# statistics formulas

:
Below are listed the main formulas used in statistics:

a> Arithmetic mean formulas:
1> The mean for ungroup ( individual ) data or the arithmetic mean is denoted by: and it‟s

formula is:

2>The arithmetic mean for group (discrete) data is calculated using formula: 3> The arithmetic mean for continuous data is calculated using the formulas: Direct method:

Deviation method:

Step deviation method:

Where , d = X – A , A = assumed mean and i = height of the class.

b> Median formulas:
1> Median for ungroup data:

i> Median =

„th observation if the “N” is odd.

ii> Median = average of 2> Median for group data:

and

observation if “N” is even.

N = total numbers of items. f= frequency of median class . c> Quartiles formulas : 1> First quartile: For individual data: observation in the data arranged in ascending or decreasing order. and exact first quartile = where .f. .Median = ( For continuous frequency distribution ) where . h= size of first quartileclass . For continuous data: lies in place. 2> Third quartile: For individual data: observation in the data arranged in ascending or decreasing order. For continuous data: lies in place. f= frequency of first quartile class . c. N = total numbers of items. = cumulative frequency of pre-first quartile class . . l= lower limit of median class . h= size of median class . For group ( discrete) data: observation in the data arranged in ascending or decreasing order.f. = cumulative frequency of pre-median class . c. For group ( discrete) data: observation in the data arranged in ascending or decreasing order. l= lower limit of first quartile class .

= cumulative frequency of pre-third quartile class . preceding modal class . Mode = Where . = frequency of the class = the frequency of class succeeding modal class .and exact third quartile = where . c. . height = frequency of modal class . h = class width or e> Deviation formulas: 1> Mean deviation: Mean deviation from mean ( For ungroup data: ) For group ( continuous and discrete ) data: and Mean deviation from mode ( ) .f. h= size of third quartileclass . d> Mode formulas: 1> Mode = value with highest frequency for ungroup and discrete frequency distribution. f= frequency of third quartile class . l = lower limit of mode class . N = total numbers of items. Mode = 5> If two or more than two highest frequency data are present then . l= lower limit of third quartile class . 2> Mode ( 3> If )= or then. ( for continuous frequency distribution) Mode = 4> If then .

Standard where .For ungroup data: and For group ( continuous and discrete ) data: where . ( is assumed mean). 5> Range: deviation ( ( ) = is assumed mean). Range = Largest item – smallest item = Co-efficient of range = . Standard deviation ( For group data ii : )= where . 2> Quartile deviation: Inter quartile range = Quartile deviation or semi – Inter quartile range = Co-efficient of quartile deviation = 4> Standard deviation: For ungroup data: Standard deviation ( For group data i : )= where . ( is actual mean).