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GUIDE Document Classification: Controlled Disclosure Title: Distribution Guide Part 1: NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR LINES AND

CABLES Unique Identifier: Document Type: Revision: Published date: Total pages: Review date:
COMPILED BY APPROVED BY FUNCTIONAL RESP

34-619 DGL 1 NOVEMBER 2010 69 NOVEMBER 2015


AUTHORISED BY

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MM BELLO
Senior Advisor DATE:

CG CARTER-BROWN
Planning SC Chair DATE:

V SINGH
for TESCOD DATE:

MN BAILEY
CMDT for MD (Dx) DATE:

Content
Page Foreword........................................................................................................................................................ 3 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................. 5 2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 5 3 Definitions and abbreviations .............................................................................................................. 6 3.1 Definitions .................................................................................................................................... 6 3.2 Abbreviations ............................................................................................................................... 7 4 Theory ................................................................................................................................................. 8 4.1 Series and shunt impedances ..................................................................................................... 8 4.2 Overhead lines........................................................................................................................... 10 4.3 Phase conductors ...................................................................................................................... 10 4.4 Thermal loading limits ................................................................................................................ 11 4.5 Fault level limits ......................................................................................................................... 13 4.6 Bundle conductors ..................................................................................................................... 14 4.7 Earth wire conductors ................................................................................................................ 15 4.8 Line impedances........................................................................................................................ 16 4.9 Power transfer limits .................................................................................................................. 22 4.10 Transposition ............................................................................................................................. 25 4.11 Surge Impedance Loading (SIL)................................................................................................ 27 5 Cables ............................................................................................................................................... 28 5.1 Conductor material and sizes .................................................................................................... 28 5.2 Insulation and armouring ........................................................................................................... 28 5.3 Thermal loading limits and de-rating .........................................................................................30 5.4 Fault level limits ......................................................................................................................... 31 5.5 Cable impedances ..................................................................................................................... 31 6 Technical load losses ........................................................................................................................ 32 6.1 Planning and designing with technical losses ........................................................................... 32 6.2 Load losses: Economic loading limits for lines and cables........................................................ 32 7 Eskom line and cable standards ....................................................................................................... 35 7.1 Overhead conductors and towers.............................................................................................. 35 7.2 Conductor loading and fault level limits .....................................................................................37 7.3 Towers ....................................................................................................................................... 39 8 Cables ............................................................................................................................................... 40 8.1 MV cables .................................................................................................................................. 40
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8.2 HV cables .................................................................................................................................. 40 Data required for Power System Analysis......................................................................................... 41 Application guideline ......................................................................................................................... 42 10.1 Requirements ............................................................................................................................ 42 10.2 Lines vs cables .......................................................................................................................... 43 10.3 MV lines ..................................................................................................................................... 44 10.4 HV lines ..................................................................................................................................... 45 10.5 MV cables .................................................................................................................................. 46 10.6 HV cables .................................................................................................................................. 47 10.7 Costing ....................................................................................................................................... 48 11 Modelling lines and cables in PSA software ..................................................................................... 48 11.1 ReticMaster................................................................................................................................ 48 11.2 PowerFactory............................................................................................................................. 50 11.3 General notes ............................................................................................................................ 59 12 Worked examples .............................................................................................................................. 59 12.1 Sub-transmission line transposition ...........................................................................................60 12.2 MV line conductor sizing, Q & A ................................................................................................ 61 12.3 MV line conductor sizing, worked example ............................................................................... 62 Annex A - MV line and cable Economic Loading Limits .............................................................................. 64 Annex B - Impact assessment ..................................................................................................................... 66 9 10

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Foreword
The location and size of future MV and HV overhead lines and buried cables is an important component of Distribution Network Planning. Network Planners need to understand the basic theory and relevant Eskom Distribution standards and specifications relating to lines and cables. They also require guidance on the modelling of lines/cables in network simulation software. Network Planners need to be able to select line/cable sizes such that minimum requirements (thermal limits, fault level rating and voltage drop) are met whilst also minimising capital cost and the lifetime cost of technical load losses. This guideline provides the Eskom Distribution Network Planner with a basic understanding of the theory and practical application, such that lines/cables can be modelled in power system analysis software (specifically ReticMaster and PowerFactory) and new line/cable sizes can be selected based on minimum requirements and lifetime costs.

Revision history
This revision cancels and replaces revision no 0 of document no. DGL_34-619. Date Nov 2010 Rev. 1 Clause Remarks Compiled By: MM Bello Replaced reticulation with distribution. Replaced emergency rating to contingency rating. Planners to change conductor temperature on retic master to 500C. Clearly included the definitions of conductor ratings A, B and C Changed conductor rating values in PSA software (Digsilent power factory) to align with Determination of conductor current ratings in Eskom, Document number EST32-319 and Increasing capacity of overhead transmission linesneeds and solution Cigre JWG B2/C1.19, 2010 document. Details on Conductor loadings and fault level limits were specifically referred to Determination of conductor current ratings in Eskom, Document number EST32-319. Section 2. Updated normative references Modified table 4 Section 7 and 8. Updated PSA screen dumps and tables for ReticMaster version 11 and Powerfactory version 14. Section 9. PowerFactory file updated to V14. Included MV line/cable economic loading limits (annex A) and the associated example. Included new conductor ratings table in annex A Updated conductor ratings in power factory. Compiled By: CG Carter-Brown DRAFT work in progress. Need to include LRMC losses details. Also requirement for HV cables to be installed in separate trenches. Planning to consider augmenting HVC oil-filled cable supplied with new XLPE cables. Compiled By: CG Carter-Brown Original issue approved

July 2010

0A

Nov 2007

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Authorisation
This document has been seen and accepted by: Name Designation Rob Stephen Kurt Dedikend Riaan Smit Simphiwe Hashe Mike Pallett Kobus Barnard Paul Segwe Faans van Zyl Rob Stephen General Manager Distribution Capital Program Network Services Manager Eastern Region (NSM Planning custodian) Network Planning Manager Western Region Network Planning Manager Southern Region Network Planning Manager Eastern Region Network Planning Manager North West Region Network Planning Manager Central Region Network Planning Manager North East Region General Manager Distribution Capital Program

Sithembele Mzimkhulu Network Planning Manager Northern Region

This guide shall apply throughout Eskom Holdings Limited, its divisions, subsidiaries and entities wherein Eskom has a controlling interest.

Development team
This guideline was developed with input from: Nomkhosi Gumede Rashaad Tayob Clinton Carter-Brown Vusani Ratsibi Hannes Diedericks

Keywords
Network planning, network design, overhead lines, cables, technical losses

Bibliography
H Lee Willis, Power distribution planning reference book, Marcel Dekker Inc., United States of America, ISBN 0-8247-0098-8, 1997 ABERDARE, Cable facts and figures, 2000 R Stephen, Methods to increase thermal capacity of overhead power lines, 1999 Cigre JWG B2/C1.19, August, 2010, Increasing capacity of overhead transmission lines-needs and solution

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Scope

This guideline covers the theory, standards, software modelling and sizing of MV and HV overhead lines and buried cables for Eskom Distribution Network Planning. Detailed line/cable project engineering (design) is not the focus of this guideline. The application of this guideline should ensure that Network Planning correctly analyse existing lines/cables, and appropriately size future lines/cables. The scope of work required from the Network Planner (as an input to Project Engineering design work) is defined. For a summary of the key information jump to the Application Guideline on page 42.

Normative references

Parties using this guideline shall apply the most recent edition of the documents listed below: DST 34-1191: General information and requirements for overhead lines up to 33kV with conductors up to Hare/Oak DST 34-1192: Light conductors particular requirements for overhead lines up to 33kV with conductors up to Hare conductor DST 34-1193: Heavy conductors particular requirements for overhead lines up to 33kV with conductors larger than Hare and up to Kingbird conductor DISASABH1: Sub-transmission lines Section 2: Conductors DSP 34-377: Specification for phase conductor for distribution lines and substations EST 32-319: Determination of conductor current ratings in Eskom DGL 34-05: Planning guideline for medium voltage underground cable systems DST 34-209: Medium voltage cabling in substations DST 34-1177: General information and requirements for high voltage cable systems DST 34-1176: General information and requirements for low voltage cable systems DSP 34-1803: Aerial bundled conductors with bare or insulated neutral supporting conductor DST 34-542: Distribution voltage regulation and apportionment limits DST 34-1175 General information and requirements for MV cable systems SANS 10198-4: The selection, handling and installation of electric power cables of rating not exceeding 33 kV. Part 4: Current ratings IEC 60853-1: Calculation of the cyclic and emergency current rating of cables. Part 1: Cyclic rating factor for cables up to and including 18/30 (36) kV

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3
3.1

Definitions and abbreviations


Definitions

Ampacity: The current which will meet the design, security and safety criteria of a conductor. Bare conductor: A conductor without any insulating covering. Not to be confused with the conductor named Bear. Basic insulation level (BIL): The overall designed insulation level of the system to withstand lightning impulses and switching surges. A specific insulation level, expressed in kilovolts, to which the complete system is designed and constructed. This insulation level includes the line-to-supporting structure insulation level, line-to-earth insulation level at every supporting structure, the insulation levels of the switchgear, line isolators and reclosers, and the insulation level of substations connected to the system, including their transformers. Clearance: The shortest distance between two parts of different potential, usually related to distance in air. Conductor: A wire or combination of wires not insulated from one another, suitable for carrying an electrical current. Conductor temperature: The temperature of a conductor due to ambient temperature, wind and electrical load current. Earth conductor: A conductor of low impedance that provides an electrical connection between a given point in equipment (an installation or system) and an earth electrode. Earth resistance: The resistance of the electrode and surrounding earth as measured between the earth lead and the general mass of the earth. Flashover: A disruptive discharge external to the insulator, connecting those parts which normally have operating voltage between them. Footing resistance: The resistance of a structure to earth. Line voltage drop: The difference at a given instant between the magnitudes of the r.m.s. voltages measured at two points along a line or cable. Load factor (LF): The actual energy supplied (in kWh) over a period divided by the maximum demand in kWh over that period multiplied by the time period selected (i.e. actual energy supplied divided by potential energy supplied). It is always less than or equal to unity. Power line: An overhead line erected to convey electrical energy for any purpose other than communications, but excluding the overhead contact or catenary wires of an electric traction system. Rated voltage: The highest r.m.s phase-to-phase voltage of a supply for which equipment is designed. Sag: The maximum vertical distance between a conductor that spans between supports and a straight line joining the conductors points of support. Servitude: The right of way for the installation, operation and maintenance of a power system given to a supply authority by way of law and registered against the title of the property. The supply authority pays the landowner consideration for this right depending on the utilisation of the land.

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Shield wire: A conductor connected to earth at some or all structures, which is suspended usually but not necessarily above the line conductors to provide a degree of protection against lightning strokes. Also referred to as an earth wire. Structure, support (of an overhead line): A device designed to carry, through the insulators, a set of conductors of the line. Suspension structure: A structure that supports the vertical load of the conductor. Wayleave agreement: A right of way obtained from a landowner, who signs an agreement with the supply authority, for the installation, operation and maintenance of a power system. It is not registered against the title of the property.

3.2

Abbreviations

AAC: All Aluminium Conductor ABC: Arial Bundle Conductor AAAC: All Aluminium Alloy Conductor ACAR: Aluminium Conductor Aluminium-Alloy Reinforced ACSR: Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced EHV: Extra High Voltage (>132kV) ELL: Economic Loading Limit GMR: Geometric Mean Radius GSW: Galvanized Steel Wire HTLS: High Temperature Low Sag HV: High Voltage (>33kV & 132kV) LF: Load Factor LLF: Loss Load Factor LRMC: Long Run Marginal Cost LV: Low Voltage 1kV) MTL: Master Type Library MV: Medium Voltage (>1kV & 33kV) NPV: Net Present Value OPGW: Optical Cable Ground Wire PEM: Project Evaluation Model

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PSA: Power System Analysis SWER: Single Wire Earth Return TLL: Thermal Loading Limit

4
4.1

Theory
Series and shunt impedances

Lines and cables have resistive and reactive impedance distributed over their length. Any current flowing along the line/cable results in a voltage drop over these impedances. In short lines/cables the capacitive effect of the line/cable is very small and can be ignored. When a sending end voltage (Vs) is applied to the sending end of the short line/cable and there is no load on that line/cable, the receiving end voltage (VR) equals the sending end voltage. However as soon as load current (I) flows through the line/cable, the current causes a resistance and reactance voltage drop which when subtracted from the sending end voltage results in a receiving end voltage smaller than the sending end voltage. As the load increases, so the impedance voltage drop increases, and the receiving end voltage reduces.

Figure 1: Voltage drop over a short radial line/cable

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Figure 2: Voltage drop over a long radial line/cable When a line/cable is sufficiently long the capacitive effect becomes appreciable and cant be ignored during lightly loaded conditions. Under no load and lightly loaded conditions the actual load current is smaller than the charging current of the line/cable, and the vectorial addition of the two currents yields a resultant current which leads the sending end voltage. When the leading current flows through the inductive impedance of the line/cable it results in a voltage rise over the line, and the receiving end voltage will be greater than the sending end voltage. Note that only applies to lightly loaded lines/cables, or lines/cables supplying load with leading power factors. When the line/cable is loaded by a load with a unity or lagging power factor, the resultant current will lag the source voltage resulting in an impedance voltage drop and a reduced receiving end voltage. The pi-equivalent lumped parameter model is used for most power flow analysis applications. This model represents the distributed effects of the series resistance and inductance and the shunt capacitance with composite or lumped values. Figure 3 illustrates the model.

Figure 3: Pi-equivalent model of a line/cable For steady-state solutions, such as load flow, short circuit or frequency sweep calculations, lines/cables can be modelled with sufficient accuracy via the pi-equivalent model.

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For transient (RMS and EMT) simulations more sophisticated models are required, and distributed line/cable models are used (as are supported by Power System Analysis (PSA) software such as DigSilent PowerFactory). As line/cable voltage drop is a key constraint, it is important that the Network Planner accurately model the line/cable impedances in PSA software for the purposes of load-flow and fault level calculations.

4.2

Overhead lines

An overhead line consists of conductors, towers (support structures), foundations and hardware including insulators.

4.3

Phase conductors

The choice of conductor type and size has a major impact on line design, costs, thermal rating and impedance. Some of the physical and economic consequences that affect the choice of conductor size are: An increase in conductor size (diameter) increases weight, wind and ice loads on the structures. As the size of the conductor increases, the cost of the conductor increases. As the size of the conductor increases, the resistance of the conductor decreases and the thermal loading limit and fault level rating increase. The reactance is also dependent on conductor bundle configurations and phase spacing). As the size of the conductor increases and the resistance of the conductor decreases, the magnitude and cost of electrical losses over the life of the line decreases. As the size of the conductor size decreases, the radial electric field about the conductor increases and results in higher levels of corona (including corona induced noise).

Although older (>30year) lines may have utilised copper conductors, aluminium conductors have achieved wide acceptance all over the world for use in overhead power lines. There are four major types of overhead aluminium conductors used for electrical transmission and distribution: AAC (All Aluminium Conductor): AAC is a low cost conductor that offers good conductivity and corrosion resistance. The conductivity of AAC makes it the choice conductor for applications requiring high conductivity and moderate strength. ACSR (Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced): The utility industry has utilized ACSR as a common choice of conductor in transmission and rural distribution circuits for many years. ACSR is used extensively on long spans as both earth-wire and phase conductors because of its high mechanical strength-to-weight ratio and good current-carrying capacity. ACSR consists of a solid or stranded galvanized steel core surrounded by one or more layers of aluminium. The steel content of ACSR typically ranges from 11% to 18% by weight. However, it can vary up to 40% depending on the desired tensile strength. The high tensile strength combined with the good conductivity gives ACSR several advantages: Because of the presence of the steel core, lines designed with ACSR elongate less than other standard conductors, yielding less sag at a given tension. Therefore, the maximum allowable conductor temperature can be increased to allow a higher thermal rating when replacing other standard conductors with ACSR. The high tensile strength of ACSR allows it to be installed in areas subject to extreme ice and wind loading. ACSR is less likely to be broken by falling tree limbs.
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AAAC (All Aluminium Alloy Conductor): AAAC is made of aluminium alloy giving it comparable and, in some instances, improved qualities over both ACSR and AAC conductors. AAAC offers the combination of good conductivity, high tensile strength, and excellent corrosion resistance. As replacements, the AAAC conductors have comparable thermal ratings, improved strength-to-weight ratio, lower electrical losses, and superior corrosion resistance. These factors make AAAC conductors prominent choices for distribution installations on the seacoast and other areas severely impacted by corrosion problems. ACAR (Aluminium Conductor Aluminium-Alloy Reinforced): ACAR, consisting of a mix of aluminium and aluminium alloy strands of the same diameter, has an excellent balance between mechanical and electrical properties. Because the aluminium and aluminium alloy strands are equal in diameter, they can be interchanged to optimize the properties of ACAR for each particular application. These conductors exhibit excellent corrosion resistance and utilise simple termination hardware.

4.4

Thermal loading limits

The line thermal loading limit is the maximum current that the line can carry. Thermal overload is caused by excessive current flow causing overheating (due to the I2R effect), which results in a maximum conductor temperature being reached. The maximum temperature at which a conductor can safely operate is determined by: Sag and clearance: As the conductor temperature increases so the conductor sags. If the conductor sag limit is exceeded the statutory clearance limit is violated. Annealing and long term creep: Thermal expansion and loss of conductor life. Performance: The reliability of joints and fittings.

The power transfer on lines affects the sag of the conductor and hence the height of the conductor above the ground. This in turn affects the safety of the line. The determination of the maximum thermal loading limit is thus not only a function of the properties of the conductor but also of the safety to the public. The major difference between power line thermal capacity and the capacity of other devices is that the thermal limit of a power line is a function of safety to the public and is therefore clearly specified in legislation. Another difference is that the power line is subjected to the ambient conditions which vary continuously and are extremely difficult to design to. The thermal limit of devices such as cables, transformers etc. affect the integrity of the device and can be determined in a laboratory. The factors that affect the thermal limit of a power line include: Ambient conditions (wind speed, direction, solar radiation, ambient temperature and others such as clearness factors, terrain reflectance and so on). Conductor types and mechanical and electrical characteristics of the conductor including make up such as strand diameter, overall diameter etc. Bundle configuration. Templating temperature of the line. The templating temperature is the conductor temperature that results in the conductor being at the statutory clearance above ground. Line direction (affects solar heating and convective cooling). Exposure of the line to the public. This could include, road crossings, traffic patterns and so on. Type, magnitude and frequency of occurrence of surges the line is subjected to. The likelihood of a combination of the above factors occurring simultaneously Probability of a flashover occurring when a combination of the above factors occur.
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There are two methods of calculating conductor ampacity limits; the deterministic approach and the probabilistic approach. Deterministic approach: The deterministic approach assumes certain bad cooling conditions (low wind speed, high ambient temperature, etc.) and calculates the current that would result in the design temperature of the line being exceeded. The line templating or design temperature at which the height of the conductor above the ground is the minimum permissible. The deterministic approach has been used by utilities for a number of years. It is a quick and simple method. Bad cooling conditions are assumed and the current that will result in the line design temperature being achieved is calculated. The drawback is that the method does not address the safety or the relationship between safety and the power transfer capability. Probabilistic approach: The probabilistic approach uses weather data to calculate the probability of a particular conductor temperature being reached for different loading levels. By selecting an acceptable level of risk, the maximum line current is calculated for different templating temperatures. Eskom Distribution historically designed overhead lines with a 50oC templating temperature. It is possible to obtain a high transfer limit on a power line by increasing the templating temperature. By increasing the templating temperature the conductor is raised higher off the ground, requiring a higher conductor temperature to cause the conductor sag to result in statutory clearance. The templating temperature cannot be increased indefinitely. The strength of the conductor is dependent on the operating temperature and the time of exposure to the temperature. Loss of conductor strength can affect line reliability and public safety. The cost of the line increases with higher templating temperature. Although this varies from line to line an increase in the templating temperature from 50oC to 80oC is in the order of 5% of the line capital cost. A maximum templating temperature of 80 C is recommended. The main reasons are: Accelerated rate of aluminium annealing occurs at temperatures exceeding 80C (with a consequential loss of mechanical strength). The implication is more sag than anticipated and under clearance of lines. High temperature operation increases the risk of joint failures that will impact negatively on the reliability of the line. The I2R load losses become significant and offset the initial capital cost savings. With greased conductors the protective grease melts and oozes out of the conductor leaving the conductor steel without corrosion protection. Bird caging may occur transferring the entire mechanical load onto the steel portion of the conductor. In addition, during bird caging, the aluminium goes into compression and therefore adding an additional mechanical load onto the steel portion of the conductor. Sag will be more than anticipated and the line will be in contravention of statutory requirements due to sag exceeding design safety factors. Voltage regulation requirements may not be achieved due to high voltage drop on the line. Smaller conductors at high current may not satisfy system stability criteria and requirements.

Usually, at least two current limits are specified for a conductor; the normal rating and the contingency rating. The normal rating specifies how much current may flow on a continuous basis, whereas the emergency rating specifies how much current can flow under emergency conditions (such as during the outage of a parallel circuit) for a specified amount of time e.g. 30 minutes.

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The thermal limit of an existing line can usually be increased by considering local weather conditions, real time monitoring and/or increasing the templating temperature (increasing conductor clearances, typically by increasing conductor tension and/or the installation of additional towers at critical spans). Refer to Methods to increase thermal capacity of overhead power lines for more information on options to increase line thermal capacity (this document is published as an attachment to this guideline, and can be downloaded from the DT IARC website). The conductor ratings are summarised as: Rate A. Maximum operating current under normal conditions. Previously know as 75C rating. Risk of exceedence (Conductor temp. > templating temp.) is 9.83%. Rate B. Maximum operating current under emergency conditions. Previously know as the 90C rating. Not limited in time period. Risk of exceedence is 49.11%. Rate C. Short time current rating. It is the ultimate maximum operating current under emergency conditions preceeding load shedding. Maximum 15 minute time period only. Function of thermal inertia of conductor. (See details in EST 32-319)

4.5

Fault level limits

The maximum current that a conductor can carry for short durations during network faults is referred to as the conductor fault level limit. For a given conductor the fault level limit is dependent on: The conductor pre-fault temperature. The maximum permissible conductor temperature following a fault. This is the maximum temperature above which the conductor will be permanently damaged, and is dependent on the conductor material. A value of 200C is commonly used with aluminium conductors. The conductor physical characteristics (resistance). The duration of the fault.

The energy dissipated in a conductor during a fault is proportional to I2t where t is the duration of the fault. Fault level limits are hence specified for specific fault duration, normally 1 or 3 seconds. The time for protection operation influences the maximum permissible fault current. For HV lines main protection with instantaneous tripping will typically clear faults within 200mS. However during back-up protection operation (main protection failure) the fault clearing time increases significantly (typically up-to 800mS for high fault currents). Furthermore overhead line circuits are usually set to auto-reclose, typically up to four times. As the conductor does not have sufficient time to cool between re-close operations, the effective fault current duration is increased. The fault level limit must not be exceeded. If the fault level limit is exceeded (the current magnitude and time duration result in excessive conductor temperature), the conductor will be permanently damaged. The entire length of conductor will be damaged, not just the conductor at the point of the fault. The common recommended practice is that networks should be planned and designed such that conductor 1 second fault current limits are not exceeded. This means that the minimum conductor size may not necessarily be dictated by loading limit or voltage drop requirements, but rather by the requirement that the conductor be able to handle the expected fault currents without permanent damage. This will practically result in the following: The first few kms of MV line close to HV/MV substations will usually have a minimum conductor size of Mink or Hare. The most appropriate conductor size is dependent on the expected long term MV fault levels. Mink and Hare are provided as examples only. See figure 4.
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Even MV tee-offs supplying very little load, but located within a few kms of a HV/MV substation, should utilise a larger conductor size (such as Mink or Hare). See figure 4 The minimum conductor size used by a utility may be determined by future fault level limits. For example it may be possible to utilise very small conductors at feeder extremities, however if a new HV/MV substation is introduced at the feeder extremity, the increased fault level could require conductor replacement. As the location of future HV/MV substations may be uncertain, the minimum conductor size is selected such that future conductor replacement will be kept to an acceptable level. Sub-transmission line conductor selection needs to take into consideration the expected fault levels in the long term, including the effects of new generation plant, transmission network changes, and new transmission substations.

Squirrel Fox < 3.14 kA, 1sec < 1.79 kA, 1sec

Mink < 5.40 kA, 1sec Hare < 8.97 kA, 1sec
HV/MV substation

Figure 4: Illustration of MV fault level attenuation at substations and associated implications for minimum conductor sizes to comply with fault level ratings

4.6

Bundle conductors

A bundle conductor consists of two or more sub-conductors per phase held together by spacers forming a symmetrical bundle conductor.
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Bundle conductors offer the following benefits over single conductors with the same conductor cross section area: The AC resistance is decreased as the skin effect is reduced (see section 4.8.1). The line inductance is reduced as the conductor bundle GMR is increased (see section 4.8.1). The corona (noise and losses) is reduced as the electric field around the sub-conductors is reduced. The thermal rating of the line is increased as the conductor surface area is increased (cooling is improved).

Bundle conductors are however more expensive than single conductors with the same conductor cross section area as: Wind loading is drastically increased with the use of twin or triple bundles. Additional hardware is required (conductor spacers).

Bundle conductors are frequently used in high voltage transmission lines (>132kV) where the reduction in corona and line inductance offer significant benefits. In Distribution networks (distribution and subtransmission) single conductors are generally preferred.

4.7

Earth wire conductors

Sub-transmission lines (>33kV) usually have an earth wire(s) installed above the phase conductors. The earth wire conductor is installed for a number of reasons: Lightning: The primary purpose of the earth wire is lightning protection. Direct lightning strikes hit the earth wire conductor and are conducted to ground via the earth wire and tower earthing. This prevents a voltage impulse on the phase conductors that could exceed the line BIL and result in a flashover, requiring protection operation. In cases where line BIL is relatively poor, earth wire conductors can also improve performance with indirect lightning strikes. Communication: The secondary purpose of the earth wire is for communication purposes. The earth wire is used to provide communication between the two substations that the line connects, thereby allowing the relay protection schemes to communicate. If there is sufficient bandwidth the communication link can also be used to transmit other non-protection information. Protection: Earth wires provide an improved earth return path for earth fault currents which helps with protection operation, especially where soil resistivity is poor e.g. >3000ohm.m.

Earth wire conductors are usually only installed on HV sub-transmission lines, and not on MV distribution lines, for the following reasons: The earth wire conductor increases the height of the towers, and adds to the capital cost of the line. The effectiveness of the earth wire is dependent on the line BIL and tower earthing impedance. With MV lines the BIL is comparatively low. In order to prevent a back flashover the tower earthing impedances must be very low (a back flashover occurs when the voltage drop over the tower earthing impedance during lightning current conduction exceeds the line insulation BIL, and the lightning flashes over from the tower to the phase conductor). It is generally not practical to obtain sufficiently low tower footing impedances with MV lines. Even if earth wire conductors are installed on MV lines, their lightning performance would not be significantly improved, and the additional capital and maintenance cost can not be justified. MV lines do not usually utilise unit protection, and the protection schemes do not require communication between the substations connected by the line.

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MV lines supply significantly less load than HV lines. The impact of a network fault is hence not as severe and less capital can be justified to improve MV line performance.

Traditionally normal steel or ACSR conductors were used as earth wire conductors, with line traps installed at both line ends (a line trap is a L-C filter used for injecting and tapping off a higher frequency communication signal). The communication was performed via the injection of higher frequency voltages on the earth wire. Recently there has been a move towards OPGW (Optical Fibre Ground Wire) earth wire conductors to provide communications. An OPGW conductor consists of a combination of aluminium, steel and optical fibres to provide an earth wire that meets electrical and mechanical requirements, and has embedded optical fibres. These fibres can be used for any communication requirement.

Figure 5: Illustration of OPGW (optical fibre ground wire) conductor As is discussed in section 4.2.6, the earth wire conductor significantly influences the line zero sequence impedance, and this must be taken into consideration for earth fault studies.

4.8

Line impedances

The impedance of a line (R, X and B values for fault level and load-flow studies) are dependent on: Phase conductors: Influences the positive and zero sequence resistance, reactance and capacitance. Tower geometry: Influences the positive and zero sequence reactance and capacitance. Earth conductors: Influences the zero sequence resistance and reactance. Earth resistivity: Influences the zero sequence resistance. Operating conditions: Loading and physical environment as these influence the conductor temperature, which in turn influences conductor resistance.

The line impedances are calculated with a line parameter calculation tool (such as is provided in DigSilent PowerFactory) based on the user specified conductors, tower geometry and earth resistivity. It is important that the Network Planner have an understanding of the basic principles and relationships, so that these can be taken into consideration when specifying new power lines.

4.8.1

Resistance

Manufacturers usually provide conductor DC resistance at a specific temperature, usually 20C. The alternating current resistance (Rac) is needed at a specific temperature for load flow and fault calculations. Conductor AC resistance is influenced by the following: Temperature: Conductor resistance increases with increasing conductor temperature, and is dependent on the conductor temperature coefficient of resistance.

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Skin effect: The resistance of non-magnetic conductors varies with frequency. This is caused by the current flowing nearer to the outer surface of the conductor as a result of non-uniform flux distribution in the conductor. Hysteresis and Eddy Current Losses: The resistance of ACSR conductors is affected by the hysteresis in the steel core. The number of strand layers plays a role. The current spirals around the core, following the strands. The magnetising effect is opposite for the layers in a 2-layer conductor and results in a small increase of the effective resistance. The biggest influence is for a single layer, up to 15%. The resistance for a 3-layer conductor increases by 5% to 10% at the full rated load current of the conductor. Proximity effect: The proximity effect is negligible for s/d > 5, where s is the spacing between conductors and d is the overall diameter of the conductor. The proximity effect causes an increase in resistance of less than 1%.

Conductor resistance is dependent on the operating temperature, which is in turn influenced by line loading and the physical environment (ambient temperature, solar radiation and wind speed and direction). Ideally the following assumptions for conductor temperature should be applied: Maximum fault current studies should ideally be performed using the minimum conductor resistance, as would occur during lightly loaded conditions with low ambient temperatures and high wind (maximum cooling). Maximum voltage drop studies should ideally be performed using the maximum conductor resistance, as would occur during heavily loaded conditions with high ambient temperatures and low wind (minimum cooling). Technical load loss studies should ideally be performed using the average conductor resistance during peak loading (moderate cooling).

As line loading and physical environment are dynamic (one rural line is lightly loaded, while another line with the same conductor is almost at its thermal limit) and it is not presently practical to have multiple values for conductor resistance for different studies, a conductor operating temperature of 40C is recommended, and is the basis for all conductor AC resistances used in Eskom Distribution.
Note that line AC resistance is not influenced by tower geometry (distance between phase conductors), and is only dependent on the phase conductors.

4.8.2

Reactance

The series inductive reactance of a power line is dependent on the conductor Geometric Mean Radius (GMR) and distance between phases i.e. it is dependent on the phase conductors and tower geometry. The geometric mean radius (GMR) can be defined as the radius of a tubular conductor with an infinitesimally thin wall that has the same external flux out as the internal and external flux of a solid conductor. In other words, GMR is a mathematical radius assigned to a solid conductor (or other configurations such as stranded conductors), which describes the inductance of the conductor due to both its internal flux and the external flux. Line reactance is proportional to the natural log of the distance between phases divided by the GMR. Figure 6 illustrates how GMR and AC resistance typically vary with conductor size (for single conductor bundles where the conductor AC resistance is assumed to be proportional to the conductor area). Figure 7 illustrates how line reactance varies with conductor size (GMR) for four different conductor spacing distances (1m, 2m, 5m and 20m). The following should be noted: Keeping the phase spacing constant, increasing the conductor size (and hence GMR) results in a disproportionably small reduction in line reactance. For example with 5m phase spacing, increasing the conductor size from 22mm2 to 558mm2 reduces the line reactance from 0.49 to 0.39. A twenty five fold increase in conductor size only reduces the line reactance by 21%.

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Keeping the conductor size (GMR) constant, increasing the phase spacing results in a disproportionably small increase in line reactance. For example with a conductor size of 133mm2, increasing the conductor phase spacing from 1m to 20m increases the line reactance from 0.33 to 0.48. A twenty fold increase in conductor phase spacing only increases the line inductance by 43%.

The line impedance and X/R ratios are plotted in figures 8 and 9. The following should be noted: For conductor sizes above 100mm2 the line impedance (combination of both R and X) does not reduce significantly as conductor size is increased. This is due to the fact that the line reactance dominates the line impedance. Increasing the conductor size only results in a marginal reduction in line reactance. The X/R ratio increases with increasing conductor size and phase spacing. For HV subtransmission lines the X/R ratio typically varies between 2 and 4. For MV distribution lines the X/R ratio is typically less than 1.5. For conductor sizes less than 100 mm2 the conductor phase spacing has little impact on the line impedance and X/R ratio. For conductor sizes greater than 150 mm2 the conductor phase spacing has a significant impact on the line impedance and X/R ratio.

The following conclusions can be made, and are very relevant for the Network Planner: For MV lines, detailed tower geometries do NOT need to be considered. Typical phase spacing distances can be used. Errors due to differences will be small. In MV lines the line resistance dominates. Load-flow results will NOT be very sensitive to load power factor. In MV lines reactance decreases significantly with increased conductor size. There is little benefit in bundled conductors. For HV lines, detailed tower geometries must be considered. Line impedances vary significantly for different tower geometries. Errors may be significant if typical phase spacing distances are used and vary from the actual values. In HV lines the line reactance dominates. Load-flow results will be sensitive to load power factor. Additional emphasis needs to be place on load power factor modelling as compared to MV lines. In HV lines reactance does not decrease significantly with increased conductor size. Bundled conductors may be required to increase GMR sufficiently in order to meet voltage drop constraints.

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Conductor characteristics
12 10 8 GMR [mm] 6 4 2 0 22 32 46 65 93 133 191 273 390 558 Size [mm^2] GMR [mm] Rac [ohms/km] 1.8 1.6 AC resistance [ohm/km] 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

Figure 6: Variation in conductor GMR and AC resistance with conductor size

Effect of phase spacing and conductor size on reactance


0.6 0.5 Reactance X [ohms/km] 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 100 200 300 Size [mm^2] 400 500 600

HV lines
1 2 5 10

MV lines

Figure 7: Effect of phase spacing and conductor size on line reactance for different phase spacing distances

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Effect of phase spacing and conductor size on impedance


2 1.8 Impedance Z [ohms/km] 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 100 200 300 Size [mm^2] 400 500 600 1

MV lines HV lines

2 5 10

Figure 8: Effect of phase spacing and conductor size on line impedance for different phase spacing distances

Effect of phase spacing and conductor size on X/R ratio


7 6 5 X/R ratio 4 3 1 2 5 10

HV lines
2 1 0 0 100 200 300 Size [mm^2] 400 500 600

MV lines

Figure 9: Effect of phase spacing and conductor size on line X/R ratio for different phase spacing distances

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4.8.3

Capacitance

Line shunt capacitance is dependent on phase conductor spacing. Capacitance increases with decreasing phase spacing. It is important to note that the reactive power generated by line shunt capacitance is proportional to the line voltage squared. The same line energised at double the voltage will generate four times as much reactive power. The reactive power generated by MV lines is relatively small and seldom results in Ferranti voltage rise problems. With HV lines, and especially EHV transmission lines, the reactive power generated by the line can be very significant. This reactive power, combined with a relatively high series impedance X/R ratio (see previous section) can result in appreciable voltage rise during low loading or when the line is only energised from one end. It is sometimes necessary to install shunt reactors at the end of EHV lines so that these reactors can be switched in during lightly loaded conditions and thereby absorb the reactive power generated by the line capacitance. Shunt reactors are almost exclusively used with long EHV lines, and are generally not applied to MV and HV lines.

4.8.4

Zero sequence impedances

The zero sequence impedance of a line influences earth fault currents. The accurate modelling of zero sequence impedance is necessary for protection analysis and settings. In addition to conductor phase spacing and conductor sizes, line zero sequence impedance is also dependent on: The earth wire conductor and its geometrical spacing in relation to the earth and phase conductors. The earth resistivity (physical resistance of the ground over which the line travels).

The zero sequence impedance is proportional to the logarithm of the square root of the earth resistivity. Typical earth resistivity values are given in table 1. Due to the logarithmic relationship wide variations in the value of the earth resistivity do not appreciably affect the value of zero-sequence impedance. The default soil resistivity used for zero sequence calculation for Eskom Distribution lines is 100ohms/meter. Table 1: Typical soil resistivity values
1 Type of Earth Earth Swampy Ground Clay Sandy Clay Peat, marsh soil, cultivated soil Dry Earth Sand Moraine OSE (Calcerous remains) Slate Sandstone 2 Resistivity [ohm/meter] 10 - 100 25 - 70 40 - 300 50 - 250 1000 1000 - 3000 1000 10000 3000 30000 10
7

109

Modelling of the actual earth resistivity of specific lines is only required for detailed protection studies where these lines have soil resistivities that are very different to the default value of 100ohms/meter.
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4.9

Power transfer limits

The relationship between maximum load transfer and distance is dependent on a range of factors including voltage level, load power factor, tower geometry and phase conductor size (including bundled conductors). This is illustrated for 132kV sub-transmission and 22kV distribution lines. Note that these are illustrative values and detailed load-flow studies are required on a per case basis considering load distribution and network topology and interconnection.

4.9.1

Sub-transmission: 132kV single circuit

Figure 10 summarises the point load magnitude that can be supplied over a range of distances for a single circuit 132kV line. The results are based on the following key assumptions: The load power factor is 0.9. Maximum thermal ratings are based on a 70C template temperature (as per the ratings in table 4). The maximum voltage drop is 8% (sending at 103% and dropping to a minimum of 95%). Maximum load is the load at which either the thermal limit or minimum voltage is reached. A 222 (staggered vertical) tower has been used for all conductors. The line is assumed to be fully transposed. Phase conductors are confined to standard Eskom Distribution 132kV conductor sizes (see section 5.1).

132kV load reach (PF = 0.9, variable conductor size)


600 500 400 Load [MVA] 300 200 100 0 Chicadee Kingbird Tern Bersfort 2*Kingbird 2*Tern 2*Bersfort

Thermal

50

Voltage

100

150

200

250

Distance [km]

Figure 10: 132kV load reach with a power factor of 0.9 and variation in phase conductor

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The effect of load power factor is illustrated for a single Tern conductor in figure 11.

132kV load reach (Tern, variable PF)


250

200

Load [MVA]

150

PF=0.90 PF=0.95 PF=0.98 PF=1.00

100

50

0 0 50 100 150 200 250

Distance [km]

Figure 11: 132kV load reach with a Tern conductor and variation in load power factor Referring to figures 10 and 11 the following observations can be made: The distance beyond which the power transfer changes from a thermal constraint to a voltage constraint varies with conductor size, and for a power factor of 0.9 falls between 10km and 30km (but is sensitive to load power factor). Increased conductor size significantly increases load transfer where distances are such that the power transfer is thermally constrained. For distances that result in a voltage constraint, increased conductor size results in a disproportionally small increase in maximum power transfer. This is due to the fact that the line impedance is dominated by the reactance, which as shown in section 4.2.6 is not directly proportional to conductor size. The power transfer limit over voltage constrained distances is very sensitive to the load power factor. Improving the load power factor from 0.9 to unity with a Tern conductor doubles the load transfer limit. This supports the need for shunt compensation in voltage limited sub-transmission networks.

4.9.2

Distribution: 22kV single circuit

Figure 12 summarises the point load magnitude that can be supplied over a range of distances for a single circuit 22kV line. The same assumptions have been used as for the 132kV sub-transmission line example; however the tower type is a 22kV horizontal geometry, and phase conductors are the standard MV conductors (see section 5.1) with a 50C template temperature. The effect of load power factor is illustrated for a single Hare conductor in figure 13.

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Referring to figures 12 and 13 the following observations can be made: The distance beyond which the power transfer changes from a thermal constraint to a voltage constraint is not sensitive to conductor size or load power factor, and is approximately 7.5km. Note that this distance will vary with template temperature. As the line impedance is dominated by resistance, increased conductor size significantly increases load transfer across the full range of distances i.e. for both thermally and voltage constrained distances. The power transfer limit over voltage constrained distances is moderately sensitive to the load power factor. Improving the load power factor from 0.9 to unity with a Hare conductor increases the load transfer limit by 34% (note that the improvement is not as significant as with the 132kV line example).

Note that this example is based on a single point load. In reality load is distributed along the 22kV distribution line.

22kV load reach (PF = 0.9, variable conductor size)


18 16 14 12 Load [MVA] 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 10 20 30 Distance [km] 40 50 60 Fox Mink Hare Chicadee

Thermal

Voltage

Figure 12: 22kV load reach with a power factor of 0.9 and variation in phase conductor

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22kV load reach (Hare, variable PF)


12 10 8 Load [MVA] 6 4 2 0 0 10 20 30 Distance [km] 40 50 60 PF=0.90 PF=0.95 PF=0.98 PF=1.00

Figure 13: 22kV load reach with a Hare conductor and variation in load power factor

4.10

Transposition

Line series inductance is dependent on the mutual coupling between phases. If the phase conductors are equilaterally spaced, then the inductances for the three phases are the same. However, construction costs are lower for other configurations such as the vertical or horizontal configurations. For these configurations, the mutual couplings between phases are not identical, and for balanced current loadings the phases will incur unbalanced voltage drops. To avoid this problem long lines with non-equilateral spacing among phases are normally strung in a transposed fashion i.e. each phase occupies the position of the other two phases over an equal distance. In addition transposition can also help to mitigate induced voltages in earth wires, which are also used as communication channels. Phase transposition is usually done at switching stations, but can be performed on the tower structures as per figure 14.

Figure 14: Line transposition tower Line phase transposition is required to reduce unbalanced voltage drops when all of the following occur: The positive sequence voltage drop over the line is significant (typically >3%). This may occur on both short (heavily loaded) and long (lightly loaded) lines. Phase conductors are not equilaterally spaced, as with vertical and horizontal configurations. The line series impedance is dominated by the inductance (typically X/R >4).
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As a result phase transposition is generally only required with EHV and sometimes HV lines, where the reactive impedance dominates, and imbalance in the reactive impedance results in significant voltage imbalance. Referring to figure 15, the voltage unbalance caused due to an un-transposed 132kV line is plotted for the following conditions: A 132kV 124 tower type has been utilised, which has a horizontal configuration with 4.35m phase spacing. The load power factor is 0.9. The tower has two earth wires. The earth wire conductor is 3/4.00. Voltage unbalance due to the voltage drop over the unbalanced line reactance is plotted against the positive sequence voltage drop over the line for a range of different conductor sizes.

The following interesting observations can be made: The voltage unbalance is proportional to the positive sequence voltage drop. Even if line impedances are unbalanced, transposition will not be required if the voltage drop is relatively small. For the same per-unit positive sequence voltage drop, voltage unbalance increases with increasing conductor size (X/R increases with increasing conductor size). This makes intuitive sense as transposition only affects line inductance, and the effect of transposition is more evident where the impedance is dominated by inductance (as is the case with large conductors).

Voltage unbalance due to untransposed line


2.0% Line induced voltage unbalance [%]

Transposition may be required


1.5% Chicadee 1.0% Kingbird Tern 2*Kingbird 2*Bersfort

0.5%

0.0% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8%

Line voltage drop [%]

Figure 15: 132kV line voltage unbalance It is important to note that there is no specific limit of un-transposed line induced voltage unbalance above which transposition should be performed. In predominately three phase networks the maximum voltage unbalanced allowed by NRS048-2 is 2%. The combined effects of voltage unbalance in the transmission, sub-transmission and distribution networks must be 2% at the point of customer supply. As it is not prudent to plan for network unbalance at the maximum compatibility limit of 2%, the planning limits for voltage unbalance are 1.4% and 1.8% for HV and MV networks respectively.

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A 1% voltage unbalanced due to un-transposed sub-transmission lines significantly reduces the unbalance that can be generated by the MV distribution networks before the 1.8% planning limit is reached. The requirement for line transposition should be assessed in conjunction with the Network Services Plant Quality of Supply Specialist, taking into consideration both HV and MV network implications. Transposition should typically be investigated for new lines if the new line(s) induces a voltage unbalance typically >0.3%. Note however that the cumulative effect of unbalance due to a number of line sections will need to be assessed. The unbalance generated by each line section may be relatively small, but the cumulative effect may result in unacceptable voltage unbalance. In cases where a new un-transposed line will generate unacceptable levels of voltage unbalance, the use of delta towers with equilateral phase spacing should also be assessed as an alternative to transposing the line.

4.11

Surge Impedance Loading (SIL)

The Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) limit of a line is the loading at which the reactive power absorbed by the line series reactance (due to the flow of load current) is equal to the reactive power generated by the line shunt capacitance. At loading levels below the SIL the line will be a net generator of reactive power. At loading levels above the SIL the line will be a net consumer of reactive power. The Network Planner should be aware that when lines are loaded above their SIL, additional reactive power compensation (typically via shunt capacitor banks) may be required. The SIL is really only of interest with EHV and HV lines. In EHV and HV systems the high line X/R ratio means that line voltage drop is sensitive to reactive power flow. Loading EHV and HV lines above SIL can significantly impact voltage regulation. In MV networks, with low X/R ratios, the SIL is of no concern.

4.11.1

Special conductors

The following special conductors may need to be applied in specific applications: Covered conductors: Covered conductors are the same as normal AAAC, ACSR etc conductors, but have a layer of insulation around the conductor. The line is constructed as with normal un-covered conductors. The covered conductor provides additional installation, specifically for protection against faults that arise from debris (usually tree branches) and wildlife. Covered conductors are sometimes utilised on MV lines traversing rural areas with vegetation and/or wildlife problems. Covered MV conductors are very seldom used in Eskom Distribution. High Temperature Low Sag (HTLS) conductors: The overwhelming majority of MV and HV overhead lines use ACSR conductors. On a continuous basis ACSR may be operated at temperatures up to 100C and, for limited time emergencies, at temperatures as high as 125C without any significant change in the conductor's physical properties (note that Eskom Distribution recommends a maximum normal operating temperature of 80C). These temperature limits (and the associated conductor sag at increased temperature) constrain the thermal rating of lines. An attractive method of increasing line thermal rating (up-rating) involves replacing the original (typically) steel-reinforced Aluminium conductor (ACSR) with a High-Temperature, Low-Sag (HTLS) conductor with approximately the same diameter as the original conductor. HTLS conductors are capable of operating continuously at temperatures of at least 150oC. Some of the conductors can be operated as high as 250oC without significant changes in their mechanical and electrical properties. HTLS conductors are typically stranded with a combination of Aluminium alloy wires for conductivity reinforced by core wires of steel alloy. HTLS conductors inherently result in higher losses and increased voltage drop as compared to the ACSR conductor of equivalent thermal rating. For this reason HTLS conductors are usually only considered where the up-rating of existing lines is required, the up-rating of existing structures and installation of additional structures is problematic, and the additional voltage drop and losses can be tolerated.
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5
5.1

Cables
Conductor material and sizes

Copper and aluminium are commonly used for cable phase conductor material: Copper conductors have lower resistance as compared to aluminium conductors of the same physical size. Copper cost per unit of volume is more expensive than aluminium. Copper conductors are generally easier to work with as compared to aluminium conductors. Special bi-metallic joints are required when connecting copper and aluminium conductors.

A utility usually standardises on either copper or aluminium cable conductors (for a particular voltage level), but the preferred conductor material may change if there is a relative price difference between copper and aluminium. Utilities and cable manufacturers have standardised on certain cable sizes. Old imperial cable sizes were in inch2 e.g. 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5inch2. New cable sizes are in mm2 e.g. 50, 95 and 185mm2.

5.2

Insulation and armouring

The following insulation types are commonly used for MV and HV cables: PILC (Paper Insulated Lead Covered): Paper is utilised as the insulation between phase conductors and between phase conductors and earth. The cable has a lead sheath covering and steel wire armouring to provide mechanical protection and for the conduction of earth fault current. HV cables may be oil-filled. Oil-filled cables are pressured with oil, which is used to provide insulation and cooling. Oil-filled cables require special oil storage termination equipment, faults are difficult to locate and repair, and significant amounts of oil can contaminate the environment via oil leaks following cable faults. HV XLPE cables are now used instead of HV oil-filled cables. XLPE (Crosslinked Polyethylene): Crosslinked polyethylene is utilised as the insulation between phase conductors and between phase conductors and earth. The cable has steel wire armouring to provide mechanical protection and for the conduction of earth fault current. XLPE cables are easier to terminate and join, have higher thermal ratings (due to higher maximum operating temperatures) and are cheaper than PILC cables. Internationally there has been a move from PILC to XLPE MV and HV cables.

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Figure 16: Illustration of different cable insulation and armouring A MV or HV three phase cable system can comprise of single-core or three-core cables: Three-core cable: The three phase conductors are contained in a single cable, with common armouring. Single-core cable: Each phase conductor is contained in a separate cable, with its own armouring. Three single-core cables can be installed in a number of different configurations e.g. horizontally spaced or in close trefoil (figure 17). The physical separation between phase conductors influences the overall cable inductance and thermal rating. Increasing the distance between single-core cables increases thermal rating but also increases series inductance.

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a) Three-core cable

b) Single-core cables in a horizontal configuration

c) Single-core cables in a close trefoil configuration Figure 17: Three-core and single-core cable configurations Single-core cables are easier to terminate, and are generally preferred for all HV cables and for MV cables with phase conductors greater than 300mm2. Arial Bundle Cable conductors (ABC) are non-armoured cables designed to be strung on overhead towers. The phase conductors are twisted together to provide a self supporting cable. Unlike covered overhead conductors, ABC does not require traditional overhead post/strain insulators at tower connection points.

5.3

Thermal loading limits and de-rating

The conduction of load current results in I2R resistive cable losses. Energy dissipation in the cable causes the cable to heat up. Cables are designed to operate below a certain maximum temperature, this being dependent on the conductor material and the type and the thickness of the insulation. If this maximum temperature is exceeded for significant periods of time the cable insulation will be damaged resulting in premature cable failure. The normal maximum operating temperatures for PILC and XLPE cables are 70C and 90C respectively. Cable operating temperature is dependent on cable load current and the heat exchange with the surrounding environment. The steady state cable temperature is the temperature at which the rate of energy dissipated in the cable is equal to the rate at which this energy is exchanged with the surrounding environment. Cable thermal rating is hence dependent on the installation environment. Manufacturer cable thermal ratings are based on a standard installation environment, which results in a certain amount of heat transfer to the external environment. The cable must be de-rated when installed in a different environment. The cable thermal rating is the standard thermal rating multiplied by the de-rating factors for the installation environment. The standard installation environment is defined in standards such as SANS 10198-4, and is based on a single cable circuit directly buried at a certain depth in soil with a particular thermal resistivity and ambient temperature and supplying a constant load (load has unity load factor).

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Continuous loading cable de-rating factors are provided in standards such as SANS 10198-4 for other installation environments: Directly buried: De-rating is dependent on maximum conductor temperature limit, the location and size of other cables (including distance between cores for single-core cables), burial depth, soil ambient temperature and soil thermal resistivity. Buried in pipes: De-rating is dependent on maximum conductor temperature limit, the location and size of other cables (including distance between cores for single-core cables), burial depth, soil ambient temperature and soil thermal resistivity. Installed in air: De-rating is dependent on maximum conductor temperature limit, ambient air temperature and the arrangement of trays and racks.

Cable standard thermal ratings are based on continuous loading. Due to the thermal time constant of the cable and the environment in which it is installed, there is a time delay between loading and temperature rise. If the loading decreases shortly after reached the maximum loading then the cable will not reach the same maximum temperature as compared to if the maximum loading were sustained continuously. With peaky load profiles, as is traditionally experienced with domestic customers, the maximum loading limit is greater than the standard rating. The calculation of cyclic rating factors is specified in IEC 60853-1. The actual thermal rating of a cable is hence the standard rating multiplied by the de-rating factor (nonstandard environment) and cyclic loading factor. A quick calculation tool that includes both steady-state rating factors (as given in SANS 10198-4) and a cyclic rating factor (as given in IEC 60853-1) is available on Eskom DT (IARC) website under the software tools section.
Note that as will be discussed later, Network Planners need to take likely cable de-rating into consideration, but the possible additional capacity due to cyclic rating factors should not be relied upon for network planning purposes.

5.4

Fault level limits

Cables are required to conduct fault current during faults in the cable or network supplied by the cable. The resistive I2R loss during fault current conduction causes the cable conductor to heat up. The amount of energy dissipated, and hence heat generated, is proportional to I2t, where t is the duration of the fault. The maximum cable temperature must not be exceeded else the conductor and/or insulation may be permanently damaged (note that the maximum temperature following faults is significantly higher than for normal loading as the frequency and duration of faults is comparatively very low). The maximum fault current that a conductor can safely carry before the maximum temperature is reached is dependent on the duration of the fault and temperature of the conductor immediately prior to the fault. In order to ensure that the conduction of fault current does not permanently damage the cable, cables must be adequately rated for the local maximum fault level, considering worst case protection operating times, usually 1 second. Cable fault current ratings are specified in standards such as SANS 10198-4, and are usually also included in manufacturer specifications.

5.5

Cable impedances

Cable series impedance is largely determined by the phase conductor size. As phase conductors are located in relative close proximity to one another, the cable reactance is comparatively low (as compared to overhead lines). Consequently cables have low X/R ratios and the series impedance is dominated by the cable resistance. The voltage drop over a cable is hence not as sensitive to reactive power flow as compared to an overhead line of similar phase conductor size.
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The close proximity of phase conductors to one-another and earth also significantly increases the shunt capacitance. Cables hence generate a great deal more reactive power as compared to equivalently rated overhead lines of the same length. With single-core cables the phase conductor configuration (distance between phase conductors) can vary and consequently the cable reactances will depend on the cable installation configuration. Single-core cable impedance data will hence usually be provided for standard installation configurations such as horizontal spacing and close trefoil. As with overhead lines, the conductor resistance is dependent on the AC skin effect, conductor operating temperature and conductor temperature coefficient of resistance.

6
6.1

Technical load losses


Planning and designing with technical losses

When sizing distribution networks the primary focus of the planner should be to minimise life cycle costs within the constraints of utility standards pertaining to factors such as system performance, QOS, voltage regulation and thermal loading. Plans/designs may vary significantly from the optimal solution if only initial capital costs are used for the evaluation of different design alternatives. One of the key factors influencing life cycle cost is the cost of technical losses.

6.2

Load losses: Economic loading limits for lines and cables

When AC current flows in a conductor with an impedance Z = R + jX the conductor consumes real and reactive power: P = I2R and Q = I2X. This results in two losses due to current following in the conductor. Energy loss: The active power during peak loading (P = Imax2R) is usually adjusted by a Loss Load Factor (linked to the load factor) to obtain the average power consumed by the conductor. When multiplied by the number of hours in a year the average power loss is converted into average energy (kWh), which when multiplied by the cost of generation becomes the capitalised energy cost per annum. Note that the cost of generation in the context of energy loss refers to the generation running cost (R/kWh), which is primarily determined by the fuel cost. The energy cost is dependent on the real (P) power consumption. Demand loss: The real and reactive power consumed by conductors results in an apparent power consumption (S) which must be supplied by the grid generation. As a result generation and network capacity must be available to supply this apparent power (loss demand). When the cost of this additional generation and network capacity (usually expressed in an annual R/kVA) is multiplied by the apparent power consumed by the conductor, the annual demand cost is obtained. Note that the cost of generation in the context of demand loss refers to the annualised capital cost (R/kVA) pertaining to simply having the generator and network installed and available to supply load (in this cases the losses in the conductor). The demand cost is dependent on both the real (P) and reactive (Q) power consumption.

Note that the energy loss cost can be adjusted to incorporate the demand loss cost if the load profile shape is known.

The life cycle cost of a power line/cable consists of the following basic components: Capital: Installation cost including design, materials and labour. Occurs in year 1 Losses: Energy and demand costs that occur every year Maintenance: Line maintenance and general repair costs that occur every year

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The total life cycle cost of a line can be expressed as a Net Present Value (NPV) which is influenced by the following main factors: Net Discount Rate: The effective cost of capital which is calculated from the inflation and money lending rates. Evaluation period: Typically the anticipated life span of the line. Initial load: The load to be supplied by the line in year 1. Load growth: Usually expressed in % growth per annum. Power factor: Power factor of the load supplied by the line. Load profile: The load factor of the load supplied by the line is usually used to account for load variations due to customer usage patterns. Demand loss cost: Both initial and forecasted demand loss cost over the evaluation period. Energy loss cost: Both initial and forecasted energy loss cost over the evaluation period.

For any given set of the above factors the NPV of a conductor can be calculated for a particular loading, and the NPV can be plotted as a function of initial line loading. By plotting a conductor set (range of conductors typically used by a utility) the economic loading limits of each conductor can be graphically illustrated. A5 A4

Conductor size (area): Net Present Value [R] A1 < A2 < A3 < A4 < A5 A3 A2 A1

Linear approximation of cost

Line loading [MVA] Figure 18: Illustration of Net Present Values as a function of initial line loading for a typical range of conductor sizes for a particular technology and voltage level. NPV are per unit of line length For a given set of conditions, a conductor will have an economic loading range for which it will result in the lowest NPV life cycle cost when compared with the other conductors in the conductor set. The NPV loading curves can be calculated for conductor sets at different voltage levels (e.g. 11kV, 22kV etc) and technologies (e.g. three phase, single phase, SWER etc). For a given voltage regulation limit, the distance a conductor (associated with a voltage and technology) can move load when loaded at its Thermal Load Limit (TLL) is referred to as its Thermal Load Reach (TLR). When a conductor is loaded at its Economic Load Limit (ELL) the resultant distance at which regulation limits are at the allowed maximum is referred to as its Economic Load Reach (ELR). As the ELL for a conductor is typically between 30% and 70% of its TLL, the ELR will usually be between 140% and 330% of the TLR.
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The following interesting relationships and observations can be made: ELR is simply an indication of the distance beyond which additional costs will be incurred if distribution is to be performed using a particular voltage and technology. Because the inductance of an overhead line reduces proportional to the natural log of the ratio of the phase spacing to conductor radius, the inductance does not reduce linearly with increased conductor size. As a result the ELR reduces for larger conductors when compared with smaller conductors operated at the same voltage. In order for larger conductors to provide the same ELR as smaller conductors the ELL of these larger conductor must be reduced. The maximum recommended loading level of the larger conductor must be reduced to provide the same load reach due to the non-linear relationship between line impedance and conductor size. For the same voltage regulation limits, increasing the nominal voltage results in increased ELL and ELR. The ideal feeder length is the ELR (ignoring other life cycle costs such as those associated with reliability/performance). For a required load reach there is an optimal voltage and technology that can support the required load at the required distance whilst minimising costs. Reducing the allowable voltage regulation limits reduces the ELR and higher voltages are required for optimal economics.

Net Present Value [R]

Same conductor set, but allowable loading has been reduced to increase the ELR. Note the cost premium.

ELR1 > ELR2 Region in which the ELL must be reduced to maintain the ELR due to the effect of non-liner reduction in inductance for overhead lines with larger conductor sizes

Linear region in which the ELR does not vary significantly with increased conductor size

Line loading [MVA] Figure 19: Illustration of the reduction of the ELL to maintain the same ELR for larger conductors. Also illustrates the cost premium that will be paid to increase the ELR by reducing the ELL

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Voltage: Net Present Value [R] V3 V2 V1

V4

LoadV1

LoadV2

LoadV3

LoadV4

Line loading [MVA] Figure 20: Illustration of the NPV cost relationships for the same conductor set at four different voltages to illustrate the optimal loading ranges for the four different voltages If the average distance power is to be moved over a MV feeder is less than the ELR, and conductors are sized based on their ELL such that the life cycle cost is minimised, the voltage regulation on the feeder extremities will be less than recommended limits. If the average distance power is to be moved over a MV feeder is greater than the ELR, conductors must be selected to meet the voltage drop limits, and the optimal network design will result in the maximum allowable voltage regulation at the feeder extremities. For distances greater than the ELR the optimal design results in the utilisation of the available voltage drop.

7
7.1
7.1.1

Eskom line and cable standards


Overhead conductors and towers
Standard overhead conductor sizes and types

The following Eskom Standards apply for MV overhead line conductors [34-1191, 34-1193, EST 32-319]: Bare (un-covered) conductors shall be used for MV overhead distribution. Standard MV structures are designed for conductors up to Hare (Oak). Special structures are required for conductors up to Kingbird. Conductors shall be predominantly ACSR (Squirrel, Fox, Mink and Hare). AAAC conductors (Acacia, 35, Pine and Oak) shall only be used in high marine pollution areas. Magpie and single strand 1350 MPa steel wire may be used for very low load spurs as a costeffective alternative. Note that Magpie has a higher steel content then Squirrel conductor, and should be used instead of Squirrel conductors in areas with high ice loading. The standard large MV conductors are Chicadee and Kingbird. AAAC equivalent large conductors are not provided. Greased large ACSR conductors must be used in coastal applications. The conductor choice shall be based on the least life-cycle cost of transferring power.

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Hornet, Centipede and Bull AAC conductors must be used in substation applications (spans are short and steel reinforcement is not required). The following Eskom Standards applies for HV overhead line conductors [DISASABH1]: Bare (un-covered) ACSR conductors are used on sub-transmission lines. The conductors shall be greased when used in coastal applications. DISASABH1 specifies standard conductors for 66kV and 132kV HV sub-transmission lines. Standardised conductors are not specified for 44kV and 88kV lines, but have been inferred based on acceptable corona performance and capacity requirements. The standard conductors for the different sub-transmission voltages are provided in table 2. If a shield wire is required then 3/4.00 or 7/3.35 galvanized steel wire shall be used. 19/2.65 shield wire shall only be used when the shielding/earthing design requires a higher burn-off rating.

Note that many non-standard conductors exist in the networks. The refurbishment of existing and extension of new lines should be performed with the standard conductors. Specific local considerations may however dictate that a non-standard conductor be used, but this should be avoided. The use of non-standard conductors will need to be motivated with a full design and cost analysis.

Table 2: Standard Eskom Distribution MV and HV conductors


1 Conductor 2 Type 3 Stranding and wire diameter 3/4/2.118 6/1/2.11 6/1/2.79 6/1/3.66 6/1/4.72 18/1/3.77 18/1/4.78 45/3.38 +7/2.25 45/3.7 +7/2.47 48/4.27 +7/3.32 7/2.08 7/2.77 7/3.61 7/4.65 19/3.25 37/3.78 61/4.25 4 Overall diameter [mm] 6.35 6.33 8.37 10.98 14.16 18.87 23.90 27.00 29.59 35.56 6.24 8.31 10.83 13.95 16.25 26.46 38.25 5 DC resistance at 20C [ohms] 2.707 1.3677 0.7822 0.4546 0.2733 0.1427 0.0891 0.0718 0.0598 0.0421 1.39 0.785 0.462 0.279 0.1825 0.0694 0.0334

Magpie Squirrel Fox Mink Hare Chicadee Kingbird Tern Rail Bersfort Acacia 35 Pine Oak Hornet Centipede Bull

ACSR ACSR ACSR ACSR ACSR ACSR ACSR ACSR ACSR ACSR AAAC AAAC AAAC AAAC AAC AAC AAC

The standard MV and HV conductors are summarised in table 2, and recommended application environments and voltage levels are provided in table 3.

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Table 3: Standard Eskom Distribution MV and HV conductor applications


1 Conductor Magpie Squirrel Fox Mink Hare Chicadee Kingbird Tern Rail (note 1) Bersfort (note 1) Acacia 35 Pine Oak Hornet Centipede Bull Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 2 MV Inland Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 3 MV Coastal 4 44kV 5 66kV 6 88kV 7 132kV 8 Substation

Note 1: Rail and Bersfort have been proposed (and accepted) as standard conductors for 88kV and 132kV networks, but the associated standards are still in the process of being updated

7.2

Conductor loading and fault level limits

Conductor probabilistic loading limits are specified in EST 32-319. The planner should consult EST 32-319 for a detailed summary of the standard conductor ratings. The ratings for the standard conductors are summarised in table 4. The 1 second fault current ratings have been included and are based on a pre-fault conductor temperature of 75C and maximum post-fault temperature of 200C.

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Table 4: Eskom Distribution conductor loading and fault level limits


1 Conductor 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1s fault ratings [kA]

Normal [A]

Emergency [B]

Short Time Current Ratings [C]

50 Squirrel Fox Mink Hare Chicadee Kingbird Tern Bersfort Acacia 35 Pine Oak 104 148 206 280 419 586 665 965 108 158 219 297

60 122 173 241 335 496 684 792 1153 129 188 261 350

70 138 196 270 376 559 771 894 1304 145 209 293 391

80 150 213 294 410 608 837 970 1417 157 230 320 432

50 143 203 285 392 602 831 963 1420 153 216 302 417

60 165 234 325 448 691 949 1110 1630 176 248 346 479

70 183 258 361 496 761 1045 1231 1814 194 275 385 530

80 198 279 391 538 823 1136 1324 1957 210 299 418 575

50 179 255 369 534 877 1453 1509 2618 187 268 386 564

60 200 287 411 597 976 1669 1678 2899 213 302 432 636

70 221 314 450 647 1070 1833 1817 3091 235 333 474 698

80 238 340 489 697 1135 1893 1953 3266 253 360 512 747 1.79 3.14 5.40 8.97 17.16 27.58 39.36 63.23 1.92 3.40 5.78 9.59

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EST 32-319 also provides probabilistic ratings for the non-standard conductors such as Wolf, Zebra etc. The document also explains the Normal, Emergency and Short Time Current Ratings of standard and nonstandard conductors.
Note that with bundle conductors (more than one conductor per phase) the thermal rating is the thermal rating for a single conductor multiplied by the number of conductors per phase e.g. a twin Hare line templated at 50C has a normal thermal rating of 280 * 2 = 560A.

The Network Planner has a wide choice of options to meet a required thermal loading limit. If, for example, a Network Planner requires a normal power transfer of 600A the planner could choose a twin Mink conductor at 80C, a twin Hare conductor at 60C, a Chicadee conductor at 70C, a Kingbird conductor at 60C or a Tern conductor at 50C. The optimal conductor will depend on the capital cost, voltage drop requirement and cost of technical load losses (smaller conductors with higher templating temperatures may have lower capital cost, but have higher impedance resulting in increased voltage drop and load loss). A templating temperature of 50C has traditionally been used in Eskom Distribution. For existing HV lines the Network Planner should establish the templating temperature so that the corresponding thermal limit can be established. The most conservative assumption (lowest thermal rating) is a templating temperature of 50C. The selection of optimal conductor sizes is addressed in section 7.

7.3
7.3.1

Towers
Standard HV towers

Information on standard HV towers can be obtained from Part 6 on the DT (IARC) website. The preferred HV towers for a particular line depend on the conductor size, terrain, required electrical characteristics (compact structures with reduced phase spacing result in lower series reactance), cost, maintenance requirements, live line compatibility, reliability and Regional preferences. This guideline does not make recommendations on tower selection. As per section 7.4, the suitability of a proposed tower type on the electrical characteristics of a future/new HV line will need to be confirmed with Network Planning as part of the line design process.

7.3.2

Standard MV towers

The standard MV voltages are 11kV, 22kV and 33kV. As per 34-1191, 11kV overhead lines are built to 22kV specifications. MV structure selection is specified in 34-1192. The main types are: Staggered vertical Vertical Delta H-pole

The most appropriate structure depends on the conductor size and the installation environment and terrain (formal townships, rural townships, level retic lines and undulating retic lines).

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8
8.1

Cables
MV cables

Referring to DST 34-1175, the following MV (11kV and 22kV) cable specifications are of particular interest to the Network Planner: Standard cable sizes are 25, 50, 95, 185, 300 and 630mm2. In MV cable networks the largest 22kV cable is 185mm2. 300mm2 and 630mm2 cables are generally only used to connect transformers to indoor busbars, and MV switchgear to switching stations and dedicated customer connections. Conductor sizes up to 300mm2 are three-core cables. 630mm2 cables are single-core. Conductor material is copper.
XLPE-insulated cable shall be used for all new cables except where there is cut-ins to existing PILC cable networks.

PILC normal and emergency thermal ratings are based on conductor temperatures of 70C. There is presently no differentiation between normal and emergency ratings for Network Planning studies, but slightly higher emergency ratings may be implemented in due course. XLPE normal and emergency thermal ratings are based on conductor temperatures of 70C and 90C respectively (the XLPE maximum operating temperature under normal conditions is limited to 70C to reduce the risk of thermal runaway). XLPE cables can support short term temperatures of 130C, but this additional emergency rating capability is not to be utilised for Network Planning studies. For single-core cables the default installation method is close trefoil. DST 34-1175 provides typical MV cable impedances and thermal limits. Fault level rating and de-rating for non-standard installation environments are specified in SANS 0198-4.

Note that the above applies to new MV cables and does not necessarily apply to existing cables.

8.2

HV cables

Referring to 34-1177, the following HV (44kV to 132kV) cable specifications are of particular interest to the Network Planner: Cables are single-core with an aluminium conductor. Standard cable sizes are 500mm2 or 1000 mm2. Other cable sizes have traditionally been used, but these are the most common sizes. Insulation is XLPE. PILC may not be used for HV cables. XLPE normal and emergency thermal ratings are based on conductor temperatures of 70C and 90C respectively (as with MV cables the XLPE maximum operating temperature under normal conditions is limited to 70C to reduce the risk of thermal runaway). XLPE cables can support short term temperatures of 130C, but this additional emergency rating capability is not to be utilised for Network Planning studies. The default installation method is flat formation (in order to maximise cable thermal limits). 34-1177 provides typical HV cable impedances and thermal limits.

Note that the above applies to new HV cables and does not necessarily apply to existing cables.

All new HV cable feeders (circuits) should, where possible, be installed in individual trenches in separate servitudes. This is to ensure that the risk of common mode failures is limited. Common mode
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failures occur when more than one cable circuit simultaneously faults due to the same or directly related causes. Common mode failures could be due to external factors (e.g. contractor damage, theft, etc.) or could occur when a fault on one cable feeder damages another cable feeder in close proximity. This is especially critical where HV cable feeders supply the same substation (load). The high failure rates and long repairs times of oil-filled HV cables poses a risk to substations supplied solely by HV oil-filled cables. Network Development Plans and Network Master Plans need to consider the replacement and/or augmentation of these oil-filled cables with new XLPE HV cables.

Data required for Power System Analysis

Regardless of the actual software tool used for network simulation, the basic line/cable data in table 5 is required for power flow, fault level calculations, and the interpretation of the results thereof. Table 5: Basic data requirement for power system analysis
1 Parameter R +ve X +ve B +ve R zero X zero B zero I normal I emergency I fault Description Positive sequence series resistance Positive sequence series inductive reactance Positive sequence shunt capacitance Zero sequence series resistance Zero sequence series inductive reactance Zero sequence shunt capacitance Normal operating thermal loading limit Emergency operating thermal loading limit 1second fault current limit 2 Units Ohms Ohms Micro Siemens Ohms Ohms Micro Siemens Amps Amps Kilo Amps 3

Standard type data can be utilised for lines and cables. This means that a standard library of line/cable parameters can be referenced, where the impedances in this library are per 1km of line/cable length. The line/cable impedances are obtained by multiplying the library values by the actual line/cable length in km. Eskom Distribution has established a Master Type Library (MTL). The MTL contains standard line/cable parameters for the vast majority of lines and cables utilised in Eskom Distribution. The MTL provides a standardised set of line/cable parameters (the parameters in table 5) for all subscribing systems such as ReticMaster and PowerFactory. The data libraries in ReticMaster and PowerFactory should be referenced to view typical values. The following should be noted: The MTL values are typical values based on assumptions for parameters such as predominant tower type, conductor temperature, conductor sag and earth resistivity. Actual values may vary slightly from standard values. Standard values are acceptable for most power system studies. Line parameters differentiate between different combinations of rated voltage, tower type, phase conductor and earth wire conductor. Cable parameters differentiate between different combinations of rated voltage, insulation type, conductor size, conductor material and number of cores. Lines contain both suspension and strain towers. The tower geometry can vary significantly between suspension and strain towers. As the majority of towers are suspension towers, line

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parameters are based on suspension tower geometry. In cases where lines consist of a mixture of different tower types, the predominant tower type should be used. Lines are assumed to be transposed. Unbalanced impedances are not modelled. For special unbalanced studies a full unbalanced line model can be utilised in certain simulation packages (see section 8.2). Shunt resistance is ignored, as these shunt resistive losses are very small. Reactive impedances (series inductance and shunt capacitance) are specified at the system frequency of 50Hz. For harmonic studies, packages such as PowerFactory adjust these impedances at different harmonic frequencies. Some older simulation packages, such as PSSE, required impedances to be entered in per unit on a system MVA base. The values stored in the MTL are physical impedances (ohms and mico Siemens). Conversion to other units (or a per unit system) can be performed to meet the requirements of individual software packages. Single core cable parameters are based on assumed installation and earthing configurations. Different values may be provided for different configurations.

10
10.1

Application guideline
Requirements

When selecting a line/cable for a specific application the following minimum requirements must be met: Loading limits: The thermal loading limits for normal and contingency conditions should not exceed the normal and emergency loading limits. Violation of these limits may result in equipment damage and pose a safety risk to the public. Additional loading capability due to the consideration of load profiles is not to be utilised for planning studies. This potential additional capacity is only to be utilised for operating studies. Fault level limits: The 1 second fault level ratings should not be exceeded for network faults. Voltage drop: The maximum and minimum voltages must be kept within the limits specified in 34542 Distribution voltage regulation and apportionment limits. Voltages are dependent on the combined effect of the entire network including voltage control settings, transformers and lines/cables. The voltage drop over a line/cable should be such that the combined effect of the entire network results in acceptable voltages. Voltage drop constraints may require the installation of larger conductors as compared to cable sizes to only meet thermal loading and fault level limits. Note that voltage problems may best be solved via other strengthening options (such as additional lines/cables, network reconfiguration, new substations, higher voltages, shunt capacitors etc) and larger conductor sizes may not be the most appropriate solution. Environmental: The line/cable route must be environmentally acceptable. Unless exceptional circumstances dictate otherwise, Network Planners should not propose line/cable routes through environmentally sensitive areas. Congested areas, where line routes will be difficult to obtain, should be avoided.

For existing lines/cables the violation of the above minimum requirements is a trigger for network reinforcement or refurbishment. The future loads and network configuration must be assessed to ensure compliance with these minimum requirements for the expected load forecast and network changes. The following additional requirements should also be met for new lines/cables:

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Economic loading limit (ELL): The ELL of a particular line/cable is the maximum loading limit above which it is economical to install a larger cable/conductor to reduce lifetime costs via reduced load losses. The ELL should not be exceeded. ELL limits for Eskoms standard MV conductor and cable sizes are provided in appendix A. Minimum fault level: The series impedance of a line/cable attenuates the fault level in the network supplied by the line/cable. Increased conductor size results in increased fault level. While equipment fault level limits must not be exceeded, fault levels must also not be too low. Fault levels that are too low in relation to the size of the load supplied may result in QOS problems such as excessive voltage regulation, voltage dips during motor starting and load switching and voltage flicker. Other QOS issues such as harmonics and unbalance are also related to the fault level. Table 6 gives guidance on the requirement to consult the Plant QOS specialist depending on the size of the load in relation to the fault level at the point of common coupling. Flicker producing loads typically include saw mills, crushers and arc furnaces. Table 6: Requirement to consult QOS specialist
1 Load as a % of fault level at the PCC 1% 2 Comment QOS problems are unlikely. QOS specialist does not need to be consulted, except where loads are known flicker producers or harmonic current sources and are greater than 1MVA QOS problems may occur. Flicker and harmonic producing loads to be referred to the Plant QOS specialist

>1%

Economic loading limits are applicable to new lines/cables, where the incremental cost associated with a larger conductor size is relatively small. Once a line/cable is installed the cost of upgrading is large. If an existing line/cable exceeds its economic loading limit it is seldom economic to replace the line/cable with a larger size. Reinforcement via additional lines/cables may result in a more cost effective solution, and may be able to be justified based on reduced load losses.

10.2

Lines vs cables

The initial capital cost of MV and HV cables is typically between 4 and 10 times that of their equivalently rated overhead lines. The cost of cable networks is also influenced by the impact on associated equipment such as terminations, bus-bars, switchgear, transformers etc. A MV cable distribution network utilises ground mounted mini-substations and Ring Main Units (RMU). The total cost implication of cable vs overhead networks hence requires careful consideration. MV cable systems are usually only utilised in high density urban networks. 34-05 Planning guideline for medium voltage underground cable systems covers the planning of these networks and should be referenced for additional detail. MV overhead systems are utilised in lower density urban networks, and in all rural networks. Overhead HV lines are preferred to HV cables. HV cables should only be utilised where line lengths are relatively short (typically less than 10km) and overhead line servitudes are not available. HV cable repair durations are significantly longer than HV lines due to the time taken to locate and repair HV cable faults. HV cables hence require additional redundancy as compared to HV lines. It is critical that Network Planning identify long term servitude requirements so that these servitudes can be acquired well in advance. This is especially critical in developing areas where servitudes are relatively easy to secure during initial town and regional planning layout and servitude provision planning. Once an area has been developed it is generally extremely difficult and costly to obtain overhead line servitudes. This may force the use of HV cables, at greatly increased cost.
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10.3

MV lines

The Network Planner provides the base specification for a new MV overhead line as per table 7. Line design optimisation will be performed (by Project Engineering). The phase conductor size is fixed by the Network Planner. Annex A provides economic loading limits for the standard MV conductors. Table 7: MV line specification by Network Planner
1 Line parameter Project name From location To location Line length [km] NDP reference 2 Description Name of line project assigned by Network Planner. Location of line start point (preferably GPS coordinate) Location of line end point (preferably GPS coordinate) Estimated line length based on assumed line routing using available information. NDP ID and name. In the event that the line is triggered via a Planning Proposal or Customer Planning Proposal then that document name and ID should be stated. Name of the Network Planner initiating the line. Date by which the line needs to be completed. Total line cost estimate. Year Rands in which the cost estimate is based. The Network Planner must state any known environmental constraints such as environmentally sensitive areas and known areas of high wind or ice loading. This is the nominal voltage at which the line will be energised. Note that 11kV lines will be designed at 22kV specifications. Specify if the MV line is three phase, phase to phase (two phase) or SWER. The standard single MV conductor (table 3) that meets the voltage drop, thermal limit and fault level limit requirements is the minimum conductor size. Refer to annex A for MV line Economic Loading Limits. The preferred conductor size is the conductor size minimum conductor size that has an ELL greater than the expected medium term (7 year) load forecast. Network Planners should apply a default templating temperature of 50C for all new distribution lines. Should the increased thermal limit associated with a higher templating temperature be required, this must be stated.

Planners name Required completion date Estimated cost [Rands] Cost year Environmental constraints Nominal voltage [kV] Technology Phase conductor

Templating temperature [C]


Note:

The Network Planner does not need to specify the tower type, as this will be established by the line designer, and is not essential for initial line impedance estimates (a typical tower type can be used for this purpose). There is no earth wire conductor. The preferred conductor size is the smallest conductor size that meets minimum voltage drop, thermal and fault level requirements and has an ELL greater than the maximum medium term (7 year) loading. Generalised ELL values are utilised based on generalised growth rates and customer types (see annex A). AAAC conductors are utilised in coastal applications, except for conductor sizes greater than Oak, where greased ACSR Chicadee or Kingbird are used. ACSR conductors are used for all inland applications. In order to simplify application the same ELL values are used for both AAAC and ACSR conductors of similar size. ELL loading limits are only considered for three phase lines and are based on normal network configuration (not back-feeding loads).

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10.4

HV lines

The Network Planner provides the base specification for a new HV sub-transmission line as per table 8. The Project Engineering line designer will evaluate different phase conductor (with bundles), templating temperature, earth wire conductor and tower type combinations. The preferred line design must be referred back to Network Planning to ensure that impedance, thermal and fault level requirements are met (especially where a different conductor is proposed). This may require an iterative approach whereby the optimal line design can be established. Table 8: HV line specification by Network Planner
1 Line parameter Project name From substation To substation Line length [km] NDP reference 2 Description Name of line project assigned by Network Planner. Name of from substation. Name of to substation. Estimated line length based on assumed line routing using available information. NDP ID and name. In the event that the line is triggered via a Planning Proposal or Customer Planning Proposal then that document name and ID should be stated. Name of the Network Planner initiating the line. Date by which the line needs to be completed. Total line cost estimate. Year Rands in which the cost estimate is based. The Network Planner must state any known environmental constraints such as environmentally sensitive areas and known areas of high wind or ice loading. This is the required normal operating minimum thermal rating, and is the maximum load that the line is expected to carry in the long term during normal operating. This may not necessarily be the normal thermal rating of the phase conductor specified below. This is the required abnormal operating minimum thermal rating, and is the maximum load that the line is expected to carry in the long term during abnormal operating. This may not necessarily be the abnormal thermal rating of the phase conductor specified below. This is the required 1 second minimum fault level rating, and is based on the maximum fault current that the line is expected to endure in the long term. This may not necessarily be the fault level rating of the phase conductor specified below. This is the nominal voltage at which the line will be energised. If there is a possible long term requirement to up-rate the line for operation at a higher voltage then this needs to be specified e.g. 88kV line potentially upgraded to operate at 132kV. The standard single conductor (table 3) that meets the voltage drop, thermal limit and fault level limit requirements is the minimum conductor size. The PEM must be used to assess possible cost savings (due to reduced line losses) via increased conductor size. The preferred conductor size is the conductor size minimum conductor size that minimises the sum of the initial capital cost and lifetime cost of line losses. Network Planners should apply a default templating temperature of 70C for all new sub-transmission lines. During the line design process possible cost savings via reduced templating temperature need to be assessed, and if the cost savings ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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Planners name Required completion date Estimated cost [Rands] Cost year Environmental constraints Required normal thermal rating [A]

Required emergency thermal rating [A]

Required minimum fault level rating [kA]

Nominal voltage [kV]

Phase conductor

Templating temperature [C]

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1 Line parameter

are significant Network Planning will need to be consulted to establish if a lower templating temperature meets planning needs. Where the Planner requires a specific minimum current rating, this should be specified above. Earth wire conductor The final requirement for an earth wire conductor, and its size, will be established by the line designer. For initial costing purposes the Network Planner should assume that an earth wire will be installed and will be 3/4.00 or 7/3.35 galvanized steel wire. Possible OPGW requirement must be discussed with Protection. The actual towers will be determined by the line designer. The Network Planner needs to assume that a particular tower will be utilised such that associated line impedances can be utilised. The assumed tower should be based on Regional preferences, nominal voltage and conductor size. The line designer can be consulted for an initial estimate of a likely tower type.

Tower

Note: The HV line is three phase. The Network Planner specifies the line nominal voltage. Due to standardisation and future upgrade the line designer may opt to utilise towers rated for a higher voltage. The Network Planner must inform the line designer if possible future operation at a higher voltage is required. The Network Planner is not required to provide maximum and minimum impedance values. The line impedance will be largely determined by the phase conductor. The Network Planner specifies a single standard phase conductor. The line designer will assess possible bundle configurations that result in similar impedance and thermal rating as the single phase conductor recommended by the Network Planner. Should the preferred conductor (single or bundle) differ from that proposed by the Network Planner, then that conductor option will need to be assed by Network Planning. The preferred line design will need to provide similar thermal, fault level and voltage drop (impedance) as the line initially specified by the Network Planner. Line transposition must be evaluated if the line induces voltage unbalance >0.5%. As this is dependent on the final tower type, the need for transposition studies may only arise during line design.

The phase conductor/cable size that minimises capital and lifetime load loss costs is calculated using the Project Evaluation Model (PEM). The functionality of the PEM is not repeated in this guideline, but the planner will need to input the initial capital costs and technical load loss in each future year for the different conductor sizes evaluated such that the conductor size associated with minimum lifetime cost can be established. Consult the PEM and associated application guideline for additional information.

10.5

MV cables

The planning of MV underground cable networks is covered in 34-05 and is not repeated here. MV cabling within substations is specified in 34-209 (Planning guideline for medium voltage underground cable systems) and provides recommended minimum cable sizes between transformers and indoor MV switchgear, MV switchgear to overhead lines and MV switchgear to cable/customer networks. The Network Planner provides the base specification for a new MV cable as per table 9. Table 9: MV cable specification by Network Planner
1 Cable parameter Project name From location To location 2 Description Name of cable project assigned by Network Planner. Location of cable start point (preferably GPS coordinate) Location of cable end point (preferably GPS coordinate) ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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Cable length [km] NDP reference

Estimated cable length based on assumed cable routing using available information. NDP ID and name. In the event that the cable is triggered via a Planning Proposal or Customer Planning Proposal then that document name and ID should be stated. Name of the Network Planner initiating the cable. Date by which the cable needs to be completed. Total cable cost estimate. This includes all cable joints and terminations. Year Rands in which the cost estimate is based. The Network Planner must state any known environmental constraints such as environmentally sensitive areas. This is the nominal voltage at which the cable will be energised. The standard cable size that meets the voltage drop, thermal limit and fault level limit requirements is the minimum cable size (this is typically based on abnormal back-feeding conditions). Refer to annex A for MV cable Economic Loading Limits. The preferred cable size is the cable size minimum cable size that has an ELL greater than the expected medium term (7 year) load forecast. The Network Planner should state if XLPE or PILC insulation is preferred.

Planners name Required completion date Estimated cost [Rands] Cost year Environmental constraints Nominal voltage [kV] Cable size

Cable insulation
Note:

All MV cables are three phase and conductor material is copper. Cable sizes are usually selected to provide adequate back-feed capacity. Thermal and voltage drop requirements are hence usually based on abnormal network configurations Likely cable de-rating should be taken into consideration when selecting the minimum cable size. When in doubt the Network Planner should assume XLPE insulation. MV ABC is to be avoided. Cable protection implications and costs must also be considered, including possible fibre link for unit protection on primary feeder cables. The loading utilised for the ELL selection is the normal network loading in the medium term (year 7).

10.6

HV cables

The Network Planner provides the base specification for a new HV cable as per table 10. Table 10: HV cable specification by Network Planner
1 Cable parameter Project name From location To location Cable length [km] NDP reference 2 Description Name of cable project assigned by Network Planner. Location of cable start point (preferably GPS coordinate) Location of cable end point (preferably GPS coordinate) Estimated cable length based on assumed cable routing using available information. NDP ID and name. In the event that the cable is triggered via a Planning Proposal or Customer Planning Proposal then that document name and ID should be stated. Name of the Network Planner initiating the cable. Date by which the cable needs to be completed. Total cable cost estimate. This includes all cable joints and terminations. ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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Planners name Required completion date Estimated cost [Rands]

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Cost year Environmental constraints Nominal voltage [kV] Cable size

Year Rands in which the cost estimate is based. The Network Planner must state any known environmental constraints such as environmentally sensitive areas. This is the nominal voltage at which the cable will be energised. The standard cable size that meets the voltage drop, thermal limit and fault level limit requirements is the minimum cable size (this is typically based on abnormal back-feeding conditions). The PEM must be used to assess possible cost savings (due to reduced cable losses) via increased cable size. The preferred cable size is the cable size minimum cable size that minimises the sum of the initial capital cost and lifetime cost of cable losses. The Network Planner should state if the conductor material should be aluminium or copper. The Eskom Distribution standard is aluminium (see note below).

Conductor material
Note:

All HV cables are three phase and insulation is XLPE. The standard conductor material is aluminium, but copper may be preferred in certain applications, especially where increased thermal capacity is required. As a result conductor material could still be specified by the Network Planner. Cable sizes are usually selected to provide adequate back-feed capacity. Thermal and voltage drop requirements are hence usually based on abnormal network configurations Likely cable de-rating should be taken into consideration when selecting the minimum cable size. Cable protection implications and costs must also be considered, including possible fibre link for unit protection. Unit protection will be utilised for all new HV cables. All new HV cable feeders (circuits) should, where possible, be installed in individual trenches in separate servitudes. This is to ensure that the risk of common mode failures is limited. Common mode failures occur when more than one cable circuit simultaneously faults due to the same or directly related causes. Common mode failures could be due to external factors (e.g. contractor damage, theft, etc.) or could occur when a fault on one cable feeder damages another cable feeder in close proximity. This is especially critical where HV cable feeders supply the same substation (load).

10.7

Costing

The latest approved costing tool should be utilised for costing new line and cable installations.

11

Modelling lines and cables in PSA software

This section describes ReticMaster and PowerFactory functionality and contains software screenshots. It is possible that functionality and interfaces may change in future software versions. The latest software version and user guide should be consulted.

11.1
11.1.1

ReticMaster
Data type library

The data library contains a dictionary of line/cable parameters. This library type data is used when modelling line or cables. The same models are used for both lines and cables.

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Figure 21: Line/cable data library editor ReticMaster only supports a fully transposed line/cable model. Separate conductor/tower models are not supported for overhead lines. Line parameters must be calculated elsewhere and imported into the ReticMaster data library. The ReticMaster data library is illustrated in figure 21. The fields are described in table 11. Table 11: ReticMaster line/cable data type library fields
1 Specifications Positive Sequence R Positive Sequence X Positive Sequence B Zero Sequence R Zero Sequence X Zero Sequence B Neutral conductor R Neutral conductor X Neutral conductor B Temperature Units Ohms per km Ohms per km Mico Siemens Ohms per km Ohms per km Mico Siemens Ohms per km Ohms per km Mico Siemens Degree Celsius 2 Notes Positive sequence resistance per km line/cable length Positive sequence inductance per km line/cable length Positive sequence shunt capacitance per km line/cable length Zero sequence resistance per km line/cable length Zero sequence inductance per km line/cable length Zero sequence shunt capacitance per km line/cable length Neutral conductor resistance per km line/cable length Neutral conductor inductance per km line/cable length Neutral conductor shunt capacitance per km line/cable length Conductor temperature at which the resistance has been specified. The actual operating temperature is specified in the element. The temperature in the data library and element should default to the same value. Default 40 Conductor temperature coefficient. Describes how resistance changes with temperature. Is dependent on the conductor material. ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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Conductor Constant

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Cost/km User code Current rating Normal Operation Overload Condition

Rands per km None Units Amps Amps

Line/cable capital cost per km. Can be utilised in conductor optimisation and costing studies This is a user defined code, and could be assigned to indicate data sources Notes This is the line/cable normal thermal rating This is the line/cable abnormal thermal rating (emergency conditions)

11.1.2

Element data

The same element models are used for both lines and cables. The ReticMaster element data editor is illustrated in figure 22. The fields are described in table 12. Note that ReticMaster uses a combined branch node model whereby the line and its child node (and load) are described as a combined entity.

Figure 22: Line/cable element editor Table 12: ReticMaster line/cable element fields
1 Field Open check box Technology Phasing Voltage Conductor Length Conductor Group De-rating factor Conductor temperature Units None None None V or kV None M None Per unit Degree Celsius 2 Notes If checked the line will be disconnected Describes the number of phase and neutral conductors, and the phase angle displacement Describes the phasing connection of the cable/line i.e. which phases are physically connected Line nominal voltage. This is the voltage at which the line is energised Drop down list of all conductors in the data type library Line/cable length Conductor group to be used in line/cable size optimisation functionality. Default 1 Per unit line/cable de-rating or up-rating factor based on local installation conditions. Default 1 Conductor operating temperature for line/cable resistance adjustment. Default 40 3

Note that the planner should change the conductor temperature to 50

11.2
11.2.1

PowerFactory
Data type library

DigSilent supports two methods for the modelling of overhead lines:

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Line type model: This is similar to the model used in ReticMaster. The line impedances (positive and zero sequence) are calculated elsewhere and the results entered into the line type model. Per-phase impedances are not modelled so the effect of un-transposed lines can not be evaluated. Any changes in conductor or tower characteristics require that the parameters be recalculated in the separate calculation engine. The data type library needs to contain all combinations of conductors and towers as may be practically used. Conductor and tower type model: Conductors and towers are modelled separately such that there are separate data type libraries for towers and conductors. In the element data the user specifies the conductor and tower combination. The line impedances are calculated for this combination by an internal calculation engine. The per-phase impedances are calculated and stored such that full unbalanced studies can be performed. The data type library is significantly reduced as compared to the line type model as only the conductor and tower characteristics needs to be stored. The combinations of conductor and tower are used specified in the element.

The following figures and screens capture the main data tabs. Specialist studies such as reliability and harmonic analysis support the entry of additional data, but this is not covered in this guideline. 11.2.1.1 Line/cable type model

Figure 23: Line/cable type data (Basic Data) Table 13: Line/cable type fields (Basic Data)
1 Fields Name Rated Voltage Rated Current Nominal Frequency Cable/OHL System Type 2 Units None kV kA Hz None None Notes Name of the line/cable Rated line voltage. The line can be energized at a voltage Rated Voltage Thermal current rating. This is the normal rating. An emergency rating can be applied via a scale and trigger Nominal frequency for which impedances have been calculated Specifies if the line is an overhead line, non-armoured cable or cable Options are AC or DC. Default to AC ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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Phases

None

Number of phases. Is dependent on the line technology: Star or Delta = 3 Phase to Phase or Dual Phase= 2 Single Phase or SWER = 1

No. of Neutrals

None

Number of neutrals. Is dependent on the line technology: Star, Dual Phase or Single Phase = 1 Delta, Phase to Phase or SWER = 0

Resistance R Reactance X Resistance R0 Reactance X0

Ohm/km Ohm/km Ohm/km Ohm/km

Positive (and negative) sequence resistance Positive (and negative) sequence reactance Zero sequence resistance Zero sequence reactance

Figure 24: Line/cable type data (Load Flow) Table 14: Line/cable type fields (Load Flow)
1 Fields Susceptance B Susceptance B0 Insulation factor 2 Units uS/km uS/km Notes Positive (and negative) sequence shunt capacitance Zero sequence shunt capacitance Tan delta of conductance. Default to 0 3

Note that for normal studies only B and B0 need to be specified. The rest of the parameters can default to zero.

Figure 25: Line/cable type data (Description)


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Table 15: Line/cable type fields (Description)


1 Fields Manufacturer Characteristic Name Foreign Key Data source Description Status Line cost $/km 2 Units None None None None None Notes User option to specify type manufacturer Alternative type name. Could be a short or long equipment code Usually a user defined ID to link to other data sources. Could for example be a serial number or plant slot ID Used to described the data source e.g. manual data entry, MTL etc Free text description User option to specify if approved or not Annualised capital and maintenance cost. Units are specified in case setup. Used in cable size optimisation 3

11.2.1.2 Conductor and tower type model

Figure 26: Tower geometry type data (Geometry)


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Table 16: Tower geometry type fields (Geometry)


1 Fields Name Number of Earth Wires Number of Line Circuits Coordinates Earth Wires Coordinates Phase Circuits 2 Units None None None M M Notes Tower geometry type name Number of earth wire conductors Number of line circuits Geometric coordinates of each earth wire conductor Geometric coordinates of each phase conductor for each line circuit

Note that Y coordinates are relative to ground level (Y=0). X coordinates are relative to one-another. A common approach is to treat the centre line of the tower as X=0, and specify the conductor coordinates relative to ground level (Y=0) and the tower centre line (X=0).

Figure 27: Conductor type data (Basic Data)

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Table 17: Conductor type fields (Basic Data)


1 Fields Name Nominal Voltage Nominal Current Number of Subconductors Conductor model DC Resistance Outer diameter GMR (Equivalent Radius) Skin effect Ohm/k m mm mm None 2 Units None kV kA None Notes Conductor type name e.g. 1Fox Maximum voltage at which conductor can be used Thermal current rating. This is the normal rating. An emergency rating can be applied via a scale and trigger Number of sub-conductors that the conductor type is composed of Solid or tubular conductor Sub-conductor DC resistance at 20C Sub-conductor outer diameter Sub-conductor GMR If set then AC resistance is adjusted for skin effect 3

Note that the bundle GMR is calculated by PowerFactory using the sub-conductor GMR and bundle spacing.

Figure 28: Conductor type data (Short Circuit) Table 18: Conductor type fields (Short Circuit)
1 Fields Max End Temperature Rated Short-Time (1s) Current 2 Units C kA Notes Maximum conductor temperature after fault condition Rated 1 second fault level current 3

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11.2.2

Element data

11.2.2.1 Line/cable type model

Figure 29: Line/cable element data (Basic Data) Table 19: Line/cable element fields (Basic Data)
1 Fields Name Type Terminal i Terminal j Out of Service Number of parallel lines Length of line Derating factor Line model 2 Units None None None None None None Km Per unit None Notes Name of line/cable element Library type record used for line parameter calculation Line/cable start point (connection to other equipment) Line/cable end point (connection to other equipment) Set if line/cable is out of service (disconnected at both ends) Number of identical parallel lines/cables. An equivalent line is modelled Line/cable length Line/cable derating factor due to local installation conditions Lumped or distributed line model option. Distributed Parameter model is used for detailed analysis of long EHV lines. Default to Lumped Parameter Used to specify multiple line/cable sections where a line is composed of more than one line section, where each line section has a different line type and length ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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Routes/Cubicles/Sections

None

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Figure 30: Line/cable element data (Description) Table 20: Line/cable element fields (Description)
1 Fields Serial number Year of construction Characteristic Name Foreign key Data source Description Operating temperature 2 Units None None None None None None C Notes Element serial number, if applicable Year in which line/cable was installed Alternative element name. Could be a short or long equipment code Usually a user defined ID to link to other data sources. Could for example be a serial number or plant slot ID Used to described the data source e.g. manual data entry, MTL etc Free text description Conductor operating temperature. The conductor AC resistance is adjusted based on the operating temperature and temperature coefficient (as specified in the type) 3

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11.2.2.2 Conductor and tower type model

Figure 31: Line geometry and conductor element data (Basic Data) Table 21: Line geometry and conductor element fields (Basic Data)
1 Fields Name Type Terminal i Terminal j Out of Service Number of parallel lines Length of line Derating factor 2 Units None None None None None None Km Per unit Notes Name of line element Library tower geometry type record used for line parameter calculation Line/cable start point (connection to other equipment) Line/cable end point (connection to other equipment) Set if line/cable is out of service (disconnected at both ends) Number of identical parallel lines/cables. An equivalent line is modelled Line/cable length Line/cable derating factor due to local installation conditions 3

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1 Fields Line model

2 Units None Notes

Lumped or distributed line model option. Distributed Parameter model is used for detailed analysis of long EHV lines. Default to Lumped Parameter Used to specify multiple line sections where a line is composed of more than one line section, where each line section has a different line type and length Phase conductor library conductor type Earth wire conductor library conductor type Maximum sag of phase conductor. Used to calculate phase conductor height above ground Maximum sag of earth wire conductor. Used to calculate earth wire conductor height above ground Earth resistivity for zero sequence resistance calculation If set line impedances are calculated assuming ideal transposition whereby phase impedances are identical. If unset the per phase impedances are calculated and can be utilised for unbalanced loadflow

Routes/Cubicles/Sections

None

Type of Phase Conductors Type of Earth Conductors Max Sag, Phase Conductors Max Sag, Ground Wires Earth Resistivity Transposition

None None M M Ohmm None

11.3

General notes

The following should be noted: PowerFactory does not explicitly support emergency thermal ratings. However scales and triggers can be utilised to specify multiple ratings. Conductor thermal rating depends on templating temperature. As the templating temperature can very for each line, templating dependent ratings can not be set via scales and triggers and only a single global templating trigger can be changed. The line and conductor library types must be duplicated for each templating temperature. Line and conductor type resistances in PowerFactory are entered at 20C. The conductor operating temperature is specified in the element and the conductor resistance is adjusted based on the temperature coefficient. The skin effect adjustment does not take the transformation effect into account. AC resistance can be entered instead of DC resistance, but then the skin effect flag must not be set. It is recommended that line types be utilised for cables and MV lines. Tower geometry types should be utilised for HV lines. PowerFactory also has a line coupling element, which is used to model the mutual inductance between parallel overhead lines. The user specifies the tower and conductor characteristics of each line circuit, and tower horizontal spacing. This line coupling element should also be used when modelling multiple circuits on the same tower.

12

Worked examples

The following worked example illustrates some of the key issues discussed in this guideline. The associated ReticMaster and PowerFactory files are published as attachments to this guideline.

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12.1

Sub-transmission line transposition

The network under study is illustrated in figure 32. The 132kV overhead lines are strung with single Bersfort ACSR phase conductor on 222 (staggered vertical) towers. The PowerFactory case file can be consulted for additional information on the 222 tower geometry. Load Power factor is 0.9. Note that this network is not modelled in ReticMaster as it is a meshed HV network.

Figure 32: 132kV loop with single Bersfort conductor Table 22: Transposition case files
1 Case file Base network No transposition 2 Description Perform a load-flow calculation. Note that an unbalanced calculation is required for the assessment of voltage unbalance. With all three 132kV lines in service the minimum 132kV positive sequence voltage of 99.7% occurs at busbar 132kV BB3. None of the 132kV lines are transposed. The positive and negative sequence phase to neutral voltages at 132kV BB3 are 75.987kV and 0.288kV respectively. The voltage unbalance is hence 0.288 / 75.987 = 0.38%. Perform a load-flow calculation. With 132kV line 1 out of service lines 2 and 3 supply both loads. The minimum 132kV positive sequence voltage of 93.2% occurs at busbar 132kV BB2. None of the 132kV lines are transposed. The positive and negative sequence phase to neutral voltages at 132kV BB2 are 71.011kV and 0.805kV respectively. The voltage unbalance is hence 0.805 / 71.011 = 1.13%. Line transposition appears to be required. Perform a load-flow calculation. 132kV line 3 has been transposed. Under normal network conditions 132kV BB3 positive sequence voltage still drops to 99.7%. Voltage unbalance has reduced to 0.153 / 75.989 = 0.2%. Perform a load-flow calculation. 132kV line 3 has been transposed. With 132kV line 1 out of service 132kV BB2 positive sequence voltage still drops to 93.2%. Voltage unbalance has reduced to 0.07 / 71.012 = 0.1%. Transposing 132kV line 3 significantly reduces the 132kV voltage unbalance. Perform a load-flow calculation. As an alternative to transposing 132kV line 3, a delta tower has been used with equilateral phase spacing. With 132kV line 1 out of service 132kV BB2 positive sequence voltage drops to 93.1%. Voltage unbalance has reduced to 0.07 / 70.975 = 0.1%. A delta tower on 132kV line 3 significantly reduces the 132kV voltage unbalance. ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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Contingency No transposition

Base network L3 transposed Contingency L3 transposed Contingency L3 delta tower

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12.2

MV line conductor sizing, Q & A

Situation: A distribution planner is sizing the conductor of a new 11kV overhead line supplying a residential area with an anticipated Load Factor of 0.4. The maximum loading during normal network operation is expected to be 1.5MVA in year 1 of installation, growing to 2.0MVA in year 7 and saturating at 2.2MVA. Fox conductor meets the minimum requirements to comply with thermal limits and voltage drop. Should Fox be used? Answer: Referring to table 4, the thermal rating of Fox at a 50C template is 148A which is 2.82MVA at 11kV and is adequate for the expected loading. Referring to table A1 the ELL of Fox at 11kV with a Load Factor of 0.4 is 0.65MVA. As the expected year 7 loading of 2MVA is greater than the ELL of 0.65MVA, Fox is not appropriate as the cost of losses will be high. The standard conductor with an ELL 2MVA at a Load Factor of 0.4 is Hare, where the corresponding ELL is 2.32MVA. In this network Hare conductor should be used as it is the smallest conductor that meets thermal, voltage and ELL requirements. Situation: A distribution planner is sizing the conductor of a new 22kV overhead line supplying a rural electrification village with an anticipated Load Factor of 0.3. The maximum loading during normal network operation is expected to be 0.5MVA in year 1 of installation, growing to 0.9MVA in year 7 and saturating at 1.1MVA. The expected maximum fault level is 5kA as the village is relatively close to the MV source. Fox conductor meets the minimum requirements to comply with thermal limits and voltage drop. Should Fox be used? Answer: Referring to table 4, the thermal rating of Fox at a 50C template is 148A which is 5.64MVA at 22kV and is adequate for the expected loading. The fault level rating of Fox is 3.14kA. Referring to table A2 the ELL of Fox at 22kV with a Load Factor of 0.3 is 1.68MVA. The ELL of Fox is greater than the forecasted year 7 loading hence Fox is appropriate from a loss optimisation perspective. HOWEVER the Fox fault level rating of 3.14kA is less than the expected fault level of 5kA. Fox is hence not adequate. In this case the conductor size is determined by the minimum conductor size that meets the fault level requirement, and in this case is Mink conductor which has a fault level rating of 5.4kA. Situation: A distribution planner is sizing the conductor of a new 22kV overhead line supplying a number of rural electrification villages with an anticipated Load Factor of 0.4. The maximum loading during normal network operation is expected to be 2.7MVA in year 1 of installation, growing to 3.5MVA in year 7 and saturating at 4MVA. The expected maximum fault level is 3kA. Fox conductor meets the minimum requirements to comply with thermal limits and voltage drop. Should Fox be used? Answer: Referring to table 4, the thermal rating of Fox at a 50C template is 148A which is 5.64MVA at 22kV and is adequate for the expected loading. The fault level rating of Fox is 3.14kA. Referring to table A2 the ELL of Fox at 22kV with a Load Factor of 0.4 is 1.30MVA. While Fox is adequate from a thermal and fault level perspective, the ELL of 1.3MVA is less than the forecasted year 7 load of 3.5MVA. The standard conductor with an ELL 3.5MVA at a Load Factor of 0.4 is Hare, where the corresponding ELL is 4.64MVA. In this network Hare conductor should be used as it is the smallest conductor that meets thermal, voltage and ELL requirements. Situation: A distribution planner is sizing the conductor of a new 11kV overhead line supplying a rural agricultural feeder with an anticipated Load Factor of 0.5. The maximum loading during normal network operation is expected to be 1.3MVA in year 1 of installation, growing to 1.7MVA in year 7 and saturating at 1.9MVA. Hare conductor is required to meet voltage regulation requirements. The fault level will not exceed 3kA. Is Hare appropriate? Answer: Referring to table 4, the thermal rating of Hare at a 50C template is 292A which is 5.56MVA at 11kV and is adequate for the expected loading. Referring to table A1 the ELL of Hare at 11kV with a Load Factor of 0.5 is 1.89MVA. As the expected year 7 loading of 1.7MVA is less than the ELL of 1.89MVA, Hare is appropriate as the cost of losses will not be excessive and the fault level rating of 8.97kA is more than adequate.

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Situation: A distribution planner proposes to build a new 11kV feeder that will supply an electrification load of 4MVA in year 7. The load factor is expected to be 0.3. Is this a good idea from a losses perspective? Answer: Referring to table A1 the ELL of Hare at 11kV with a Load Factor of 0.3 is 2.98MVA. From a loss optimisation perspective the backbone conductor would need to be Chicadee. The planner should evaluate the option of splitting the feeder so that for example Hare conductor could be used.

12.3

MV line conductor sizing, worked example

The 22kV feeder in figure 33 is planned and appropriate conductor sizes need to be selected given the following inputs: The 22kV source is regulated at 103% and the 22kV three fault level is 5kA. The loads are the forecasted year 7 loads. The load factor is expected to be 0.5. The 22kV voltage drop in year 7 should not exceed 7%.

Select appropriate 22kV conductor sizes for each line such that thermal, voltage, fault level and technical loss requirements are met.

22kV source Fault level 5kA L1: 1km L2: 3km L3: 2km 300kVA L4: 3km 700kVA L5: 5km 100kVA L6: 10km L7: 5km 500kVA

200kVA

300kVA

200kVA

Figure 33: 22kV overhead feeder

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Table 23: Transposition case files


1 Case file Base network No conductors 2 Description The planner should assume that all the lines L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6 and L7 in the 22kV overhead feeder are Magpie conductors. The rating of Magpie conductor at a 50C template is 33A which is 1MVA at 22kV. This configuration results in the maximum loading of lines L1, L3 and L4 exceeding 1MVA as indicated: Line L1 is loaded at 2.49MVA, L2 at 0.5MVA, L3 at 1.95MVA, L4 at 1.60MVA, L5 at 0.85MVA, L6 at 0.52MVA and L7 at 0.2MVA. Since the type of conductor chosen for L1, L3 and L4 results in an exceedance of the conductor thermal limit, Magpie conductor is not suitable for these conductors. The planner should now change the type of conductors for lines L1, L3 and L4 from Magpie to Squirrel conductor. The rating of Squirrel conductor at a 50C template is 104A which is 3.96MVA at 22kV. He/she should leave the conductor types for conductors L2, L6 and L7 as Magpie conductor. At this stage, none of the conductors exceed the thermal limits. The minimum 22kV voltage is 93% at the end of the feeder. The fault level rating of Magpie conductor is 0.91kA, and the fault level rating of Squirrel conductor is 1.79kA. By performing a fault level calculation, it will be observed that the expected maximum fault level for line L1 is 5kA, L2 is 3.857kA, L3 is 3.857kA, L4 is 2.274kA, L5 is 1.334KA, L6 is 0.533kA and L7 is 0.239kA. Thus, the fault level limits of lines L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5 have been exceeded. Since the fault level limits for lines L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5 have been exceeded, the planner must increase the size of these conductors so that the fault level limits of the conductors are not exceeded. The fault level rating of Mink conductor is 5.4kA, the fault level rating of Fox conductor 3.14kA, the fault level rating of Squirrel conductor is 1.79kA and fault level rating of a Magpie conductor is 0.91kA. Hence, line L1, L2 and L3 should be replaced with Mink conductor, L4 with Fox conductor, L5 with Squirrel conductor, and L6 and L7 can remain as Magpie conductors. With the conductors changed as indicated, the minimum 22kV voltage is now 96%. By performing a fault level calculation, it will be observed that the expected maximum fault level for line L1 is 5kA, L2 is 4.313kA, L3 is 4.313kA, L4 is 3.259kA, L5 is 2.048KA, L6 is 1.004kA and L7 is 0.307kA. Thus, the fault level limits of lines L4, L5 and L6 have again been exceeded (Bigger conductor size, less impedance to source, thus increased fault level). By leaving conductor L1, L2 and L3 Mink conductors, replacing L4 with Mink conductor, line L5 with Fox conductor and lines L6 and L7 with Squirrel conductors ensures that no conductor fault level limits are exceeded. With the conductors changed as indicated, the minimum 22kV voltage at the end of the feeder is now at 99%. With the conductors now replaced in order to prevent exceedance of its fault level limits, the planner can now look at the loading of each line which is are as follows: Line L1 is 2.34MVA, L2, 0.5MVA, L3, 1.83MVA, L4, 1.52MVA, L5, 0.81MVA , L6, 0.51MVA and L7, 0.2MVA. By referring to table A2, the planner will observe that the ELL of various conductors at 22kV and with a Load Factor of 0.5: Mink is 2.16MVA, Fox 1.06MVA and Squirrel 0.58MVA. Since the expected year 7 loading of line L1 is 2.34MVA, greater than the ELL of Mink conductor which is 2.16MVA, Mink conductor for line L1 is not appropriate as the cost of losses will be high. The standard conductor with an ELL 2.34MVA at a Load Factor of 0.5 is Hare, where the corresponding ELL is 3.78MVA. Line L1 should therefore be replaced with Hare conductor as it is the smallest conductor that meets thermal, voltage and ELL requirements. The planner will also observe that the ELL of all the conductors (according to Table A2) is greater than the forecasted year 7 loading and are thus appropriate from a loss optimisation perspective. The minimum 22kV voltage at the end of the feeder remains at 99% (0.99 per unit). Therefore with line L1 as Hare conductor, lines L2, L3 and L4 as Mink conductors, L5 as Fox conductor and lines L6 and L7 as Squirrel conductors, we have a network that uses the smallest conductors that meet thermal (including fault level limits), voltage and ELL requirements
Note: If the 22kV voltage is not within requirements then a next step is needed to increase conductor sizes to meet the voltage limits. Note that larger conductor sizes may also be selected to facilitate back-feeding, but this is not assessed in this example. Also note that the minimum conductor size may also be dependent on mechanical and stock holding requirements, and in reality a region might for example use Fox as the smallest standard conductor size

Conductors sized for thermal limits

And fault level limits

And loss optimisation

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Annex A - MV line and cable Economic Loading Limits


The ELL limits have been calculated via an Excel based tool utilising typical line/cable capital costs and the forecasted Eskom Long Run Marginal Cost of Generation. The ELL limits differ for each voltage and conductor size and are dependent on the Load Factor of the load supplied by the line/cable. The ELL is the load in year 7 after the installation of the line/cable. I.e. the maximum line/cable loading during normal network operation in year 7 after installation. The same ELL values should be used for both AAAC and ACSR conductors of similar size e.g. in coastal areas the ELL limits for Hare should be applied to Oak conductor. For MV cables the same ELL limits (in MVA) are utilised for both XLPE & PILC MV cables ELL loading limits are only considered for three phase lines. Phase to phase and SWER lines will be sized for voltage drop limitations and as such loading levels will be below the ELL values. The ELL values are only to be applied when sizing new lines/cables and do not apply to existing lines/cables. Existing line loading may exceed the ELL values as it may not be economical to replace the line to reduce the losses. The ELL values apply to new line/cables where the line/cable must be installed and the ELL values optimise the additional cost associated with a larger conductor size. The upgrading of existing lines/cables to reduce loss costs can be evaluated with the PEM, and is not documented in this guideline. Refer to PEM application guideline. If the ELL limit is greater than the line/cable thermal rating then the thermal rating must not be exceeded. This is especially the case with PILC cables. TR is the Thermal Rating. Table A1: 11kV overhead conductor ELL values [MVA in year 7]
1 Conductor 0.2 Squirrel Fox Mink Hare Chicadee 0.63 1.18 2.40 4.19 7.67 0.3 0.45 0.84 1.70 2.98 5.44 0.4 0.35 0.65 1.33 2.32 4.29 0.5 0.29 0.53 1.08 1.89 3.46 0.6 0.24 0.45 0.92 1.60 2.89 0.7 0.21 0.39 0.80 1.39 2.56 0.8 0.18 0.34 0.70 1.23 2.23 2 3 4 5 Load Factor 6 7 8

Table A2: 22kV overhead conductor ELL values [MVA in year 7]


1 Conductor Squirrel Fox Mink Hare Chicadee 2 3 4 5 Load Factor 0.2 1.26 2.36 4.80 8.38 15.34 0.3 0.90 1.68 3.40 5.96 10.89 0.4 0.70 1.30 2.66 4.64 8.58 0.5 0.58 1.06 2.16 3.78 6.93 0.6 0.48 0.90 1.84 3.20 5.77 0.7 0.42 0.78 1.60 2.78 5.11 0.8 0.36 0.68 1.40 2.46 4.45 6 7 8

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Annex A
(Continued) Table A3: 11kV cable ELL values [MVA in year 7]
1 Cable size 25 50 95 185 300 2 3 4 5 Load Factor 0.2 TR TR TR TR TR 0.3 1.94 TR TR TR TR 0.4 1.51 3.09 TR TR TR 0.5 1.24 2.53 4.56 TR TR 0.6 1.04 2.14 3.86 TR TR 0.7 0.91 1.86 3.34 6.13 TR 0.8 0.80 1.63 2.95 5.41 7.67 6 7 8

Table A4: 22kV cable ELL values [MVA in year 7]


1 Cable size 25 50 95 185 2 3 4 5 Load Factor 0.2 TR TR TR TR 0.3 4.32 TR TR TR 0.4 3.35 5.63 TR TR 0.5 2.74 4.61 TR TR 0.6 2.31 3.90 9.10 TR 0.7 2.01 3.38 7.91 TR 0.8 1.78 2.98 6.98 TR 6 7 8

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Annex B - Impact assessment


1 Guidelines
o o o o All comments must be completed. Motivate why items are N/A (not applicable) Indicate actions to be taken, persons or organisations responsible for actions and deadline for action. Change control committees to discuss the impact assessment, and if necessary give feedback to the compiler of any omissions or errors.

2 Critical points
2.1 Importance of this document. E.g. is implementation required due to safety deficiencies,
statutory requirements, technology changes, document revisions, improved service quality, improved service performance, optimised costs. Comment: Implementation is required to improve Dx Network Planning by providing network planners with the information/training to analyse and plan lines and cables.

2.2 If the document to be released impacts on statutory or legal compliance - this need to be very
clearly stated and so highlighted. Comment: N/A no impact on statutory or legal compliance.

2.3 Impact on stock holding and depletion of existing stock prior to switch over.
Comment: N/A no impact on stock holding.

2.4 When will new stock be available?


Comment: N/A no impact on stock.

2.5 Has the interchangeability of the product or item been verified - i.e. when it fails is a straight
swop possible with a competitor's product? Comment: N/A no impact on products.

2.6 Identify and provide details of other critical (items required for the successful implementation
of this document) points to be considered in the implementation of this document. Comment: The line/cable ELL values will need to be updated as updated LRMC of generation are published, and this is expected to be done annually.

2.7 Provide details of any comments made by the Regions regarding the implementation of this
document. Comment: (N/A during commenting phase)

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Annex B
(Continued)

3 Implementation timeframe
3.1 Time period for implementation of requirements.
Comment: Can be applied immediately via self study. Full application by all network planners will be dependent on training rollout.

3.2 Deadline for changeover to new item and personnel to be informed of DX wide change-over.
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

4 Buyers Guide and Power Office


4.1 Does the Buyers Guide or Buyers List need updating?
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

4.2 What Buyers Guides or items have been created?


Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

4.3 List all assembly drawing changes that have been revised in conjunction with this document.
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

4.4 If the implementation of this document requires assessment by CAP, provide details under 5 4.5 Which Power Office packages have been created, modified or removed?
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

5 CAP / LAP Pre-Qualification Process related impacts


5.1 Is an ad-hoc re-evaluation of all currently accepted suppliers required as a result of
implementation of this document? Comment: No, is not a new product or change to an existing product.

5.2 If NO, provide motivation for issuing this specification before Acceptance Cycle Expiry date.
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

5.3 Are ALL suppliers (currently accepted per LAP), aware of the nature of changes contained in
this document? Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.
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Annex B
(Continued)

5.4 Is implementation of the provisions of this document required during the current supplier
qualification period? Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

5.5 If Yes to 5.4, what date has been set for all currently accepted suppliers to comply fully?
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

5.6 If Yes to 5.4, have all currently accepted suppliers been sent a prior formal notification
informing them of Eskoms expectations, including the implementation date deadline? Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

5.7 Can the changes made, potentially impact upon the purchase price of the material/equipment?
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

5.8 Material group(s) affected by specification: (Refer to Pre-Qualification invitation schedule for
list of material groups) Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

6 Training or communication
6.1 State the level of training or communication required to implement this document. (E.g. none,
communiqus, awareness training, practical / on job, module, etc.) Comment: The guideline is suitable for self study, but training will be included as part of the Dx network planning training framework that is being driven by the TESCOD Planning Study Committee.

6.2 State designations of personnel that will require training.


Comment: All Dx Network Planners.

6.3 Is the training material available? Identify person responsible for the development of training
material. Comment: Yes, E-Learning based material is being finalised and will need to be updated with the revisions.

6.4 If applicable, provide details of training that will take place. (E.G. sponsor, costs, trainer,
schedule of training, course material availability, training in erection / use of new equipment, maintenance training, etc). Comment: Incorporated into Dx Planning training program.

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Annex B
(Continued)

6.5 Was Training & Development Section consulted w.r.t training requirements?
Comment: Yes, this is being done as part of the broader Dx Network Planning training framework.

7 Special tools, equipment, software


7.1 What special tools, equipment, software, etc will need to be purchased by the Region to
effectively implement? Comment: None. The guideline utilises existing tools and simply enhances there application and the interpretation of results.

7.2 Are there stock numbers available for the new equipment?
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

7.3 What will be the costs of these special tools, equipment, software?
Comment: None. The guideline utilises existing tools and simply enhances there application and the interpretation of results.

8 Finances
8.1 What total costs would the Regions be required to incur in implementing this document?
Identify all cost activities associated with implementation, e.g. labour, training, tooling, stock, obsolescence Comment: The direct costs will be training costs. Application will enhance network planning. The correct sizing of lines and cables considering technical load loss costs may result in the utilisation of larger conductor sizes as compared to historical practices. This will need to be monitored as the guideline is applied, so that the impact on the Dx capital requirement can be understood. Impact assessment completed by: Name: Mobolaji Bello Designation: Senior Advisor, IARC.

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