Windows Storage Server 2008 R2

Architecture and Deployment White Paper
Version 1.0

Published: February 2011

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Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................ 1 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Overview .................................................... 3 Comparing Windows Server Operating System Storage Offerings .................. 3 Comparing Windows Storage Server with Windows Server ..................... 3 Identifying Windows Storage Server Features ....................................... 4 What’s New in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 .................................. 5 Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2 ................................................................................................ 8 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Editions ................................................10 Identifying Storage Challenges ................................................................12 Identify Scalability Storage Challenges ................................................12 Identify Availability Storage Challenges ...............................................13 Identify Security Storage Challenges ..................................................14 Identify Manageability Storage Challenges ..........................................14 Identify Data Recovery Storage Challenges .........................................14 Identifying Windows Storage Server Solution Benefits ................................14 Identifying Scalability Benefits ...........................................................15 Identifying Availability Benefits ..........................................................15 Identifying Security Benefits ..............................................................16 Identifying Manageability Benefits ......................................................16 Identifying Data Recovery Benefits .....................................................18 Exploring Windows Storage Server Features and Capabilities ............................19 Providing Access to File Services Workloads ..............................................20 Supporting File Services Workloads Using CIFS, SMB, or SMB2 ..............20 Supporting File Services Workloads Using NFS .....................................21 Supporting File Services Workloads Using WebDAV ..............................22 Supporting File Services Workloads Using Windows SharePoint Services ..........................................................................................23 Providing Access to iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ..........................................23 Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target ...............................................................................24 Supporting iSCSI Boot ......................................................................27 Providing Access to Web Services Workloads .............................................30 Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads ..............................................31 Providing Access to Print Services Workloads ............................................31 Providing Reduction in Power Consumption ...............................................33 Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers ...............................33 Processor Power Management ............................................................33 Storage Power Management ..............................................................34 Additional Power Saving Features .......................................................35 Performing Highly Automated Installations ................................................35 Managing Windows Storage Server ................................................................36 Management Tools for All Workloads ........................................................36 Managing Power Consumption for All Workloads ........................................37

............................56 Using Automated System Recovery to Protect Data ..51 Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data..................................................................................................38 Managing File Services Using File Server Resource Manager ........47 Managing Print Services Workloads ..41 Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication ...............................................................................63 Securing Print Services Workloads ..............................................................................62 Securing Web Services Workloads......................................52 Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data ...........44 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads .........38 Managing File Services Using Share and Storage Management ..........................................................................67 Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Targets .............................................................exe Tool to Backup IIS Configuration ..........................................................................................................45 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ...............................................................................37 In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting .................70 Improving Availability of Web Services Workloads .....................................49 Protecting Windows Storage Server Workload Data ......58 Using the PrintBRM..........exe Tool to Backup Printer Information .............................................................................46 Managing Web Services Workloads ...............59 Securing File Services Workloads ......................................58 Securing Windows Storage Server Workloads .......................43 Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ....................................41 Managing Single Instance Storage ..............51 Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data ...64 Improving Availability of Windows Storage Server Workloads............................................59 Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads ...............................65 Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ...........................................................................................................................73 ....................................72 Improving Availability of Print Services Workloads ........................................................................65 Improving Availability of File Services Workloads ...................................54 Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service ...............................................57 Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect Data ...............ii Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Remote Manageability of Power Policy...........53 Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data .......54 Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap .................45 Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell .........................................................................56 Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data ...............56 Using DFS Replication to Protect Data ..........................................................................................................................................55 Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization ...............................................55 Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization ..............57 Using the Appcmd.....................68 Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Initiators .................................................................................................................61 Securing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads .............................38 Managing File Services Workloads ........................

............90 Review I/O Storage Test Results ........................................................................................iii Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Performance and Scalability for Windows Storage Server Solutions .....................................90 Identify Methods for Improving iSCSI Block I/O Workload Performance and Scalability ......... 109 Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation ................................. 120 ........................................................98 Using Windows Storage Server in iSCSI Block I/O Configuration ................ 118 Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions .......... 113 Creating Application Consolidation Solutions ..................96 Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration ...................................................................93 Improving Performance and Scalability for Web Services Workloads .......................................................................................................................................................................................97 Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration . 113 Creating Solutions for Heterogeneous Environments ................................ 101 Creating Highly-Available Solutions ............................................................................................................87 Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files .. 114 Creating Unified Storage Solutions ........................................96 Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration ...........95 Windows Storage Server Deployment Scenarios ...77 Improving Performance and Scalability for File Services Workloads ................... 100 Creating Branch Office Solutions ..79 Review SMB-based File Services Workload Test Results.........................74 Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity .....................................................................82 Reviewing Performance Improvements in SMB Version 2..................................90 Improving Performance and Scalability for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads .........................78 Review Improvements in the SMB2 Protocol .............85 Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache ..........................................................94 Review Web Services Workload Test Results ......................................96 Overview of Windows Storage Server Configurations .......75 Improvements in Network Adapter Performance...................76 Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations ................................................................1 in Windows Server 2008 R2 ...................................................................74 Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Protocol ....... 119 Conclusion ..... 110 Creating Small to Medium Business Solutions ............................94 Improving Performance and Scalability for Print Workloads ...........94 Identify Methods for Improving Web Services Workload Performance and Scalability ......................................................... 120 More Information ....................................................................................74 Improving Performance and Scalability for All Workloads ........................................................................................................ 116 Running Virtual Machines on Windows Storage Server ................................................................. 115 Creating Virtualization Solutions ........................................................... 116 Connecting Virtual Machines to iSCSI LUNs...

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 Virtualization services. The most common feature is to store files in document libraries. Windows Storage Server refers to Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. see Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. which supports check-in and check-out features. unless otherwise specified. Provides access to Web-based content and services. Provides the ability to share documents.  Windows® SharePoint® Services. Provides access to printers using Microsoft print services. Windows Storage Server is only available through Microsoft Partners. extensible. scalable. Windows Storage Server provides a unified solution for the following workloads:  Files services. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS).  Print services. Provides access to files using the Server Message Block (SMB) version 2. In addition to providing extended features. and highly-available storage solutions. Microsoft OEM partners offer specialized hardware and additional software components to create network attached storage appliances. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 is built on Windows Server 2008 to create efficient and effective storage solutions. Provides remote network attached storage that appears as a disk logical unit number (LUN) to other computers. or FTP. purchasing Windows Storage Server bundled with partner appliances can be more cost effective than purchasing Windows Server and a server computer separately. and share ideas and information. WebDAV. version control.Introduction Windows® Storage Server 2008 R2 is the latest in the Windows Storage Server family of products and is based on the technologies and features found in Windows Server® 2008 R2. or Internet printing services. Web services. iSCSI block input/output (I/O). File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) protocols. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials provides entrylevel solutions intended for use in organizations with 24 or less computers. Provides the ability to run up to two virtual machines on an appliance. including file services. and operate storage solutions. This white paper describes the features and technologies in Windows Storage Server. Windows Storage Server extends the file services in Windows Server by providing addition storage features not found in Windows Server. depending on the Windows Storage Server edition. NFS version 3. use email efficiently and effectively. SMB2 provides a superset of the features found in CIFS and provides improved performance and reliability over previous versions of SMB. Windows Storage Server provides solutions that complement the file services provided by Windows Server. . which are connected using the Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) standard. and how Windows Storage Server appliances address them. Note In this white paper. deploy. such as Common Internet File System (CIFS) or Network File System (NFS). which can be accessed using HTTP.0.0. The following table lists some of the problems and pain points that organizations have with network attached storage appliances. track tasks.  Web services. Provides access to files managed by the appliance for computers using file access protocols. and how to create secure. and file history.  iSCSI Block storage services. Note This white paper focuses on all Windows Storage Server editions except for Windows® Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials. and print services workloads. This white paper is intended for IT professionals who design. Line Printer Daemon (LPD) services. These services also provide high-performance access to remote disk LUNs using the iSCSI industry standard and can act as an iSCSI initiator or an iSCSI target. For more information about Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials. Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV).

Limited breadth of vendor support. and Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager. Lack of comprehensive software update management. Management of workloads. Many of the management consoles can be customized to include Microsoft OEM partner branding. NTFS permissions. Uses familiar Windows Server management consoles. Provides a set of software update management technologies and products for any sized organization. to provide optimal security. Limited provisions for failover or fault tolerant configurations. Designed to work "better together" with Windows operating systems. Takes advantage of the breadth and depth of the software and hardware products provided by other vendors that are provided for Windows Server 2008. Supports a wide variety of security products and technologies. Limited disaster recovery. .2 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 1. scalability. Supports Windows Server Failover Clusters. Ongoing operations and maintenance is labor intensive. including Windows Vista® and Windows® 7. including BitLocker® Drive Encryption. Supports industry standard protocols and services that provide interoperability in heterogeneous environments. Share permissions. Limited protection of information stored on the appliance. and the server software supports extensibility using any application programming interfaces (APIs) supported by Windows Server 2008. and Microsoft® Forefront®. Minimal or no integration with existing authentication and authorization system. performance. and from Microsoft partners. extensible Microsoft OEM vendor hardware platforms. Windows Software Update Services (WSUS). availability. and manageability. and Network Load Balancing for improved availability and fault tolerance in addition to the hardware fault tolerance features provided by Microsoft OEM partners. Provides Windows Server Backup as part of Windows Storage Server. such as System Center Data Protection Manager. including Windows Update. Many on-going operations and management tasks can also be automated using System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager. Implements nonstandard or proprietary protocols or services. Integrates with Active Directory® Doman Services (AD DS) and Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services. Loosely integrated with clients that consume the services. Network Attached Storage Appliance Problems and Pain Points Problem or pain point Windows Storage Server solution Dedicated or limited function Provides servicing of multiple workloads on highly appliance. Limited customization and extensibility. Distributed File System (DFS). and supports other disaster recovery products from Microsoft.

 Identifying the features that are new to Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Windows Server includes Microsoft file and print services. and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. As a general purpose operating system.  Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2. to provide a unified storage solution. because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server.  Identifying Windows Storage Server solution benefits. secure.  Identifying Storage challenges. it shares all the benefits of Window Server. full screen remote desktop control of storage server administration using Web RDP. each of these Windows operating systems has different storage capabilities and features. such as Active Directory® Domain Services.  Identifying the features that are unique to Windows Storage Server. including:  A common application programming interface. Comparing Windows Server Operating System Storage Offerings Each current Windows® operating system provides some level of storage services. and easy to manage. or Direct Access. and support for web applications running Internet Information Services (IIS). However. DHCP Server. Network Access Protection. DFS-R.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 editions. However.3 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Overview Windows Storage Server is optimized for file workloads and includes additional technologies. scalable. For a more detailed description of the differences between these operating systems. These optimizations provide enhanced features and performance not found in the general purpose Windows Server operating systems. This comparison of Windows Server operating system storage offerings includes:  Comparing Windows Storage Server with Window Server. . Windows Storage Server is a member of the Windows Sever operating system family that is built on Windows Server. and then replaces the files with reparse points (links) to the single instance. Deduplication of files is a specific form of compression provided by the SIS feature that combines redundant files into a single instance of the file.  Tightly integrated with Windows infrastructure services.  Efficient management of shared resources using familiar Windows management consoles and command-line utilities. Windows Server® operating systems have been providing storage solutions since their introduction.  Automation of administration tasks using Windows PowerShell™. see the “Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2” section in this white paper. but is optimized for storage solutions. such as deduplication of files using the Single Instance Storage (SIS) feature. Comparing Windows Storage Server with Windows Server Windows Server operating systems are a family of general purpose operating systems that provide a platform for running IT services and applications that are highly-available. DFS-N. This overview of Windows Storage Server includes the following topics:  Comparing Windows Server operating system storage offerings.

such as Initial Configuration Tasks window. Table 2 lists the reasons for selecting Windows Storage Server or Windows Server as your storage solution. as described in the “Step 2: Customize the end user installation experience for the usage scenario” section in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 OEM Deployment Guide. Reasons to Select Windows Storage Server or Windows Server Solution Windows Storage Server Why select this solution      Windows Server      Provides iSCSI block I/O storage for application storage scenarios. Installs on existing computers.4 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper There are many instances in which Windows Storage Server provides a more costeffective and efficient storage solution than Windows Server.  The ability to function as an iSCSI target using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3.  The ability to extend the Windows user experience for commonly used management tools. Runs more than two virtual machines in a Microsoft Hyper-V™ environment. Identifying Windows Storage Server Features Windows Storage Server includes the following features that are not included in Windows Server:  Deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage (SIS) v2 as described in the section “Managing Single Instance Storage” in this white paper. such as database services or messaging services. . Runs applications on the same computer. In other instances. Provides file deduplicaton using SIS. Potentially lowers deployment cost than Windows Server when new hardware is required.  Full-screen remote desktop management using Windows Internet Explorer® or any web browser that supports Java using the WebRDP feature as described in the “Management Tools for All Workloads” section in this white paper. Provides multiple roles on the same computer. Table 2. Windows Server many have distinct advantages over Windows Storage Server. Provides additional installation and configuration options.3 as described in the section “Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target” in this white paper. such as file services and domain controller on the same computer. Consolidate file services and iSCSI block I/O on one appliance Provides file services for an existing SAN solution by acting as a SAN gateway.

For more information. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target”  “Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions” DFS namespace (DFS-N) improvements Branch cache hosted cache mode SMB2 file access improvements Unmapped UNIX User Access (UUUA) for NFS file services.3 . For more information. For more information. NFS client user identities use automatically generated Windows SIDs to access NFS shares. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication”  “Using DFS Replication to Protect Data”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Scales to support up to 60. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using Branch Cache”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Dramatic reduction in network utilization for accessing files. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Provides locally cached copies of files to reduce network utilization between locations. iSCSI Software Target 3.5 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper What’s New in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Table 3 lists the new or improved features in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 that did not exist in previous versions of Windows Storage Server. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Review Improvements in the SMB Protocol”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Reduced administrative effort for providing and monitoring access to NFS shares. New or Improved Features in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Feature DFS replication (DFS-R) Description Supports up to 16 simultaneous replication streams. Supports replication to and from failover clusters. For more information. which minimizes administrative effort. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Supporting Files Services Workloads Using NFS”  “Securing Files Services Workloads” Improved performance for iSCSI block I/O workloads and support for differencing VHDs used in iSCSI boot solutions. For more information.000 domain-based namespaces and improvements in fault tolerances. For more information. Table 3. Provides read-only access to replica copies of data.

see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Providing Reduction in Power Consumption”  “Management Tools for All Workloads” Overall performance enhancements due to operating system optimization. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell”  “Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell” IT pros can remotely perform full-screen remote desktop management using Internet Explorer or any web browser that supports Java. For more information. and increased memory capacity. Power consumption and power management Performance and memory capacity I/O performance FTP services . see the “Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations” section in this white paper. For more information. see “Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads” section in this white paper. the power management features can be configured using Group Policy settings.6 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Simplified deployment for two node clusters Description Reduced administrative effort for installing and configuring a failover cluster using two appliances using the Initial Configuration Tasks window. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity”  “Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using Branch Cache” Performance for I/O operations has been dramatically improved. Automation of repetitive administrative tasks using Windows PowerShell Remote management using WebRDP Client. For more information. For more information. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Improving Availability of File Services Workloads”  “Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads” Windows PowerShell providers are included for Single Instance Storage and iSCSI block I/O workloads. For more information. 64-bit processor support. the Cluster Name and Domain Join Wizard and the Cluster Validation and Setup Wizard. For more information. see the “Management Tools for All Workloads” section in this white paper. In addition. Dramatic reduction in power consumption due to improvements in system resource power management. Performance and manageability for FTP services have been improved. such as processor power consumption.

For more information. For more information. which allows files to be managed based on their classification. and reduced effort for developing a backup extension. LUN resynchronization can be used to provide faster recovery in some disaster recovery scenarios. For more information. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell”  “Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell” Unattended installation and Storage settings can be configured at installation time configuration of storage using the unattended installation.7 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description Windows File Classification Management of files has been improved though the infrastructure Windows File Classification Infrastructure. Provides snapshots of volumes virtual hard disks (VHDs). which facilitates fully settings automated installations. see “Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure” in this white paper. LUN resynchronization Volume Shadow Copy Service improvements . For more information. supports concurrent restores. For more information. Windows PowerShell Windows PowerShell support has been improved for helping to automate storage management tasks. see “Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data” section in this white paper. The classification of files is defined by IT administrators. see “Performing Highly Automated Installations” in this white paper. see the “Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data” section in this white paper. see the “Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data”” section in this white paper. For more information. Windows Server Backup Windows Server Backup provides improved features for performing backup and recovery scenarios.

8 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2 The following lists features and technologies common to both Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2:  Administration Tools  Microsoft .) Internet Printing Client LPR Port Monitor Microsoft file services based on SMB2 Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ) Multipath I/O Network File System (NFS) Peer Name Resolution Protocol Remote Assistance Remove Desktop Connection Remote Differential Compression Remote Server Admin Tools RPC Over HTTP Proxy Simple TCP/IP Services SNMP Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications (SUA) Telnet Server TFTP Client Windows Biometric Framework Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Windows Network Load Balancing Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) Windows PowerShell Windows Process Activation Server . and antivirus software.NET 3.                                  BITS Server Extensions Desktop Experience DFS Namespace DFS Replication DHCP Server Failover Clustering Note Failover clustering is available only in the Enterprise edition of Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) Full Text Search Group Policy Management Console Integration with Windows Server ecosystems (including backup software.0  BitLocker Drive Encryption Note BitLocker Drive Encryption does not work with failover clusters.

Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Differences Feature or technology Availability to organizations.  Windows Server Migration Tools  WS-Management  Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) Although Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 is based on the features and technologies in Windows Server 2008 R2. Supports acting as an iSCSI target using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. Optimized for file services workloads.9 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Windows Server Backup Note Windows Server Backup does not work with failover clusters and does not support volumes larger than 2 terabytes. Table 4. Table 4 lists the feature and technology differences between the two products. Supports customized branding of user interface. Supports full screen remote desktop management using Web RDP. Supports deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage (SIS). Windows Server 2008 R2 Retail channels Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Microsoft OEM partners     Optionally performed by Microsoft OEM partners .3. there are some differences between the two products.

BitLocker Drive Encryption    Workgroup 64-bit 4 32 GB 2 6 Any  Workgroup 25     Standard 64-bit 4 32 GB Unlimited Any Any  Standard Unlimited     Enterprise 64-bit 8 2 terabyte Unlimited Any Any  Enterprise Unlimited        . is available in the following editions:  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Workgroup.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Standard. Number of disks supported. Enterprise provides support for an unlimited number of users with maximum faulttolerance and scalability provided in a Windows Storage Server product. print services. Workgroup provides support for less than 25 users who require access to file services using Microsoft file services or NFS. and Web services workloads. which provides key functionality to support any sized business and IT storage challenge.10 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Editions Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Type of disk adapters supported. and the support level for the capabilities in each edition of the product. File Services Resource Manager. DFS replication.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Enterprise. print services. Maximum number of processor sockets. iSCSI block I/O services. Deduplication of files using SIS. Standard provides support for an unlimited number of users who require access to file services using Microsoft file services or NFS. Capabilities Maximum number of simultaneous users supported. Table 5 lists the capabilities of Windows Storage Server. iSCSI block I/O services. Table 5. File Classification Infrastructure. Maximum amount of memory. Enterprise is an advanced platform that provides more cost-effective and reliable support for mission-critical workloads. Comparison of Windows Storage Editions Maximum system resources support Capabilities Supported processor architecture. Hardware RAID supported. and Web services workloads. Maximum number of network adapters. NFS. BranchCache in hosted cache mode. Workgroup is an entry-level technology foundation also targeted at small business owners and IT generalists supporting small businesses. Use the information in Table 5 to identify which Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 edition is best suited for your organization. deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage.

Windows Search services. Windows Server Backup. Domain name system (DNS). DHCP Server services. Note Some Microsoft partners include the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by default. .      Any    1 Any             2 Any           For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target specifications. OEM customization of user interface and experience. Workgroup Optional Standard Optional Enterprise Optional Failover clusters.11 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Capabilities Microsoft iSCSI Target Software. Number of printers supported for Print Services workloads. Multipath I/O. see the section. AD DS read-only domain controller. "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Specifications" later in this white paper. Windows Management Instrumentation. Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services. Domain membership. Fax services. Hyper-V guest support.

However.  Identify data recovery challenges in storage solutions. policy-driven processes and procedures. When an administrator finds that these hard disk drives are getting too full. Data must be easy to manage and maintain for local users. Security Manageability Data recovery Identify storage solution challenges by performing the following steps:  Identify scalability challenges in storage solutions. it can be difficult to make the data accessible to others. and inadvertent user error. unauthorized access. and where to find them. remote users. Identify Scalability Storage Challenges Internal or external hard disks are the most common way to store data on desktops. there is no effective mechanism to determine exactly where information is stored or which version of a document is the most up-todate. and it should be protected from any single point of failure. Table 6.  Identify availability challenges in storage solutions.  Identify manageability challenges in storage solutions. compromise. regardless of the size of their organization. Scalability storage challenges include:  Decentralized of data. workstations. Table 6 lists the categories of storage challenges that most organizations experience. Even when sharing is enabled.  Identify security challenges in storage solutions. Data must remain free from corruption. Data must be accessible by users on an on-demand basis for a high percentage of the time. data is increasingly dispersed throughout a company. Finding the appropriate solution requires careful optimization of an enterprise-wide storage plan. Many organizations must adhere to data retention regulatory requirements to not keep data older than a defined age. Storage Challenge Categories Category Scalability Availability Description Data must be accessible in a timely manner based on the response times defined in your Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Business requirements determine the challenges that an organization must solve to provide a comprehensive storage solution.  Underutilization of storage resources.  Compatibility with storage networking solutions. upgrade to higher capacity disks. or branch offices using highly-automated. making it difficult for users to know what resources exist. Data must be recoverable in the event of a disaster. the simplest solutions to increase storage capacity are: add more hard drives. or purchase additional computers that each have more hard disks. This is an especially troublesome problem with data stored on desktops — without file sharing enabled on these computers. Decentralization of Data As the number of systems increase.12 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Storage Challenges IT pros face most of the same storage challenges. in a decentralized structure an administrator can . and servers.

users still have the problem of not being able to find the data that they need — or in some cases even knowing that it exists. while others have excess capacity but no means to effectively share those resources. These parity-based approaches can provide protection from a disk failure through the maintenance of checksum information. You can also create more sophisticated. and ensuring that the data is protected well enough to meet requirements. storage interconnects. Failure in any of a number of hardware components — storage devices. Migrating a company’s critical data to a centralized server can help the situation. Identify Availability Storage Challenges Businesses rely on making their services and information available for access. . because the data can be readily shared across the network. but capacity exceeded on another. thus space may be available on one server. Hard disks using the same RAID controller can be combined to provide a fault tolerance disk configuration using RAID subsystems. and is one way to ensure highly available data. mechanisms need to be put in place to ensure data availability so that user productivity is not negatively affected. and those resources must be provisioned before disk capacity is exceeded. year-round. high latency WAN links.13 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper face many hurdles when building and applying a consistent policy to the type and age of data that is stored. network interconnects. Adding more servers does not eliminate the problem of inefficient utilization of storage space between servers. they also scale well with more advanced storage solutions. Unfortunately. directly attached storage tends to scale poorly over the long term. As data is centralized. as more servers are added to increase storage capacity (and to provide redundancy in the event of hardware failure). The availability storage challenges include:  Hard disk redundancy.  Server redundancy. In this case. motherboards and power supplies — can result in a temporary or permanent loss of data. Storage remains local to each server. processors. and offer services for. 24x7. other storage mediums with the end result being consolidated management flow for administrators and a consistent experience for users. Hard Disk Redundancy Hard disk redundancy can be achieved using RAID types such as RAID 10. Effective storage planning requires accurate predictions of which users and applications will require more storage capacity. Compatibility with Storage Networking Solutions The best storage solutions not only meet today’s storage needs. cabling. Storage solutions must be able to integrate with. RAID 5. or RAID 6. But. Underutilization of Storage Resources Storage that is directly attached to a server is made available to other computers on the network through the operating system’s sharing capabilities. parity-based configurations that spread multiple data over multiple drives. Fault tolerance can be achieved through redundancy of hardware components. Anticipating growth and implementing storage solutions that scale with growth remains a problem. organizations can experience bandwidth bottlenecks as users in remote locations attempt to access data in a central location via potentially slow. Some computers inevitably exceed their storage capacity. such as network attached storage (NAS) and storage area networks (SANs).

especially in midsize and large organizations. Identify Security Storage Challenges Preventing unauthorized access to confidential data requires tight integration between file services and identity management systems. although many organizations require multiple platforms to support various applications. or another operating system. IT pros have to help ensure the strongest possible security while allowing users the access they require to data. Access to the data must be secured for users on the organization’s intranet. Unfortunately. and disasters. users are rarely effective in performing regular backups. applications remain online. With Failover Clustering. extranets. remote users must be able to access the data through remote access connections. Users are redirected to another computer without any loss of services. This redirection can also ensure data availability even when the computer is not connected to the network. and for clustering those servers to ensure effective performance and high availability. Finally. In addition. UNIX. The most common means of protecting data from these problems is through tape backups and restores. The benefits to creating storage solutions using Windows Storage Server include:  Scalability  Availability  Security  Manageability  Data recovery . Identifying Windows Storage Server Solution Benefits Network attached storage appliances running Windows Storage Server have a number of advantages compared to other network attached storage appliances. but also from data corruption. application. and database servers. demand is increasing to share data among users whether they are running Windows. user error. web. Identify Manageability Storage Challenges System administration can become enormously complex. these solutions provide only partial protection. Administrators are responsible for managing file. even if a server goes down. Technologies such as folder redirection combined with Offline Files can help users store data on servers by redirecting key folders. Hard disks must be backed up by the individual user. However. or the Internet.14 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Server Redundancy Failover clustering allows two or more computer systems to perform and be managed as a single system. Identify Data Recovery Storage Challenges System administrators must protect data not only from hardware failure. system administrators strongly advocate storing critical documents and data on a server. Most of these advantages are available because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server 2008 R2. Security in depth is required in terms of multi-level and multi-factor security in instances where the data is highly confidential. such as My Documents to a network location while keeping a cached version of the data on the user’s local machine. and for that reason. where it can be properly backed up.

memory. In addition. Windows Server® 2003 introduced the ability to accommodate multiple DFS root directories on each server. ensuring access to the nearest available copy of the data at the lowest cost. If a primary component fails.  Processor scaling. protection and recovery by Single Instance Store-aware backup solutions can significantly reduce backup windows and recovery times. Failover clustering can help you build redundancy into your network and eliminate single points of failure. Windows Storage Server includes support for fault tolerate memory synchronization. On a dynamically partitionable server.  Reduces storage requirements. and I/O host bridges. DFS has been enhanced to remove the 5. including fans and power supplies and processors and RAM that runs in lockstep together.  Fault tolerant hardware. Those modifications are compressed during transmission. the secondary component takes over in a process that is seamless to the application running on the server. Duplicate files are transparently replaced with file system links to the single copy retained in the SIS Common Store — saving significant capacity. and hot-replace of processors and memory on x64-based and Itanium-based systems which support DHP. The Distributed File System Replication (DFSR) service controls replication and synchronization of data using Remote Differential Compression (RDC) that only replicates modifications to a file. Windows Storage Server can failover to an alternate path if the primary path fails. DFS also offers closest site selection. You can select the failover priority by configuring the load-balancing policies for your storage solution. therefore. faster synchronization. offering the ability to contain and recover from several types of multi-bit ECC errors in memory and cache without operating system or application interruption.  Dynamic hardware partitioning. and custom applications that sometimes require highly reliable.15 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Scalability Benefits The following are the scalability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Increasing the Effectiveness of File Sharing. When multiple paths exist between servers and storage. partition units can be added or replaced without restarting the operating system. Once enabled. It is no longer necessary to add an additional server for each additional DFS root directory. Distributed File System (DFS) simplifies the user’s process of locating and accessing files distributed across an organization. scalable servers.  Improved fault tolerance between servers and storage. With the release of Windows Server 2008 R2.000-link target limit that previously existed. Fault-tolerant servers contain redundant hardware. This data can be made highly available in a transparent manner using the Distributed File System Namespace. line of business. and this capability has been maintained in Windows Server 2008 R2. The Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server helps optimize storage capacity using built-in file deduplication.  Windows Hardware Error Architecture (WHEA). . Single Instance Storage actively compares and eliminates identical files on selected volumes. Identifying Availability Benefits The following are the availability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Failover clustering. DFS only displays items in the namespace and folders that the user has access to. WHEA has been enhanced to support Machine Check Architecture (MCA) error recovery. resulting in less bandwidth used for replication and. Windows Storage Server can scale up to 256 logical processors to meet the demands of business-critical servers supporting large databases. and to provide support for Access Based Enumeration (ABE) on DFS Namespaces. Windows Storage Server supports hot-add of processors.

You can use the same extensive security products and technologies found in Windows Server 2008 to secure Windows Storage Server. You can manage and operate Windows Storage Server using the same IT processes and procedures that are currently used to manage Windows Server 2008 R2.  Integrates with existing identity management systems. and IPsec. such as BitLocker Drive Encryption. Windows Storage Server allows you to take configuration snapshots of the storage subsystem (for example. and with less effort. This helps protect your existing investment while developing custom processes and procedures. You can easily extend the features and services provided by Windows Storage Server using the large number of products and services provided by Microsoft partners or by developing your own solution. you can take advantage of your expertise with Windows Server. such as System Center Operations Manager. Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS). multi-vendor storage device management required a system administrator to manage each device independently and to use a different vendor-supplied interface to do so — all of which adds another layer of complexity to the system administrator’s job. you can quickly restore the configuration to a previous version.  Seamlessly integrates with your existing Windows IT infrastructure. can be used to access resources shared by Windows Storage Server. For example. Because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server 2008 R2. In the event of a subsequent configuration failure. An error in the configuration of the storage subsystem can negatively affect storage availability. the iSCSI configuration). and federated domains using Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS). more precisely. Windows Server 2008 R2 contains a number of management interfaces for SAN hardware. In addition. Comprehensive Microsoft support for Windows Server products and the extensive community of partners and peers help you resolve storage-related issues with less effort. deploy. The broad range of well documented APIs and scripting languages can help you customize Windows Storage Server to meet your organization's requirements. such as AD DS. and operate storage solutions. In past versions of Windows Server. include knowledge from the product groups at Microsoft to help provide you with accurate and relevant information to resolve support issues. . Forefront Identity Manager (FIM) 2010 also can be used to synchronize identities from other identity systems. build. In addition. such as Microsoft Forefront. NTFS permissions. the Storage Manager for SANs. This familiarity dramatically can help reduce your learning curve so that you can quickly and efficiently plan. You can also use Microsoft and partner products to further strengthen the security of your storage solutions.  Manages multi-vendor storage more effectively. Much of this existing knowledge is integrated in the product or available online.16 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Improved recovery from configuration errors. Identities from AD DS. Windows Storage Server integrates easily with existing Windows IT infrastructure services.  Resolves support issues faster. This level of integration also helps minimize any infrastructure remediation that may be required to deploy and operate your storage solution. such as System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager 2007. Identifying Manageability Benefits The following are the manageability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Reduces time to realize efficient management. you can manage and operate Windows Storage Server using other products. Identifying Security Benefits The following are the security benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Secures digital assets.  Easily extends storage solutions. In addition. many of the Microsoft management products.  Manages and operates your storage solution using your existing processes and procedures. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security.

many Microsoft partners produce products to help in migrating workloads to Windows Server products. For example. using available iSCSI initiators. For example. web. you can use other Microsoft products to further automate the administration of Windows Storage Server. Windows Storage Server 2008 is a network-attached storage (NAS) operating system. In addition. Provides unified solution to storage management and operations. You can use the same set of tools and process to manage all the workloads supported by Windows Storage Server. you can draw on the large number of existing scripts developed by the partner and peer communities to further reduce the time required to achieve automation. using the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator or application servers running other operating systems.  SAN Host Bus Adapter (HBA) interoperability has been simplified with the SAN MMC management snap-in. such as System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager. Reduces administration effort for storage solutions. storing Exchange Server and virtual server data and directory services. Web services. such as the File Server Migration Tools. In addition. such as Microsoft® Exchange Server 2010 running on a Windows Server operating system. iSCSI block I/O services. including file and print. iSCSI technology helps bring the advantages of storage area networking (SAN) to midsize and small businesses that otherwise could not afford the extra cost and management of running a separate Fibre Channel network. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target component in Windows Storage Server allows you to create iSCSI disk LUNs. instead of using a different set of management tools for each workload. Takes advantage of existing network infrastructure for SAN storage. Enhancements include:  Administrators can now control volume mounting to protect volumes from unintentional access. The Windows Storage Server 2008 platform now provides better support for SANs. Robust storage solutions. Disk LUNs can be remotely mounted by application servers.  Fibre Channel and iSCSI SANs handling has been improved. Windows support for iSCSI technology allows users to connect computers to consolidated storage devices using existing Ethernet technologies. These tools help protect the integrity of your existing data while ensuring the current user permissions and security configuration is transferred to Windows Storage Server. built on Windows Server 2008 R2 operating system technologies. which in turn helps lower total cost of ownership (TCO) especially in complex multivendor storage environments. . You can also centrally manage many of the Windows Storage Server configuration settings using Group Policy. and new features have been added aimed at helping businesses control storage management costs and increase availability of data. Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 make it easier to manage and maintain disks. and print services workloads using the well-known management consoles and utilities in Windows Storage Server. remote desktop. You can automate repetitive administrative tasks using Windows PowerShell scripts in Windows Storage Server. You can manage file services. You can migrate workloads from existing Windows Server operating systems to Windows Storage Server using highly-automated migration tools. The Windows Storage Server 2008 operating system is a multi-purpose server designed to handle a diverse set of server roles. SAN technology based on IP also removes the physical limitations of moving data associated with Fibre Channel. The integrated storage services available in Windows Server and Windows Storage Server 2008 have been enhanced in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2.17 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper       Migrates from other storage solutions to Windows Storage Server. Provides centralized storage for applications. such as Linux. rather than having to install a separate Fibre Channel network.

The accidental deletion or overwriting of files has long been the bane of system administrators charged with the time-intensive and costly task of locating and restoring single files from tape. You can use many of the existing tools. Windows Storage Server can failover to an alternate path if the primary path fails. As organizations produce more information. thus adding availability to the data. . and ongoing operations of Windows Storage Server succeed. Identifying Data Recovery Benefits The following are the data recovery benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Easier data recovery. When multiple paths exist between servers and storage. Making data highly available throughout an organization requires data redundancy. This capability can be extended with technologies like System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM). and best practice guidance to help make certain that the planning. Your IT organization and users are less likely to experience difficulties in using and operating Windows Storage Server because they are already familiar with Windows Server. VSS allows administrators to schedule regular copies of data stored on disk. open file backups are enabled. Moreover.  Manages backups and restores more effectively.  Windows Server backup tools. The Shadow Copy for Shared Folders feature of the new Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) enables users to easily restore their own deleted files without IT intervention. The Windows Recovery Environment in Windows Storage Server is a partial version of the operating system and a set of tools that you can use to perform operating system or full server recoveries. You can select the failover priority by configuring the load-balancing policies for your storage solution  Windows Recovery Environment. which can centrally store the snapshot information. With VSS. you can minimize the risk of adoption for your new storage solution. thus making unnecessary the disruptive practice of shutting down applications during backup to prevent data consistency issues. The VSS process ensures data integrity though the utilization of VSS writers. deployment. These can be responsible for flushing buffers and getting data on a disk in a consistent state that is suitable to back up. because only the changes to the data are saved. Microsoft Solution Accelerators. separate from the originating server. enabling companies to make copies of necessary data. Because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server. shadow copies take up little disk space. In the case of catastrophic system failures — cases in which all operating system information is lost and the server is effectively stripped down to bare metal — Automated System Recovery makes possible rapid restore of the system’s original state.18 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Minimizes storage solution adoption risk. backing up data becomes an increasingly time intensive and potentially disruptive operation.

unlike dedicated or single function network attached storage appliances. as illustrated in Figure 1.19 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Exploring Windows Storage Server Features and Capabilities Windows Storage Server includes a rich set of features and capabilities to help service multiple workloads. Workloads supported by Window Storage Server . Figure 1. These features and capabilities allow Windows Storage Server to act as a unified platform to manage various workloads.

Select this protocol to support homogeneous or heterogeneous environments that contain:  Windows-based computers that use Client for Microsoft Networks to access file services workloads using the SMB protocol. The File Services server role in Windows Storage Server supports both SMB2.  Providing access to print services workloads. see the "Review Improvements in File Services" section later in this white paper.  Web services workloads. or production environments.  Print services workloads This section includes the following topics:  Providing access to file services workloads.  Providing access to iSCSI block I/O workloads in development.  iSCSI block I/O workloads. and the prior versions of SMB for previous Windows operating systems. test. Providing Access to File Services Workloads File services workloads allow computers to access files and folders stored on network access storage appliances. which is highly-optimized for use with Windows 7. or SMB2  NFS  WebDAV  Windows SharePoint® Services Supporting File Services Workloads Using CIFS. Windows Storage Server can support file services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments with a variety of operating systems. including the following workloads:  Hyper-V  Microsoft SQL Server®  Microsoft Exchange Server  iSCSI boot  Providing access to Web services workloads. Some network access storage appliances that are not running Windows Storage Server implement generic CIFS-based file services that implement only older versions of SMB and lack the performance advantages and improved reliability of SMB2. Windows-based client computers use the SMB protocol while other operating systems typically use the CIFS protocol. SMB. or SMB2 The SMB2 protocol in Windows Storage Server provides access to files and folders for client computers using the SMB or CIFS protocols.  Computers running other operating systems that access file services workloads using the CIFS protocol. . Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous file services workloads using the following protocols or features:  CIFS. For more information about the improvements available in SMB2. SMB.  Providing access to FTP services workloads.20 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper These features and capabilities help you provide access to:  File services workloads. as illustrated in Figure 1.

UNIX Version Support The Services for NFS supports the following versions of UNIX:  Sun Microsystems Solaris version 9  Red Hat Linux version 9  IBM AIX version 5L 5. The Server for NFS component is required to support file services workloads using NFS. and later Windows Server operating systems. . Server for NFS can support unmapped user access using:  Unmapped UNIX User Access. The Services for Network File System role service includes the following components:  Server for NFS. For more information about installing and configuring the Services for Network File System role service. and a number of command-line tools for managing it. For computers running Windows. The NFS protocol allows any NFS client computer to access files and folders managed by Windows Storage Server using version 2 and version 3 of the NFS protocol. see Services for NFS Step-by-Step Guide for Windows Server 2008. This enables Server for NFS and Client for NFS to look up Windows-to-UNIX user account mappings directly from AD DS or AD LDS. This component includes the Services for NFS snap-in. This component allows a computer running Windows Storage Server and Server for NFS to service NFS client computer requests. For more information about enabling identity (account) mapping for Services for NFS. This component allows a computer running Windows Storage Server and Client for NFS to access NFS mount points on NFS servers. In addition. A computer running an NFS client can mount the NFS exported folder into the local file system of the operating system running on the computer. Select this protocol to support heterogeneous environments that contain computers running an NFS client that access file services workloads using the NFS protocol. the NFS client allows access to the NFS exported folder using a universal naming convention (UNC) path or by mapping the NFS exported folder to a drive letter. Windows Server 2008. download NFS Account Mapping in Windows Server 2008 R2. Note The Server for NFS component supports NFS version 2. the Identity Management for UNIX Active Directory schema extension includes the UNIX user identifier (UID) and group identifier (GID) fields. This method allows users to access shared resources using automatically generated Windows Security Identifiers (SIDs) based on the UNIX UID and GID.21 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Supporting File Services Workloads Using NFS Windows Storage Server supports access to file services workloads using the NFS protocol version 3.  Anonymous access. NFS Authentication The Server for NFS component can use Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) for mapped identity management. In Windows Storage Server. This method allows all unmapped users to access shared resources using a common anonymous account is configurable.0 and version 3.0.  Client for NFS.0 with the Services for Network File System role service.2  Hewlett Packard HP-UX version 11i The Server for NFS component allows you to share a folder as a NFS exported folder (also known as a NFS shared folder).

The WebDAV extension module is available as a separate download at WebDAV 7.  Hidden files. Server for NFS is case-sensitive when matching directory.5 supports per-URL authoring rules. WebDAV 7. The differences between Windows and non-Windows filenames include the following:  Case sensitivity. a file stored on NTFS cannot contain the colon (:) character because that character separates the drive letter from the rest of the path in a fully qualified path name.5 for IIS 7. Non-Windows file systems do not use letters to identify drives. Server for NFS does not create files with names beginning with a period as hidden files in the Windows file system. Supporting File Services Workloads Using WebDAV The WebDAV protocol is a set of extensions to the HTTP protocol that enables file management over any IP network. Every file system reserves characters for use in path and command syntax. the new WebDAV extension module integrates with the Internet Information Services Manager console to provide ease of administration. WebDAV 7. Client computers running a WebDAV redirector can access file services workloads using the WebDAV protocol. For example. it preserves the case of the names of directories and files when creating files on behalf of NFS client computers. In the case of Windows computers.5 can be enabled at the site level.) character are hidden.5 is the latest version of WebDAV for Windows Storage Server. By default. All current Windows operating systems include a WebDAV redirector. contain special characters. Files can be hidden on both non-Windows and Windows computers.0 has a new administration interface and configuration store. Windows Storage Server includes version 7.5 of the WebDAV extension module for Internet Information Services (IIS) 7. file names can be case sensitive.  Per-site Configuration. These authoring rules are separate from the IIS 7.) character. files are hidden by setting a special attribute for the file. see Nfsadmin. Administrators can specify how characters in directory and file names will be converted when files are shared between Server for NFS and client computers.0. Depending on the operating system. but are not case sensitive. and includes the following improvements:  Integration with IIS 7. The new WebDAV extension module is tightly integrated with this new design. so colon characters are valid in non-Windows file names. By default. which provides support for homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. the administrator creates a file that defines how these characters are to be mapped. For more information. Other operating systems also include a WebDAV redirector. see Configure Case Sensitivity for File and Folder Names.0 (x64).  Per-URL Security Settings. Also. To accomplish this. and then specifies where Server for NFS can find the file containing the character map.0. For more information.and file-access requests to directories and files in its shared directories.22 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Non-Windows and Windows File Names Many of the conventions used for naming files and directories on non-Windows systems differ from those used by Windows. Most UNIX-like non-Windows file systems are case-sensitive when handling directory and file names. Previous versions of WebDAV only allowed you to enable WebDAV at the server level.0 per-URL authorization rules. Non-Windows file systems simply do not list files whose names begin with a period (. thereby . or be hidden from users. Windows computers preserve the case. WebDAV 7. This setting can be turned off by administrators to ensure that files whose names begin with a period (. IIS 7. In contrast. Administrators can configure Server for NFS to ignore case sensitivity when returning directory and file names. allowing you to specify custom WebDAV security settings on a per-URL basis.  Special characters.

" later in this white paper. such as Microsoft Word 2007 or Excel® 2007. In addition. As an iSCSI target. Select this protocol to support heterogeneous environments that contain computers running WebDAV redirectors that need to access the file services workloads using the HTTP or HTTPS protocol. Windows SharePoint Services include a number of collaboration features. Microsoft Office System client applications. Client computers can access the document libraries using either protocol. such as SQL Server® 2008 or Exchange Server 2010. iSCSI block I/O workloads include both a server component (iSCSI target) and a client component (iSCSI initiator). Serial Attached SCSI (SAS). Windows Storage Server can be an iSCSI. but the feature specific to file services is the document library feature. Document libraries include the ability to check in and check out files to help maintain version control. you can configure document libraries to retain a specified number of versions for each file in the document library. and a separate set of security settings for WebDAV requests. which allows you to easily restore a previous version of a file and track version history.0 allows users to collaborate with each other using either HTTP or HTTPS. see the section "Using Windows Storage Server as a NAS Gateway in Solutions. or Fibre Channel initiator based on the type of storage being accessed. Computers running Windows can also access the document libraries through Windows Explorer. see Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3. Also. as illustrated in Figure 2. Providing Access to iSCSI Block I/O Workloads iSCSI block I/O workloads are another type of workload provided by most network access storage appliances. Windows Storage Server is used to connect to external iSCSI targets.0. such as a SAN. For more information about providing WebDAV support on Windows Storage Server. . see WebDAV for IIS 7. For more information. Note When Windows Storage Server is deployed in a NAS gateway scenario.0. For more information about providing Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 support on Windows Storage Server. As an iSCSI initiator. Windows Storage Server is used to support iSCSI block IO workloads for applications. support opening and saving files to document libraries directly within the application.23 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper allowing one set of security settings for normal HTTP requests. Supporting File Services Workloads Using Windows SharePoint Services Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3.

For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. . Windows Storage Server can function as an iSCSI target (the server component) or an iSCSI initiator (the client component). iSCSI block I/O workloads supported by Windows Storage Server Windows Storage Server supports iSCSI block I/O workloads using the iSCSI standard. These specifications are applicable to all Windows Storage Server editions that include Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3 in Windows Storage Server. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Specifications Table 7 lists the specifications for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Standard.3 available for Windows Storage Server provides iSCSI target functionality. Note Some Microsoft partners include the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by default. Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.24 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 2. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3. see Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. This allows a large number of configuration options for iSCSI block I/O workload solutions. and Enterprise editions.3.3 is the latest version of the iSCSI target software and is an optional component in Window Storage Server Workgroup.3.

Maximum number of iSCSI initiators that can connect to the same iSCSI target instance. Maximum number of virtual disks or snapshots that can be locally mounted by the appliance. Multipath I/O connections allow for improved fault-tolerance and performance for iSCSI block I/O workloads. Value 64 128 128 512 32 (or 4 per cluster node) 64 16 64 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Windows Storage Server includes support for single path and multipath I/O connections to nonclustered and clustered configurations. . IPv4." later in this white paper. we recommend to use Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 in clustered configurations when connecting to the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Maximum number of iSCSI initiators per appliance.25 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 7. Failures for non-network related issues have been tested with acceptable recovery times. For these reasons. Jumbo frames. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator includes a multipath I/O Device Specific Module (DSM) for the Microsoft Multipath I/O (MPIO) in Windows Server. Table 8 lists the support for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with single or multipath I/O connections when connecting to nonclustered or clustered configurations. For more information about multipath I/O. Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Version 3. Table 8. Maximum number of iSCSI initiator sessions that can connect to the same iSCSI target instance. see the section "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads. IPv6. iSCSI offload. Failures on the iSCSI network path may result in delayed failover and recovery times. Maximum number of virtual disks per appliance. Maximum number of snapshots per virtual disk. Support for Single or Multipath IO Connections for Non-Clustered or Clustered Configurations Specification Windows Server 2008 (multipath I/O connection) Windows Server 2008 (single path I/O connection) Windows Server 2008 (multipath I/O connection) Windows Server 2003 (single path I/O connection) Nonclustered Supported Supported Supported Supported Clustered Supported Limited * Limited * Limited* * There is limited support for iSCSI initiators or iSCSI targets in clustered configurations of Windows Server 2003 when connected to the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Maximum number of virtual disk per iSCSI target instance. IPsec.3 Specifications Specification Maximum number of iSCSI target instances per appliance. TCP offload.

24.x.3 support the following operating systems:  Windows Server 2008 R2.  32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2008 SP1. The backup software must support transporting snapshots.3 and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3.3 supports the following iSCSI initiators:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator 2.x.3 includes a hardware provider for:  Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS). Install this hardware provider on the computer running the iSCSI initiator and the computer that is to perform backups. Prior versions of the hardware providers are not supported by Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. VDS is a set of APIs that provides a single interface for managing disks. VDS provides an end-to-end solution for managing storage hardware and disks. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3. and for creating volumes on those disks. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Note Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Customers using a different iSCSI target should refer to the storage array vendor for supported configurations.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server 2008 SP1 and SP2.07 and 2. and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider. iSCSI snapshots are created using VSS and a storage array with a hardware provider designed for use with VSS. firmware 3.3 and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3.  64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server 2008.3.  64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider is required to create transportable snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks and application-consistent snapshots from iSCSI initiators.  Virtual Disk Service (VDS).  Red Hat Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 5. Install the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider on each iSCSI initiator computer running a storage management application (such as the Microsoft Storage Manager for SANs) that uses the hardware provider to manage storage The most recent version of these hardware provider APIs is Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3.08 in Windows Server 2003.01.  32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Server® 2003 SP2.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows 7. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider is required to manage virtual disks on a storage subsystem.  Qlogic initiator QLE4062C-SP.3.00.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Vista.  SUSE Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 10.3 of the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. .26 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note The limitation for iSCSI initiators or iSCSI targets in clustered configurations of Windows Server 2003 is specific to Microsoft iSCSI Software Target usage.3 supports only version 3.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server 2008 R2. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for VSS and VDS Providers Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. VSS is a set of APIs that implement a framework to allow volume backups to be performed while applications on a system continue to write to the volumes.

 32-bit version of Windows Storage Server 2008. This phase of the process is used to initiate the Window iSCSI boot process.  iSCSI host bus adapters that support iSCSI boot capability. as illustrated in Figure 3.27 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The following operating systems are not supported by Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3. This phase of the process is performed by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator.3. or network boot program. These functions are redirected to the virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server.  Windows. . Table 9 lists the components in an iSCSI boot solution using Windows Storage Server and provides a brief description of the purpose for each component. iSCSI boot support is provided on diskless computers using one of the following methods:  Network adapters that support iSCSI boot capability. iSCSI boot process for Windows operating systems For iSCSI boot-enabled network adapters and host bus adapters. Supporting iSCSI Boot iSCSI boot allows diskless computers (computers without local disk) to boot over the network. For network boot programs. Independent Hardware Vendors implementing iSCSI boot support in their firmware need to use the table headers defined in this specification to enable the passing of boot critical parameters to the Windows operating system. firmware on the host bus adapter. depending on the method used for the diskless computer. The Windows Boot Manager is configured to boot using LUNs that are accessible through the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. This phase is performed by the firmware on the network adapter. and Windows® 7.  UNDI.  Network boot program software that provides iSCSI boot capability. iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT) is a block of information containing parameters needed to boot Windows Server 2003 and later versions of Windows using the iSCSI protocol and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3. Universal Network Device Interface (UNDI) is an application programming interface (API) for network interface cards (NIC) used by the Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) protocol. these components are provided by the partner providing the program. see iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT). Windows Vista. The components in this phase include:  Int 13.  iBFT. The iSCSI boot process for Windows operating systems. is divided into the following phases:  Pre-boot. The BIOS function used to access disk boot functions. Figure 3.3:  Any Windows client operating system. including Windows® XP. For more information. all the necessary preboot phase components are in firmware on the adapter.

Provides IP configuration for iSCSI boot using network adapters using DHCP reservation that is configured for BOOTP support. Note The DHCP server is optional if the network adapter supports IP and iSCSI boot configuration or if you are using an iSCSI host bus adapter.  iSCSI boot software. The diskless computer requires an iSCSI connection to Windows Storage Server.vhd files) stored on Windows Storage Server using a network boot program that provides iSCSI boot capability. Components in an iSCSI Boot Solution Using Windows Storage Server Component Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Description Provides iSCSI block I/O access to virtual disks stored on Windows Storage Server. Note The TFTP server is required only if you are using iSCSI boot software that requires a TFTP server.28 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 9. However. Figure 4 illustrates how diskless computers can boot from virtual disk files (. the DHCP is practical requirement for any scalable requirement. The iSCSI boot process and Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator can access these virtual disks during the boot process. This allows for fast deployment and recovery of diskless computers. The TFTP server is not required for network adapters that support iSCSI boot or an iSCSI host bus adapter. .vhd files) stored on Windows Storage Server. Virtual disk iSCSI connection in diskless computer DHCP server Trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP) server Provides download of boot image to target computer when the virtual disk cannot be directly accessed using the iSCSI connection in the diskless computer. Virtual disk files (.  iSCSI host bus adapter. which can be any one of the following:  Network adapter that supports iSCSI boot. Differencing virtual disks can be used for multiple computers based on the same fixed virtual disk.

. iSCSI boot process from Windows Storage Server DHCP and TFTP services can be provided by Windows Storage Server or Windows Server. 4. 2. The diskless computer establishes a connection with Windows Storage Server and connects to a virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server. The diskless client computer requests IP configuration from the DHCP Server. As illustrated in Figure 4. the diskless computer can boot from a virtual disks stored on Windows Storage Server using the following steps for a network boot program: 1. The TFTP Server provides a PXE boot image to the diskless computer. The DHCP Server sends IP configuration information to the diskless client.29 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 4. The diskless client computer requests a Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) boot image from the TFPT Server. 3. 5.

Using this method. . The Windows operating system starts.30 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 6. All subsequent disk I/O is performed using iSCSI I/O to the virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server. The diskless computer boots from Differencing Virtual Disk .08  Red Hat Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 5. see:  Microsoft iSCSI Boot Step-by-Step Guide. 7. Providing Access to Web Services Workloads Unlike most network access storage appliances.3 supports iSCSI boot for the following iSCSI initiators:  Any Windows operating system running Microsoft iSCSI Initiator version 2. Web services workloads allow users to access Web-based content stored on Windows Storage Server appliances.x  PCI-E network iSCSI Initiator adapter  Broadcom network adapter  qLogic iSCSI host bus adapter  Netboot software For more information about iSCSI boot in Windows operating systems. Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.07 or 2. 8. For example. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous Web services workloads using the protocols listed in Table 10.  The “Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions” section later in this white paper.B that is stored on Windows Storage Server. and create a differencing virtual disk as the current virtual disk for the diskless computer. A differencing virtual disk is a virtual disk type that is based on a fixed or expandable virtual disk. which is the iSCSI LUN specified in the configuration for the computer. Windows Storage Server can support Web services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments that include a variety of operating system. Windows Storage Server supports Web services workloads. You can use separate virtual disks for each diskless computer or you can use differencing virtual disks. you can create clean-install system boot operating system virtual disk as a parent.x  SUSE Enterprise Linux version 10. Any subsequent writes to the differencing disk are written to the differencing virtual disk and the parent virtual disk is not modified.  About VHD. the operating system on the parent virtual disk stays in its original state for quick recovery or for quickly creating more boot images based on additional differencing virtual disks.

Protocols Supported for Web Services Workloads Protocol HTTP Support description Provides:  Access to traditional Web-based content accessed through Web browsers. and more. Provides the same level of support as HTTP. Providing Access to Print Services Workloads Another advantage to using Windows Storage Server appliances is the ability to support print services workloads. unique tracking for FTP sessions.31 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 10. This allows administrators to perform common administrative tasks within one common administration console. an additional detail field in FTP logs. or from a command line. which can be essential in some heterogeneous environments. for the same files and folders accessed using any of the file services workloads protocols.  Simplified file transfer. Windows Storage Server can support .5 administration interface and configuration store.  Extended support for Internet standards.  The foundation for Web-based remote administration using Terminal Services Web Access.  The foundation for the WebDAV protocol used in accessing file services workloads. a UNC path. Improved logging that now supports all FTP-related traffic.  Reduced effort for support and troubleshooting FTP–related issues. virtual host name for an FTP site. The new FTP server includes support for:  Improved security by supporting FTP over secure sockets layer (SSL). HTTPS FTP Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 includes FTP services that offer the following improvements:  Reduced administrative effort for FTP server services. FTP sub statuses.  Improved integration with web-based applications and services. but are differentiated by using unique virtual host names. The new FTP server is fully integrated with the IIS 7. but includes additional security protection of using secure sockets layer (SSL) encryption between clients and Windows Storage Server. File transfer can be performed using Windows® Internet Explorer®. a mapped drive. Print services workloads allow users to access printers managed by Windows Storage Server appliances.  Support of extended character sets by including UTF8 support. Provides a simplified file transfer. upload or download.  Extended IP addressing features provided by IPv6. which can be essential in some heterogeneous environments. using the same folders that can be accessed using any of the file services workloads protocols. you can specify a. This allows you to provide FTP and Web content from the same website simply by binding an FTP site to a website. This allows you to create multiple FTP sites that use the same IP address. With the new FTP server.  Provides support for the Internet Printing role service. download only.

see Print Management. The Print Server role service is a mandatory role service for the Print Services role. The Print Management Console (PMC) is then accessible from Server Manager. Administrative Tools. Table 11.dll. If the Print Spooler service is stopped or restarted after the LPD Service is installed. There is no configuration necessary for the LPD service. select only this role service. the removal of the role service does. However. the installation of the service does require a restart of the Print Spooler service. When the Print Server role is installed. Select this Print Server role service to support LPR clients in heterogeneous environments. In order to install the Internet Printing role service. Select this Print Server role service to support any print services workloads in Windows Storage Server.32 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper print services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments that include a variety of operating system. which is done automatically during installation.  Printer management in Windows Storage Server. the TCP/IP Print Server service is also stopped — and you must restart it manually. Internet Printing provides access to shared printers using the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) that is encapsulated in HTTP. Provides support for computers that run an Internet Printing client. Although the installation of the Print Server role service does not require a system restart. If you are supporting only Windows-based computers that are printing with your homogeneous environment. the Print Services and Web Server roles must also be installed. or as an MMC snap-in. typically used in heterogeneous environments or to print over the Internet. Provides support for computers that run Line Printer Remote (LPR). Line Printer Daemon (LPD) Service Internet Printing For more information about:  The Print Services server role. typically used in heterogeneous environments. When the LPD Service is installed. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous print services workloads using the Print Server role services listed in Table 11. the Print Services Tools Remote Server Administration Tool feature is also installed. . The LPD Service installs and starts the TCP/IP Print Server (LPDSVC) service which is implemented in lpdsvc. an inbound firewall exception for TCP port 515 is created. The LDP Service is an optional Print Services role service. see Print and Document Services. Print Server Role Services Supported for Print Services Workloads Role Service Print Server Support description Provides support for Windows-based computers running Client for Microsoft Networks. Select the Printer Server role services when clients must print to printers using the only HTTP protocol.

33 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Providing Reduction in Power Consumption With the proliferation of physical computers in data centers. average utilization for many servers is 5 to 15 percent.  Additional incremental power saving features. Microsoft measured power consumption of Windows Storage Server 2003 and Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 using a representative online transaction processing (OLTP) workload. than before. which demonstrate that many servers that operate within a range of utilization levels will benefit from the improved power efficiency of Windows Server 2008 R2. Window Storage Server includes the following improvements to reduce power consumption:  Reduced power usage of individual servers by including:  A new PPM engine. many data centers are constrained by the number of computers they can support in their data center by the actual power available to the data center. or less power. and budget power usage across the system.  The ability to measure. To quantify the power savings. In addition to the cost-saving associated with reducing power consumption. Power savings with Windows Storage Server Processor Power Management The PPM engine in Windows Storage Server has been rewritten and improved. reducing your power consumption also allows you to support more physical computers while using the same amount of power. Throughput was gradually throttled up across the utilization range of the systems. power consumption is of paramount importance. Figure 5shows the results.  Storage power management. manage. Figure 5. Measuring power usage only when hardware is fully utilized does not reflect real-world usage. from idle up to 100 percent utilization. Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers Windows Storage Server helps improve the power efficiency of individual servers through a variety of incremental improvements. It now provides the ability to fine-tune the processor’s speed and power consumption to match . Therefore.

Windows Storage Server greatly improves access to storage on SANs. When additional processing power is required.  Support for “remove on delete”. the system activates the idle processor cores to handle the increased processing requirements. as shown in Figure 6. Windows Storage Server provides asynchronous notification of drive media changes. Windows Server Storage also supports the ability to boot from a SAN. because any server can have access to the available storage on the SAN. which means less communication with the drive and less power consumption. This means that commands are not repeatedly sent to check for media changes. Storage Power Management Another strategy for reducing power used by individual servers is to centralize their storage by using a Storage Area Network (SAN). Windows Storage Server includes support for storage devices that work with solid state drives that can power down unused RAM when a file system deletes files. and their workloads then shifted to alternate cores. which eliminates the need for local hard disks (local storage) in the individual server computers and decreases power consumption as a result.34 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper current demands. The workloads of every logical core in a server are tracked relative to all the others. Core parking is a feature that enables Windows Storage Server to reduce multi-core processor power consumption by consolidating processing onto fewer processor cores and suspending the inactive cores.  Optimized link power management for SATA disks. New parameters for PPM — which administrators can configure — further improve power efficiency. This feature is integrated with the power management framework to use the new power states (partial and active). The workloads of cores that are not fully utilized can be suspended. This feature helps reduce power usage for managing the communication bus link between the hard disk and the chipset. Keeping the unutilized cores in an idle state reduces system power consumption. thus saving power. and also adds the following enhancements:  ATA Slumber feature. .  Asynchronous notification of media change for optical devices. A SAN also makes more efficient use of the available disk space. which has a higher storage-capacity-topower-consumption ratio than a typical server.

This also allows processors to better utilize the deep C-states. One processor handles the periodic system timer tick. OEMs can configure the FirstLogonCommand attribute in the Unattend. Servers without local storage that each consume less power Additional Power Saving Features Windows Storage Server includes Intelligent Timer Tick Distribution (or Tick Skipping).) The amount of background work that is performed by the operating system has also been reduced in Windows Storage Server. creating LUNs. However. or formatting partitions. . creating partitions. with C3 set as the deepest-sleep state and C0 as the operating state) by not activating the CPU unnecessarily. as well as your physical systems. non-timer interrupts will still activate sleeping processors. in which the processor consumes very little energy but requires time to return to an operational state. The benefit of this automation is that the storage configuration requires minimal or no configuration by IT pros. Performing Highly Automated Installations You can automate the storage subsystem configuration settings in Windows Storage Server by customizing the Windows Storage Server Unattend.xml file. such as creating a RAID set.xml file to run Windows PowerShell scripts or any command-line program that can used to perform storage configuration tasks. other processors are signaled only as necessary. This feature extends processor idle or deep C-states (processor sleep states within the ACPI specification. You can take advantage of most of these technologies in virtualization scenarios to maximize the power efficiency of your virtualized environments.35 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 6. thus saving power.

see Server Manager. For more information. You can complete these tasks by using commands in the Initial Configuration Tasks window. and managing all roles installed on the server. Server Manager in Windows Storage Server provides a single source for managing a server's identity and system information. RSAT allows you to remotely manage roles and features in Windows Storage Server from a computer running Windows Vista SP1 or a later Windows operating system.  Management of file services workloads. After installing Windows Storage Server. This feature requires the Remote Desktop Client to be installed on the computer used to manage Windows Storage Server. For more information about Server Manager. . You can run RSAT on 32-bit or 64-bit Windows operating systems. and before deploying the new appliance in your enterprise. and the feature uses the remote desktop protocol (RDP) to communicate with Windows Storage Server. Group Policy provides an infrastructure for centralized configuration management of Windows Storage Server.  Remote Desktop Services Connection. enable administrators to perform tasks on the appliance.  Microsoft Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT). Description of Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows 7. Then you connect to Windows Storage Server using the Microsoft ActiveX® control included in Remote Desktop Client version 6. see Windows Server Initial Configuration Tasks. which opens immediately after the operating system installation is complete.  Management of Print services workloads. For more information. identifying problems with server role configuration. secure the appliance. For more information about the Initial Configuration Tasks window. This feature requires only Internet Explorer to be installed on the computer used to manage Windows Storage Server. and Remote Server Administration Tools Pack.1 and later versions. see Terminal Services in Windows Server 2008. and the applications and services running on Windows Storage Server. For more information about RSAT. and technologies for managing all workloads:  Initial Configuration Tasks window. You make the initial connection to Windows Storage Server using Internet Explorer and the Terminal Services Web Access Web site.36 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing Windows Storage Server You can manage Windows Storage Server using the management features in each of the following areas:  Management tools for all workloads. features. see Terminal Services Web Access (TS Web Access). some configuration is required to identify the appliance to other computing resources on your network. and you also can use it to manage 32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server. see Group Policy. see Description of Windows Server 2008 Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows Vista Service Pack 1.  Management of power consumption for all workloads. For more information. You can remotely manage Windows Storage Server using the Remote Desktop Connection feature.  Management of Web services workloads. and customize the appliance by adding server roles and features. displaying server status. Management Tools for All Workloads Windows Storage Server supports the following tools. You can use Group Policy on any Windows Storage Server appliance that is a member of an Active Directory domain.  Remote Desktop Services Web Connection.  Server Manager.  Group Policy.  Management of iSCSI block I/O workloads.

providing them with the data they need to make informed and timely power management decisions. ensuring interoperability across the entire IT environment. both locally and remotely across the enterprise. In conjunction with server OEMs. Windows Storage Server supports the configuration of power policy. You can run command-line programs. Windows Storage Server provides a new power namespace. A vast library of existing Windows PowerShell scripts reduces the effort and learning curve for using Windows PowerShell to automate administrative tasks. additional policy settings. . just as if you were locally logged on to the host and using a local command prompt.37 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper    Windows PowerShell. see Windows PowerShell.NET Framework and is designed to help you automate the administration of Windows Storage Server. manage. or management tools in a manner that is compliant with the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) management profiles. IT workers responsible for power management can control power policies and receive power condition events. the infrastructure for management data and operations on Windows-based operating systems. both locally and remotely. This is useful for IT administrators who use WMI queries in scripts to monitor and administer their infrastructure. and Windows PowerShell™ cmdlets for Group Policy. Power metering and budgeting in Windows Storage Server require no additional drivers or hardware changes. Microsoft storage partners develop VDS hardware providers that allow management of their storage solutions. and in turn making power consumption data an actionable metric. and scripts in the remote command console session. Windows PowerShell is built on the Microsoft . including an improved user interface. providing a powerful and convenient way to capture and report information about power consumption. You can perform disk management for any of the workloads using VDSenabled management tools. For more information. scripts. Diskraid command-line tool. or the Share and Storage Management console. which enables code and scripts to query power data on compliant systems. which provide the ability to manage Group Policy from the Windows PowerShell command line and to run Windows PowerShell scripts during logon and startup. WMI. For more information. Remote Manageability of Power Policy Key in Windows Storage Server is the greatly enhanced ability to measure. You can use any Telnet client to create a remote command console session on a Windows Storage Server appliance. see Telnet. You can manage storage with VDS hardware providers using VDS-enabled management tools. only hardware platform support. and the applications and services that run on Windows Storage Server. root\cimv2\power. Managing Power Consumption for All Workloads Windows Storage Server also helps you better measure and manage power consumption. such as the Diskpart command-line tool. through Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). there are new features in Group Policy for Windows Storage Server. Telnet. For centralized power policy management. Storage Manager for SANs snap-in. and budget energy usage for individual servers and across the entire server environment. Microsoft is pursuing an ACPI standards-based approach to the features that provide these capabilities. exposes the data that is gathered to users. Windows PowerShell is a task-based command-line shell and scripting language designed especially for system administration. VDS.

and the files themselves. Now that power consumption is measurable. You can create and apply quota templates with standard quota properties. the workloads of underutilized servers can be consolidated onto a smaller number of better-utilized physical machines using live migration (the ability to move virtual machines between servers with virtually no downtime) with Hyper-V. the folder structure to store the files.38 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting The new power features introduce new opportunities for managing power consumption. on datacenter components as small as a single server). The server platform reports information in-band to the Windows Storage Server through the use of ACPI. File Server Resource Manager not only helps you efficiently control and monitor existing storage resources from a central location. you can perform three tasks to manage storage resources on local or remote servers:  Quota management. it becomes an actionable metric for IT staff when appropriate hardware support is available. and this means power data can be queried by Microsoft System Center and other management tools to budget and monitor power usage across the entire IT environment. Another set of metrics can be used for virtualization and consolidation.  DFS management tools.  Share and Storage Management. You manage file services workloads running on Windows Storage Server by using:  File Server Resource Manager. or caps. An administrator can use the performance monitor on a server to view the moment-bymoment power consumption. and can configure the system so that it automatically takes action when the budget is exceeded. . Set soft or hard space limits on a volume or folder tree. Unauthorized File Types. or in a more likely scenario. Based on the information gathered. An administrator can set power budgets for the servers and the system. it also aids in the planning and implementation of future changes to the storage infrastructure. prevent users from saving specific file types to the server. Fewer physical machines can lead to reduced costs through lower hardware and energy costs and through reduced management overhead. and Storage Reports With the File Server Resource Manager snap-in.  Single Instance Storage management tools. Managing Disk Usage Quotas. Microsoft recommends a collaborative model between the server platform and the operating system for power metering and budgeting (the process that lets administrators set power limits. the IT administrator can write a script or use Microsoft® System Center to centrally collect and monitor power consumption data across the datacenter. The WMI namespace additions for power meters and supplies mean that the user mode power service can provide data to the WMI namespace. and generate comprehensive storage reports. Managing File Services Workloads Managing file services workloads includes managing disk volumes. Managing File Services Using File Server Resource Manager File Server Resource Manager is a suite of tools in Windows Storage Server that enables you to place storage limits on volumes and folders.

or through a command-line interface.  Storage reports management. you cannot rely on the user to properly determine the proper classification of information. more affordable storage solutions. rather than on only simple information such as the location.  Are no longer essential to automatically remove the files from servers. and other common IT operations tasks. reduce costs. Even with this knowledge. You can also apply quota and file screening policies when you provision a shared folder. the user storing the files is the only individual who has any knowledge of the information stored in the files and other characteristics about the files. You can create and apply screening templates with standard file exclusions.  Require different backup schedules to back up the files accordingly. Define filtering rules that monitor or block attempts by users to save certain file types on a volume or folder tree. and patterns of storage use. You need to be able to centrally categorize these files and then perform IT file operations based on the classification of the files. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure in Windows Storage Server provides insight into your data to help you manage your data more effectively.39 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  File screening management. but is covered separately in the “Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure” section in this white paper.  Require different backup solutions based on the sensitivity of the information in the files.  Generate reports about the types of information stored in the files in your intranet.  Contain sensitive information to encrypt those files. For more information. Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure Managing data stored on file services is usually challenging because of the sheer number of files being stored on network shared folders. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to identify files that:  Contain sensitive information on servers with lower security to move the files to servers with higher security. Policy-based Classification of Files One of the key advantages to the Windows File Classification Infrastructure is the ability to centrally manage the classification of the files by establishing classification policies . The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to establish policies for classifying files and then performing common administrative tasks based on the classification. see File Server Resource Manager. The File Classification Infrastructure feature is also managed with the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. Because users store files on a network shared with little or no restrictions. and mitigate risks. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to:  Centrally define policy-based classification of the files stored in your intranet. Generate built-in reports to track quota usage.  Notify content owners when a file management task is going to be performed on their content. file screening activity. data archival schedule.  Perform file management tasks based on the file classification that you define. size.  Create or purchase custom file management solutions based on the Windows File Classification Infrastructure.  Are not accessed frequently to move the files to slower. such as sensitivity or criticality of the information in them. or date of the file.

Each rule assigns a single predefined property and value to files within a specified directory. the content owners can be notified in advance and given the opportunity to prevent the files from being archived or deleted. Improved Development of File Management Tasks You can extend the file management features of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure by creating your own custom file management solution or purchasing a file management solution from an independent software vendor. update. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to generate reports in multiple formats that can provide statistical information about the files stored on each file server. Execute custom commands based on age.40 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper using the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to help you perform common file management tasks. including:  Grooming of data. File Management Tasks The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to perform file management tasks based on the classifications that you define using the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. or add the value to properties that support multiple values. For example. You can use the reporting infrastructure to generate information that can be used by another application (such as a comma separated variable format text file that could be imported into Microsoft® Excel®). optionally re-evaluate files that are already classified. and run classification rules. Property types can include Boolean. This centralized approach allows you to classify user files without requiring their intervention. and other relevant information about the files. the sensitivity of the files. File Owner Notification of File Management Tasks Another feature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure that reduces your administrative effort is the ability to send notifications to content owners when an automated file management task runs. You can also select the method for notification based on the type of file management task being performed. location or other classification categories.  When running a classification rule. which can be assigned to files on a per-server basis by running classification rules. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to automate any file management task by using the file classifications you establish for your organization. You can automatically delete data by using policies based on data age or classification properties to free valuable storage space and intelligently reduce storage demand growth. For example. date. and string values. there is minimal information that can be used to help identify the usage of the files. Without classification of the files. And the extensible nature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to integrate with existing messaging systems or information portals. IT administrators are able to automatically move data based on policies for either centralizing the location of sensitive data or for moving data to a less expensive storage resource. based on installed classification plug-ins. ordered lists.  Create. when files become old enough to be automatically expired. The architecture of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows the use of any supported development . You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to:  Define classification properties and values. You can choose to overwrite existing classification values.  Custom Tasks. Reporting on Information Stored in Files Most IT organizations have no easy method of providing information about the types of files that are stored and managed. numbered.

security.  See which users are currently accessing a folder or a file and disconnect a user if necessary. Each namespace appears to users as a single shared folder with a series of subfolders.  Access disk tools for error checking. For more information about Share and Storage Management.  Publish the shared resource to a DFS namespace. see Overview of Share and Storage Management. and create file screens to limit the type of files that can be stored in it.41 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper environments for Windows Storage Server including Windows PowerShell and Microsoft Visual Basic® Scripting Edition (VBScript). This structure .  If File Server Resource Manager is installed. defragmentation.  Specify the network sharing protocol used to access the shared resource. or on storage subsystems that have a VDS Hardware Provider using Share and Storage Management.  Format a volume. user limits. highly-available access to geographically dispersed files. You can perform the following tasks using this tool:  Specify the folder or volume that you want to share or create a new folder to share. This architecture allows you to select the level of programming sophistication required to automate your file management tasks.  Manage NFS-based access permissions for the shared resource.  Stop the sharing of a folder or volume. For example. offline availability and indexing. DFS Namespaces lets you group shared folders located on different servers into one or more logically structured namespaces. Each vendor supplies the VDS Hardware Provider. You can manage storage on disks available on your server. Managing File Services Using Share and Storage Management Share and Storage Management in Windows Storage Server provides a centralized location for you to perform:  Shared resource management.  Manage the local NTFS permissions for the folder or volume you will be sharing. and offline access to files in the shared resource. The technologies in DFS include the following:  DFS Namespaces. you could write Windows PowerShell scripts to manage files based on the classifications you define for your organization. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider. which can be installed and configured for use in Windows Storage Server.  Delete a volume.  Change volume properties like compression. You can perform the following tasks using this tool:  Extend the size of a volume. and backup.  Manage the share access permissions. You can configure shared folders for SMB or NFS protocols and DFS settings using Share and Storage Management. Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication The Distributed File System (DFS) technologies offer wide area network (WAN)-friendly replication as well as simplified. apply storage quotas to the new shared resource.  Multi-vendor storage management.

exe You also can use DFS to replicate files and folders in geographically dispersed environments so that users have a local copy of the files and folders.  DFS Replication. DFS Replication is an efficient. such as in Branch office locations. see DFS Management. For more information. see Replication. when available. RDC is a "diff-over-the wire" client-server protocol that can be used to efficiently update files over a limited-bandwidth network.exe  DfsrAdmin. enabling DFS Replication to replicate only the changed file blocks when files are updated. you can replicate files and folders to another location using DFS for disaster recovery scenarios. For more information about:  DFS. This can greatly reduce the amount of traffic transferred over limited-bandwidth networks. see Distributed File System.exe  DfsDiag. multiple-master replication engine that you can use to keep folders synchronized between servers across limited bandwidth network connections.  The DFS Management snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. removals. which replaces the File Replication Service (FRS) as the replication engine for DFS Namespaces. . In addition.42 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper increases availability and automatically connects users to shared folders in the same AD DS site.exe  DfsrDiag. DFS Replication uses a new compression algorithm known as remote differential compression (RDC). instead of routing them over WAN connections. and the data is not replicated back to the head office. as well as AD DS SYSVOL folder replication in domains that use the Windows Server 2008 domain functional level. RDC detects insertions. Read-only DFS Replication is a secure method for replicating data where read-only access is required to the data. see the section "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Securing File Services Workloads”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” You can manage DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication using the:  The DFS Management snap-in hosted by Server Manager.  For more information about DFS Replication." later in this white paper.exe  DfsCmd. and re-arrangements of data in files.  The following command line tools:  DfsUtil.  Read-only DFS Replication. you can use read-only DFS Replication to publish data from a head office to branch offices where users in the branch office should not change the data.  Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication. For example.  Using DFS to replicate file services workloads for disaster recovery scenarios.

The Groveler service runs in user-mode. WMI support.dll. The Groveler discovers duplicate files and initiates the deduplication of files. Failover cluster support. Single Instance Storage Feature Specifications in Windows Storage Server Specification Maximum number of volumes per appliance. Identifying Single Instance Storage Specifications Table 12 lists the specifications for the Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server. which is a hidden folder located in the root directory of the volume. Single Instance Storage does this by replacing duplicate files with logical links that point to a single copy of the file in the SIS Common Store. The Single Instance Storage Filter runs in kernel mode. but the primary administration tool for this feature is Sisadmin. The Groveler service scans the hard-disk volumes on a server for duplicate copies of files.  Single Instance Storage Filter. Identifying Single Instance Storage Management Tools You can enable or disable Single Instance Storage on a volume through the Share and Storage Management console.43 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing Single Instance Storage The Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server reduces the amount of space used to store data on a volume. Minimum file size supported. Supports boot drives.exe. Supports remote drives. For more information about:  The Single Instance Storage feature. Supports system drives.exe. Requires volumes to be formatted as NTFS. Supports replication of files using DFS Replication. Identifying Single Instance Storage Architecture Single Instance Storage consists of the following components that together maintain a database of file signatures:  Groveler service. Value 128 Yes Yes Yes 32 KB Yes Yes No No No No Yes . see Managing SIS Using SisAdmin. Table 12. Support files with extended attributes. Ability to undo single instancing of files. see Single Instance Storage.exe. You can also automate the administration of Single Instance Storage using Windows PowerShell scripting or any other scripting language that supports WMI. The Single Instance Storage Filter is a file system filter service that redirects reads to the common store and performs the replacement of file pointers when users start changing a duplicate file.  Managing Single Instance Storage using Sisadmin. Support backup of single instance of file using Single Instance Storage APIs in sisbkup.

Returns a list of all the linked files and the corresponding filename in the SIS Common Store. see Single Instance Storage Cmdlets in Windows PowerShell. Windows PowerShell Cmdlets for Managing Single Instance storage Category SIS linked files SIS disk volumes Cmdlet and description         Get-SisLinkFile. IT organizations typically realize storage savings that average from 10 percent to 30 percent. Uninstalls SIS from a volume. Uninstall-SisVolume. Installs SIS on a volume. including the:  Spaced saved. Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The types of management tasks for disk block I/O workload include managing iSCSI targets. You can manage iSCSI block I/O workloads running on Windows Storage Server for the following components:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator .  Number of linked files.  Number of files in the SIS Common Store. Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell You can manage the Single Instance Storage feature using the SingleInstanceStorage module. Displays a SIS summary report for each volume.44 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Typical Reduction in Storage Usage Using Single Instance Storage The extent to which the Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server can help reduce storage usage depends on the number of duplicate files stored on the appliance. Enables SIS on a volume.  Percentage of the volume saved. Disables SIS on a volume. In this scenario. virtual disks. Disable-SisVolume. Enable-SisVolume. For more information about managing the Single Instance Storage feature using Windows PowerShell. Configures SIS after it has been installed on a volume. Lists all the volumes that have SIS installed enabled. Get-SisVolume. build and release provides the largest reduction of storage usage. Set-SisVolume. Table 14 lists the Windows PowerShell cmdlets included in the SingleInstanceStorage module and provides a brief description of each cmdlet. Files stored in user home folders provide the most typical scenario where the larger reduction of storage usage is realized. Table 13. This will cause all linked files to revert to the original file stored in the SIS common store. IT organizations typically realize storage savings of more than 50 percent. Get-SisVolumeReport. For files in a software development environment. In this scenario. and connections to storage arrays. Install-SisVolume. which is included in Windows Storage Server.

All current Windows operating systems support the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator.45 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target feature allows Windows Storage Server appliances to act as an iSCSI target. You manage virtual disks using the iSCSI Targets node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. but a virtual disk can only be managed by one iSCSI target. The most typical reason for assigning multiple iSCSI initiators to the same iSCSI target is for shared storage in failover clusters. An iSCSI target can manage multiple virtual disks.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. You can manage this feature by using the:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. see the previous section. see the section "Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect iSCSI Block I/O Workload Data. iSCSI targets are the logical endpoint to which an iSCSI initiator connects. Virtual disk snapshots are point-in-time copies of virtual disks that you can use to back up active virtual disks for disaster recover scenarios or to restore a LUN to a previous state. Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Using Share and Storage Management Console You can manage storage on the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using Share and Storage Management. Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Snap-in Typical tasks that you use the Microsoft iSCSI Target snap-in to perform include managing:  iSCSI targets. If you assign multiple iSCSI initiators to the same iSCSI target. Typically. such as Share and Storage Management.  Virtual disks.3 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator enables you to connect Windows operating systems to an external iSCSI-based storage array. You manage iSCSI targets using the iSCSI Targets node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. You manage virtual disks using the Snapshots node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. For more information about Share and Storage Management. see Overview of Share and Storage Management. there is a potential for conflict between the computers running the iSCSI initiators. For more information about managing Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI block I/O workloads.  Virtual disk snapshots. you assign just one iSCSI initiator to each iSCSI target. through an Ethernet network adapter. and the most current version of the . such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  Share and Storage Management console. Virtual disks are the LUNs that the computer running an iSCSI initiator uses. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target includes the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider that allows LUNs on Windows Storage Server to be managed by any application that uses VDS. For more information about using virtual disk snapshots for backup and in disaster recovery scenarios. see:  Configuring the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider." later in this white paper. "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for VSS and VDS Providers" in this white paper.

Modifies the settings for the virtual disk and returns the corresponding iSCSI virtual disk object if the PassThru parameter is specified. An iSCSI initiator cannot access the VHD or LUN after the target is deleted.exe tool from a command line. Deletes an iSCSI target object. an iSCSI initiator can access the virtual disk after the initiator connects to the target. Creates a new iSCSI virtual hard disk (VHD) object with the specified file path and size. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Storage Server allows the server software to connect to other external iSCSIbased storage arrays. Remove-IscsiVirtualDisk. see the Microsoft iSCSI Initiator Step-by-Step Guide. Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell You can manage the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. The VHD file is not deleted. and then a virtual disk can be associated with the target. Obtains the iSCSI targets and their associated properties from the local server or specified computer.  iSCSI Control Panel configuration utility (iSCSICPL.  iSCSICLI.3 using the MicrosoftIscsiTarget module. Afterwards. such as those described in the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration. which is included in Windows Storage Server. Remove-IscsiServerTarget. Windows PowerShell Cmdlets for Managing Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Version 3. Get-IscsiVirtualDisk.3 Category iSCSI target management Cmdlet and description  New-IscsiServerTarget Creates a new iSCSI target object with the specified name. Table 14. the virtual disk can be assigned to an iSCSI target. Set-IscsiServerTarget. Table 14 lists the Windows PowerShell cmdlets included in the MicrosoftIscsiTarget module and provides a brief description of each cmdlet. You can manage the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator by using the:  Graphical user interface in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. Afterwards." later in the white paper. Get-IscsiServerTarget.46 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator is version 2.08.    Virtual disk management     . the iSCSI target can be assigned to an iSCSI initiator. Deletes the iSCSI virtual disk object. Obtains the iSCSI virtual disks and their associated properties. New-IscsiVirtualDisk. For more information about managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator.exe). Set-IscsiVirtualDisk. Once a virtual disk has been assigned to a target. Modifies settings for the iSCSi target and returns the corresponding iSCSI target object if the PassThru parameter is specified.

Appcmd. For example. and to return output in text or you can use XML. you can complete complex tasks like stopping all sites with pending requests that have been running longer than sixty seconds. you can combine commands to return more complex data about objects on your web server or to perform tasks that are more complex. see PowerShell cmdlets for the Microsoft iSCSI Target 3.47 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Category LUN management Cmdlet and description  Add-VirtualDiskTargetMapping. see Appcmd. The virtual disk will be no longer accessible by an iSCSI initiator once the assignment is removed.  Delegate site and application configuration to nonadministrators.0.3. Assigns a virtual disk to an iSCSI target.exe You can manage IIS 7 using the command-line tool Appcmd.0 tools to manage FTP sites. Once a virtual disk has been assigned to a target. In addition.3 using Windows PowerShell. Remove-VirtualDiskTargetMapping. . Tools for Managing Web Services Workloads in Windows Storage Server Tool Internet Information Services Manager snap-in Description You can manage IIS 7 using the Internet Information Services Manager snap-in.exe. which lets you:  Manage IIS and ASP.NET in one tool.exe. Managing Web Services Workloads Web services workloads in Windows Storage Server can be managed by any of the management methods available for IIS 7.  Connect to a web server.  For more information about managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Use IIS 6.  View health and diagnostic information that includes the ability to view currently running requests in real time. and for managing Web services workloads. All the virtual disks assigned to the same iSCSI target will be accessible by the connected iSCSI initiator. The management tools available for managing IIS 7. or application remotely by using HTTP. site. are listed in Table 15. an iSCSI initiator can access the virtual disk after the initiator connects to the target. Note You cannot use IIS Manager to manage FTP sites in IIS 7 on Windows Storage Server. see IIS Manager (IIS 7). Removes the assignment between a virtual disk and iSCSI target. For more information. which provides consistent commands for common queries and configuration tasks. Table 15. Appcmd. For more information.0. reducing the complexity of learning syntax.exe to configure and query objects on your web server.  Configure user and role authorization for sites and applications.

Allows you to manage any configuration section available in the configuration system. These new type of accounts reduce the recurrent administrative task of having to update passwords on processes running with these accounts. web applications and web servers.NET applications or adding and editing request filtering rules through a graphical user interface.config file and can also be distributed among Web.  Enhancements to IIS Manager. IIS 7. Developers are able to service HTTP requests directly in their applications by using the hostable Web core feature. and manage IIS configuration and run-time data.NET configuration. and directories. the new IIS 7. You can use WMI to build scripts for web administration.  Request Filtering.5 release that make it possible to manage obscure settings such as those used for FastCGI and ASP. By default.config files for sites.48 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Tool Configuration store Description You can manage IIS 7 using the XML-based configuration store that is modeled after the ASP. By blocking specific HTTP requests. Windows Storage Server allows domain-based service accounts to have passwords that are managed by AD DS. The Windows PowerShell Provider for IIS is a Windows PowerShell snap-in that allows you to perform IIS administrative tasks. The Request Filtering user interface provides a graphical user interface for configuring the Request Filtering module. Utilizing the extensible and modular architecture introduced with IIS 7.1.  Hostable Web Core. New features have been added to IIS Manager for the 7. the Request Filter module helps prevent potentially harmful requests from being processed by Web applications on the server. Scripts using WMI Windows Storage Server includes the following features which help reduce administration. and troubleshooting effort:  Automation of common tasks through the PowerShell provider. allows management of FastCGI settings while the ASP. The FastCGI module.  IIS Manager UI extensions.5 supports the use of managed service accounts for application pool identities. applications.5 integrates and enhances existing extensions and allows for further enhancements and customizations in the future. unless they have been locked to prevent changes. WebAdministration. Available through a set of APIs. contains classes and methods that enable you to script administration of websites. this feature lets the core IIS Web engine to be consumed or hosted by other applications.0. see Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) in IIS 7. For more information. Configuration Editor exposes several configuration settings that are not exposed elsewhere in IIS Manager. The hostable . web applications. see Configuration Store (IIS 7).config file. In addition. These enhancements include updates to:  Configuration Editor. This module includes the filtering features previously found in URLScan 3. such as Windows PowerShell. Settings configured at one level are inherited automatically by lower levels. a collection of task-oriented cmdlets provide a simple way to manage websites. IIS configuration is stored in the ApplicationHost.  Managed service accounts. and their associated objects and properties using any scripting language that supports WMI.NET module allows management of authorization and custom error settings. the server administrator is the only user who has permission to view and edit the ApplicationHost. support. The IIS 7 WMI provider namespace. For more information. allowing those apps to service HTTP requests directly. for example.

5 provides enhanced auditing of changes to IIS and application configuration. file creations and more. optional role services. PHP developers can use the FastCGI module to include IIS trace calls in their applications. For more information. In IIS 7. see the Print Management Step-by-Step Guide.49 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper    Web core feature is useful for enabling basic Web server capabilities for custom applications or for debugging applications. This reduces the effort required for debugging code during development and troubleshooting application errors after deployment by using IIS Failed Request Tracing. changes to path mappings.5 Web server and reporting on potential configuration issues found. You can access the BPA through Server Manager and Windows PowerShell. Table 16. For Windows operating systems prior to Windows Vista. For more information. Server Manager also displays print-related events from Event Viewer and includes an instance of the Print Management snap-in. Managing Print Services Workloads The Print services workloads in Windows Storage Server that the Print Server role provides can be managed by using the tools listed in Table 16. It can also send email notifications or run scripts when a printer or print server needs attention. which allows you to track the configuration changes made to your test and production environments.5 and application configuration. The BPA for IIS 7. Enhanced auditing of changes to IIS 7. Best Practices Analyzer (BPA).exe tool in a startup script (for percomputer connections) or in a logon script (for per-user connections). The new Configuration Logging feature in IIS 7. such as toner and paper levels. For more information. The Print Management snap-in provides current details about the status of printers and print servers on the network. Use Print Management with Group Policy to automatically deploy printer connections to users or computers and install the appropriate printer drivers for computers running Windows Vista and later Windows operating systems. Failed Request Tracing for FastCGI. This provides logging of both reads and writes. see Server Manager and the Print Services Role.5 is a management tool that can help you reduce best practice violations by scanning an IIS 7. Print Management can display more data. which can administer the local server only. Print Management snap-in Group Policy .5. as well as logon attempts. Print Management can also help you find printers that have an error condition by using filters. see the Print Management Step-by-Step Guide. use the PushPrinterConnections. On printers that provide a web-based management interface. Use Print Management to install printer connections to a group of client computers simultaneously and to monitor print queues remotely. and features. Tools for Managing Print Services Workloads in Windows Storage Server Tool Server Manager Description Use Server Manager to install the Print Services server role.

For more information. This is an efficient way to consolidate multiple print servers or replace an older print server. see the Print Migration Tool. and then import them on another print server that is running a Windows operating system.exe command-line tool Windows PowerShell . Printbrm. Provides the same features and functionality as the Printer Migration Wizard. For more information about using Windows PowerShell to manage print services workloads. and language monitors. see Printer Management Using PowerShell. printer settings. Use Windows PowerShell to manage print services workloads. printer ports.50 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Tool Printer Migration Wizard Description The Printer Migration Wizard allows you to export print queues.

 The Volume Shadow Copy Service feature. .exe tool to backup IIS configuration.  Perform backups of applications like SQL Server to protect application data using VSS functionality.  System Center Data Protection Manager.  The Automated System Recovery feature. and shared folders. files. or the system state.  The Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature.  Does not implement a method of including media rotation strategies. and reduce the risk of potential data loss. you can use most backup and disaster recovery products offered by Microsoft partners for Windows Server 2008 to protect data managed by Windows Storage Server. Table 17 lists the features and limitations of this feature.  Does not support a centralized monitoring ability for enterprise environments. Features and Limitations of Windows Server Backup Features Use Windows Server Backup to:  Back up a full server (all volumes). DVDs.  The LUN resynchronization capabilities. tools. folders. and technologies.exe tool to backup printer information. helps protect the data managed by Windows Storage Server.  Cannot back up shared storage in a failover cluster if the storage is moved between active nodes. selected volumes. Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data The Windows Server Backup feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 consists of a MMC snap-in and command-line tools that provide a solution for backup and recovery requirements. which is available separately. Table 17. You can protect the data managed by Windows Storage Server using:  The Windows Server Backup feature.51 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protecting Windows Storage Server Workload Data One of the essential aspects to ongoing operations of Windows Storage Server workloads is the ability to protect the data that the server software manages. and the system state. Limitations Windows Server Backup has the following limitations:  Supports backing up only to external and internal disks. Using proper backup and disaster recovery processes. However.  The Appcmd. Note In addition to the products and technologies discussed in this section.  Can only back up volumes 2 terabyte or less in size. support of tape storage drivers is still included in Windows Storage Server.  The DFS Replication feature.  Does not include the ability to e-mail or provide notification of the backup status report.  Perform a system recovery in case of disasters like hard disk failures.  The PrintBRM. You cannot perform backups to tape. which will restore your complete system onto the new hard disk by using a full server backup and the Windows Recovery Environment. certain applications.  Recover volumes.

You cannot enable this feature for specific shared folders and files on a volume. There is a limit of 64 shadow copies per volume (when this limit is reached.  Recover from accidentally overwriting a file. consider using:  System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. For more information.M. Note For more information about the Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature. see the section "Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data. and 12:00 P.52 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Features Limitations  Only supports backup of entire volumes (cannot be used to backup individual files and folders. Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data The Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature in Windows Storage Server is a feature in Windows Server that transparently maintains previous versions of files on selected volumes by using shadow copies. Shadow Copies of Shared Folders is enabled for an entire volume. the oldest shadow copy will be deleted and cannot be retrieved). is useful because you can:  Recover files that were accidentally deleted. (The number of versions depends on how many snapshots you have created. It works by taking snapshots of an entire volume at particular points in time. contact the appropriate Microsoft partner. If you accidentally overwrite a file. .M. You can use previous versions when you want to check what has changed between the versions of a file.  Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. you can recover a previous version of the file. If your backup and recovery requirements are affected by any of the limitations listed above. This feature allows a user to restore selective files or folders from previous versions without IT assistance. The Shadow Copies for Shared Folders features uses the Volume Shadow Copy Service to create the file copies.  Backup and recovery solutions from Microsoft partners. For more information." later in this white paper. you can open a previous version and copy it to a safe location. The default configuration for this feature is as follows:  A default task is scheduled to create shadow copies at 7:00 A. Note This default task can be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization.   The default storage area is on the same volume and its size requires 10 percent of the available space.)  Compare versions of a file while working. Shadow copies are read-only and as such you cannot edit the contents of a shadow copy. or shadow copies. With Shadow Copies of Shared Folders.  Only supports backup of local volumes (cannot be used to backup network shared folders). Accessing previous versions of files. you can view shared files and folders as they existed at points of time in the past. If you accidentally delete a file. Monday through Friday. see:  Shadow Copies for Shared Folders Technical Reference.

such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. The volume that holds the shadow copy storage files for the system copy-on-write software provider. this is a database application like SQL Server or Exchange Server. Typically. An application that requests that a volume shadow copy be taken. Examples include the system provider included with the Windows Storage Server operating system. or the Diskshadow command-line tool. such as those in the sections about "Windows Server Backup. Shadow Copy of Shared Folders feature. Table 18. Writer Provider Source volume Storage volume . System Center Data Protection Manager. Components in the Volume Shadow Copy Architecture Component Volume Shadow Copy Service Requestor Description A service that coordinates various components to create consistent shadow copies of one or more volumes. A component of an application that stores persistent information on one or more volumes that participate in shadow copy synchronization. For example. or a system service like Active Directory. Figure 7. and the hardware providers included with storage arrays. The volume that contains the data to be shadow copied. the Windows Server Backup feature. Volume Shadow Copy Service Architecture Table 18 lists the components in the Volume Shadow Copy Service architecture and how the components relate to each other." and "Virtual Disk Snapshots" in this white paper. A component that creates and maintains the shadow copies. This architecture allows the point-in-time snapshots of files stored in Windows Storage Server. Figure 7 illustrates the architecture of the Volume Copy Shadow Service in Windows Storage Server." "Shadow Copies of Shared Folders.53 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data The Volume Shadow Copy Service feature in Windows Storage Server provides the ability to take point-in-time snapshots of files and is the foundation for other applications or features.

Traditional volume shadow copy service Recovers only a volume. Table 19 lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and current features in Volume Shadow Copy Service. This allows you to create shadow copies of entire LUNs. which may contain multiple volumes. the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider is required to create point-in-time snapshots. Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data Windows Server 2008 R2 includes support for LUN resynchronization (also known as LUN resynch or LUN revert). Typically takes more time than restoring by using LUN resynchronization. Performed by storage array hardware. and then restore from those shadow copies. Note You can use DiskShadow. The Volume Shadow Copy Services uses the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider to create these snapshots.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. of the virtual hard disks managed by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. using the inherent snapshot or copying features in the storage array. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service Window Server 2008 R2 LUN resynchronization support is an extension of the features provided by the Volume Shadow Copy Service in Windows Server 2008 R2. Performed by server computer. or copies. LUN resynchronization is a method for quickly restoring volumes that takes advantage of the capabilities of storage arrays. such as SANs.exe command-line tool to manage Volume Shadow Copy Services for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Typically takes less time than restoring by using traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service. For more information about the:  Volume Shadow Copy Service. or development environments. see Volume Shadow Copy Service Technical Reference. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service LUN resynchronization Recovers entire LUN. LUN resynchronization creates hardware-based shadow copies that allow you to recover a volume from an existing shadow copy of the volume. You can also use LUN resynchronization to help quickly create duplicates of productions LUNs for use in a storage environment for backup or in test. Table 19. see the "Hardware Providers" section of Virtual Disks and Snapshots.54 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper As described in Table 18 and illustrated in Figure 7. . LUN resynchronization uses the same application programming interfaces (APIs) that are used by the Volume Shadow Copy Service.

 Integration with existing volume recovery methods. Source LUN can exist on slower. After the recovery of a volume using LUN resynchronization is initiated. Although there may be a reduction in performance. The destination LUN is the target LUN that will be synchronized or swapped with the source LUN. Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization The benefits of LUN resynchronization include the following:  Perform recovery of volumes with minimal disruption of service. users and applications are still able to access their data.  Reduce the workload while recovering volumes. a shadow copy version of a LUN is exchanged with the active LUN. Source LUN must have the same performance as the production LUN.  Compatibility with future improvements. Table 20 lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and a LUN swap. Source LUN can be used for recovery again. Table 20. This helps ensure that you can use the same tools and processes for a traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service recovery. Requires that the destination LUN exists and is usable. supported APIs in Windows Server 2008 R2. Destination LUN does not have to exist or can be unusable. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap LUN resynchronization Source (shadow copy) LUN remains unmodified after the resynchronization completes. Must create another shadow copy to perform recovery. The APIs used to perform LUN resynchronization are the same APIs that perform a traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service recovery. Contains only the information on the source LUN. less expensive storage. the server hardware resources are only minimally affected. and any information written during the resynchronization. users can continue to access data on the volume while the synchronization is being performed. LUN swap Source (shadow copy) LUN becomes the active LUN and is modified.55 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap LUN swap is a fast volume recovery scenario supported since the release of Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1). This allows the server to continue processing other workloads with the same performance while the LUN resynchronization process completes. In a LUN swap. future versions of Windows Server will also provide support for LUN resynchronization. Because the hardware storage array is performing the resynchronization. Because LUN resynchronization uses published. The source LUN is the shadow copy of the LUN that contains the data you wish to use. Destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN. .

the source LUN is unmodified and the destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN. The LUN resynchronization completes and all user requests are now performed from the destination LUN. During the LUN resynchronization. Restoring the base operating system plus the backup application (the minimum required to restore backed up applications and data) is a time intensive process. You can make full or differential shadow copies of the LUN. and disk partition information. Using Automated System Recovery to Protect Data While backing up data to tape protects mission critical data from catastrophic events. it does nothing to protect system software stored on the hard drive. The LUN resynchronization is initiated between the source (shadow copy) and the destination LUNs. and in the Windows Software Development Kit (SDK) for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. With the Automated System Recovery (ASR) technology in Windows Storage Server. Using DFS Replication to Protect Data DFS Replication can be used as part of a centralized backup solution. system files. For example. Note At the end of the LUN resynchronization process. see the section "Creating Branch Office Solutions" later in this white paper. ASR is tightly integrated with VSS. For more information about DFS Replication in branch office scenarios for data protection. The source and destination LUNs are identified. A critically damaged hard drive will lose all critical registry information. such as fire or electrical surges. The LUN resynchronization continues by performing a block-level copy from the source (shadow copy) LUN to the destination LUN.  For write operations. users can access the volume using the following methods:  For read operations. you can use this method in branch office scenarios to create replica copies of data in the branch offices in the head office and then back up the data in the head office. you need to have a hardware shadow copy (snapshot) of the LUN. 5. volume requests are directed to the destination LUN. In the event of system failure. volume requests are directed to the source LUN. a system administrator prepares for such a disaster by saving to physical media a complete backup set of information about the how the server was configured. The following includes the sequence of events that occur when performing a full volume restore using LUN synchronization: 1. You can use DFS Replication to create replica copies of data in a centralized location and then back up the replica copies. . because that information is not copied during the backup process. You can find more information about how these steps are performed by viewing the Volume Shadow Copy Service APIs on MSDN®. nothing remains but the bare metal. plus any data that was written to the destination LUN during the LUN resynchronization process. 3. this backup set is used with the ASR restore CD (which contains the necessary software and drivers to allow the restore) to rapidly restore all system setup information. including any volume information. 2.56 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization Before you can perform a full volume recovery using LUN synchronization. 4.

Windows 2008 also provides the Recovery Console that utilizes the Windows Recovery Environment (Windows RE). A snapshot is a point-in-time. Combined with Windows Server technology. Data Protection Manager 2007 was specifically designed to protect and recover files services for SQL Server. Data Protection Manager 2007 includes the following benefits:  Continuous data protection for Windows application and file services workloads. which recreates all critical volumes and restores the required data. providing an easy-to-manage and robust disk/tape back-end platform. Data Protection Manager 2007 protects core Windows Server workloads by continuously capturing data changes with application-aware byte-level agents. . In addition. Data Protection Manager 2007 combines the best aspects of CDP real-time protection with traditional tape backup/restore to provide a comprehensive disk-to-disk-to-tape data recovery solution. They offer the following advantages:  Snapshots can be scheduled to be created automatically. in case of accidental data deletion by a user.  Advanced technology for enterprises of all sizes. Data Protection Manager 2007 enables IT administrators and users to easily recover data in minutes from easily accessible disk instead of locating and restoring from less-reliable tapes. SharePoint® Portal Server. Data Protection Manager 2007 blends the best aspects of continuous data protection (CDP) to disk storage with traditional tape backup. read-only copy of an iSCSI virtual disk. and one-click lossless application recovery. Exchange Server. enable efficient storage utilization. Microsoft Virtual Server. During a restore operation the ASR VSS writer is executed within the Windows PE environment. For more information about System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. ASR has been enhanced to support EFI system partitions. see System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. or data corruption resulting from a malicious program. To facilitate backup and recovery operations. minimize the time required to create disks. which are files in the fixed virtual hard disk (VHD) format. Data Protection Manager 2007 provides technically advanced and comprehensive data protection for organizations ranging in size from small business environments to enterprise environments.  Snapshots are useful for fast system recovery of files and volumes. Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 is designed to provide and restore Windows Server applications. Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect Data The disks you create by using the iSCSI Software Target are iSCSI virtual disks. a version of Windows PE that contains numerous troubleshooting and system resolution utilities. This change removes a previous problem in which dynamic disks were always recreated even if a restoration was not necessary. These virtual disks offer flexible and effective storage.  Snapshots are space-efficient because they are differential copies. Finally. overwritten data. and Windows Server operating systems. in addition to supporting dynamic disks.57 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper ASR provides a VSS Writer for the preparation of an ASR set. Snapshots are useful for backups.  Rapid and reliable recovery. and minimize the down time that is typically required to install new disks. They can be extended to provide extra capacity on demand. Focused on the primary Microsoft server workloads. you can schedule and create snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks.

see Virtual Disks and Snapshots. For more information about:  Virtual disks and virtual disk snapshots. servers.exe Tool to Backup Printer Information You can protect data managed by Print services workloads using the PrintBRM. You can back up the configuration files for IIS 7. see Migrate Print Servers.58 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper   Snapshots can be mounted locally or exported to facilitate backup and recovery operations. . For more information about the Appcmd. you could create snapshots prior to performing an upgrade to provide the ability to roll back the environment should the upgrade fail.exe tool in Windows Storage Server. For more information. you need to use backup software that works with Volume Shadow Copy Service from a Microsoft partner.exe tool allows you to export printer information on a periodic basis as a way of backing up a print server." in this white paper.0 using this tool. see the previous section "Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data. Uses for Virtual Disk Snapshots Scenario Provide disaster recovery Create a restore point Use of the virtual disk snapshots The snapshots can be saved to other appliances. Table 21. Snapshots do not require that you close files or stop programs when you create them.exe tool in Windows Storage Server. or archival media and then later used to restore the data in the event of a failure. To create an application-consistent snapshot. see How to backup/restore IIS7 configuration. Table 21 lists scenarios for using virtual disk snapshots. To perform backups of the virtual disks. Using the Appcmd. For example. so application servers can continue servicing clients without disruption. The PrintBRM.  The Volume Shadow Copy Service. Note Snapshots that are created on the iSCSI target server are crash consistent.exe Tool to Backup IIS Configuration You can protect data managed by Web services workloads using the Appcmd. Most modern file systems can recover from this state. The snapshot can be used to provide the ability to rollback services to a previous version. Using the PrintBRM. Virtual disk snapshots require the Volume Shadow Copy Service and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider.exe tool. the snapshot must be created from the iSCSI initiator computer by using the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider and other backup software that works with the Volume Shadow Copy Service.

help prevent unauthorized local and network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. NTFS permissions NTFS permissions. These security measures can be implemented. NTFS permissions work with share folder permissions to help prevent unauthorized network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. Table 22 lists the features or technologies that you can use to secure Windows Storage Server. access to files and folders are defined by the combination of NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions. you can further secure your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. Security Features or Technologies for All Workloads Feature or technology BitLocker Drive Encryption Description BitLocker Drive Encryption. Services (AD DS) accounts. Note For remote or network users. secure the Windows Storage Server operating system. see Active Directory Domain Services Overview. see the section "NTFS Permissions" in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. encrypts data stored on hard disks. For more information. This is especially important for Branch Office scenarios where the physical security may not be as strong as in a data center. Secure Windows Storage Server workloads by securing:  Windows Storage Server for all workloads  File services workloads  Disk block I/O workloads  Web services workloads  Print services workloads Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads Before securing specific workloads. and is used for accessing all workloads. Table 22.59 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Securing Windows Storage Server Workloads Windows Storage Server includes a number of features and technologies to help you secure your workloads. In addition. included in Windows Storage Server. . For more information. see BitLocker Drive Encryption. For more information. passwords. This encryption helps protect the data by preventing unauthorized users from breaking Windows file and system protection on lost. regardless of the workloads running on Windows Storage Server. included in Windows Storage Server. Active Directory Domain AD DS provides centralized management of credentials. or inappropriately decommissioned appliances. stolen. Windows Storage Server includes all of the security features and technologies found in Windows Server.

IPsec supports network-level peer authentication. you can help protect:  Windows Storage Server and other Windows-based computers or appliances that communicate with the appliance using Forefront Client Security. and management solutions that are integrated with Microsoft user identity management. data confidentiality (encryption). Windows Firewall is also integrated with Internet Protocol Security (IPsec). Windows Firewall with Advanced Security is integrated with Network Awareness so that it can apply security settings appropriate to the types of networks to which the computer is connected. For more information. These shared folder permissions affect users accessing the files and folders using the SMB protocol. For more information. IPsec. allows you to protect the communications between Windows Storage Server and other Windows operating systems. included in Windows Storage Server. see Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. helps reduce the attack surface by blocking unauthorized network traffic flowing into or out of the appliance. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. data integrity.60 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature or technology Shared folder permissions Description Shared folder permission. included in Windows Storage Server. included in Windows Storage Server. Specifically.  Remote connectivity to Windows Storage Server using Forefront Unified Access Gateway 2010. Shared folder permissions work with NTFS permissions to help prevent unauthorized network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. Note For remote or network users. and other Microsoft products. Microsoft Forefront products. data origin authentication. provide protection. access to files and folders are defined by the combination of NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions. available separately. and access. You can centrally manage IPsec using Group Policy.  Communication with other computers or appliances over the Internet using Forefront Threat Management Gateway 2010. so that the IPsec configuration settings are integrated into the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in. see the section "SMB Permissions" in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. Windows operating systems. which dramatically reduces the ongoing administrative and operations effort. only help prevent unauthorized network access to the files and folders stored on Windows Storage Server. and replay protection. For more information. IPsec Microsoft Forefront .

authoritative resources to help you to proactively plan. File Services Protocols and How to Secure the Protocols Protocol SMB How to secure this protocol  Use NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions to secure SMB-based access to shared resources. any security product that is compatible with Windows Server 2008 R2 is also compatible with Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. For more information. see "NTFS Permissions" and "SMB Permissions" sections in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders.exe to create client groups and to add client computers to those groups before configuring NFS share permissions. the Security Compliance Management Toolkit Series provides an end-to-end solution to help plan. you can use the following resources to help secure Windows Storage Server:  Microsoft Security. and operate your security infrastructure. use NFSAdmin. NFS-based access control for a shared resource is determined based on network names and groups. Use read-only DFS Replication to provide read-only copies of file and folders to servers where only readonly access is allowed.  Security Solution Accelerators.61 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature or technology Microsoft partner products Description There are a large number of security related products and technologies that are available from Microsoft partners. integrate. Typically. This collection of tools and guidance are free. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. and monitor security baselines of Windows operating systems. deploy. Specifically. This is the home page for all Microsoft security products and technologies for all operating systems and products. For more information. Table 23 lists the file services protocols and how to secure the protocol. In addition to features and technologies listed in Table 22. Securing File Services Workloads File services workloads are secured based on the protocol that provides access to the file services workloads. For more information. You can manage the NFS share permissions using the Share and Storage Management snap-in. you must first install the Services for Network File System (NFS) role service using Server Manager. Use read-only DFS Replication to provide read-only copies of file and folders to servers where only read-  NFS   . After installing Services for NFS. see the “Creating Branch Office Solutions” section in this white paper. To use NFS permissions. see the "NFS Permissions" section in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders." earlier in this white paper. Table 23.

or you must deploy one. With this level of security. The IPsec protocol enforces . To use this level of security. see Authentication and Security Using WebDAV. WebDAV  Windows SharePoint Services   Securing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Disk block I/O workloads are secured by configuring the appropriate security between the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and the iSCSI initiators. A separate secret is set for each target and for each initiator.  RADIUS authentication. For more information. only the iSCSI target authenticates the initiator.62 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protocol How to secure this protocol only access is allowed. All initiators that want to access that target need to use the same secret to start a logon session with the target. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. Table 24 lists the methods of securing the communication for the iSCSI block I/O workloads. see Plan authentication settings for Web applications (Windows SharePoint Services). Transactions between the iSCSI initiator and the RADIUS server are also authenticated through the use of a shared secret. With this level of security. Require authentication for all users that access the appliance using WebDAV. For more information.  Mutual CHAP authentication.  Encrypt all WebDAV communication with the appliance using secure socket layer (SSL). Securing Communication for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Protocol Require authentication How to secure Require all iSCSI initiators to authenticate with the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using one of the following methods:  One-way CHAP authentication. you must have a RADIUS server running on your network. see the “Creating Branch Office Solutions” section in this white paper. With this level of security. the iSCSI initiator is authenticated by a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server. For more information.  IPsec authentication. Table 24. For more information. Require authentication for all users that Windows SharePoint Server on the appliance. The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) secret is set just for the target. see Authentication and Security Using WebDAV. see Plan authentication settings for Web applications (Windows SharePoint Services). For more information. Encrypt all Windows SharePoint communication with the appliance using SSL. the iSCSI target and the initiator authenticate each other.

less-privileged identity. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. use one-way CHAP authentication between iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. . every IIS 7. For more information. see iSCSI Security. Isolate the network segments used for communication between the iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by using separate physical network segments or by using virtual local area networks (VLANs).0 that increased security and reliability. Allow connectivity to the appliance only from computers on your internal network. Table 25 lists the Web services protocols and how to secure the protocol. Note At a minimum.5 builds on the application pool isolation that was available with IIS 7. For more information. Web Services Protocols and How to Secure the Protocols Protocol HTTP How to secure this protocol    Use the HTTPS protocol instead to provide encryption of all communication between the appliance and the clients. Encrypt all communication Protect communication between the iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using IPsec encryption. Allow connectivity to the appliance only from computers on your internal network. This helps harden the security of applications and services running on IIS 7. Table 25. Isolate iSCSI network segments Securing Web Services Workloads Web services workloads are secured based on the protocol that provides access to the Web services workloads. HTTP is an insecure protocol and sends all traffic in clear text. Ensure that all HTTPS connections require authentication as necessary. Ensure that all FTP connections require authentication. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec." earlier in this white paper.63 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protocol How to secure authentication at the IP packet layer. FTP is an insecure protocol and sends all traffic in clear text.5 application pool now runs with a unique. FTP    Note IIS 7. Use IPsec to protect communication between the appliance and FTP clients.5. Ensure that all HTTP connections require authentication as necessary. Note HTTPS   HTTPS is a secure protocol and does not need further protection for confidentiality.

Table 26. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. Table 26 lists the Print Server role services and how to secure the role service.64 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Securing Print Services Workloads Print services workloads are secured based on the Print Server role service that provides access to the file services workloads. Use the HTTPS protocol instead when connecting to the URL for the printer. Protect all communication between the Internet Printing clients and the appliance using SSL. For more information. If required. see Internet Printing and Resulting Internet Communication in Windows Server 2008." earlier in this white paper. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. use IPsec to protect the communication between the LPD Service and LPR clients. The communication between the LPD Service and LPR clients is unsecured. For more information. There is no authentication available or security permissions available. see Assigning Delegated Print Administrator and Printer Permission Settings in Windows Server 2008 R2. For more information. Print Server Role Services and How to Secure the Role Service Role service Print Server How to secure this protocol Use printer permissions to control access to the appliance running the Print Server role services using the Print Management snapin. LPD Service Internet Printing .

Windows Storage Server includes all of the high availability features and technologies found in Windows Server. Improve the availability of Windows Storage Server workloads by:  Improving File services workload availability  Improving iSCSI block I/O workload availability  Improving Web services workload availability  Improving Print services workloads availability Improving Availability of File Services Workloads The availability of file services workloads in Windows Storage Server can be improved based on the protocol used to access the file services. you can improve DFS Replication availability by running on failover clusters in Windows Storage Server. Table 27 lists the methods for improving the availability for file services workload and which protocols can use that method. see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node File Server Failover Cluster. You can use DFS Replication to create replica copies of shared network folders. Windows Storage Server provides an easy to install and configure user interface for creating a two node failover cluster.65 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Availability of Windows Storage Server Workloads High levels of availability are essential for mission-critical applications and services. In addition. DFS. can be used to improve the availability of SMB-based file services workloads. complexity. and effort required to create a two node cluster. Table 27.      . Then you can use DFS Namespace to provide automatic failover to replica copies of content when a local copy of the content is unavailable. In addition. The method supports read and write access to the files. as illustrated in Figure 8. Methods for Improving File Services Workload Availability Method SMB NFS WebDAV Windows SharePoint Services Failover clusters. you can further improve the availability of your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. Failover clusters in Windows Storage Server. For more information about failover clusters for file services workloads. This user interface reduces the learning curve.

The shared storage in Figure 8 can be iSCSI. see Distributed File System. SAS. PCI RAID controllers are not supported for shared storage. Network Load Balancing. Note The cluster storage illustrated in Figure 8 could be provided by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server.66 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Method SMB NFS WebDAV Windows SharePoint Services For more information. The Network Load Balancing (NLB) feature in Windows Storage Server can be used to provide fault tolerance for file services workloads. . see Network Load Balancing. or Fibre Channel connected storage. For more information about using NLB to improve availability for file services workloads.   The most common method of improving the availability for file services workloads is by using failover clusters. Figure 8 illustrates a typically two-node failover cluster for file services workloads.

A failover cluster is a group of independent computers that work together to increase the availability of applications and services. Multipath I/O uses physical path components — adapters.67 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 8. For more information. You can use failover clusters to improve the availability for the iSCSI initiator running a Windows Server operating system or the iSCSI target running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Typical two-node failover cluster for file services workloads Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads You can improve the availability iSCSI block I/O workloads by using a combination of the following features in Windows Server products:  Failover clustering. cables. see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and the Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node File Server Failover Cluster. and switches — to create logical paths between the iSCSI initiator and the appliance .  Multipath I/O. The most common failover cluster used for iSCSI block I/O workloads is a file server failover cluster.

.  Creating highly-available iSCSI initiators with single or multipath connections. Redundancy for file services and print services is also provided by network adapter teaming support from the network adapter vendor. Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Targets The highest priority in improving the availability of iSCSI block I/O workloads is to improve the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. As illustrated in Figure 9. In the event that one or more of these components fails. multipathing logic uses an alternate path for I/O so that applications running on the iSCSI initiator can still access their data. The configuration in Figure 9 helps prevent loss of iSCSI block I/O workloads in the event of a failure of one of the appliances. For more information. However. Redundancy for iSCSI initiators on other operating systems or hardware iSCSI initiators is provided by network adapter teaming from the network adapter vendor. This section also discusses the following combinations of failover clustering and multipath I/O features:  Creating highly-available iSCSI targets with single or multipath connections. causing the path to fail. see Multipath I/O Overview.68 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Each iSCSI network interface card should be connected by using redundant switch infrastructures to provide continued access to storage in the event of a failure in a storage fabric component. Note Multipath connections for Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiators is provided by the MPIO feature in Windows Server. there is no fault tolerance depicted in the connection between the iSCSI initiator and the clustered iSCSI targets (the storage fabric). you can use failover clusters to improve the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server.

69 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 9. . switches. This redundancy in the physical connectivity helps eliminate any single point of failures due to the network infrastructure for the storage fabric used by iSCSI. The network infrastructure for the iSCSI communication between the iSCSI initiator and the clustered nodes running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target has been updated to include redundant network adapters. such as a switch failure or a disconnected network cable. and network cables. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with a single path connection The configuration in Figure 10 illustrates combining multipath I/O with the failover cluster solution.

there is no fault tolerance depicted in the connection between the clustered iSCSI initiators and the clustered iSCSI targets (the storage fabric). As illustrated in Figure 11. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with multipath connections Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Initiators After improving the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. you can improve the availability of the iSCSI initiators running Windows Server operating systems. you can use failover clusters to improve the availability of the computers or appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server operating systems.70 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 10. . The configuration in Figure 11 helps prevent loss of iSCSI block I/O workloads in the event that one of the computers or appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator or Microsoft iSCSI Software Target fails. However.

71 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 11. . Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and iSCSI initiators with single path connections The configuration in Figure 12 illustrates combining multipath I/O with the failover cluster solution for the iSCSI initiators and iSCSI targets in Figure 11. switches. and network cables. such as a switch failure or a disconnected network cable. This redundancy in the physical connectivity helps eliminate any single point of failure due to the network infrastructure for the storage fabric used by iSCSI. The network infrastructure for the iSCSI communication between the clustered nodes running the iSCSI initiators and the clustered nodes running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target has been updated to include redundant network adapters.

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Figure 12. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and iSCSI initiators with multipath connections

Improving Availability of Web Services Workloads
The NLB feature in Windows Storage Server can be used to provide fault tolerance for Web services workloads. The assumption of this solution is that each of the appliances in the NLB cluster have identical content and are continuously synchronized (such as by DFS Replication). For more information about using NLB to improve availability for Web services workloads, see Network Load Balancing.
Note If the Web applications use a centralized SQL Server database for storing information, you can also use failover clustering to improve the availability of the database. For more information, see Getting Started with SQL Server 2008 Failover Clustering.

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Improving Availability of Print Services Workloads
Failover clusters in Windows Storage Server can be used to improve the availability of Print services workloads. Figure 13 illustrates a typically two-node failover cluster for Print services workloads.
Note The cluster storage illustrated in Figure 13 could be provided by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server.

Figure 13. Typical two-node failover cluster for Print services workloads This method helps prevent any print services outages due to the failure a node in the cluster. Print services outages for specific printers occur in the event of a printer failure. However, the print jobs for the printer continue to be queued until the printer failure is resolved and the printer is restored to normal operation. For more information about failover clusters for file services workloads, see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and the Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node Print Server Failover Cluster.

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Improving Performance and Scalability for Windows Storage Server Solutions
The ability to take full advantage of the system resources of Windows Storage Server based appliance is essential to creating successful solutions. Windows Storage Server includes all of the performance and scalability features and technologies found in Windows Server 2008. In addition, you can further improve the performance and scalability of your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. Improve the performance and scalability of Windows Storage Server workloads by improving performance and scalability for:  All workloads.  File services workloads.  iSCSI block I/O workloads.  Web services workloads.  Print services workloads.

Improving Performance and Scalability for All Workloads
Windows Storage Server includes a number of technologies and features that will improve the performance and scalability for all workloads. These performance and scalability improvements are inherent in Windows Storage Server. Improve the performance and scalability for all workloads by taking advantage of the:  Improvements in processor and memory capacity.  Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol.  Improvements in network adapter performance.  Reduction in processor utilization for I/O operations.

Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity
The improvements in computer design have resulted in modern server computers that support an ever increasing number of processors and increased memory capacity. Current server computers are only shipping with 64-bit processors, multiple processors, and higher memory capacity than ever before. These improvements allow you to create application platforms that are able to support larger workloads, reduce rack space in your data center, reduce power consumption, provide improved reliability, and reduce your overall administrative effort.

Improved Physical Processor and Memory Resources
32-bit processors impose system resource limitations that restrict your ability to handle increased workloads without investing in additional server computers. 64-bit processors allow you to support larger workloads, while minimizing the number of physical computers in your data center. Also, server consolidation by using virtualization requires 64-bit processors to provide the processing and memory resources to support higher ratios of server consolidation. To support the increased processor performance and memory capacity provided by 64bit processors, Windows Storage Server is only available for 64-bit processor architectures. Windows Storage Server supports up to 256 logical processor cores for a single operating system instance.

rather than relying on the receipt of the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) error messages. However. SLAT uses special processor functionality available in recent Intel and AMD processors to carry out some virtual machine memory management functions. This feature automatically determines the value of the maximum receive window size for a connection based on the current conditions of the network. The performance and scalability features in the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite include:  Offloading TCP/IP protocol processing to specialized network adapter hardware.  Improving black hole router detection. Automatically tuning the receive window size allows the maximum amount of data to be transmitted between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista.500 persistent active connections. especially on high latency connections. Aggressively increasing the TCP Send window size allows the maximum amount of data to be transmitted between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. This feature works with the Compound TCP feature on the sender side. For example. CTCP attempts to maximize throughput on these types of connections by monitoring delay variations and losses. Microsoft included a new version of the TCP/IP protocol suite. significantly reducing hypervisor processor time and saving about 1MB of memory per virtual machine. CTCP more aggressively increases the Send window for connections with large Receive window sizes and large bandwidth-delay products.  Reducing IP packet resending due to router congestion. routers experiencing congestion mark the IP packets as they forward them.75 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Increased Logical Processor Support Hyper-V in Windows Storage Server can support up to 64 logical processors. TCP peers receiving marked IP packets lower their transmission rate to ease congestion . and high-loss networking environments. This feature senses when large TCP segments retransmit and automatically adjusts the Path Maximum Transmission Unit (PMTU) for the connection. The Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite includes a new set of performance enhancements to increase throughput in high-bandwidth. Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Protocol With the introduction of Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. when the computer is performing a backup over the network. Optimizing the network to receive TCP data can substantially increase overall network utilization by applications. and improves overall network performance. high-latency. Reducing the number of retransmitted TCP segments improves the overall performance of traffic that used the TCP protocol.  Aggressively increasing the TCP Send windows size by using Compound TCP (CTCP).  Automating the tuning of the maximum receive window size. also referred to as the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite. the exact number of connections is vendor specific. Hyper-V in Windows Storage Server also supports Second-Level Address Translation (SLAT) and CPU Core Parking. TCP/IP offloading can be used when a server is performing heavy receive processing with less than 1. CTCP also ensures that its behavior does not negatively impact other TCP connections. Offloading some of the TCP/IP protocol processing to a network adapter reduces the processor utilization associated with handling TCP/IP connections. or scale workloads to greater extremes to match changing demand. With Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) support on both TCP peers and in the routing infrastructure. and improves overall network performance. This increased processor support makes it possible to run even more demanding workloads on a single computer. CPU Core Parking enables power savings by scheduling virtual machine execution on only some processor cores and placing the remaining processor cores in a sleep state.

Reducing IP packet resending improves the overall performance of traffic that uses the TCP protocol. Incoming network traffic with RSS For more information about RSS. Figure 14 illustrates how the architecture of NDIS 6. parallel interrupts. RSS also supports dynamic load balancing. and parallel DPCs.1 allows a single deferred procedure call (DPC) for each network adapter. enables multiple DPCs on different processors for each instance of a network adapter miniport driver.0.0 balances the network load from a network adapter across multiple processors. Because all processors are able to process incoming network traffic. Figure 14. NDIS 5.  New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. a secure hashing mechanism. .  Performance Enhancements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. all processors have available capacity and none are a bottleneck for incoming network traffic. see Receive-Side Scaling Enhancements in Windows Server 2008. For more information about the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite in Windows Server 2008. see:  Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. Note RSS support has also been released in the scalable networking pack for Windows Server 2003.76 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper and prevent segment losses. NDIS 6. using RSS. while preserving in-order delivery of messages on a per-stream basis. Improvements in Network Adapter Performance RSS in NDIS 6.0 with RSS prevents bottlenecks for incoming network traffic.

Disk controller drivers can make use of new application programming interfaces (APIs) that allow Windows to specify the processor on which to efficiently perform completion processing for each I/O. reduces the hardware interconnect activity. if the completion processing accesses data read from the disk (for example to perform virus detection. A disk controller takes advantage of the NonUniform Memory Access (NUMA) I/O functionality in Windows Server 2008 and can use the information specified during the initiation of the I/O operation to select a processor that can most efficiently perform the necessary processing of the completed I/O. or decompression of the data). that data will have to go from memory to Processor 2 over the node interconnect and then back over the node interconnect to Processor 3 when the application starts to access the data. Furthermore. the I/O operation is initiated on Processor 3. and minimizes I/O completion processing time. In this example. Processor 2 subsequently interrupts Processor 3 to indicate that the I/O operation is complete (assuming that the application waiting for the I/O is executing on Processor 3). reduces the possibility of interrupting an application unrelated to the I/O operation. Figure 15. In prior versions of Windows. the data will go from memory to Processor 3. when the request is initiated. If the completion processing accesses the data read from the disk. . Although the I/O operation is initiated on Processor 3. NUMA I/O functionality improves the hardware cache hit ratios. decryption. Multiprocessor I/O operation without NUMA optimization Figure 16 illustrates an example of the components that might be required for processing a dynamically directed I/O completion by using NUMA I/O. the interrupt from the disk is directed to Processor 3.77 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations Windows Server 2008 performs dynamic redirection of I/O interrupts and I/O completion processing to reduce overall processor utilization. and the application will experience a high cache hit ratio when it accesses the data. the selection of processors to interrupt and perform completion processing was statically chosen when the device was detected (similar to a round-robin order across all processors). Figure 15 illustrates an example of the components that might be required for processing a statically directed I/O completion. The interrupt and subsequent completion processing of the I/O operation occurs on Processor 2. the interrupt from the disk is directed to Processor 2 because of the static assignment made when the disk was detected at boot time. and the subsequent completion processing of the I/O occurs on Processor 3.

 Reviewing SMB-based file services workload test results.  Improving network performance between head offices and branch offices using the BranchCache feature.  Better NUMA and non-NUMA processor architecture. Identify the performance and scalability improvements for file services workloads by:  Reviewing the performance and scalability improvements in the SMB2 protocol. the fact that Processor 4 is unaffected by the I/O operation still results in performance benefits. the I/O processing is localized to a NUMA node or a specific processor within the node. In the current implementation. . For non-NUMA architectures. Figure 16. For NUMA architectures. the node interconnect and all unrelated processors are unaffected by the I/O completion.78 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In this example.1 in Windows Server 2008 R2. see:  The "NUMA Support" section of the "Advances in Memory Management for Windows" white paper. Multiprocessor I/O operation with NUMA optimization The dynamic I/O completion redirection (NUMA I/O) improvements in Windows Server 2008 provide the following benefits:  Support for the Message Signaled Interrupt eXtension (MSI-X) that enables a PCI-X or PCI-Express device to use new APIs to specify a processor to complete processing of each specific I/O operation. For more information about NUMA support in Windows Server 2008.  Reviewing performance improvements in SMB Version 2. the I/O processing is performed on a specific processor. In scenarios where the system consists of only Processors 3 and 4 in a single node configuration. These improvements are largely due to improvements in the SMB2 protocol. Improving Performance and Scalability for File Services Workloads File services workloads in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of Windows Server.  Download NUMA I/O Optimizations. the selected completion processor for an I/O is ideally the same processor that initiated the I/O operation.

Review Improvements in the SMB2 Protocol Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 includes the latest version of SMB. Figure 17 illustrates how SMB 1 processes multiple write operations between a client computer running Windows XP and a server computer running Windows Server 2003. The SMB2 protocol features include:  Support for sending multiple SMB commands within the same packet. SMB in Windows Server 2008 and later versions supports SMB 1 as well as SMB2.  Support for much larger buffer sizes when compared to SMB 1. the new version of SMB that has been redesigned for today’s complex networking environments and next-generation file servers. SMB 1—the technology behind Windows Server versions prior to Windows Server 2008—was originally designed for early Windows-based network operating systems. a common issue in the effective tuning of SMB 1.  Support for symbolic links. such as Microsoft LAN Manager and Windows for Workgroups. each write request must wait for the write response from a previous write request. including greater performance when servers connect to file shares over high-latency links. For example. . write request 2 must wait for the write response from write request 1. which is optimized for greater performance over high-latency links. and better security through the use of mutual authentication and message signing.  An increase in the restrictive constants within the protocol design to allow for scalability. This reduces the number of packets sent between an SMB client and server. The SMB2 protocol provides a number of communication enhancements. SMB2. In SMB 1. Windows includes an SMB client (the “Client for Microsoft Windows” component) and an SMB server (the “File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Windows” component). Examples include an increase in the number of concurrent open file handles on the server and the number of file shares that a server can have.79 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Improving network performance between client computers and Windows Storage Server for the folder redirection and offline files features.  Support for durable handles that can withstand short interruptions in network availability.

80 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 17. multiple write requests can be issued before receiving a write response. . is that remote file operations are much faster. Write operations in SMB 1 Figure 18 illustrates how SMB2 processes multiple write operations between a client computer running Windows Vista and a server computer running Windows Server 2008. The overall effect. In SMB2. especially on high-latency network connections.

see the "Server Message Block 2. Write operations in SMB2 For more information about SMB2. .81 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 18.0" section of New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista.

Windows Firewall imposes a minimal impact (approximately 5 percent) on network throughput. The test results for Windows Server 2003 do not include Windows Firewall. This test environment emulates two geographic locations (New York and London) separated by a WAN connection. The File Services server role implements SMB-based file services. This tool simulates a home folders file workload on a set of client computers and computes the maximum number of users a server can support based on the response time of simulated scenarios as illustrated in Figure 20. Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network For this test. Figure 19 illustrates the environment for tests performed over a WAN connection.82 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Review SMB-based File Services Workload Test Results The File Services server role is one of the most common server roles deployed. The server computers running Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003 are in New York while the client computers running Windows Vista and Windows XP are in London.  Accessing files on a shared folder at a remote location over a WAN connection. Figure 19. the Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) was run against a server running Windows Server 2008. The performance gains that are illustrated in these tests are a direct result of the performance and scalability features in Windows Server 2008. Environment for performing File Services role tests The following tests were performed for the File Servers role:  Running the Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) on a high-speed network. .  Copying large files to a remote location over a WAN connection. Note The tests results reflect the performance of Windows Server 2008 with Windows Firewall enabled.

83 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 450 Number of Scenarios per Second 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 Number of users 100. memory. copying files. Table 28 lists example performance characteristics for appliances with different system resources.200 1. you can expand the processor and disk resources of the appliances to support tens of thousands of users on a single appliance. Table 28.00% 0. . File Services Role scalability test results The scenarios include common operations such as browsing a directory.7% 5.700 5.2% A significantly higher number of users can be supported by adding more drives.00% Procesor utilization 70.00% 90.00% 60. network.6% 7. and disk subsystem utilization details to help identify potential bottlenecks.00% 80. Example Performance Characteristics of Appliances with Different System Resources Processor sockets Single socket Single socket Single socket Dual socket Disk configuration 4 SATA drives 10 SATA drives 10 SATA drives 24 SAS drives Raid level RAID 5 RAID 5 RAID 1+0 RAID 1+0 Users supported 600 1.00% 20. and modifying Microsoft Office files.00% Average scenario throughput CPU utilization Figure 20. In these examples. memory.00% 40.000 Processor utilization 7. and processors. The tool also provides the ability to collect performance counters such as processor. The number and speed of the drives has the largest influence on the number of users who can be supported. the tool will compute a throughput number corresponding to the average scenario per second that the server is able to sustain.00% 50. As reflected by these performance characteristics. For a given number of users accessing data on a file server.5% 11.00% 30.00% 10. the appliances contained only a single or dual processor socket that is typical for these types of appliances at the time of writing.

. In the first scenario. Figure 21. For both scenarios. 100 1-megabyte (MB) files were copied between the client computers and the server computers. one 268-MB file was copied between the client computers and the server computers. a lower length of time indicates that the file operation occurred faster. two scenarios were performed (as illustrated in Figure 21) over a simulated WAN connection. In the chart in Figure 22. In all these scenarios. The test scenarios were performed for the combination of Windows Vista SP1 with Windows Server 2008. Remote large file copy test results Accessing Files at a Remote Location Over a WAN Connection This test series provides an indication of how typical user applications perform when accessing files and folders on network shared folders on server computers running Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003. the scenarios were performed (as illustrated in Figure 21) over a simulated WAN connection:  Opening a 47-KB Excel spreadsheet stored on a network shared folder in Excel 2007.  Copying a 6-MB file to a network shared folder in Windows Explorer. and Windows XP SP2 with Windows Server 2003 SP2. the combination of Windows Vista SP1 and Windows Server 2008 provided dramatic performance improvements compared to the combination of Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP2. the combination of Windows Vista SP1 and Windows Server 2008 provided dramatic performance improvements compared to the combination of Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP2. a lower length of time indicates that the file copy process occurred faster.  Opening a 2-MB Word document stored on a network shared folder in Word 2007. In the chart in Figure 21.84 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Copying Large Files to a Remote Location Over a WAN Connection For this test. In the second scenario.  Browsing a network shared folder that contains 50 files in Windows Explorer. For this test.

 Improved opportunistic file locking method.1. which includes the following improvements over previous versions of SMB:  Support for large protocol data unit (PDU) and maximum transmission unit (MTU).  Improved performance for file copy operations. This improvement helps performance when multiple files are opened in sequence or in parallel by the same client. SMB version 2.1. This improvement helps performance by sending larger SMB packets.1 in Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new version of SMB. SMB packet size was limited to 64 KB. This method helps improve application performance when opening and closing files. such as files for Microsoft Office System applications. or SMB2 client requests. For example. In SMB version 2. the SMB packet size can now increase up to 1 MB. . Figure 23 and Figure 24 illustrate the SMB performance differences between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 on two servers with different system resources. Previously. The Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) can be used to help perform file server capacity and performance planning and troubleshooting for CIFS. This improvement helps file copy operations performed remotely on network shared folders using the SMB protocol. a single packet can now contain thousands of directory entries.85 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 22. Remote file application test results Reviewing Performance Improvements in SMB Version 2. SMB. This increase in packet size significantly improves the performance for file copies and directory enumerations.

Performance results with first hardware configuration In the performance results comparison in Figure 23.  24 hard disks configured in a RAID-10 array. Figure 24.86 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 23. the server has the following system resources:  One processor.  16 GB of memory. Performance results with second hardware configuration .  One Fibre Channel host bus adapter.

 Two Fibre Channel host bus adapters. and prior operating systems. Versions of SMB Supported Between Different Windows Operating Systems Windows Vista.1. if a computer running Windows XP is accessing a computer running Windows Server 2008 R2. The type of content that is cached is content returned by SMB requests and HTTP requests. BranchCache Modes BranchCache supports the following operational modes:  Distributed Cache mode  Hosted Cache mode .1 are realized only when both operating systems support SMB 2. Table 29. SMB 1 is used for file services traffic. Table 29 shows the version of SMB used between two computers running different combinations of operating systems. The BranchCache feature in Windows Storage Server and Windows 7 reduces the network utilization on WAN segments that connect branch offices by locally caching frequently used files on computers in the branch office. The performance improvements in SMB 2. Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008 Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SMB 1 Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008 SMB 1 Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SMB 1 SMB 1 SMB2 (v2.002) SMB2 (v2.002) SMB 2.1 For example. Windows Server 2003. such as the head office or regional data centers. SMB 2. Windows Server 2003. and prior operating systems Windows Vista.  96 hard disks configured in a RAID-10 array. the increased system resources allow Windows Server 2008 R2 to support almost twice as many users as the system resources in Figure 23. As illustrated in Figure 24.002) SMB 1 SMB2 (v2.1 is only supported when both computers are running Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 R2. the server has the following system resources:  Two processors.  72 GB memory. Typically branch offices are connected by wide area networks (WANs) that usually have slower data rates than your intranet. Reducing the network utilization on the WAN network segments provides available network bandwidth for applications and services. Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache One of the largest problems facing branch offices is how to improve the performance of accessing intranet resources in other locations.87 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In the performance results comparison in Figure 24.

Client 1 issues another request to the server in the head office by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. 3. The client computer indicates to the server that it is BranchCache capable.88 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Distributed Cache Mode In Distributed Cache mode. HTTP. so if the computer containing the cached content is unavailable. or Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS). The disadvantage to this solution is that content is cached on client computers. The server responds with the requested data. Client 1 is the first computer in the branch to download this piece of content. and transmits a set of identifiers that describe the chunks of content the client computer wants to download. so it does not receive any responses. . Client 1 searches locally for a computer that has already downloaded and cached the content. Client 1 issues a request for a file on a BranchCache-enabled server in the head office. This request can be transmitted over any of the BranchCache-enabled protocols. a multicast protocol sent over UDP. protecting it with the BranchCache encryption scheme. Client 2 requests the content from Client 1 by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol. 5. and sends a response to Client 2. Client 2 uses the BranchCache discovery protocol to search for the content. messages. which in turn uses WS-Discovery. content is cached on the branch on client computers running Windows 7. 4. Figure 25. The server responds. Client 1 receives this request. or BITS. HTTP. or headers that are already part of the BranchCache-enabled protocol. This search is conducted by using the BranchCache discovery protocol. such as SMB. These identifiers are transmitted by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. 6. using fields. as illustrated in Figure 25. Client 1 transmits the content to Client 2. finds the requested content in its local cache. 2. The client then adds this data to its local cache. which in turn uses HTTP. Client 2 issues a request for the same content that Client 1 downloaded earlier. the content must be retrieved over the WAN connection. Client 2 receives identifiers describing the content from the server in the head office. Client 2 verifies the data against the identifiers downloaded from the server in the head office. such as SMB. BranchCache Distributed Cache mode The following sequence reflects how the Distributed Cache mode caches content: 1. This request is not marked as BranchCache capable.

content is cached at the branch office on client computers running Windows Server 2008 R2. Hosted Cache Mode In Hosted Cache mode. . such as SMB. Client 1 issues another request to the server in the head office by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. Figure 26. or BITS. The unavailability of any client computer running Windows 7 does not affect the availability of the content cache. HTTP. 3. The server responds with the requested data. The hosted cache response informs Client 1 that the target data is not available.89 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note Hosted Cache mode and Distributed Cache mode are mutually exclusive. messages. HTTP. and transmits a set of identifiers that describe the chunks of content that the client computer wants to download. as illustrated in Figure 26. This request can be transmitted over any of the BranchCache-enabled protocols. Client 1 requests the content from the hosted cache in the branch office by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). using fields. Client 1 advertises the newly downloaded content to the Hosted Cache server running Windows Storage Server by using the BranchCache hosted cache protocol (MS-PCHC). These identifiers are transmitted by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. which in turn uses HTTP. A client computer can be configured to use only a single caching mode at one time. The server responds. or headers that are already part of the BranchCache-enabled protocol. The client computer indicates to the server that it is BranchCache capable. 2. This request is not marked BranchCache capable. so the cached content is always available. such as SMB. BranchCache Hosted Cache mode The following sequence reflects how the Hosted Cache mode caches content: 1. which in turn uses HTTPS. Client 1 issues a request to a BranchCache-enabled server in the head office. or BITS. The advantage to this mode is that the server is always available. 4.

BranchCache Management You can configure BranchCache behavior by using Group Policy. The typical system resources that are heavily utilized by iSCSI block I/O workloads include memory.90 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 5. Windows Storage Server includes a Group Policy administrative template that you can use to administer the BranchCache configuration settings. A client computer can be configured to use only a single caching mode at one time. If a client computer cannot locate content on the hosted cache server.  Reviewing the results of I/O storage workload tests. the client computer returns to the server in the head office and requests a download. You can improve the performance and scalability for iSCSI block I/O workloads by:  Identifying methods for improving iSCSI block I/O workload performance and scalability. see Network Shell (Netsh) Commands for BranchCache. Improving Performance and Scalability for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads File services workloads in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of Windows Server. 7. The Hosted Cache server connects to the client and downloads the recently advertised content by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). Client 2 issues a request for the same content that Client 1 downloaded earlier. This feature allows users to locally cache files stored on a shared folder on Windows Storage Server. . This feature allows users to store the user’s folders in a shared folder on Windows Storage Server. which in turn uses HTTP. For more information about configuring BranchCache by using the NetSH command. Users are able to modify local copies of files in the event they are disconnected from the network. Note Hosted Cache mode and Distributed Cache mode are mutually exclusive. Folder redirection allows users to quickly recover from local failures of their computer. Identify Methods for Improving iSCSI Block I/O Workload Performance and Scalability You can improve the performance and scalability for iSCSI block I/O workloads by using the following methods:  Ensure the system resources of the appliance are sufficient. You can also manage BranchCache by using the NetSH command. Client 2 requests the content from the hosted cache in the branch office by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). Client 2 verifies the data by using the identifiers downloaded from the server in the head office. Both of these features require access to shared network folders on Windows Storage Server. Client 2 receives identifiers describing the content from the server in the head office. All of the performance features listed in this section will also improve the performance for folder redirection and offline files. Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files Windows 7 includes the following features that allow users to provide user state virtualization:  Folder redirection.  Offline files. 6. The hosted cache responds with the data. which in turn uses HTTP.

exe. Configure sector alignment for iSCSI Target volumes and . . also ensure they are sufficient for I/O throughput. Different types of workloads on the same physical network can cause overutilization and performance problems. Sector alignment allows Windows Storage Server to create partitions that align with the underlying physical disk. segregate each type of workload to a separate physical network segment to reduce network contention. When encountering network utilization problems. Always size disks for performance in addition to capacity. Different types of workloads on the same physical network can cause overutilization and performance problems.91 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper     disk.  Isolate different types of workloads using separate physical network segments. In this example. Isolate different types of workloads using dedicated physical arrays. segregate each type of workload to a separate physical network segment to reduce network contention. Note Consult your storage vendor to determine the proper values to use with the Diskpart. random I/O workloads.exe command line tool. the number may not provide sufficient I/O throughput. Although a given number of disks may have adequate storage capacity. such as sequential I/O workloads. the Windows Storage Server solution is optimized to support Exchange Server connecting to disk LUNs on Windows Storage Server. After ensuring the number of disks is sufficient for capacity. Different types of workloads on the same physical array can degrade performance for the workloads. You can configure sector alignment for physical disks using the Diskpart. NFS workloads. and network. Sector alignment helps prevent an I/O operation from spanning two tracks. Isolate different types of workloads using separate physical network segments. Ensure that the appliance has sufficient resources to provide adequate performance and scaling. which causes performance degradation. When encountering network utilization problems. Figure 27 illustrates a Windows Storage Server solution that has been optimized to provide improved performance and scalability.vhd files. or SMB workloads. Dedicate a physical array for each conflicting workload.

including iSCSI sequential I/O. iSCSI random I/O. and file services access using SMB or NFS.92 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 27. Separate arrays dedicated to different iSCSI I/O traffic as the Exchange storage group data is random I/O. . Separate iSCSI targets that corresponds to the iSCSI sequential I/O and iSCSI random I/O. while the Exchange storage group logs are sequential I/O. Separate network adapters in the Exchange server to support the separate network segments. A Windows Storage Server solution optimized for performance For the sample scenario in Figure 27. An optimized number of disks for disk I/O bandwidth capacity. Separate network segments for workload types. the following optimizations were chosen:       Sufficient system resources of the Windows Storage Server appliance for the given workloads.

illustrates the number of disk I/O operations per second performed by Windows Server 2008 and Window Server 2003 running on identical hardware.93 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Sector-aligned disk arrays to help prevent I/O operations from spanning multiple tracks. Figure 28. For this test. General disk I/O operation test results . Review I/O Storage Test Results The results of this test provide an indication of the improvements in disk I/O operations. regardless of the server role running on the server computer. The test result. the server computer had 16 dual-core processors for a total of 32 processor cores. Windows Server 2008 can perform more than 20 percent more disk I/O operations per second than Windows Server 2003. shown in the chart in Figure 28.

0 and Windows Server 2008 on the same computer resources. see Configuring HTTP Compression in IIS 7.0 on Window Server 2003.  Output Caching. In IIS Manager. edit existing caching rules. see Optimize IIS Performance (IIS 7).0 in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of IIS and Windows Server.0 and Windows Server 2008 can support more than 10 percent higher throughput than IIS 6. Identify Methods for Improving Web Services Workload Performance and Scalability IIS 7. Output caching allows you to manage output caching rules and to control the caching of served content. HTTP compression lets you make more efficient use of bandwidth and enhances the performance of sites and applications.microsoft.94 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Performance and Scalability for Web Services Workloads Web services workloads running on Internet Information Services (IIS) 7. IIS also lets you use bandwidth more effectively and efficiently by using common compression mechanisms such as Gzip and Deflate. you can create caching rules. These improvements are largely due to improvements in data compression of content and caching of content. . IIS 7. You can configure HTTP compression for both static and dynamic sites.microsoft.0.0 provides a powerful. Performance includes the following features:  Compression. For more information about improving Web services workload performance and scalability. Review Web Services Workload Test Results These results were obtained by measuring the performance of www.0 running on Windows Server 2008. and configure output cache settings.0 and Windows Server 2003.com processing more than an additional 100 million requests per day at the same processor utilization. For more information about configuring output caching. The chart in Figure 29 illustrates the performance gain by running IIS 7. You can improve the performance and scalability for Web services workloads by:  Identifying methods for improving Web services workload performance and scalability. This improvement in performance results in www. unified facility for output caching by integrating the dynamic output-caching capabilities of ASP. The results were obtained by closely monitoring the performance over a 72-hour period for both test cases.NET with the static output-caching capabilities that were present in IIS 6.com running IIS 6. see Configuring Output Caching in IIS 7. and IIS 7. For more information about how to configure compression.  Reviewing Web services workload test results.

Web Services (IIS) Role test results Improving Performance and Scalability for Print Workloads Print server scalability plays a key role in the deployment of Windows Storage Server print servers. see the Windows Print Server Scalability and Sizing Technical Overview. For more information about improving the performance and scalability of print services workloads.95 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 29. and frequency of print jobs. Some of the factors that influence print server performance and capacity include:  The number of print server clients.  The operating system version or versions on each client machine. size.  The number. .  The types of print jobs sent to the print server. This section of the white paper provides information to help you size a server to meet an organization's needs by identifying and investigating primary issues and configuration details to maximize print server performance. The maximum load and performance level of a print server greatly depends on key configuration decisions.  The number and type of printers served by the print server and the types of printer drivers each printer uses.

some Microsoft partners provide additional storage in external enclosures.  Creating branch office solutions. review the following:  Overview of NAS configurations.  It can support 4 to 12 disks in the single enclosure using RAID interfaces. To select the appropriate deployment scenario for you." in this white paper. Windows Storage Server provides the following basic configurations:  Stand-alone network attached storage (NAS). However.  Creating solutions for storage consolidation. industry standard hardware that can be readily expanded. Overview of Windows Storage Server Configurations Window Storage Server provides a wide range of storage solutions for all size organizations. such as Just a Bunch of Disks (JBOD Disks) or RAID configurations (RAID 5 or RAID 1+0). The typical characteristics of the appliance are as follows:  The appliance has the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network. illustrated in Figure 30.  Creating unified storage solutions.96 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server Deployment Scenarios You can use Windows Storage Server to provide a wide range of storage solutions. .  It can create a variety of disk configurations.  Creating solutions for heterogeneous environments.  The solution is based on low cost.  Highly-available NAS.to medium-sized business solutions. Regardless of the solution complexity. Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration The stand-alone NAS configuration.  Creating highly-available solutions.  NAS gateway.  Creating small.  The processors and storage reside in a single appliance enclosure.  Creating iSCSI boot solutions.  Creating virtualization solutions.  Creating application consolidation solutions. is based on a single Windows Storage Server appliance.

 Additional appliances can be added to the solution to provide improved scalability.  New storage is included as part of the solution (existing storage is not used in the solution). .  The appliances are configured as nodes in a Windows failover cluster to provide higher availability.  Multipath I/O connections exist between the appliances. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network. Note The failover cluster in Figure 31 can be quickly and easily configured using the Initial Configuration Tasks form in Windows Storage Server. and it is shared between two or more appliances. illustrated in Figure 31.97 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 30. Windows Storage Server stand-alone NAS configuration Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration The highly-available NAS configuration. is based on two or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide some degree of fault tolerance." in this white paper.  Storage is separate from the appliance enclosure.

98 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 31. Windows Storage Server highly-available NAS configuration Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration The NAS gateway configuration. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network.  They connect to existing storage that supports SAN block I/O protocols. . is based on one or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide connectivity to existing storage devices." in this white paper. in Figure 32.

SMB file access. and NFS file access to storage. Windows Storage Server NAS gateway configuration . They provide highly-available configurations based on solution availability requirements.99 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper   They provide an inexpensive iSCSI target. Figure 32.

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Using Windows Storage Server in iSCSI Block I/O Configuration
The iSCSI block I/O configuration, in Figure 32, is based on one or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide iSCSI access to storage resources. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network," in this white paper.  They can be used with any combination of the following storage configurations:  Located within the appliance.  Located within an enclosure external to the appliance.  Existing storage subsystem that supports SAN block I/O protocols.  They provide highly-available configurations based on solution availability requirements.  They provide an inexpensive iSCSI target access to storage.  They provide iSCSI boot support for diskless computers.  They integrate with DHCP and TFTP servers to provide iSCSI boot support for diskless computers.

Figure 33. Windows Storage Server iSCSI Block I/O configuration

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Creating Branch Office Solutions
In a branch office solution, an organization has a number geographically distributed branch office locations that are connected to one or more centralized head offices. Table 30 lists the types of data to manage in the branch office solution, as illustrated in Figure 34, and a description of the type of data. Table 30. Types of Data to Manage in the Branch Office Solution Type of data User folders Description Contains user home directories and user shares within the branch office in addition to the well-known Windows folders, such as Documents, Videos, Pictures, and Music. The well-known Windows folders are typically stored on the local computer, but can be stored on network shared folders using the Folder Direction feature. The Folder Redirection feature allows user folders to be stored on appliances in the branch offices and to be replicated to appliances in the head office for backup and centralized management using DFS Replication. The user folders are accessed within the branch office, but are archived in the head office. Contains content that is published from the head offices to the branch offices as read-only content. The content is a set of data that is relevant to the branch office, regardless of the region where the branch office is located, for example:  Templates, such as Word or Excel templates.  Source for software distribution files, such as files from 2007 Microsoft Office System or Windows 7. Contains content used in collaborative efforts between branch offices. The collaboration content is stored on the Windows Storage Server appliances in the head office. Users in the branch offices access the collaboration content over the WAN connections. The collaboration content can be stored in network shared folders or in Windows SharePoint Service document libraries.

Published content

Collaboration content

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Figure 34. Branch office solution for Windows Storage Server

Features Used In Branch Office Solutions Feature File services using SMB2 Description Provides file services for computers running Windows operating systems. Provides local caching of the collaboration content stored on the appliances in the head office.  Centralized management of the branch office. all users need to access their user folders regardless of any scheduled maintenance of the appliance or appliance failure. SMB2 helps minimize WAN network utilization because of the efficiencies provided by SMB2. such as Linux or the Mac OS. The available network speed of the WAN connections between the head offices and the branch offices is a limited resource in terms of both available bandwidth and cost. The appliance in the branch office is configured for BranchCache hosted caching mode. BranchCache dramatically reduces the network File services using NFS BranchCache in hosted caching mode . Also.  Computers are running mostly Windows operating systems. depending on the availability requirements of the branch offices. For more information. All user profile folders in the branch offices need to be copied to the head offices for centralized management. see the previous section "Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-alone NAS Configuration. For more information about this type of appliance. which allows the appliance to provide local caching of the collaboration content accessed using the SMB and HTTP protocols. Most of the computers in the branch office are running Windows operating systems. such back up and data protection. This helps protect the user profile folders in the branch office in the event of a catastrophic disaster in the branch office location that results in the total failure of the appliance. In some instances there may be computers running other operating systems.  Consolidating of data in head office to provide centralized management. Due to cost constraints and lack of local IT personnel. Provides file services for computers running NFS clients. Table 31. failover clusters can be an optional part of this solution. Centralized management of the appliances in the branch office is essential and remote administration is required.  Users must have access to their user folders regardless of connectivity to the branch office appliance. IT personnel in the head office must be able to manage the configuration settings of the devices and users in the branch offices." earlier in this white paper. see the section "Review Improvements in the SMB Protocol.  Stand-alone NAS appliances are used. including the computers running Linux or Mac OS." in this white paper. Table 31 lists the Windows Storage Server and Windows client operating system features used in the branch office solution and provides a brief description of the role each plays in the solution. while the branch offices have minimal or no local IT personnel. The solution must minimize the utilization of the WAN connection as much as possible. Most of the configuration and all of the support is provided by the IT personnel in the head office. Mobile users need to access their user folders when they are not connected to the internal network in the branch office.103 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The assumptions in this scenario are:  The data centers have local IT personnel. In addition.  Minimizing the utilization of the WAN connections is essential. The branch offices typically do not have local IT personnel and require assistance from the IT personnel in the head office.

" earlier in this white paper. For more information. The user folders are copied to the head office for backup and centralized management functions. and Windows XP.  Provides improved file access for users in the branch office because the files are accessed locally instead of over the WAN connection. including Windows 7. which dramatically reduces the network bandwidth utilization.104 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description utilization for accessing these files. For more information. For more information. "Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache. see the section. Any updates to the collaboration content are automatically saved on the appliances in the head office. Computers running Windows client operating systems are using the Folder Redirection feature to redirect the user folders to network shared folders on the appliance in the branch office. You can administer the Folder Redirection feature using Group Policy. DFS Replication uses RDC to transmit only the changes to a file. Uses DFS Replication to provide replication of files and folder structure from the head office to the branch offices. For more information. The Folder Redirection feature allows the user folders to be available from any computer on the network. "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. For more information. which:  Reduces WAN network utilization by providing local access to the files. Allows users to recover files by themselves without the assistance of IT professionals. This allows the head office to avoid doing backups over the WAN link. see the section "Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data. see:  Folder Redirection Overview." earlier in this white paper. Helps reduce the effort spent by IT personnel in data centers for recovery of files. Windows Vista. Read-only DFS Replicated Folders Shadow Copies of Shared Folders Folder Redirection . see the section. This is primarily for files that are for public use and are typically read-only at the branch office. DFS Replication Provides replication of files and folder structure from the branch offices to the head office. which provides data consolidation in the head office so that all backups are performed in the head office." earlier in this white paper. The files and folders are set to read-only access by DFS Replication. see the section. "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. The Folder Redirection feature is available in all current Windows client operating systems." earlier in this white paper.

Computers running Linux or Mac OS can print to the printers in the branch office using the print services workloads provided by Windows Storage Server. The read-only domain controller provides enhanced security by preventing unauthorized or inadvertent updates to AD DS. any new or modified files are automatically synchronized with the network shared folders on the appliance.  In the event the appliance is taken offline for maintenance or of an appliance failure. The Offline Files feature is available in all current Windows client operating systems.  The “Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files” section in this white paper.  Configuring Folder Redirection. For more information.105 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description  Folder redirection overview for GPMC.  Configuring Offline Files. Users can continue to work on copies of the files on their local computers. For more information. Windows Vista. any new or modified files are automatically synchronized with the network shared folders on the appliance.  Working with network files when you are offline. You can administer the Offline Files feature using Group Policy. see:  Understanding offline files.  The “Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files” section in this white paper. The local read-only domain controller also Offline Files Print Server LPD Print Services Read-only domain controller . see the section "Providing Access to Print Services Workloads. see the section "Providing Access to Print Services Workloads. The Offline Files feature allows users to always have access to files from network shared folder by synchronizing the contents of the network shared folder to the Offline Files cache on the user’s computer. Mobile users may want to access their files while away from the office. The Offline Files feature provides access to files:  When users are not connected to the branch office network. When users reconnect to the network. For more information. When the appliance is restored to service. including Windows 7. The Offline Files feature allows users to modify local copies of their files while disconnected from the network." earlier in the white paper. Authentication is performed using an AD DS read-only domain controller on the local appliance. and Windows XP.  Configuring Group Policy for Offline Files." earlier in the white paper. Computers running Windows can print to the printers in the branch office using the print services workloads provided by Windows Storage Server.

106 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because authentication is performed locally. DHCP Server File Server Resource Manager Group Policy Table 32 lists how to manage each type of data is accessed by users. and they are centrally configured by the IT personnel in the head office using Group Policy. Most of the features and configuration settings available in all Windows products can be configured by using Group Policy.  Use Storage Reports to profile storage usage and trends within the branch. and manage the quantity and type of data stored on Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Computers in the branch office that are configured using DHCP can be configured using the DHCP Server running on the local appliance.  Prevent storage of certain file types by using the File Screening feature. DNS Server Computers in the branch office can resolve DNS names using the DNS Server running on the local appliance. control. . see File Server Resource Manager. For more information. The local DHCP Server reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because DHCP configuration is performed locally. Group Policy allows you to centrally configure the Windows Storage Server appliances and Windowsbased computers in the branch office. For more information. Note All of these features operate transparently to users in the branch office. You can use File Server Resource Manager to:  Limit the amount of disk space used by using the Quota Management feature. The local DNS Server reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because DNS queries are resolved locally. see Group Policy. File Server Resource Manager allows you to understand.

on the branch office appliance. DFS Namespace always preferentially directs client computers to access a local replica copy of the published content within the local site (lower cost than other sites). any changes in the user profile folders are replicated to the head office using DFS Replication. When the branch office replica copy becomes available again. This feature allows users to access their user profile folders when not connected to the appliance. DFS Replication replicates the user profile folders to the head office so that they can be centrally backed up and managed by the IT personnel. which minimizes the bandwidth utilization on the connection between the branch offices and the head office. Remote Differential Compression in DFS Replication replicates only the changes to the user profile folders. which are typically stored locally on the user’s computer. then DFS Namespace directs the client computers to access the replica copy in the Active Directory site with the next lowest cost. Folder Redirection. the Folder Redirection feature helps in fast recovery of computers because the user profile folders are not stored on the local computer. depending on the availability of the branch office appliance. If the branch office replica copy is unavailable.107 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 32. Once these files are synchronized with the branch office appliances. This feature stores the user profile folders. Any new files or changes made to the cached copy of the files are automatically synchronized when the connection to the appliance is restored. The replica copies of the published content in the branch offices are maintained read-only by DFS Replication so that users in the branch office have read-only access to the replica content.  Published content   . In addition. DFS Namespace will automatically direct users to use the replica copy in the branch office. DFS Namespace. This feature determines which replica copy to access based on the availability of the copy and the location of the copy using Active Directory sites. The head office and each of the branch offices is a separate Active Directory site. Managing Types of Data in the Branch Office Solution Type of data User folders Managed using  Offline Files. Read-only DFS Replicated Folders. DFS Replication replicates the published content stored on the head office appliances to the branch office appliances. This feature allows for users to transparently access the published content on the appliances in the branch office or in the head office. which in this scenario is the head office. After the user profile folders are stored on the branch office appliance.

and check out capabilities.108 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Type of data Collaboration content Managed using  Network shared folders. Windows SharePoint Services. . check in. This feature also supports version control.  For the collaboration content in Table 32. The BranchCache feature dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch offices when users access Web content that has already been locally cached on the appliance in the branch office. network shared folders and SharePoint Services with the BranchCache feature provide the appropriate solution. This feature allows users to access the content from the head office appliances. network shared folders and Windows SharePoint services are used instead DFS Replication. The SMB2 protocol dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch offices for:  The initial local caching of the content using BranchCache. This is because DFS Replication in Windows Storage Server is appropriate when only one copy of the content is centrally modified and all replica copies are read-only. This feature allows users to access the content from the head office appliances using the HTTP or HTTPS protocol.  Any updates to the content from users in the branch offices. Because multiple users need to modify the content. The BranchCache feature dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch office when users access content stored on the network shared folders that has already been locally cached on the appliance in the branch office.

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Creating Highly-Available Solutions
In a highly-available solution, the workloads provided by Windows Storage Server must provide improved fault tolerance. Figure 35 illustrates how to create highly-available solutions using Windows Storage Server and Windows Server operating systems using Windows failover clusters and multipath I/O.

Figure 35. Highly-available solution using Windows Storage Server The key elements of the highly-available solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  The application servers are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an application server failure.

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The Windows Storage Server appliances act as iSCSI targets by running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  The application servers are using the multipath I/O feature to provide redundant connections to the clustered appliances.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the clustered appliances to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. For more information about Windows failover clustering for iSCSI targets, see the following sections earlier in this white paper:  "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration." For more information about Multipath I/O for iSCSI initiators in Windows Server operating system, see the following sections earlier in this white paper:  "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration."

Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation
In the storage consolidation solution, all the myriad of devices providing SMB file services, NFS file services, and iSCSI block I/O are consolidated into a few, highlyavailable Windows Storage Server appliances. Typically this solution is used in medium to large organizations that want to reduce the number and types of devices in the organization. This consolidation effort can help reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. Figure 36 illustrates an IT environment prior to implementing the storage consolidation solution. There are a number of different computers providing file services and applications. Each computer has local storage that is used to support the services that each provides. This configuration provides inefficient storage management and usage. For example, one Exchange server may have insufficient available disk space while a file server may have many more times the available disk space than is required.

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Figure 36. IT environment prior to implementing the storage consolidation solution

Figure 37 illustrates the same IT environment after implementing the storage consolidation solution. The number of computers to be supported has been dramatically decreased, which reduces ongoing operations effort and complexity. Also, the overall availability of workloads has been improved. Because storage is centralized, the effort for ongoing storage management is dramatically reduced. And, because all storage resources are pooled, storage can be easily allocated to the appropriate computer.

112 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 37. IT environment after implementing the storage consolidation solution .

113 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The key elements of the storage consolidation solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.to medium-sized business solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28. Creating Small to Medium Business Solutions In small.  Access to Web-based content using IIS 7.  The appliances may be configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. such as providing iSCSI LUNs for SQL Server or Exchange Server. the organization needs to support a variety of operating systems. LPR print services. The key elements of the small. Creating Solutions for Heterogeneous Environments In solutions for heterogeneous environments.  Windows print services.  Typically configured as a stand-alone NAS.  Highly-automated management tools.  The appliances provide centralized storage management." earlier in this white paper.0.  Centralized storage for application servers using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric.  Providing SMB file services. The key elements of the solutions for heterogeneous environments include:  Windows Storage Server appliances that provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support.to medium-sized business solutions. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management.  The Windows Storage Server appliances are:  Acting as iSCSI targets and are running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. such as Group Policy.  Collaboration using Windows SharePoint Services. the organization needs to provide multiple workloads on Windows Storage Server appliances. . depending on the availability requirements of the organization. as described in the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity.  The Windows Storage Server appliances provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support.  NFS file services for NFS clients. and Internet printing.  Providing NFS file services. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management.

Centralized storage for all operating systems that have supported iSCSI initiators using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. all the local or shared storage for the application servers in the IT environment are consolidated into a few. and other application servers that have a significant dependency on storage. such as described in the section "Creating Highly-Available Solutions" earlier in this white paper.0.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. Highly-automated management tools.  Typically the application servers are configured in clustered configurations to improve availability.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. see AD LDS Identity Mapping for Services for NFS. This consolidation effort can help reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. For more information. Creating Application Consolidation Solutions In the application consolidation solution. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management. Typically this solution is used in medium to large organizations that want to increase the efficiency of storage allocation and management for application servers. highly-available Windows Storage Server appliances. LPR print services for other operating systems. Access to Web-based content using IIS 7. Windows print services for Windows operating systems. such as Group Policy. earlier in this white paper. AD LDS can be used to provide identity mapping for NFS file services in environments where an Active Directory infrastructure does not already exist. The appliances provide centralized storage management. SQL Server.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric. . The appliances may be configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. The types of application servers that are consolidated include those running Exchange Server. The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric. For more information about supported iSCSI initiators.  The Windows Storage Server appliances act as iSCSI targets and are running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.114 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper             NFS file services for NFS clients. This solution is very similar to the storage consolidation solution described in the section "Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation" and as illustrated in Figure 36 and Figure 37. There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. The key elements of the application consolidation solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management. Collaboration using Windows SharePoint Services. see the section "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators" earlier in this white paper. depending on the availability requirements of the organization.

 NAS gateway services for existing storage solutions that do not provide SMBbased file services. NFS-based file services. file and iSCSI block I/O storage services in the IT environment are consolidated into a few. The key elements of the solutions for heterogeneous environments include:  Windows Storage Server appliances that provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support. highly-available Windows Storage Server appliances. depending on the availability requirements of the organization. see the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration" earlier in this white paper. see AD LDS Identity Mapping for Services for NFS. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management. This centralization of storage management helps reduce the inefficiency of storage allocation and management and helps reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity.  The appliances are typically configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. In this scenario. After implementing this scenario. For more information about the supported iSCSI initiators. For more information. This solution is very similar to the storage consolidation solution described in the section "Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation" and as illustrated in Figure 36 and Figure 37.  Highly-automated management tools.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric and provide fault tolerant network connectivity.  The appliances provide centralized storage management. iSCSI block I/O storage. earlier in this white paper.  NFS file services for NFS clients. NFS-base file services. and other storage connections (such as Fibre Channel or SAS). .  AD LDS can be used to provide identity mapping for NFS file services in environments where an Active Directory infrastructure does not already exist. the existing IT environment has separate devices provide SMB-based file services. all of the storage resources in the organization are managed using Windows Storage Server. see the section "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators" earlier in this white paper. For more information about NAS gateway configurations.115 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating Unified Storage Solutions In the unified storage consolidation solution. such as Group Policy. or iSCSI connectivity.  Centralized storage for all operating systems that have supported iSCSI initiators using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.

In the virtualization solution. as illustrated in Figure 38. Figure 38. Each virtual machine is referred to as a child partition.  Running virtual machines on Windows Storage Server. In Hyper-V. Windows Storage Server runs the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target to provide iSCSI LUNs for use by virtual machines performing the Hyper-V server role in Windows Server 2008. Windows Storage Server in virtualization solutions Table 33 lists the different methods that virtual machines can use to connect to iSCSI LUNs . the physical computer is referred to as the parent partition. Connecting Virtual Machines to iSCSI LUNs Virtual machines running on Hyper-V can access iSCSI LUNs using a number of different methods.116 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating Virtualization Solutions You can create virtualized solutions using Windows Storage Server by:  Connecting virtual machines to iSCSI LUNs managed by Windows Storage Server.

This method:  Allows only one virtual machine to use the iSCSI LUN. The iSCSI LUN is attached to the child partition and the virtual machine directly accesses the partition. the child partition connects to LUN-A.vhd file is created on the volume that is accessed by the virtual machine. As illustrated in Figure 38. the parent partition connects to LUN-B and Virtual Machine B directly connects to the partition.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine. Methods that Virtual Machines Can Use to Connect to iSCSI LUNs Method VHD created on parent partition volume Description The iSCSI LUN is attached to the parent partition and is formatted as an NTFS volume and assigned a drive letter in the parent partition. see Hyper-V: Using Live Migration with Cluster Shared Volumes in Windows Server 2008 R2. As illustrated in Figure 38. regardless if the operating system supports an iSCSI initiator.117 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 33. However. This method:  Allows multiple virtual machines to store .  Supports Live Migration scenarios using Cluster Shared Volumes.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine that have a supported iSCSI initiator.  Allows the virtual machine to boot from the iSCSI LUN. This method:  Allows only one virtual machine to use the iSCSI LUN. regardless if the operating system supports an iSCSI initiator. Pass-through parent partition disk Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN . As illustrated in Figure 38. the parent partition formats LUN-C as E: and the . However the parent partition is unaware of the child partition using the LUN because the child partition is directly accessing the LUN. A .  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine.  Allows the virtual machine to boot from the iSCSI LUN.vhd files on the same iSCSI LUN. the parent partition is also aware of the child partition using the LUN. For more information.vhd file for Virtual Machine C is created on the E: volume.  Does not natively support boot from the iSCSI LUN and requires products available from Microsoft partners to support iSCSI boot for virtual machines. The iSCSI LUN is attached to the parent partition and the virtual machine directly accesses the partition.

You can run up to two virtual machines on Windows Storage Server depending on the Windows Storage Server edition. . The recommended method is the VHD created on parent partition method for the following reasons:  Backups are complex using the Pass-through parent partition disk or the Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN methods. Creating a separate iSCSI target for each LUN will improve performance because each iSCSI target has its own I/O submission queue. you could install an instance of Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) in a virtual machine that can be used for NFS account mapping.bin files. iSCSI LUNs that are connected using the Pass-through parent partition disk or the Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN methods must be backed up separately in addition to performing a complete backup of the parent partition.  The associated virtual machine files. This allows you to create a NFS file access solution that runs on one appliance. You can run:  One virtual machine on Windows Storage Server Standard Edition. Running Virtual Machines on Windows Storage Server Windows Storage Server can also run the Hyper-V server role.118 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note Performing a complete backup of the parent partition will back up iSCSI LUNs that are connected using the VHD created on parent partition method.  Two virtual machines on Windows Storage Server Enterprise Edition. such as the . This reduces the complexity in providing your solution by reducing the number of physical appliances to manage and minimizes the power consumption for your solution (with the appropriate licensing). It is also recommended that you create a separate iSCSI target for each LUN that you connect to the parent partition to improve performance. For example.  There is minimal performance difference between the VHD created on parent partition and the Pass-through parent partition disk methods. This feature allows you to provide other services in the virtual machines running on Windows Storage Server. are stored on the same LUN where the .vhd files reside using this method.

the nodes can use the storage . including those that provide iSCSI boot services for:  Web blades configured to support the same application in a web farm. Windows Storage Server in Windows HPC iSCSI Boot Deployment By using iSCSI and Windows Storage Server. Figure 39 illustrates how iSCSI boot can support a Windows HPC Server cluster solution. Windows Storage Server centralizes the storage for the HPC cluster.  Computer nodes in Windows High-Performance Computing (HPC) Server clusters. Figure 39.119 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server supports iSCSI boot for solutions that include diskless physical computers or virtual machines.  Interactive kiosks in retail stores.  Thin clients in libraries or schools. For more information about how to support iSCSI boot using Windows Storage Server. the nodes in the cluster do not require a local hard disk drive to serve as a system disk. There are many solutions that can take advantage of iSCSI boot. Instead. see the “Supporting iSCSI Boot” section earlier in this white paper. In this solution.

Tight integration with other Microsoft products and technologies also helps IT pros use existing infrastructure services (such as AD DS). easier to maintain. Also. Using this solution. and more cost effective than other dedicated appliances or storage solutions. Conclusion Windows Storage Server provides storage solutions for all types and sizes of organizations. This allows small. instead of dedicated or single function appliances. Each cluster node boots from a differencing virtual disk that is based on the same fixed virtual disk. disk usage quotas.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Technical Library  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. deploy. Because Windows Storage Server is an optimized version of Windows Server 2008 R2. operations and management products (such as the System Center family of products). availability. Windows Storage Server can run file services. All aspects of storage management can be centrally managed. A variety of Windows Storage Server appliances are available from Microsoft partners that can support entry level to enterprise level workloads. Branch offices can be easily managed from central head offices using these management features. and DFS Replication features in Windows Storage Server enhance performance. such as Group Policy.  Subsequently boot the 256 cluster nodes in less than 9 minutes. and security products (such as Microsoft Forefront products). print services. This allows for fast deployment and recovery of the nodes. the NAS gateway capabilities extend the storage services provided by existing storage solutions. see the following resources:  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 home page. and iSCSI target services features in Windows Storage Server help protect investments in existing networks with other operating systems. help reduce the ongoing operations and management of storage solutions. Solutions can be scaled up by adding costeffective. industry-standard hardware to appliances or they can be scaled out by adding additional appliances. LPR print services. Nodes that use the storage resources on the storage array to boot over iSCSI are called iSCSI boot nodes.  Windows Storage Server blog. you can:  Deploy Windows HPC Server to 256 cluster nodes in approximately 34 minutes. centralized management features. including filtering of content. The NFS file services. The SMB2 protocol. Web services.3 Technical Library . such as Linux or Mac OS. and operate Window Storage Server solutions in their organization. and the creation of shared network storage resources. DFS Namespace. Windows Storage Server appliances can provide storage solutions that are flexible. More Information For more information. and iSCSI block I/O services on a single appliance.to medium-sized organizations and branch offices to take advantage of a multifunction appliance. IT pros can quickly plan. The high-availability features in Windows Storage Server help create mission-critical solutions that require maximum uptime. Highly-efficient. and scalability for Windows operating systems.120 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper resources on Windows Storage Server to boot Windows HPC Server over the network.

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