bitişi

F T

51,75°

S
186

Transportation Engineering

Bs

772

O

R= 200 m

800

800

798 796

794 792

790

782

780

778

776

774

772

770

768

766

764

762

760

758

756

754

752

750

748 746

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798 796 794 792 790 788 786 784 782 780 778 776 774 772 A 770 768 772 766 764 762 760 758 756 754 752 750 748

TEPE

744

K

B

744 744 742 740 738 736 734 732 730 728 726 724 722 720 718 716 714 712

746 744 742 740
0 20 40 60 80 100

K5

Yol Güzergahı

738

712 714 716 718

Transportation Engineering

800

800

798 796

794 792

790

782

780

778

776

774

772

770

768

766

764

762

760

758

756

754

752

750

748 746

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798

TEPE
K

744

796 794 792 790 788 786 784 782 780 778 776 774 772 A 770 768 772 766 A 764 Lİ 762 YM AN 760 758 756 754 752 750 748

B
Platform Genişliği Yol Ekseni Yol Platformu

744 744 742 740 738 736

K5

A

M LİY

AN

734 732 730 728 726 724 722 720 718 716 714 712

KURP

746 744 742 740
0 20 40 60 80 100

Yol Güzergahı

738

712 714 716 718

Transportation Engineering

188

800

800

798 796

794 792

790

788 786 784

782

780

778

776

774

772

770

768

766

764

762

760

758

756

754

752

750

798 796 794 792 790 788 786 784 782 780 778 776 774 772 770 768 766 764 758 756 754 752 750 748 746 744 742

TEPE

O

748 746

744

K

B

B
0 +4

744 744 742

H4

0m

R=

20

200

R=

m

H3

A
0+ 0+ 03

740 738 736 734 732 730 728 726 724 722 720 718 716 714 712

76

A

0 +4

0 T

F T

H2

00

H1

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0 +3

K5

740 738

00 0

00

0 +2

S
0+127 27

7

0+20

54 17

0+100

0

R T D Bs

= 51,75° = 200m = 97,55m = 180,55m = 22,2m

En Kesit Çizgileri
0 20 40 60 80 100

712 714 716 718

Transportation Engineering

800

800

798 796

794 792

790

788 786 784

782

780

778

776

774

772

770

768

766

764

762

760

758

756

754

752

750

798 796 794 792 790 788 786 784 782 780 778 776 774 772 770 768 766 764 758 756 754 752 750 748 746 744 742

TEPE

O

748 746

744

26° 26° 51,75°

K

B

17

16

B
0 +4

15

744 744 742

H4

14

0m

13

R=

12

20

200

R=

11

m

H3

0 +4

A
0+ 0+ 02 0

740 738 736 734 732 730 728 726 724 722 720 718 716 714 712

10

76

A

0 +4

60

0 +4

9

1
0 T

40

0 +4

8 0 +3
F T

20

2

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00

3

0 +3

H1

7

80

5 S 4

6

0 +3 40

60

0 +3 20

0 +3

0 +2

K5

740 738

00 0

00

0 +2

80

0+ 03

0 +2

60

0 +2

0 +0

S
0+160

40

7

0+20

0 +0 80

0+180

54 17

60

0+100

0+127 27 0+120

R T D Bs

= 51,75° = 200m = 97,55m = 180,55m = 22,2m

0+140

Transportation Engineering

0

En Kesit Çizgileri
0 20 40 60 80 100

712 714 716 718

190

0

62

771,00 770,00 769,00 768,00 767,00 766,00 765,00 764,00 763,00

0

00

772,00

0

95

96

0

1

26

Km P = 0+170 Kot P = 764,69 m e = 0,15 m
46 44

14

1

06

1

1

01

1

0

44

1

57

52

757,00 756,00 755,00 754,00 753,00 752,00 751,00
1/100

1

58

758,00

2

63

759,00

2

67

760,00

2

12

761,00

0

04

762,00

1

69

0

1

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2

31

3

18

3

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56

750,00
77200 77200
42 57 59 88 56 99 07 31 21 07 04 01 98 95 92 88 85 82 15 76 13 17 13 10 00

1

30

771

770

769

768

767

766

766

765

765

764

763

762

761

760

759

758

757

756

754

753

752

751

750

749

KIRMIZI KOTLAR SİYAH KOTLAR EN KESİT NO ARA MESAFELER METRELER HEKTOMETRELER KİLOMETRELER EĞİM VE EĞİM DEĞİŞME NOKTALARI YATAY KURBA ELEMANLARI

02

40

00

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37

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00

63

56

48

35

33

80

73

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56

67

67

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55

00

771

771

770

769

769

768

768

767

764

762

761

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763

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761

759

757

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752

750

749

749

749

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A
0+000

1
0+020

0 T

2
0+060

3
0+080

H1
0+100

4 20 00

0+037

0+120

0+140

0+160

0+180

0+200

0+240

0+260

0+280

0+300

0+320

0+340

0+360

0+380

0+400

0+420

0+440

0+460

0+127

0
30

1 L1=170 m
30

2 L2=306 m
26

0+217

3

4

g1 = % 4

g2=% 5

10

L= 37 m

R=200 m

? =51,75°

T=97,55 m

Transportation Engineering
D=180,55 m BS=22,2 m

L= 258,46 m

0+476

27

54

20 00

17 00

23 00

20 00

20 00

S 5 7 27 12 73

6 20 00 20 00

7 20 00

H2 17 54

T F
22 46

8 20 00

9 20 00

10 20 00

H3 20 00

11 20 00

12 20 00

13 20 00

14 20 00

H4 20 00

15 20 00

16 20 00

17 16 00

B

750

00

749

1

00

1/1000

749,00

0

18

DÜŞEY KURBA GEÇİŞİ PARABOL DENKLEMİ

y=((g2 - g1)/2L) x x² + g1 x x
En Kesit T1 H1 4 S 5 6 C 7 H2
F T

Km
0+096 0+100 0+120 0+127 0+140 0+160 0+171 0+180
40 27 40

x
0 3,60 23,60 30,87 43,60 63,60 75,00 83,60

y
0

Kırmızı Kot
767,915

PVC

G1 L/2

PVI

δ

G2

PVT

-0,155 767,760 -1,030 766,885 -1,353 766,562 -1,925 765,990 -2,843 765,072 -3,375 764,540 -3,781 764,134 -4,741 763,174 -5,600 762,315 -6,701 761,214 -7,050 760,865
x

L

y
PVC: x
x 0

ax 2 bx c
0
and

and
dY dx
2a

Y
b
G2 G1 L

c
G1
a G2 G1 2L

0+200 103,60 0+217 121,14 0+240 143,60 0+246 150,00
40 54

8 T2

d 2Y Herhangi bir nokta : dx 2

Transportation Engineering

T1
g
1

=0,0

43

P C
g
2

=

-0 .0

51

T2

t=75 m L=150 m

t=75 m

g1 = (kotA-kotP)/(kmA-kmP) = (772-764,69)/(0-171,40)

= -0,043

g2 = (kotP-kotB)/(kmP-kmB) = (764,69-749)/(171,40-476) = -0,051
G = g1-g2 = -0,043-(-0,051) = 0,008
e = (L x G)/8 = (150x0,008)/8 = 0,15 m

kot C = kotP - e = 764,69 - 0,15 = 764,54 m kot T1= kotP +

g1xt = 764,69+0,043x75 = 767,915 m
BOY KESİTTEN KIRMIZI KOTLAR

kot T2= kotP - g2xt = 764,69-0,051x75 = 760,865 m

A = 772,00 m B = 749,00 m
MESAFELER KOTLAR

A = 0+000

Km

B = 0+476 Km P = 0+171 Km C = 0+171 Km T1= 0+096
40 40 40 40

P = 764,69 m C = 764,54 m T1 = 767,915 m T2 = 760,865 m

Km

T2= 0+246 Km

Transportation Engineering

Vt=20 km/sa Lr ( m )
R (m) 7000 6000 3000 2500 2000 1500 1400 1300 1200 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 250 200 175 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 e % ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE TE TE TE TE TE 2,1 2,2 2,4 2,5 2,6 2,8 3.0 3.3 3.8 2 4 şerit şerit 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 14 9 14 9 14 9 14 9 14 9 14 10 16 11 16 11 17 12 18 13 19 14 20 15 22 17 28 Rmin= 16

Vt=30 km/sa Lr ( m )
e % ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE TE TE 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.9 2 4 şerit şerit 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 14 10 14 11 17 12 17 12 18 12 19 12 19 13 19 13 20 14 21 14 22 15 23 16 24 17 25 18 27 19 28 Rmin= 35

Vt=40 km/sa Lr ( m )
e % ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE TE TE 2.1 2.4 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 2 4 şerit şerit 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 15 10 15 11 18 12 19 13 20 14 22 15 22 16 24 16 25 17 26 17 26 18 27 19 28 19 29 20 29 20 30 21 31 Rmin= 80

Vt=50 km/sa Lr ( m )
e % ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE TE TE TE 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.8 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.0 2 4 şerit şerit 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 17 11 17 11 17 12 17 13 19 14 21 16 23 17 25 18 27 19 29 20 31 21 32 21 32 22 32 22 33 22 33 Rmin= 100

Vt=60 km/sa Lr ( m )
e % ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE TE TE TE 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.0 2 4 şerit şerit 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 18 12 18 12 18 13 19 14 21 15 23 16 24 18 27 20 30 22 32 23 34 23 35 24 36 Rmin= 150

Vt=70 km/sa Lr ( m )
e % ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE TE TE TE TE 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.4 3.8 3.9 2 4 şerit şerit 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 20 13 20 13 20 13 20 14 22 16 24 18 25 18 27 19 28 20 30 22 33 25 37 26 38 Rmin= 215

Vt=80 km/sa Lr ( m )
e % ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE TE TE 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.5 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.5 3.7 4.0 2 4 şerit şerit 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 22 14 22 15 23 16 24 17 25 18 27 19 29 20 30 22 32 23 35 26 38 27 40 29 43 Rmin= 280

Vt=90 km/sa Lr ( m )
e % ÇE ÇE ÇE TE TE 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 2 4 şerit şerit 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 23 15 23 16 26 18 28 19 29 20 30 21 32 23 34 25 37 26 39 28 41 29 44 31 46 Rmin= 375

Vt=100 km/sa Lr ( m )
e % ÇE ÇE TE TE 2.2 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.9 4.0 2 4 şerit şerit 0 0 0 0 16 25 16 25 18 27 21 32 22 33 23 34 24 36 25 39 26 42 29 43 30 45 32 48 33 49 Rmin= 490

emax = %4 R = Kurp yarıçapı ( m ) Vt = Tasarım hızı ( km/sa ) e = Dever oranı Lr = %0 'dan tasarım deverine ulaşmak için gerekli mesafe ( m ) ÇE = Çatı eğimi ( % ) TE = Çatı eğiminin tek yönlü dever durumu ( % )

Şehir Geçişlerinde uygulanacak dever oranı ( emax = %4)

Tasarım Hızına ve Yarıçapa Bağlı Olarak Uygulanacak Dever Oranları

Transportation Engineering

Vt=20 km/sa Vt=30 km/sa Vt=40 km/sa Vt=50 km/sa Vt=60 km/sa Vt=70 km/sa Vt=80 km/sa Vt=90 km/sa Vt=100 km/sa Vt=110 km/sa Vt=120 km/sa Vt=130 km/sa Lr ( m ) Lr ( m ) Lr ( m ) Lr ( m ) Lr ( m ) Lr ( m ) Lr ( m ) Lr ( m ) Lr ( m ) Lr ( m ) Lr ( m ) Lr ( m )
R e 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 9 9 10 11 11 12 14 14 16 17 19 21 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 14 14 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 24 26 30 32 e ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE TE TE 2.3 2.8 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.5 4.7 5.0 5.4 5.8 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 10 11 13 14 16 17 17 18 19 20 20 22 23 24 26 28 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 14 17 20 22 24 25 26 27 28 30 30 32 34 35 39 42 e ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE TE TE 2.1 2.5 3.1 3.5 3.9 4.1 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.9 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.8 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 10 11 13 16 18 20 21 23 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 15 16 19 24 27 30 32 34 35 35 37 38 40 42 43 45 e ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE TE TE TE 2.1 2.4 2.6 3.3 3.9 4.2 4.7 5.0 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.8 6.0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 11 11 12 13 16 18 22 23 26 28 29 30 31 32 32 33 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 17 17 17 20 23 27 32 35 39 42 44 45 47 47 48 50 e ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE TE TE 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.9 3.1 3.5 4.0 4.6 5.0 5.5 5.8 6.0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 12 13 14 15 17 19 21 24 28 30 33 35 38 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 18 19 21 23 25 28 32 36 41 45 50 52 54 e ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE TE TE 2.1 2.2 2.6 2.8 3.1 3.4 3.8 4.2 4.7 5.4 5.8 2 0 0 0 0 0 13 13 14 14 17 18 20 22 26 27 31 35 38 4 0 0 0 0 0 20 20 21 22 26 27 30 33 37 41 46 53 57 e ÇE ÇE ÇE ÇE TE 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.1 3.4 3.6 4.0 4.3 4.6 5.3 5.9 2 0 0 0 0 14 16 17 18 19 22 24 26 29 31 35 38 42 4 0 0 0 0 22 24 25 27 29 33 37 39 43 46 52 57 64 e ÇE ÇE ÇE TE 2.1 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.6 3.8 4.2 4.5 5.0 5.4 2 0 0 0 15 18 21 21 23 25 28 30 32 35 38 41 4 0 0 0 23 24 31 32 34 37 41 45 48 53 57 62 e ÇE ÇE TE TE 2.5 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.7 4.2 4.5 4.9 5.2 5.6 2 0 0 16 16 20 25 27 29 30 34 37 40 43 46 4 0 0 25 26 31 38 41 43 45 52 55 60 64 69 e ÇE ÇE TE 2,3 2,8 3,6 3,8 4.0 4.2 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.8 2 0 0 18 20 25 32 33 35 37 42 45 47 51 4 0 0 26 30 37 47 50 53 55 63 67 71 76 e ÇE ÇE 2.3 2.7 3.3 4.2 4.4 4.7 5.0 5.5 5.8 2 0 0 22 26 31 40 42 46 47 53 55 4 0 0 33 38 47 60 63 67 71 80 82 e ÇE ÇE 2.5 3.0 3.7 4.7 5.0 5.3 5.5 2 0 0 26 31 38 48 51 55 58 4 0 0 39 46 67 73 77 82 86 (m) % 7000 ÇE 6000 ÇE 3000 ÇE 2500 ÇE 2000 ÇE 1500 ÇE 1400 ÇE 1300 ÇE 1200 ÇE 1000 ÇE 900 ÇE 800 ÇE 700 ÇE 600 ÇE 500 ÇE 400 ÇE 300 ÇE 250 ÇE 200 ÇE 175 TE 150 TE 140 TE 130 2.1 120 2.2 110 2.4 100 2.5 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.8 4.2 4.7 şerit şerit % şerit şerit % şerit şerit % şerit şerit % şerit şerit % şerit şerit % şerit şerit % şerit şerit % şerit şerit % şerit şerit % şerit şerit % şerit şerit

6.0 62 93 Rmin= 950

6.0 57 85 Rmin= 755

5.9 45 68 Rmin= 335

5.9 46 72 Rmin= 435

6.0 53 79 Rmin= 550

6.0 39 58 Rmin= 195

6.0 43 66 Rmin= 250

6.0 38 54 Rmin= 135

6.0 33 50 Rmin= 90

6.0 31 46 Rmin= 65

emax = %6 R = Kurp yarıçapı ( m ) Vt = Tasarım hızı ( km/sa ) e = Dever oranı Lr = %0 'dan tasarım deverine ulaşmak için gerekli mesafe ( m ) ÇE = Çatı eğimi ( % ) TE = Çatı eğiminin tek yönlü dever durumu ( % )

5.6 25 37 Rmin= 15

6.0 29 43 Rmin= 30

Tasarım Hızına ve Yarıçapa Bağlı Olarak Uygulanacak Dever Oranları

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

50 82 +2 280 0 + 0

ENKESİT NO

Dış kenar

İç kenar 2

KM -0+028 -0+010 0+000 0+008 0+020 0+037 0+060 0+066 0+080 0+100 0+120 0+127 0+140 0+160 0+180 0+188 0+200 0+217 0+240 0+246 0+260 0+264 0+280 0+282
54 54 54 54 54 27

b

B+b

%d h=B+b *d h=B+b *d
2

50 64 +2 60 0 2 0+

K1 M1 A
54 7 21

0,000+0,000 11,000 -2,00 0,000+0,000 11,000 0,00

-0,11 0,00 0,06 +0,11 +0,18 +0,28 +0,43 +0,47 +0,47 +0,47 +0,47 +0,47 +0,47 +0,47 +0,47 +0,47 +0,40 +0,28 +0,13 +0,11 +0,03 0,00 -0,11 -0,11

-0,11 -0,11 -0,11 -0,11 -0,18 -0,28 -0,43 -0,47 -0,47 -0,47 -0,47 -0,47 -0,47 -0,47 -0,47 -0,47 -0,40 -0,28 -0,13 -0,11 -0,11 -0,11 -0,11 -0,11

K210 M
2
9

50 6 24 0+ 40 2 0+

0,000+0,000 11,000 1,11 0,000+0,000 11,000 0,085+0,085 11,170 0,205+0,205 11,410 0,368+0,368 11,772 2,00 3,24 5,00 7,38

ÜA1 1
20 0

0+

ÜA

2
8

0+

To
1

0+
F T

54 88
0

2 ÜE1

8 0+1
H2

0,410+0,410 11,820 8,00 0,410+0,410 11,820 8,00 0,410+0,410 11,820 8,00 0,410+0,410 11,820 8,00 0,410+0,410 11,820 8,00 0,410+0,410 11,820 8,00 0,410+0,410 11,820 8,00 0,410+0,410 11,820 8,00 0,410+0,410 11,820 8,00 0,329+0,329 11,658 0,205+0,205 11,410 0,046+0,046 11,092 0,000+0,000 11,000 0,000+0,000 11,000 0,000+0,000 11,000 6,81 5,00 2,28 2,00 0,50 0,00

R=

20

0m

ÜE

2
7

0+1

60

3 H1

6

0+140

4
27

5

0+127

S

S 5 6

S 4

0+120

H1

0+100

7 ÜE2 H2

3

0+080

ÜE1
2
R=20 0m

0+066 0+060

TF 8

Eğris i

Lg

0 T

Geçiş

1

ÜA 1
A

0+03

7

ÜA2 9
-2

-2

+2

0+02 0+00 8

0

+2

M1
-2
0

M2
-2
0

K

0+00 0- 0 10

K1
-2
-2

0

10 K2

0,000+0,000 11,000 -2,00 0,000+0,000 11,000 -2,00

-2

0- 0 28

Transportation Engineering

-2

1/500

1/500

ÖLÇEK

ÖLÇEK

1/50

1/50

0+066 ÜE

ÜE
-0,47 +0,43 -0,43

+0,47

0+066 ÜE 2
+0,43 -0,43

+0,47

1/50

ÖLÇEK
-0,47

1/500

0+066

0+060

2

58

0+037 TO

TO -0,28

+0,28

0+037

TO

+0,28

-0,28

0+037

1
-0,18

0+020 1

+0,18

0+020

1

+0,18

-0,18

0+020

ÜA
-0,11

0+008 ÜA

+0,11

0+008
+0,06

ÜA 0+000

+0,11

-0,11

0+008
+0,06 -0,11

18

A

0+000 A

-0,11

A

0+000

M

M

-0,11

0,00

M

18

K

K

-0,11

-0,11

K

Transportation Engineering

2

0+060

0+060

29

29

Cross-sections

Transportation Engineering

8 0+240
765,00 -12,60 760,39 -11,28 764,00 -5,50 763,33 0,00

762,64 5,50 761,85 12,00 762,28 8,49 760,84 7,05

760,58 -7,05

761,08 -5,55

761,21 0,00

761,34 5,55

FY= 39,4221 m² FD= 0 m²

15 0+420

751,00 -10,20 750,54 -7,35

751,77 -5,50

751,88 0,00

751,77 5,50

750,24 -5,50

749,32 0,00 FY= 0 m² FD= 40,8431 m²

748,36 5,50

747,17 12,40 747,00 13,40

Transportation Engineering

Volume Table
EN KESİT NO EN KESİT KM ARA MESAFE GEÇİT NOKTASI TATBİK MESAFESİ (m ) ALANLAR (m ²) HACİMLER (m ³) DOLGU YARMA DOLGU YARMA KENDİ YARMA KESİTİNDE FAZLASI KULLANILA (m ³) DOLGU FAZLASI (m ³) CEBRİK TOPLAM YARMA DOLGU

A 1 To 2 3 H1 4 S 5 6 7 H2 TF 8 9 10 H3 11 12 13 14 H4 15 16 17 B

0+000 0+020 0+037 0+060 0+080 0+100 0+120 0+127,27 0+140 0+160 0+180 0+200 0+217,54 0+240 0+260 0+280 0+300 0+320 0+340 0+360 0+380 0+400 0+420 0+440 0+460 0+476

20,00 17,00 23,00 20,00 20,00 20,00 7,27 12,73 20,00 20,00 20,00 17,54 22,46 20,00 20,00 20,00 20,00 20,00 20,00 20,00 20,00 20,00 20,00 20,00 16,00
16,70 3,30 16,701 3,545 3,30 6,67 13,33 15,28 2,26 15,281 16,13 3,87

10,00 18,50 20,00 21,50 20,00 20,00 13,64
21,06
3,87 16,13

14,33 17,06 21,61 22,25 26,64 21,89 28,95 27,75 22,05 5,40 0,34 0,10 7,69 39,42 49,85 30,14 30,38 9,76 0,04 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,42 7,49 15,72

4,09 1,11 5,72 1,82 0,58 0,16 0,00 0,23 0,99 10,45 30,26 28,61 3,74 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,50 18,53 35,19 53,92 50,73 40,84 18,38 3,94 0,12 Σ

143,31 315,58 432,25 478,46 532,82 437,79 394,72 277,52 318,18 64,45 6,77 1,82 95,06 836,93 996,96 602,80 607,63 130,10 0,62 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 7,62 72,25 125,74

40,86 20,54 114,50 39,08 11,68 3,26 0,02 2,27 14,29 124,70 605,19 504,72 46,23 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 6,70 308,79 703,71 1078,35 1014,64 816,86 337,25 38,04 1,00

40,86 20,54 114,50 39,08 11,68 3,26 0,02 2,27 14,29 64,45 6,77 1,82 46,23 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 6,70 0,62 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 7,62 38,04 1,00 419,71

102,45 295,05 317,75 439,38 521,14 434,54 394,71 275,25 303,89 60,26 598,43 502,91 48,83 836,93 996,96 602,80 607,63 123,40 308,18 703,71 1078,35 1014,64 816,86 329,63 34,22 124,74 6459,66 5412,95

102,45 397,49 715,25 1154,63 1675,77 2110,31 2505,01 2780,27 3084,15 3023,90 2425,47 1922,56 1971,40 2808,33 3805,29 4408,08 5015,71 5139,11 4830,94 4127,23 3048,89 2034,24 1217,38 887,76 921,97 1046,71

10,00 14,43 11,94 20,00
4,221 2,26

20,00

5,049

17,64 12,36 21,23 20,00 20,00 20,00

28,51

17,54

9,254
13,33

13,34 16,67
18,493

6,67 20,00

20,00 20,00 20,00 20,00 18,35 9,65 8,00

17,964

20,00

6879,38 5832,67

KONTROLLER: 1) ΣY + ΣD 2) ΣYF + ΣDF 3) ΣYF + ΣKKK=ΣY 4) ΣDF + ΣKKK=ΣD = 1046,71 = 1046,71 = 6879,38 = 5832,67

Transportation Engineering

Project Example 2

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

t = R x tg ( Δ / 2 ) = 90 x tg ( 45 / 2 ) = 3728m D= ( 2 π R Δ ) / 360 = ( 2 x π 90 x 45 ) / 360 = 7069 m BS ( b) = R x { 1 / ( Cos Δ / 2 ) - 1 } = 90 x { 1 / ( Cos 45 / 2 ) – 1 } = 742 m
KESİN DOĞRULAR VE KURBALAR TABLOSU ARA UZAKLIK 1. DOĞRU KURBA 2. DOĞRU A-T0 ToTf Tf-B 275 m 8011 m 13534 m TOPLAM UZAKLIK 275 m 35511 m 49045 m

GENEL DOĞRULAR TABLOSU DOĞRU 1. DOĞRU ( AS ) 2. DOĞRU ( SB ) UZUNLUKLAR 312,03 m. 182,11 m. KESİŞME AÇISI

45 º

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

g1 = (629.6-636.20)x100/ (220.00-0) = -3.00% g2 = (615.22-629.6)x100/(490.45-220.00) = -5.317%

Km. P= 0 + 22000m. Kot P = 629.60m.

L = 150 m. G = | g1 – g2 | = | -0.03 + 0.0532 | = 0.0232 e = ( L x G ) / 8 = ( 150 x 0.0241) / 8 = 0.435 m. t = L / 2 = 150 / 2 = 75 m. Kırmızı kot B = 629.60 – 0.435 = 629,165 m. Km. T1 = 220.00 - 75 = 0+14500m. Kot T1 = 629.6 + ( 75 x 0.03 ) = 631.85 m. Km. T2 = 220.00 + 75 = 0+29500m Kot T2 = 629.60 - ( 75 x 0.0532 ) = 625.62 m. y = { (g2 - g1 ) / 2L }X2 + g1X = { ( -0.0532 + 0.03 ) / 300 } X2 - 0.03 X y = -0.000077 X2 - 0.03 X

Transportation Engineering

NOKTA NO T1

KM 0+145

X 0

Y 0

KOTLAR 631.85

9
10 H2 11

0+156
0+176 0+200 0+216

11
31 55 71

-0.34
-1.00 -1.88 -2.52

631.51
630.85 629.97 629.33

12 13 To 14 T2

0+241 0+257 0+275 0+289.14 0+295

96 112 130 144.14 150

-3.59 -4.33 -5.20 -5.92 -6.23

628.26 627.52 626.65 625.93 625.62

Transportation Engineering

Far ışığı = S = 100 m alınmıştır. •S küçük L için(S<L) : L= (G * S) / (1.22* 0.035 ) = (0.0232 * 100) / 0.0427 = 54.3325 m •S büyül L için(S>L) : L= 2 * S – (1.22 * 0.035 * S) / G = 2 * 100 – (1.22 * 0.035 * 100) / 0.0232 = 15.9483 m Konfor Kriteri : Lmin = G * V² / 3.95 = 0.0232 * 40.31² / 3.95 = 9.5437 m Esneklik Kriteri : Lmin = 3048 * G = 3048 * 0.0232 = 70,7136 m Drenaj Kriteri : 4360 * G = 4360 * 0.0232 = 101.152 m Şartname : Lmin = 120 m ise L=150 m alınmıştır. Rdüşey = 6 * Ryatay = 6 * 90 = 540 m L = Rdüşey * G Rdüşey =150 / 0.0232 = 6465.52 m L UYGUNDUR T = L / 2 = 150 / 2 = 75 m e= L * G / 8 = 150 * 0.0232 / 8 = 0 .43 Transportation Engineering m

Transportation Engineering

d = 0.00443 x 60²/90 = 0.17 d = % 8 alınmıştır. Hız Sınırlaması 0.08 = 0.00443 x v² / 90 => v sınır = 40.31 km / saat Kurbada Yol Genişletmesi b = (n l²/ 2R ) + ( 0.05 V / √R ) = ( 2 x 12²/ 2x 90) + ( 0.05 x 40 / √90 ) = 1.81 m. Dever Rampa Boyunun Hesabı h1= B x d 0/ 2 h 1 = 12 x 0.02 / 2 = 0.12 m. h 2 = (B + b ) du /2 h 2 = ( 12 + 1.81) x 0.08 /2 = 0.55 m. L = V³/ ( 46.7 x R x þ ) = ( 40 )³/ ( 46.7 x 90 x 0.4 ) = 38.07 m. K = ( 2 x L x h 1 ) / (h 2 - h 1 ) = ( 2 x 38.07 x 0.12)/ ( 0.55 – 0.12) = 21.25 m. Savrulma Hızı: Vsav=11.3√(R*(µe+tga)/(1- µe*tga))=11.3*√(90(0.2+0.08)/(10.2*0.08)) = 57.18 km/saat Devrilme Hızı : Vdev=11.3√(R*(h*tga+e/2)/(hTransportation Engineering

e = (L²/6R)=(38.07²/6x90) = 2.67m ΔR = e/4= 4.01/4 = 1.0025 m m = ΔR/2 = 1.0025/2 = 0.501 m
ENKESİT NO KM X Y=(X³/ 6 R L)

ÜA

0+256

0.00

0

13

0+257

1.00

0.000048

T0

0+27500

19.00

0.33

14

0+28914

33.14

1.77

ÜE

0+294

38.00

2.67

Transportation Engineering

ENKESİT NO KM K1 0+23475 b 0.00 B+b 12.00 d% -2

DIŞKENAR h=(B+b)/2*d -0.12

İÇKENAR h=(B+b)/2*d -0.12

12
M1 ÜA1 13 To

0+24100
0+24538 0+25600 0+25700 0+27500

0.00
0.00 0.00 0.03+0.03 0.45+0.45

12.00
12.00 12.00 12.06 12.90

-0.83
0 2 2.16 5

-0.05
0 0.12 0.13 0.32

-0.05
-0.12 -0.12 -0.13 -0.32

14
ÜE1 H3 S 15

0+28914
0+29400 0+30956 0+31584 0+33155

0.8+0.8
0.905+0.905 0.905+0.905 0.905+0.905 0.905+0.905

13.60
13.81 13.81 13.81 13.81

7.23
8 8 8 8

0.49
0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55

-0.49
-0.55 -0.55 -0.55 -0.55

ÜE2
Tf ÜA2 16 M2

0+33611
0+35511 0+37411 0+37511 0+39311

0.905+0.905
0.452+0.452 0.00 0.00 0.00

13.81
12.91 12.00 12.00 12.00

8
5 2 1.89 0

0.55
0.32 0.12 0.11 0.11

-0.55
-0.32 -0.12 -0.11 -0.11

H4
K2

0+400
0+41211

0.00
0.00

12.00
12.00

-0.74
-2

-0.04
-0.12

-0.04
-0.12

Transportation Engineering

Highway Components Cross-section

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

HACİM (m³) YARMA 177.020 125.917 60.774 81.647 40.702 198.552 257.025 315.690 223.516 159.517 73.371 91.190 86.040 56.949 74.784 37.554 50.684 171.357 35.412 40.968 110.221 26.800 23.294 72.558 105.315 170.412 215.660 300.223 208.075 691.679 24.909 7.925 12.856 61.806 41.744 77.556 134.951 412.262 354.131 288.704 293.040 125.898 11.317 3869.793 5810.222 443.420 541.738 644.445 631.126 702.030 311.389 80.533 13.059 7.821 4.784 17.960 96.514 55.194 1320.255 DOLGU

KENDİ KESİTİ KULLA.

YARMA FAZLA (m³)

DOLGU FAZLASI (m³) YARMA

CEBRİK TOPLAM DOLGU

177.020 37.554 50.684 81.647 35.412 40.968 110.221 26.800 23.294 72.558 73.371 91.190 86.040 56.949 74.784 5.290 157.584 146.805 288.890 200.222 86.959 31.944 79.222 129.620 243.274 133.291 691.679 24.909 7.925 12.856 61.806 41.744 77.556 80.533 13.059 7.821 4.784 17.960 96.514 11.317 2549.538 4489.968 54.418 399.203 346.310 283.920 275.080 29.384 43.877 418.511 533.813 631.589 569.320 660.286 233.833 88.363 10.091 89.710

177.020 265.383 275.474 185.764 191.053 348.637 495.442 784.332 984.554 1071.513 1039.569 960.347 830.727 587.454 454.163 237.516 656.027 1189.840 1821.428 2390.748 3051.034 3284.867 3230.449 2831.246 2484.936 2201.016 1925.936 1896.552 1940.429

3) ∑YF+∑KKK = ∑Y 4) ∑DF+∑KKK = ∑D

=> 2549,538 +1320,255 = 3869,793 m3 => 4489,968 +1320,255 = 5810,222 m3

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Tablo İş makinalarıyla Toprak Dağıtımı

Transportation Engineering

Tarih Çizen 1. Kontrol 2. Kontrol 09 / 01 / 2009

Ad Soyad

İmza

Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi İnşaat Mühendisliği

ÖLÇEK BOYKESİT 1 /100 1/ 1000

Öğrenci No: 1796

Transportation Engineering

Primary References

Mannering, F.L.; Kilareski, W.P. and Washburn, S.S. (2005). Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis, Third Edition. Chapter 3 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). (2001). A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, Fourth Edition. Washington, D.C.

Transportation Engineering

Extra stuff

Transportation Engineering

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