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A management information system (MIS) is a system or process that provides information needed to manage organizations effectively .

Management information systems are regarded to be a subset of the overall internal controls procedures in a business, which cover the application of people, documents, technologies, and procedures used by management accountants to solve business problems such as costing a product, service or a business-wide strategy. Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making, e.g. Decision Support Systems, Expert systems, and Executive information systems. At the start, works in businesses and other organizations, internal reporting was made manually and only periodically, as a by-product of the accounting system and with some additional statistic(s), and gave limited and delayed information on management performance. Previously, data had to be separated individually by the people as per the requirement and necessity of the organization. Later, data was distinguished from information, and instead of the collection of mass of data, important, and to the point data that is needed by the organization was stored. Early on, business computers were mostly used for relatively simple operations such as tracking sales or payroll data, often without much detail. Over time these applications became more complex and began to store increasing amounts of information while also interlinking with previously separate information systems. As more and more data was stored and linked man began to analyze this information into further detail, creating entire management reports from the raw, stored data. The term "MIS" arose to describe these kinds of applications, which were developed to provide managers with information about sales, inventories, and other data that would help in managing the enterprise. Today, the term is used broadly in a number of contexts and includes

It must provide for reports based up performance analysis in areas critical to that plan." The terms MIS and information system are often confused. equipment. but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. and distribute needed. and procedures to gather. MIS must not only indicate how things are going. Information systems include systems that are not intended for decision making. storing and disseminating data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management. Any successful MIS must support a businesses Five Year Plan or its equivalent. resource and people management applications. including recruitment and training regimens.research in the information systems field examines more than the technological system. it investigates the phenomena that emerge when the two interact. Professor Allen S. and do so in such a way that indentifies individual accountability. processing. Lee states that ". The area of study called MIS is sometimes referred to. sort. In a way it is a documented report of the activities that were planned and executed. or just the social system.. as information technology management.(but is not limited to): decision support systems. and in virtual real-time. That area of study should not be confused with computer science. analyze. An 'MIS' is a planned system of the collecting. CRM. in a restrictive sense. SCM. evaluate. IT service management is a practitioner-focused discipline.. According to Philip Kotler "A marketing information system consists of people. or even the two side by side. timely. with feedback loops that allow for titivation of every aspect of the business. These reports would include performance relative to cost centers and projects that drive profit or loss." . and accurate information to marketing decision makers. project management and database retrieval application. ERP. in addition. MIS has also some differences with Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) as ERP incorporates elements that are not necessarily focused on decision support. In effect.

Overview of Marketing Management Information System (MIS) .

pricing decisions.Management information systems provide decisionMaker¶s information and feedback on daily operations. management information systems can be used strategically. often incorporating Web technology. Inputs to Marketing MIS y y y Strategic plan and corporate policies The TPS External sources: o The competition o The market Marketing MIS Subsystems and Outputs y y y y Marketing research o Web based market research Product development Promotion and advertising Product pricing . Additionally. promotional effectiveness and sales forecasting. Marketing MIS: Marketing Management Information System (MIS) supports managerial activities in product development. distribution.

Overview of Human Resource MIS .

Geographic information systems (GISs) o Enables managers to pair pre-drawn maps or map outlines with tabular data to describe aspects of a particular geographic region.Human Resources MIS: Human Resource Management Information System (MIS) is concerned with all of the activities related to employees and potential employees of the organization. and other applications. accounts receivable. Inputs to the Human Resource MIS y y y Strategic plan or corporate policies The TPS: o Payroll data o Order processing data o Personnel data External sources Human Resource MIS Subsystems and Outputs y y y y y Human resource planning Personnel selection and recruiting Training and skills inventory Scheduling and job placement Wage and salary administration Other MISs y y Accounting MISs o Provides aggregated information on accounts payable. . payroll.


hours worked and so.defined Management information system to be a system that gathers more comprehensive data organizes and summarizes it in a form that is of value to functional managers. . Information or MIS are the various procedures and methods used to convert the data into useful information. MIS generates information to enhance the long term strategic goals and objectives. Difference between data and information. everyday financial accounts system . 1995 Management Information System: is defined to be a system or process that provides information necessary to manage an organization effectively. Communication in organizations Edition .Are generally considered essential components of prudent and reasonable business decisions. when taken by itself have no meaning.. Such as output figure. Data or raw data is the. Basic facts and figures of operational life.Management Information System According to Comptroller s Handbook May. It is there to ensure consistent approach to the development use and review of the management information system. and then provides those same managers with the information the need to do their work.

Information is ready to be used. it does not make sense. it is used for what it was created for. Information is only deemed useful if it meets the required need. o Decisions it put to the test. Useful Information Useful information can be see as any information communicated that is important to or relates to a specific topic. Useful information this stage is the finished product.Raw data Management Information System Process Useful Information  Decisions User Processes Diagram of the management information system in decision making. . In the diagram above o o o o Raw data refers to the data in its natural form. MIS process is the translation or conversion of the raw data into understandable information. User processes this is where the information analyzing of the data is done and the useful information go unto the next stage.

Relevance: information provided to managers must be relevant (must deal with the matter at hand). summarize results and be able to adjust and correct errors promptly. . Information should be easily understood. It must be error proof. Consistency: because data collection and reporting processes will change overtime. Information should be readily available. Accuracy: a sound automated and manual internal control system must exist throughout all information system processing activities. MIS must be appropriate to support the management level using it The characteristics of useful information. that decision makers need complete and pertinent information in a summarized report. Reports should be designed to eliminate clutter and voluminous details thereby avoiding information overload . edit data. is made useful due to 3 main characteristics: Time.Characteristics of useful information: Timeliness: to simplify prompt decision making. Completeness: MIS plays an important role in decision making. The system should be able to quickly collect. the MIS must be able to provide and distribute current information to appropriate users. Form. Content. to be reliable the data should be processed and complied to verify it authenticity.

5. Accurate information transferal to gain best results. 2. 3. Support the organization s strategic goals and directions. Deliver complex material through the institution. Data must be analyzed to ensure the best alternative is used. . Information gathered must be used in the manner suggested to accomplish organizational objectives. 4. 6. Enhances communication among employees. Data must be summarized before the information is used. 5.Goals of the MIS 1. Appropriate data should be gathered. 4. Provides an objective system for recording and aggregating information. Steps of a Good MIS The steps to a good MIS must include an organizational planning process inclusive of both tactical and strategic level. 1. 2. Investigation should be made about the information to determine if the information is viable and if it can be used. Produce expenses related to labour-intensive manual activities. 3.

3.Advantages of the MIS 1. Provides information for future budgeting. 7. Managers will also be able to check on the implementation for staffing. Allows managers to manipulate the model built into the system. 3. 8. While data was extensive. 6. . Improving the efficiency of operations. Decision making. Planning. 5. Minimizing the duplication of efforts. Improving the quality of decision. the super computer in organization. Maintenance of information is too expensive. it was not necessary constructed in the way that best suit the users. Communicating information. Disadvantages of the MIS 1. 4. 2.(past)b 2. Uses of the MIS 1. 4. It helps to enhance the company or organization recruitment ability. Controlling activities. Problem solving.

the system and reports output should support reinforcement of organizational goals. A useful business planning initiatives need a supporting long term strategic MIS. . the annual operating plan and the budgetary process. Delivery of Information: The right quality and quantity of information must be delivered to allow managers to perform their duties effectively and in a timely manner. Provide Information Flow: All information gathered must relate to the organizational structural development corroborative and more stable informational needs. (all information must support the facts).Characteristics of an effective MIS Managers need to ensure the MIS is developed according to a sound methodology as follows: Meeting Organizational Objectives: The long and short term plan must be rise to effective and easily understood tasks.

The process of establishing an effective MIS Planning: in this process the operations and resources are assisted. an analysation is done to see how effective the information system is. MIS enhances the job performance by providing the necessary data and information to help management make strategic decisions. Improvement: this is where an organization grows after the implementation. the direction as to how the resources are going to be used. it supports and enhances the overall decision making process. so better and effective measures are put into place. to ascertain where the resources are best useful. Implementation: this is where the plan and the design are put into motion. How the MIS enhances decision making. Designing: the analyzing of the correct resources and equipment for the work. The MIS supplies decision makers with facts. . This is where the true test begins. The analysis should show where the systems is lacking and have not worked.

This will cause time laps and wasting of resources. The MIS provides information for planning and sustainable management. increasing the organization expense. The organization is doomed to failure. If managers have no information as to how to run their businesses and an understanding of the purpose of the organization. the placement party it tell who goes where.MIS as it relates to planning: The management information system plays a vital role in planning. Today the MIS with all its technological advancements have increased both the availability and volume of information. Organizational structure and MIS are the veins of the organization. Which are the contributing factors of a successful business. An organization with out a structure is chaotic and will lead to the complete destruction of the organization. . Worker will spend more time getting work done and in some case you will find that more that one person would have completed the same job twice. This is how vital the management information system is to planning. All financing information was stored and continually updated as transaction where made during this period. Management and the directors have the information available for both planning and decision making. The information system in any organization is as important to a business as food is an integral to sustainability of our lives. The importance of the MIS in an organizational structure: Management need to about to allocate the best suited persons for the job and in the right positions that are available in the organization. Improvements to MIS The management information system was originally created between 1954 and 1964 to deal with the accounting aspect of the organization.