Windows Storage Server 2008 R2

Architecture and Deployment White Paper
Version 1.0

Published: February 2011

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Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................ 1 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Overview .................................................... 3 Comparing Windows Server Operating System Storage Offerings .................. 3 Comparing Windows Storage Server with Windows Server ..................... 3 Identifying Windows Storage Server Features ....................................... 4 What’s New in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 .................................. 5 Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2 ................................................................................................ 8 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Editions ................................................10 Identifying Storage Challenges ................................................................12 Identify Scalability Storage Challenges ................................................12 Identify Availability Storage Challenges ...............................................13 Identify Security Storage Challenges ..................................................14 Identify Manageability Storage Challenges ..........................................14 Identify Data Recovery Storage Challenges .........................................14 Identifying Windows Storage Server Solution Benefits ................................14 Identifying Scalability Benefits ...........................................................15 Identifying Availability Benefits ..........................................................15 Identifying Security Benefits ..............................................................16 Identifying Manageability Benefits ......................................................16 Identifying Data Recovery Benefits .....................................................18 Exploring Windows Storage Server Features and Capabilities ............................19 Providing Access to File Services Workloads ..............................................20 Supporting File Services Workloads Using CIFS, SMB, or SMB2 ..............20 Supporting File Services Workloads Using NFS .....................................21 Supporting File Services Workloads Using WebDAV ..............................22 Supporting File Services Workloads Using Windows SharePoint Services ..........................................................................................23 Providing Access to iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ..........................................23 Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target ...............................................................................24 Supporting iSCSI Boot ......................................................................27 Providing Access to Web Services Workloads .............................................30 Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads ..............................................31 Providing Access to Print Services Workloads ............................................31 Providing Reduction in Power Consumption ...............................................33 Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers ...............................33 Processor Power Management ............................................................33 Storage Power Management ..............................................................34 Additional Power Saving Features .......................................................35 Performing Highly Automated Installations ................................................35 Managing Windows Storage Server ................................................................36 Management Tools for All Workloads ........................................................36 Managing Power Consumption for All Workloads ........................................37

......56 Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data ..................................................................................................................................................38 Managing File Services Workloads ...........43 Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ........................59 Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads ......................67 Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Targets ..........55 Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization ...47 Managing Print Services Workloads .............................................................................................................57 Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect Data ........70 Improving Availability of Web Services Workloads ........................................................41 Managing Single Instance Storage ....54 Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap ...............................................................................54 Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service ........64 Improving Availability of Windows Storage Server Workloads........52 Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data ..............................................................................................................................................................51 Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data..............................58 Using the PrintBRM...............38 Managing File Services Using File Server Resource Manager ...............63 Securing Print Services Workloads ...............................................................................................................................................................................57 Using the Appcmd...............................exe Tool to Backup Printer Information ...........................................................53 Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data ............................................................................59 Securing File Services Workloads .........72 Improving Availability of Print Services Workloads .....49 Protecting Windows Storage Server Workload Data .................51 Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data .............................61 Securing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ....................................................................73 ..............................................................................................................................................................45 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ............................................................................................................41 Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication ...............56 Using DFS Replication to Protect Data ............................65 Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads .........37 In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting ..........55 Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization .44 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ............................................38 Managing File Services Using Share and Storage Management .......................................................................62 Securing Web Services Workloads............................56 Using Automated System Recovery to Protect Data ........................................................65 Improving Availability of File Services Workloads .....46 Managing Web Services Workloads ....................................68 Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Initiators .....................exe Tool to Backup IIS Configuration .....58 Securing Windows Storage Server Workloads ............45 Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell ........................ii Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Remote Manageability of Power Policy.................................................

......78 Review Improvements in the SMB2 Protocol ......90 Improving Performance and Scalability for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ....... 101 Creating Highly-Available Solutions ......................................................................................... 116 Connecting Virtual Machines to iSCSI LUNs..... 110 Creating Small to Medium Business Solutions ...97 Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration .......................................................................... 109 Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation ............................................ 116 Running Virtual Machines on Windows Storage Server .....................98 Using Windows Storage Server in iSCSI Block I/O Configuration ................. 120 More Information .............................................................................................74 Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Protocol ..................79 Review SMB-based File Services Workload Test Results............94 Improving Performance and Scalability for Print Workloads .................76 Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations ..............95 Windows Storage Server Deployment Scenarios ...........................94 Review Web Services Workload Test Results ....................................................... 115 Creating Virtualization Solutions .............................................94 Identify Methods for Improving Web Services Workload Performance and Scalability ... 118 Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions ........87 Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files .......................74 Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity .........................................................................................................................................74 Improving Performance and Scalability for All Workloads ...........82 Reviewing Performance Improvements in SMB Version 2.................................................96 Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration ..............................1 in Windows Server 2008 R2 .............. 119 Conclusion .....................................75 Improvements in Network Adapter Performance........................................................................................................96 Overview of Windows Storage Server Configurations ........................................................... 114 Creating Unified Storage Solutions .........................................................................................93 Improving Performance and Scalability for Web Services Workloads ..................................................................................................... 120 ......................................................................... 100 Creating Branch Office Solutions .................................77 Improving Performance and Scalability for File Services Workloads . 113 Creating Application Consolidation Solutions ...............................iii Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Performance and Scalability for Windows Storage Server Solutions ......................90 Review I/O Storage Test Results .................................................90 Identify Methods for Improving iSCSI Block I/O Workload Performance and Scalability ..............................................................................................96 Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration ................ 113 Creating Solutions for Heterogeneous Environments ..........................85 Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache ..........................

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These services also provide high-performance access to remote disk LUNs using the iSCSI industry standard and can act as an iSCSI initiator or an iSCSI target. unless otherwise specified. and how to create secure. The most common feature is to store files in document libraries. Microsoft OEM partners offer specialized hardware and additional software components to create network attached storage appliances. Windows Storage Server extends the file services in Windows Server by providing addition storage features not found in Windows Server. and file history. track tasks. Windows Storage Server is only available through Microsoft Partners. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) protocols.  Windows® SharePoint® Services. Note In this white paper. This white paper describes the features and technologies in Windows Storage Server.  iSCSI Block storage services. see Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Windows Storage Server provides a unified solution for the following workloads:  Files services. including file services. scalable. Windows Storage Server provides solutions that complement the file services provided by Windows Server. such as Common Internet File System (CIFS) or Network File System (NFS). In addition to providing extended features. For more information about Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials.0. which can be accessed using HTTP. Provides remote network attached storage that appears as a disk logical unit number (LUN) to other computers.  Print services. use email efficiently and effectively. NFS version 3. and share ideas and information.0. extensible. Web services. which supports check-in and check-out features. SMB2 provides a superset of the features found in CIFS and provides improved performance and reliability over previous versions of SMB. Windows Storage Server refers to Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. WebDAV. Provides the ability to run up to two virtual machines on an appliance. Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV). depending on the Windows Storage Server edition. and operate storage solutions. Line Printer Daemon (LPD) services. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials provides entrylevel solutions intended for use in organizations with 24 or less computers. Provides access to Web-based content and services. version control. Note This white paper focuses on all Windows Storage Server editions except for Windows® Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials. Provides access to printers using Microsoft print services. or Internet printing services.Introduction Windows® Storage Server 2008 R2 is the latest in the Windows Storage Server family of products and is based on the technologies and features found in Windows Server® 2008 R2. .  Virtualization services. This white paper is intended for IT professionals who design. iSCSI block input/output (I/O). purchasing Windows Storage Server bundled with partner appliances can be more cost effective than purchasing Windows Server and a server computer separately. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 is built on Windows Server 2008 to create efficient and effective storage solutions. and highly-available storage solutions. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS). which are connected using the Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) standard. Provides access to files using the Server Message Block (SMB) version 2. and how Windows Storage Server appliances address them. The following table lists some of the problems and pain points that organizations have with network attached storage appliances. Provides the ability to share documents.  Web services. or FTP. deploy. Provides access to files managed by the appliance for computers using file access protocols. and print services workloads.

and from Microsoft partners. Limited disaster recovery. . and the server software supports extensibility using any application programming interfaces (APIs) supported by Windows Server 2008. Loosely integrated with clients that consume the services. including BitLocker® Drive Encryption. and Network Load Balancing for improved availability and fault tolerance in addition to the hardware fault tolerance features provided by Microsoft OEM partners. Implements nonstandard or proprietary protocols or services. such as System Center Data Protection Manager. Limited protection of information stored on the appliance. Takes advantage of the breadth and depth of the software and hardware products provided by other vendors that are provided for Windows Server 2008. availability. NTFS permissions. Uses familiar Windows Server management consoles. Provides Windows Server Backup as part of Windows Storage Server. scalability. and manageability. and supports other disaster recovery products from Microsoft. and Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager. Ongoing operations and maintenance is labor intensive. Network Attached Storage Appliance Problems and Pain Points Problem or pain point Windows Storage Server solution Dedicated or limited function Provides servicing of multiple workloads on highly appliance. Many of the management consoles can be customized to include Microsoft OEM partner branding. Limited breadth of vendor support. Share permissions. Distributed File System (DFS). Supports industry standard protocols and services that provide interoperability in heterogeneous environments. Many on-going operations and management tasks can also be automated using System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager. Integrates with Active Directory® Doman Services (AD DS) and Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services. Windows Software Update Services (WSUS). Lack of comprehensive software update management. Supports a wide variety of security products and technologies. including Windows Vista® and Windows® 7. Provides a set of software update management technologies and products for any sized organization.2 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 1. Limited provisions for failover or fault tolerant configurations. and Microsoft® Forefront®. extensible Microsoft OEM vendor hardware platforms. including Windows Update. Designed to work "better together" with Windows operating systems. Limited customization and extensibility. Minimal or no integration with existing authentication and authorization system. to provide optimal security. Management of workloads. Supports Windows Server Failover Clusters. performance.

Comparing Windows Server Operating System Storage Offerings Each current Windows® operating system provides some level of storage services. to provide a unified storage solution. it shares all the benefits of Window Server. Windows Storage Server is a member of the Windows Sever operating system family that is built on Windows Server.  Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2. Windows Server® operating systems have been providing storage solutions since their introduction. This overview of Windows Storage Server includes the following topics:  Comparing Windows Server operating system storage offerings. scalable.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 editions.  Identifying the features that are new to Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. DFS-R. For a more detailed description of the differences between these operating systems. Deduplication of files is a specific form of compression provided by the SIS feature that combines redundant files into a single instance of the file. secure. and then replaces the files with reparse points (links) to the single instance. such as deduplication of files using the Single Instance Storage (SIS) feature.  Automation of administration tasks using Windows PowerShell™. and easy to manage. or Direct Access. . including:  A common application programming interface. However. DHCP Server. each of these Windows operating systems has different storage capabilities and features.  Tightly integrated with Windows infrastructure services. Network Access Protection.  Efficient management of shared resources using familiar Windows management consoles and command-line utilities. DFS-N. As a general purpose operating system. full screen remote desktop control of storage server administration using Web RDP. Comparing Windows Storage Server with Windows Server Windows Server operating systems are a family of general purpose operating systems that provide a platform for running IT services and applications that are highly-available.  Identifying Windows Storage Server solution benefits. such as Active Directory® Domain Services. and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. These optimizations provide enhanced features and performance not found in the general purpose Windows Server operating systems. but is optimized for storage solutions. because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server.3 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Overview Windows Storage Server is optimized for file workloads and includes additional technologies. This comparison of Windows Server operating system storage offerings includes:  Comparing Windows Storage Server with Window Server. Windows Server includes Microsoft file and print services.  Identifying Storage challenges. and support for web applications running Internet Information Services (IIS).  Identifying the features that are unique to Windows Storage Server. see the “Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2” section in this white paper. However.

Provides multiple roles on the same computer. Table 2 lists the reasons for selecting Windows Storage Server or Windows Server as your storage solution. Table 2. Provides file deduplicaton using SIS.3 as described in the section “Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target” in this white paper. In other instances. Consolidate file services and iSCSI block I/O on one appliance Provides file services for an existing SAN solution by acting as a SAN gateway. such as Initial Configuration Tasks window.  The ability to function as an iSCSI target using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. Windows Server many have distinct advantages over Windows Storage Server. . Runs applications on the same computer.4 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper There are many instances in which Windows Storage Server provides a more costeffective and efficient storage solution than Windows Server. Provides additional installation and configuration options. Installs on existing computers.  Full-screen remote desktop management using Windows Internet Explorer® or any web browser that supports Java using the WebRDP feature as described in the “Management Tools for All Workloads” section in this white paper. such as file services and domain controller on the same computer. Potentially lowers deployment cost than Windows Server when new hardware is required. Identifying Windows Storage Server Features Windows Storage Server includes the following features that are not included in Windows Server:  Deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage (SIS) v2 as described in the section “Managing Single Instance Storage” in this white paper. Reasons to Select Windows Storage Server or Windows Server Solution Windows Storage Server Why select this solution      Windows Server      Provides iSCSI block I/O storage for application storage scenarios. Runs more than two virtual machines in a Microsoft Hyper-V™ environment. as described in the “Step 2: Customize the end user installation experience for the usage scenario” section in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 OEM Deployment Guide.  The ability to extend the Windows user experience for commonly used management tools. such as database services or messaging services.

see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Supporting Files Services Workloads Using NFS”  “Securing Files Services Workloads” Improved performance for iSCSI block I/O workloads and support for differencing VHDs used in iSCSI boot solutions. iSCSI Software Target 3. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Review Improvements in the SMB Protocol”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Reduced administrative effort for providing and monitoring access to NFS shares. For more information.000 domain-based namespaces and improvements in fault tolerances. For more information.5 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper What’s New in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Table 3 lists the new or improved features in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 that did not exist in previous versions of Windows Storage Server. For more information. New or Improved Features in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Feature DFS replication (DFS-R) Description Supports up to 16 simultaneous replication streams. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target”  “Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions” DFS namespace (DFS-N) improvements Branch cache hosted cache mode SMB2 file access improvements Unmapped UNIX User Access (UUUA) for NFS file services. For more information. For more information. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using Branch Cache”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Dramatic reduction in network utilization for accessing files. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Provides locally cached copies of files to reduce network utilization between locations. Table 3. For more information. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication”  “Using DFS Replication to Protect Data”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Scales to support up to 60.3 . Supports replication to and from failover clusters. Provides read-only access to replica copies of data. NFS client user identities use automatically generated Windows SIDs to access NFS shares. which minimizes administrative effort.

Performance and manageability for FTP services have been improved. see the “Management Tools for All Workloads” section in this white paper. the power management features can be configured using Group Policy settings. Dramatic reduction in power consumption due to improvements in system resource power management. For more information. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell”  “Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell” IT pros can remotely perform full-screen remote desktop management using Internet Explorer or any web browser that supports Java. For more information. Power consumption and power management Performance and memory capacity I/O performance FTP services . 64-bit processor support. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Improving Availability of File Services Workloads”  “Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads” Windows PowerShell providers are included for Single Instance Storage and iSCSI block I/O workloads. In addition. For more information. see the “Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations” section in this white paper. the Cluster Name and Domain Join Wizard and the Cluster Validation and Setup Wizard. Automation of repetitive administrative tasks using Windows PowerShell Remote management using WebRDP Client. For more information. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Providing Reduction in Power Consumption”  “Management Tools for All Workloads” Overall performance enhancements due to operating system optimization. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity”  “Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using Branch Cache” Performance for I/O operations has been dramatically improved. and increased memory capacity. For more information. For more information. such as processor power consumption.6 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Simplified deployment for two node clusters Description Reduced administrative effort for installing and configuring a failover cluster using two appliances using the Initial Configuration Tasks window. see “Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads” section in this white paper.

see “Performing Highly Automated Installations” in this white paper. For more information. Provides snapshots of volumes virtual hard disks (VHDs). and reduced effort for developing a backup extension. The classification of files is defined by IT administrators. see the “Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data”” section in this white paper. see “Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data” section in this white paper. LUN resynchronization can be used to provide faster recovery in some disaster recovery scenarios. see the “Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data” section in this white paper. which allows files to be managed based on their classification. For more information. see “Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure” in this white paper. LUN resynchronization Volume Shadow Copy Service improvements . Windows Server Backup Windows Server Backup provides improved features for performing backup and recovery scenarios. For more information. For more information. For more information. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell”  “Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell” Unattended installation and Storage settings can be configured at installation time configuration of storage using the unattended installation. which facilitates fully settings automated installations. supports concurrent restores.7 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description Windows File Classification Management of files has been improved though the infrastructure Windows File Classification Infrastructure. Windows PowerShell Windows PowerShell support has been improved for helping to automate storage management tasks. For more information.

                                 BITS Server Extensions Desktop Experience DFS Namespace DFS Replication DHCP Server Failover Clustering Note Failover clustering is available only in the Enterprise edition of Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. and antivirus software.NET 3. File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) Full Text Search Group Policy Management Console Integration with Windows Server ecosystems (including backup software.) Internet Printing Client LPR Port Monitor Microsoft file services based on SMB2 Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ) Multipath I/O Network File System (NFS) Peer Name Resolution Protocol Remote Assistance Remove Desktop Connection Remote Differential Compression Remote Server Admin Tools RPC Over HTTP Proxy Simple TCP/IP Services SNMP Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications (SUA) Telnet Server TFTP Client Windows Biometric Framework Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Windows Network Load Balancing Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) Windows PowerShell Windows Process Activation Server .0  BitLocker Drive Encryption Note BitLocker Drive Encryption does not work with failover clusters.8 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2 The following lists features and technologies common to both Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2:  Administration Tools  Microsoft .

Optimized for file services workloads. Windows Server 2008 R2 Retail channels Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Microsoft OEM partners     Optionally performed by Microsoft OEM partners . Supports full screen remote desktop management using Web RDP. Supports acting as an iSCSI target using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. there are some differences between the two products. Table 4.9 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Windows Server Backup Note Windows Server Backup does not work with failover clusters and does not support volumes larger than 2 terabytes. Supports deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage (SIS). Table 4 lists the feature and technology differences between the two products. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Differences Feature or technology Availability to organizations.  Windows Server Migration Tools  WS-Management  Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) Although Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 is based on the features and technologies in Windows Server 2008 R2.3. Supports customized branding of user interface.

iSCSI block I/O services. Maximum number of processor sockets. BranchCache in hosted cache mode. Comparison of Windows Storage Editions Maximum system resources support Capabilities Supported processor architecture. and Web services workloads. Workgroup is an entry-level technology foundation also targeted at small business owners and IT generalists supporting small businesses. Table 5 lists the capabilities of Windows Storage Server. Type of disk adapters supported. which provides key functionality to support any sized business and IT storage challenge. Maximum number of network adapters. Hardware RAID supported. Table 5. File Classification Infrastructure. deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage. print services. Number of disks supported. DFS replication. Deduplication of files using SIS. is available in the following editions:  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Workgroup. and Web services workloads. BitLocker Drive Encryption    Workgroup 64-bit 4 32 GB 2 6 Any  Workgroup 25     Standard 64-bit 4 32 GB Unlimited Any Any  Standard Unlimited     Enterprise 64-bit 8 2 terabyte Unlimited Any Any  Enterprise Unlimited        . Enterprise is an advanced platform that provides more cost-effective and reliable support for mission-critical workloads. iSCSI block I/O services. Use the information in Table 5 to identify which Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 edition is best suited for your organization.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Enterprise. Maximum amount of memory. and the support level for the capabilities in each edition of the product.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Standard. Standard provides support for an unlimited number of users who require access to file services using Microsoft file services or NFS. Workgroup provides support for less than 25 users who require access to file services using Microsoft file services or NFS. File Services Resource Manager. Capabilities Maximum number of simultaneous users supported. print services. NFS.10 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Editions Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Enterprise provides support for an unlimited number of users with maximum faulttolerance and scalability provided in a Windows Storage Server product.

Fax services. OEM customization of user interface and experience. Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services.11 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Capabilities Microsoft iSCSI Target Software. Windows Search services. Number of printers supported for Print Services workloads. . AD DS read-only domain controller. "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Specifications" later in this white paper. see the section. Workgroup Optional Standard Optional Enterprise Optional Failover clusters. Hyper-V guest support. DHCP Server services.      Any    1 Any             2 Any           For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target specifications. Domain membership. Domain name system (DNS). Multipath I/O. Windows Server Backup. Note Some Microsoft partners include the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by default. Windows Management Instrumentation.

 Identify availability challenges in storage solutions.12 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Storage Challenges IT pros face most of the same storage challenges. Security Manageability Data recovery Identify storage solution challenges by performing the following steps:  Identify scalability challenges in storage solutions. data is increasingly dispersed throughout a company.  Underutilization of storage resources. it can be difficult to make the data accessible to others. there is no effective mechanism to determine exactly where information is stored or which version of a document is the most up-todate. the simplest solutions to increase storage capacity are: add more hard drives.  Identify data recovery challenges in storage solutions. Data must remain free from corruption. and inadvertent user error. remote users. Decentralization of Data As the number of systems increase. Data must be recoverable in the event of a disaster. Identify Scalability Storage Challenges Internal or external hard disks are the most common way to store data on desktops. Even when sharing is enabled.  Compatibility with storage networking solutions. or purchase additional computers that each have more hard disks. Table 6. or branch offices using highly-automated. Many organizations must adhere to data retention regulatory requirements to not keep data older than a defined age. and where to find them. and servers. However. Business requirements determine the challenges that an organization must solve to provide a comprehensive storage solution.  Identify manageability challenges in storage solutions.  Identify security challenges in storage solutions. Table 6 lists the categories of storage challenges that most organizations experience. workstations. upgrade to higher capacity disks. making it difficult for users to know what resources exist. and it should be protected from any single point of failure. Data must be accessible by users on an on-demand basis for a high percentage of the time. When an administrator finds that these hard disk drives are getting too full. Storage Challenge Categories Category Scalability Availability Description Data must be accessible in a timely manner based on the response times defined in your Service Level Agreements (SLAs). regardless of the size of their organization. Scalability storage challenges include:  Decentralized of data. Finding the appropriate solution requires careful optimization of an enterprise-wide storage plan. Data must be easy to manage and maintain for local users. This is an especially troublesome problem with data stored on desktops — without file sharing enabled on these computers. compromise. policy-driven processes and procedures. in a decentralized structure an administrator can . unauthorized access.

Adding more servers does not eliminate the problem of inefficient utilization of storage space between servers. or RAID 6. Migrating a company’s critical data to a centralized server can help the situation. and offer services for. cabling. network interconnects. parity-based configurations that spread multiple data over multiple drives. year-round. Hard Disk Redundancy Hard disk redundancy can be achieved using RAID types such as RAID 10. and is one way to ensure highly available data. such as network attached storage (NAS) and storage area networks (SANs). 24x7. Anticipating growth and implementing storage solutions that scale with growth remains a problem. . Failure in any of a number of hardware components — storage devices. processors. because the data can be readily shared across the network. as more servers are added to increase storage capacity (and to provide redundancy in the event of hardware failure). but capacity exceeded on another. RAID 5. Fault tolerance can be achieved through redundancy of hardware components. Unfortunately. organizations can experience bandwidth bottlenecks as users in remote locations attempt to access data in a central location via potentially slow. These parity-based approaches can provide protection from a disk failure through the maintenance of checksum information. The availability storage challenges include:  Hard disk redundancy. mechanisms need to be put in place to ensure data availability so that user productivity is not negatively affected. other storage mediums with the end result being consolidated management flow for administrators and a consistent experience for users. Some computers inevitably exceed their storage capacity. and ensuring that the data is protected well enough to meet requirements. storage interconnects. You can also create more sophisticated. Effective storage planning requires accurate predictions of which users and applications will require more storage capacity. while others have excess capacity but no means to effectively share those resources.13 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper face many hurdles when building and applying a consistent policy to the type and age of data that is stored. Identify Availability Storage Challenges Businesses rely on making their services and information available for access. thus space may be available on one server. motherboards and power supplies — can result in a temporary or permanent loss of data. Compatibility with Storage Networking Solutions The best storage solutions not only meet today’s storage needs. Underutilization of Storage Resources Storage that is directly attached to a server is made available to other computers on the network through the operating system’s sharing capabilities. As data is centralized. In this case. Hard disks using the same RAID controller can be combined to provide a fault tolerance disk configuration using RAID subsystems. high latency WAN links.  Server redundancy. they also scale well with more advanced storage solutions. Storage remains local to each server. directly attached storage tends to scale poorly over the long term. users still have the problem of not being able to find the data that they need — or in some cases even knowing that it exists. and those resources must be provisioned before disk capacity is exceeded. But. Storage solutions must be able to integrate with.

extranets. Administrators are responsible for managing file. This redirection can also ensure data availability even when the computer is not connected to the network. such as My Documents to a network location while keeping a cached version of the data on the user’s local machine. especially in midsize and large organizations. Identifying Windows Storage Server Solution Benefits Network attached storage appliances running Windows Storage Server have a number of advantages compared to other network attached storage appliances. Access to the data must be secured for users on the organization’s intranet. However. Users are redirected to another computer without any loss of services. In addition. and disasters. Identify Data Recovery Storage Challenges System administrators must protect data not only from hardware failure. Identify Manageability Storage Challenges System administration can become enormously complex. application. even if a server goes down. and for clustering those servers to ensure effective performance and high availability. although many organizations require multiple platforms to support various applications. Finally. Security in depth is required in terms of multi-level and multi-factor security in instances where the data is highly confidential. these solutions provide only partial protection. remote users must be able to access the data through remote access connections. and database servers. but also from data corruption. Technologies such as folder redirection combined with Offline Files can help users store data on servers by redirecting key folders. web. or the Internet. UNIX. With Failover Clustering. and for that reason. Most of these advantages are available because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server 2008 R2. users are rarely effective in performing regular backups. applications remain online. Identify Security Storage Challenges Preventing unauthorized access to confidential data requires tight integration between file services and identity management systems. Unfortunately.14 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Server Redundancy Failover clustering allows two or more computer systems to perform and be managed as a single system. system administrators strongly advocate storing critical documents and data on a server. IT pros have to help ensure the strongest possible security while allowing users the access they require to data. user error. or another operating system. The benefits to creating storage solutions using Windows Storage Server include:  Scalability  Availability  Security  Manageability  Data recovery . demand is increasing to share data among users whether they are running Windows. Hard disks must be backed up by the individual user. The most common means of protecting data from these problems is through tape backups and restores. where it can be properly backed up.

memory. Single Instance Storage actively compares and eliminates identical files on selected volumes. When multiple paths exist between servers and storage. Windows Server® 2003 introduced the ability to accommodate multiple DFS root directories on each server.  Dynamic hardware partitioning. ensuring access to the nearest available copy of the data at the lowest cost.  Improved fault tolerance between servers and storage. Identifying Availability Benefits The following are the availability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Failover clustering. WHEA has been enhanced to support Machine Check Architecture (MCA) error recovery. Fault-tolerant servers contain redundant hardware. Distributed File System (DFS) simplifies the user’s process of locating and accessing files distributed across an organization. DFS also offers closest site selection. Those modifications are compressed during transmission. Windows Storage Server includes support for fault tolerate memory synchronization.  Processor scaling. The Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server helps optimize storage capacity using built-in file deduplication. line of business. It is no longer necessary to add an additional server for each additional DFS root directory.  Reduces storage requirements.15 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Scalability Benefits The following are the scalability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Increasing the Effectiveness of File Sharing. If a primary component fails. including fans and power supplies and processors and RAM that runs in lockstep together. On a dynamically partitionable server. Windows Storage Server can failover to an alternate path if the primary path fails. DFS only displays items in the namespace and folders that the user has access to. Failover clustering can help you build redundancy into your network and eliminate single points of failure. With the release of Windows Server 2008 R2. offering the ability to contain and recover from several types of multi-bit ECC errors in memory and cache without operating system or application interruption. and hot-replace of processors and memory on x64-based and Itanium-based systems which support DHP.  Windows Hardware Error Architecture (WHEA). In addition. resulting in less bandwidth used for replication and. Windows Storage Server supports hot-add of processors. therefore. . DFS has been enhanced to remove the 5. and I/O host bridges. You can select the failover priority by configuring the load-balancing policies for your storage solution. The Distributed File System Replication (DFSR) service controls replication and synchronization of data using Remote Differential Compression (RDC) that only replicates modifications to a file. the secondary component takes over in a process that is seamless to the application running on the server. scalable servers. protection and recovery by Single Instance Store-aware backup solutions can significantly reduce backup windows and recovery times. and to provide support for Access Based Enumeration (ABE) on DFS Namespaces. partition units can be added or replaced without restarting the operating system. and this capability has been maintained in Windows Server 2008 R2.  Fault tolerant hardware. Windows Storage Server can scale up to 256 logical processors to meet the demands of business-critical servers supporting large databases. faster synchronization.000-link target limit that previously existed. This data can be made highly available in a transparent manner using the Distributed File System Namespace. and custom applications that sometimes require highly reliable. Duplicate files are transparently replaced with file system links to the single copy retained in the SIS Common Store — saving significant capacity. Once enabled.

you can quickly restore the configuration to a previous version. Identifying Manageability Benefits The following are the manageability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Reduces time to realize efficient management. In addition. such as BitLocker Drive Encryption. Comprehensive Microsoft support for Windows Server products and the extensive community of partners and peers help you resolve storage-related issues with less effort. . build. Windows Storage Server integrates easily with existing Windows IT infrastructure services.  Resolves support issues faster.  Manages multi-vendor storage more effectively. Windows Storage Server allows you to take configuration snapshots of the storage subsystem (for example. such as AD DS.  Seamlessly integrates with your existing Windows IT infrastructure. This level of integration also helps minimize any infrastructure remediation that may be required to deploy and operate your storage solution. and federated domains using Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS).  Manages and operates your storage solution using your existing processes and procedures. include knowledge from the product groups at Microsoft to help provide you with accurate and relevant information to resolve support issues. This helps protect your existing investment while developing custom processes and procedures. In the event of a subsequent configuration failure. Windows Server 2008 R2 contains a number of management interfaces for SAN hardware. In addition. you can take advantage of your expertise with Windows Server. You can use the same extensive security products and technologies found in Windows Server 2008 to secure Windows Storage Server. more precisely. deploy. many of the Microsoft management products. This familiarity dramatically can help reduce your learning curve so that you can quickly and efficiently plan.  Easily extends storage solutions. such as System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager 2007. the Storage Manager for SANs. NTFS permissions. and IPsec. such as Microsoft Forefront. The broad range of well documented APIs and scripting languages can help you customize Windows Storage Server to meet your organization's requirements. Identities from AD DS.16 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Improved recovery from configuration errors. the iSCSI configuration). You can also use Microsoft and partner products to further strengthen the security of your storage solutions. and operate storage solutions. You can manage and operate Windows Storage Server using the same IT processes and procedures that are currently used to manage Windows Server 2008 R2. such as System Center Operations Manager. and with less effort. You can easily extend the features and services provided by Windows Storage Server using the large number of products and services provided by Microsoft partners or by developing your own solution. Much of this existing knowledge is integrated in the product or available online. For example. can be used to access resources shared by Windows Storage Server. An error in the configuration of the storage subsystem can negatively affect storage availability. Identifying Security Benefits The following are the security benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Secures digital assets. Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS). you can manage and operate Windows Storage Server using other products. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. In addition. In past versions of Windows Server. Because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server 2008 R2.  Integrates with existing identity management systems. multi-vendor storage device management required a system administrator to manage each device independently and to use a different vendor-supplied interface to do so — all of which adds another layer of complexity to the system administrator’s job. Forefront Identity Manager (FIM) 2010 also can be used to synchronize identities from other identity systems.

and print services workloads using the well-known management consoles and utilities in Windows Storage Server. which in turn helps lower total cost of ownership (TCO) especially in complex multivendor storage environments. instead of using a different set of management tools for each workload. Enhancements include:  Administrators can now control volume mounting to protect volumes from unintentional access. such as System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager. Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 make it easier to manage and maintain disks. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target component in Windows Storage Server allows you to create iSCSI disk LUNs. you can draw on the large number of existing scripts developed by the partner and peer communities to further reduce the time required to achieve automation. built on Windows Server 2008 R2 operating system technologies. such as Microsoft® Exchange Server 2010 running on a Windows Server operating system.  Fibre Channel and iSCSI SANs handling has been improved. The Windows Storage Server 2008 operating system is a multi-purpose server designed to handle a diverse set of server roles. Windows Storage Server 2008 is a network-attached storage (NAS) operating system. and new features have been added aimed at helping businesses control storage management costs and increase availability of data. For example. In addition. In addition. you can use other Microsoft products to further automate the administration of Windows Storage Server. Web services. The Windows Storage Server 2008 platform now provides better support for SANs. iSCSI technology helps bring the advantages of storage area networking (SAN) to midsize and small businesses that otherwise could not afford the extra cost and management of running a separate Fibre Channel network. iSCSI block I/O services. SAN technology based on IP also removes the physical limitations of moving data associated with Fibre Channel. remote desktop. Robust storage solutions. Windows support for iSCSI technology allows users to connect computers to consolidated storage devices using existing Ethernet technologies. rather than having to install a separate Fibre Channel network. such as Linux. Disk LUNs can be remotely mounted by application servers. You can use the same set of tools and process to manage all the workloads supported by Windows Storage Server. You can migrate workloads from existing Windows Server operating systems to Windows Storage Server using highly-automated migration tools. . You can manage file services. using available iSCSI initiators. You can also centrally manage many of the Windows Storage Server configuration settings using Group Policy.17 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper       Migrates from other storage solutions to Windows Storage Server. Reduces administration effort for storage solutions. storing Exchange Server and virtual server data and directory services. Provides unified solution to storage management and operations.  SAN Host Bus Adapter (HBA) interoperability has been simplified with the SAN MMC management snap-in. using the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator or application servers running other operating systems. many Microsoft partners produce products to help in migrating workloads to Windows Server products. web. including file and print. These tools help protect the integrity of your existing data while ensuring the current user permissions and security configuration is transferred to Windows Storage Server. You can automate repetitive administrative tasks using Windows PowerShell scripts in Windows Storage Server. Takes advantage of existing network infrastructure for SAN storage. such as the File Server Migration Tools. Provides centralized storage for applications. The integrated storage services available in Windows Server and Windows Storage Server 2008 have been enhanced in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. For example.

These can be responsible for flushing buffers and getting data on a disk in a consistent state that is suitable to back up. open file backups are enabled. Because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server. This capability can be extended with technologies like System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM).  Manages backups and restores more effectively. Microsoft Solution Accelerators. The Windows Recovery Environment in Windows Storage Server is a partial version of the operating system and a set of tools that you can use to perform operating system or full server recoveries. you can minimize the risk of adoption for your new storage solution. As organizations produce more information.  Windows Server backup tools. and ongoing operations of Windows Storage Server succeed. The VSS process ensures data integrity though the utilization of VSS writers. You can select the failover priority by configuring the load-balancing policies for your storage solution  Windows Recovery Environment. You can use many of the existing tools. thus making unnecessary the disruptive practice of shutting down applications during backup to prevent data consistency issues. shadow copies take up little disk space. and best practice guidance to help make certain that the planning. VSS allows administrators to schedule regular copies of data stored on disk. With VSS. The accidental deletion or overwriting of files has long been the bane of system administrators charged with the time-intensive and costly task of locating and restoring single files from tape. Moreover. thus adding availability to the data. deployment. In the case of catastrophic system failures — cases in which all operating system information is lost and the server is effectively stripped down to bare metal — Automated System Recovery makes possible rapid restore of the system’s original state. .18 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Minimizes storage solution adoption risk. which can centrally store the snapshot information. The Shadow Copy for Shared Folders feature of the new Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) enables users to easily restore their own deleted files without IT intervention. because only the changes to the data are saved. enabling companies to make copies of necessary data. separate from the originating server. backing up data becomes an increasingly time intensive and potentially disruptive operation. Your IT organization and users are less likely to experience difficulties in using and operating Windows Storage Server because they are already familiar with Windows Server. When multiple paths exist between servers and storage. Windows Storage Server can failover to an alternate path if the primary path fails. Identifying Data Recovery Benefits The following are the data recovery benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Easier data recovery. Making data highly available throughout an organization requires data redundancy.

Figure 1. These features and capabilities allow Windows Storage Server to act as a unified platform to manage various workloads. unlike dedicated or single function network attached storage appliances. as illustrated in Figure 1.19 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Exploring Windows Storage Server Features and Capabilities Windows Storage Server includes a rich set of features and capabilities to help service multiple workloads. Workloads supported by Window Storage Server .

Windows-based client computers use the SMB protocol while other operating systems typically use the CIFS protocol. Providing Access to File Services Workloads File services workloads allow computers to access files and folders stored on network access storage appliances.20 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper These features and capabilities help you provide access to:  File services workloads. . The File Services server role in Windows Storage Server supports both SMB2. and the prior versions of SMB for previous Windows operating systems.  Providing access to print services workloads. Windows Storage Server can support file services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments with a variety of operating systems.  Web services workloads. SMB. SMB. as illustrated in Figure 1. test. Some network access storage appliances that are not running Windows Storage Server implement generic CIFS-based file services that implement only older versions of SMB and lack the performance advantages and improved reliability of SMB2. Select this protocol to support homogeneous or heterogeneous environments that contain:  Windows-based computers that use Client for Microsoft Networks to access file services workloads using the SMB protocol. including the following workloads:  Hyper-V  Microsoft SQL Server®  Microsoft Exchange Server  iSCSI boot  Providing access to Web services workloads.  Print services workloads This section includes the following topics:  Providing access to file services workloads. or SMB2  NFS  WebDAV  Windows SharePoint® Services Supporting File Services Workloads Using CIFS. or SMB2 The SMB2 protocol in Windows Storage Server provides access to files and folders for client computers using the SMB or CIFS protocols. For more information about the improvements available in SMB2. which is highly-optimized for use with Windows 7. or production environments.  Providing access to iSCSI block I/O workloads in development.  iSCSI block I/O workloads.  Providing access to FTP services workloads.  Computers running other operating systems that access file services workloads using the CIFS protocol. see the "Review Improvements in File Services" section later in this white paper. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous file services workloads using the following protocols or features:  CIFS.

This component allows a computer running Windows Storage Server and Server for NFS to service NFS client computer requests.2  Hewlett Packard HP-UX version 11i The Server for NFS component allows you to share a folder as a NFS exported folder (also known as a NFS shared folder).  Client for NFS. UNIX Version Support The Services for NFS supports the following versions of UNIX:  Sun Microsystems Solaris version 9  Red Hat Linux version 9  IBM AIX version 5L 5. This method allows users to access shared resources using automatically generated Windows Security Identifiers (SIDs) based on the UNIX UID and GID. For more information about installing and configuring the Services for Network File System role service. A computer running an NFS client can mount the NFS exported folder into the local file system of the operating system running on the computer.  Anonymous access. download NFS Account Mapping in Windows Server 2008 R2. This component allows a computer running Windows Storage Server and Client for NFS to access NFS mount points on NFS servers. Windows Server 2008. the Identity Management for UNIX Active Directory schema extension includes the UNIX user identifier (UID) and group identifier (GID) fields. The NFS protocol allows any NFS client computer to access files and folders managed by Windows Storage Server using version 2 and version 3 of the NFS protocol. and a number of command-line tools for managing it. For computers running Windows. The Services for Network File System role service includes the following components:  Server for NFS. In addition. NFS Authentication The Server for NFS component can use Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) for mapped identity management. see Services for NFS Step-by-Step Guide for Windows Server 2008. . This enables Server for NFS and Client for NFS to look up Windows-to-UNIX user account mappings directly from AD DS or AD LDS. For more information about enabling identity (account) mapping for Services for NFS. and later Windows Server operating systems. Select this protocol to support heterogeneous environments that contain computers running an NFS client that access file services workloads using the NFS protocol. The Server for NFS component is required to support file services workloads using NFS. Server for NFS can support unmapped user access using:  Unmapped UNIX User Access. Note The Server for NFS component supports NFS version 2. In Windows Storage Server.0 and version 3.0 with the Services for Network File System role service.21 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Supporting File Services Workloads Using NFS Windows Storage Server supports access to file services workloads using the NFS protocol version 3. This method allows all unmapped users to access shared resources using a common anonymous account is configurable. This component includes the Services for NFS snap-in. the NFS client allows access to the NFS exported folder using a universal naming convention (UNC) path or by mapping the NFS exported folder to a drive letter.0.

WebDAV 7. Also.  Per-site Configuration. Previous versions of WebDAV only allowed you to enable WebDAV at the server level. Depending on the operating system.5 for IIS 7. These authoring rules are separate from the IIS 7. Server for NFS is case-sensitive when matching directory.5 can be enabled at the site level. see Nfsadmin. Other operating systems also include a WebDAV redirector. allowing you to specify custom WebDAV security settings on a per-URL basis. By default. To accomplish this.5 of the WebDAV extension module for Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.22 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Non-Windows and Windows File Names Many of the conventions used for naming files and directories on non-Windows systems differ from those used by Windows. The differences between Windows and non-Windows filenames include the following:  Case sensitivity. By default.5 supports per-URL authoring rules. Administrators can specify how characters in directory and file names will be converted when files are shared between Server for NFS and client computers. IIS 7. For more information. so colon characters are valid in non-Windows file names. This setting can be turned off by administrators to ensure that files whose names begin with a period (. For example. In the case of Windows computers. Windows Storage Server includes version 7.) character. Non-Windows file systems simply do not list files whose names begin with a period (. or be hidden from users. but are not case sensitive.  Special characters. WebDAV 7.0 has a new administration interface and configuration store. WebDAV 7.0 per-URL authorization rules. it preserves the case of the names of directories and files when creating files on behalf of NFS client computers.0.) character are hidden. see Configure Case Sensitivity for File and Folder Names. Non-Windows file systems do not use letters to identify drives. All current Windows operating systems include a WebDAV redirector. files are hidden by setting a special attribute for the file.5 is the latest version of WebDAV for Windows Storage Server.  Per-URL Security Settings. contain special characters. In contrast. thereby . For more information. The WebDAV extension module is available as a separate download at WebDAV 7. and then specifies where Server for NFS can find the file containing the character map. Files can be hidden on both non-Windows and Windows computers. Administrators can configure Server for NFS to ignore case sensitivity when returning directory and file names. a file stored on NTFS cannot contain the colon (:) character because that character separates the drive letter from the rest of the path in a fully qualified path name. The new WebDAV extension module is tightly integrated with this new design. which provides support for homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. the administrator creates a file that defines how these characters are to be mapped. Client computers running a WebDAV redirector can access file services workloads using the WebDAV protocol. Supporting File Services Workloads Using WebDAV The WebDAV protocol is a set of extensions to the HTTP protocol that enables file management over any IP network. Server for NFS does not create files with names beginning with a period as hidden files in the Windows file system.and file-access requests to directories and files in its shared directories. Every file system reserves characters for use in path and command syntax. and includes the following improvements:  Integration with IIS 7.0 (x64). file names can be case sensitive.0. Most UNIX-like non-Windows file systems are case-sensitive when handling directory and file names. the new WebDAV extension module integrates with the Internet Information Services Manager console to provide ease of administration.  Hidden files. Windows computers preserve the case.

such as a SAN. such as SQL Server® 2008 or Exchange Server 2010. For more information. Microsoft Office System client applications. see WebDAV for IIS 7.0 allows users to collaborate with each other using either HTTP or HTTPS. you can configure document libraries to retain a specified number of versions for each file in the document library. Serial Attached SCSI (SAS).0 support on Windows Storage Server. or Fibre Channel initiator based on the type of storage being accessed. Supporting File Services Workloads Using Windows SharePoint Services Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3. Document libraries include the ability to check in and check out files to help maintain version control. Windows Storage Server is used to connect to external iSCSI targets. Client computers can access the document libraries using either protocol. but the feature specific to file services is the document library feature. as illustrated in Figure 2. such as Microsoft Word 2007 or Excel® 2007. Select this protocol to support heterogeneous environments that contain computers running WebDAV redirectors that need to access the file services workloads using the HTTP or HTTPS protocol. . Computers running Windows can also access the document libraries through Windows Explorer. Windows Storage Server can be an iSCSI. In addition. Windows SharePoint Services include a number of collaboration features. see Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3. Note When Windows Storage Server is deployed in a NAS gateway scenario.23 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper allowing one set of security settings for normal HTTP requests. As an iSCSI target. see the section "Using Windows Storage Server as a NAS Gateway in Solutions. Providing Access to iSCSI Block I/O Workloads iSCSI block I/O workloads are another type of workload provided by most network access storage appliances. support opening and saving files to document libraries directly within the application. iSCSI block I/O workloads include both a server component (iSCSI target) and a client component (iSCSI initiator).0. As an iSCSI initiator. For more information about providing WebDAV support on Windows Storage Server.0. which allows you to easily restore a previous version of a file and track version history. Windows Storage Server is used to support iSCSI block IO workloads for applications. and a separate set of security settings for WebDAV requests." later in this white paper. Also. For more information about providing Windows SharePoint Services 3.

Windows Storage Server can function as an iSCSI target (the server component) or an iSCSI initiator (the client component).3. For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. see Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. iSCSI block I/O workloads supported by Windows Storage Server Windows Storage Server supports iSCSI block I/O workloads using the iSCSI standard. Standard. These specifications are applicable to all Windows Storage Server editions that include Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3 available for Windows Storage Server provides iSCSI target functionality.24 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 2. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3 in Windows Storage Server. and Enterprise editions. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Specifications Table 7 lists the specifications for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3.3. .3 is the latest version of the iSCSI target software and is an optional component in Window Storage Server Workgroup. Note Some Microsoft partners include the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by default. This allows a large number of configuration options for iSCSI block I/O workload solutions.

Jumbo frames. Maximum number of iSCSI initiators per appliance. Value 64 128 128 512 32 (or 4 per cluster node) 64 16 64 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Windows Storage Server includes support for single path and multipath I/O connections to nonclustered and clustered configurations. For more information about multipath I/O. IPv6. IPsec. Maximum number of virtual disks or snapshots that can be locally mounted by the appliance. Maximum number of iSCSI initiator sessions that can connect to the same iSCSI target instance. Table 8. . iSCSI offload." later in this white paper. Failures on the iSCSI network path may result in delayed failover and recovery times. Table 8 lists the support for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with single or multipath I/O connections when connecting to nonclustered or clustered configurations. Maximum number of snapshots per virtual disk. TCP offload. Maximum number of virtual disks per appliance. Failures for non-network related issues have been tested with acceptable recovery times. For these reasons.25 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 7. Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Version 3. Support for Single or Multipath IO Connections for Non-Clustered or Clustered Configurations Specification Windows Server 2008 (multipath I/O connection) Windows Server 2008 (single path I/O connection) Windows Server 2008 (multipath I/O connection) Windows Server 2003 (single path I/O connection) Nonclustered Supported Supported Supported Supported Clustered Supported Limited * Limited * Limited* * There is limited support for iSCSI initiators or iSCSI targets in clustered configurations of Windows Server 2003 when connected to the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Maximum number of iSCSI initiators that can connect to the same iSCSI target instance. Maximum number of virtual disk per iSCSI target instance. we recommend to use Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 in clustered configurations when connecting to the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator includes a multipath I/O Device Specific Module (DSM) for the Microsoft Multipath I/O (MPIO) in Windows Server.3 Specifications Specification Maximum number of iSCSI target instances per appliance. IPv4. Multipath I/O connections allow for improved fault-tolerance and performance for iSCSI block I/O workloads. see the section "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads.

3. and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider.00.3 and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3.x. The backup software must support transporting snapshots. Prior versions of the hardware providers are not supported by Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.  32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2008 SP1. Install this hardware provider on the computer running the iSCSI initiator and the computer that is to perform backups. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for VSS and VDS Providers Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Install the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider on each iSCSI initiator computer running a storage management application (such as the Microsoft Storage Manager for SANs) that uses the hardware provider to manage storage The most recent version of these hardware provider APIs is Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3.3 supports only version 3. VDS is a set of APIs that provides a single interface for managing disks.3 of the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider.3 and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider is required to create transportable snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks and application-consistent snapshots from iSCSI initiators.  64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server 2008. VSS is a set of APIs that implement a framework to allow volume backups to be performed while applications on a system continue to write to the volumes.  SUSE Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 10. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider is required to manage virtual disks on a storage subsystem.26 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note The limitation for iSCSI initiators or iSCSI targets in clustered configurations of Windows Server 2003 is specific to Microsoft iSCSI Software Target usage. iSCSI snapshots are created using VSS and a storage array with a hardware provider designed for use with VSS.07 and 2. Note Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.01.3. .  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server 2008 SP1 and SP2.3 includes a hardware provider for:  Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS). Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. and for creating volumes on those disks. firmware 3.x. Customers using a different iSCSI target should refer to the storage array vendor for supported configurations. VDS provides an end-to-end solution for managing storage hardware and disks.  Virtual Disk Service (VDS).  64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3.24.08 in Windows Server 2003.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Vista.  Red Hat Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 5.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server 2008 R2.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows 7.  Qlogic initiator QLE4062C-SP.  32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Server® 2003 SP2.3 support the following operating systems:  Windows Server 2008 R2.3 supports the following iSCSI initiators:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator 2.

The iSCSI boot process for Windows operating systems. iSCSI boot process for Windows operating systems For iSCSI boot-enabled network adapters and host bus adapters. iSCSI boot support is provided on diskless computers using one of the following methods:  Network adapters that support iSCSI boot capability. and Windows® 7.  iSCSI host bus adapters that support iSCSI boot capability. This phase of the process is performed by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. including Windows® XP. This phase of the process is used to initiate the Window iSCSI boot process. Independent Hardware Vendors implementing iSCSI boot support in their firmware need to use the table headers defined in this specification to enable the passing of boot critical parameters to the Windows operating system. Supporting iSCSI Boot iSCSI boot allows diskless computers (computers without local disk) to boot over the network.27 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The following operating systems are not supported by Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3. these components are provided by the partner providing the program. all the necessary preboot phase components are in firmware on the adapter. This phase is performed by the firmware on the network adapter. Table 9 lists the components in an iSCSI boot solution using Windows Storage Server and provides a brief description of the purpose for each component. The components in this phase include:  Int 13. The BIOS function used to access disk boot functions. or network boot program. Windows Vista.  Windows. depending on the method used for the diskless computer. Universal Network Device Interface (UNDI) is an application programming interface (API) for network interface cards (NIC) used by the Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) protocol. These functions are redirected to the virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server. firmware on the host bus adapter.3. For more information. For network boot programs. .  32-bit version of Windows Storage Server 2008. and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3.  Network boot program software that provides iSCSI boot capability. is divided into the following phases:  Pre-boot. Figure 3. iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT) is a block of information containing parameters needed to boot Windows Server 2003 and later versions of Windows using the iSCSI protocol and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. see iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT). as illustrated in Figure 3.  UNDI.3:  Any Windows client operating system. The Windows Boot Manager is configured to boot using LUNs that are accessible through the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator.  iBFT.

which can be any one of the following:  Network adapter that supports iSCSI boot.28 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 9.  iSCSI boot software. The diskless computer requires an iSCSI connection to Windows Storage Server. the DHCP is practical requirement for any scalable requirement. .vhd files) stored on Windows Storage Server. Note The DHCP server is optional if the network adapter supports IP and iSCSI boot configuration or if you are using an iSCSI host bus adapter. Note The TFTP server is required only if you are using iSCSI boot software that requires a TFTP server.vhd files) stored on Windows Storage Server using a network boot program that provides iSCSI boot capability. Figure 4 illustrates how diskless computers can boot from virtual disk files (. Provides IP configuration for iSCSI boot using network adapters using DHCP reservation that is configured for BOOTP support. This allows for fast deployment and recovery of diskless computers. The iSCSI boot process and Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator can access these virtual disks during the boot process. However. Virtual disk iSCSI connection in diskless computer DHCP server Trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP) server Provides download of boot image to target computer when the virtual disk cannot be directly accessed using the iSCSI connection in the diskless computer. Components in an iSCSI Boot Solution Using Windows Storage Server Component Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Description Provides iSCSI block I/O access to virtual disks stored on Windows Storage Server. Virtual disk files (.  iSCSI host bus adapter. Differencing virtual disks can be used for multiple computers based on the same fixed virtual disk. The TFTP server is not required for network adapters that support iSCSI boot or an iSCSI host bus adapter.

As illustrated in Figure 4.29 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 4. The diskless computer establishes a connection with Windows Storage Server and connects to a virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server. iSCSI boot process from Windows Storage Server DHCP and TFTP services can be provided by Windows Storage Server or Windows Server. 3. 2. The TFTP Server provides a PXE boot image to the diskless computer. The diskless client computer requests IP configuration from the DHCP Server. 5. . The DHCP Server sends IP configuration information to the diskless client. the diskless computer can boot from a virtual disks stored on Windows Storage Server using the following steps for a network boot program: 1. The diskless client computer requests a Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) boot image from the TFPT Server. 4.

. You can use separate virtual disks for each diskless computer or you can use differencing virtual disks.  The “Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions” section later in this white paper. and create a differencing virtual disk as the current virtual disk for the diskless computer. Windows Storage Server can support Web services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments that include a variety of operating system. The diskless computer boots from Differencing Virtual Disk . the operating system on the parent virtual disk stays in its original state for quick recovery or for quickly creating more boot images based on additional differencing virtual disks. Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. The Windows operating system starts.30 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 6. Web services workloads allow users to access Web-based content stored on Windows Storage Server appliances. see:  Microsoft iSCSI Boot Step-by-Step Guide. Any subsequent writes to the differencing disk are written to the differencing virtual disk and the parent virtual disk is not modified.08  Red Hat Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 5. 8. 7.B that is stored on Windows Storage Server.07 or 2. For example. A differencing virtual disk is a virtual disk type that is based on a fixed or expandable virtual disk. Using this method. which is the iSCSI LUN specified in the configuration for the computer.x  PCI-E network iSCSI Initiator adapter  Broadcom network adapter  qLogic iSCSI host bus adapter  Netboot software For more information about iSCSI boot in Windows operating systems. All subsequent disk I/O is performed using iSCSI I/O to the virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server.x  SUSE Enterprise Linux version 10. Providing Access to Web Services Workloads Unlike most network access storage appliances.  About VHD.3 supports iSCSI boot for the following iSCSI initiators:  Any Windows operating system running Microsoft iSCSI Initiator version 2. Windows Storage Server supports Web services workloads. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous Web services workloads using the protocols listed in Table 10. you can create clean-install system boot operating system virtual disk as a parent.

Providing Access to Print Services Workloads Another advantage to using Windows Storage Server appliances is the ability to support print services workloads.  Improved integration with web-based applications and services.5 administration interface and configuration store. download only. Provides a simplified file transfer. Print services workloads allow users to access printers managed by Windows Storage Server appliances. HTTPS FTP Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 includes FTP services that offer the following improvements:  Reduced administrative effort for FTP server services.  The foundation for Web-based remote administration using Terminal Services Web Access.  Extended IP addressing features provided by IPv6.  Reduced effort for support and troubleshooting FTP–related issues. but are differentiated by using unique virtual host names. Provides the same level of support as HTTP. for the same files and folders accessed using any of the file services workloads protocols. you can specify a. Improved logging that now supports all FTP-related traffic. This allows administrators to perform common administrative tasks within one common administration console.  The foundation for the WebDAV protocol used in accessing file services workloads. virtual host name for an FTP site. upload or download. using the same folders that can be accessed using any of the file services workloads protocols. The new FTP server is fully integrated with the IIS 7. The new FTP server includes support for:  Improved security by supporting FTP over secure sockets layer (SSL).  Support of extended character sets by including UTF8 support.  Extended support for Internet standards.  Simplified file transfer. Windows Storage Server can support .31 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 10. which can be essential in some heterogeneous environments. and more. an additional detail field in FTP logs. Protocols Supported for Web Services Workloads Protocol HTTP Support description Provides:  Access to traditional Web-based content accessed through Web browsers. which can be essential in some heterogeneous environments. FTP sub statuses. This allows you to provide FTP and Web content from the same website simply by binding an FTP site to a website.  Provides support for the Internet Printing role service. File transfer can be performed using Windows® Internet Explorer®. With the new FTP server. a mapped drive. This allows you to create multiple FTP sites that use the same IP address. or from a command line. but includes additional security protection of using secure sockets layer (SSL) encryption between clients and Windows Storage Server. unique tracking for FTP sessions. a UNC path.

an inbound firewall exception for TCP port 515 is created. Line Printer Daemon (LPD) Service Internet Printing For more information about:  The Print Services server role. the removal of the role service does. select only this role service. or as an MMC snap-in. Select this Print Server role service to support any print services workloads in Windows Storage Server. However. Provides support for computers that run an Internet Printing client. The LDP Service is an optional Print Services role service. which is done automatically during installation. see Print and Document Services. Select the Printer Server role services when clients must print to printers using the only HTTP protocol. see Print Management. Print Server Role Services Supported for Print Services Workloads Role Service Print Server Support description Provides support for Windows-based computers running Client for Microsoft Networks. typically used in heterogeneous environments. The Print Server role service is a mandatory role service for the Print Services role. the Print Services Tools Remote Server Administration Tool feature is also installed. The LPD Service installs and starts the TCP/IP Print Server (LPDSVC) service which is implemented in lpdsvc.  Printer management in Windows Storage Server. typically used in heterogeneous environments or to print over the Internet. The Print Management Console (PMC) is then accessible from Server Manager. Provides support for computers that run Line Printer Remote (LPR). There is no configuration necessary for the LPD service. the installation of the service does require a restart of the Print Spooler service. Table 11.dll. When the LPD Service is installed. In order to install the Internet Printing role service. the TCP/IP Print Server service is also stopped — and you must restart it manually. the Print Services and Web Server roles must also be installed. Although the installation of the Print Server role service does not require a system restart. Administrative Tools. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous print services workloads using the Print Server role services listed in Table 11. When the Print Server role is installed. If the Print Spooler service is stopped or restarted after the LPD Service is installed. Internet Printing provides access to shared printers using the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) that is encapsulated in HTTP.32 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper print services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments that include a variety of operating system. . Select this Print Server role service to support LPR clients in heterogeneous environments. If you are supporting only Windows-based computers that are printing with your homogeneous environment.

 The ability to measure.  Storage power management. Figure 5shows the results. power consumption is of paramount importance. average utilization for many servers is 5 to 15 percent. than before. To quantify the power savings.  Additional incremental power saving features. Measuring power usage only when hardware is fully utilized does not reflect real-world usage. Therefore. manage. It now provides the ability to fine-tune the processor’s speed and power consumption to match .33 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Providing Reduction in Power Consumption With the proliferation of physical computers in data centers. Window Storage Server includes the following improvements to reduce power consumption:  Reduced power usage of individual servers by including:  A new PPM engine. or less power. Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers Windows Storage Server helps improve the power efficiency of individual servers through a variety of incremental improvements. and budget power usage across the system. reducing your power consumption also allows you to support more physical computers while using the same amount of power. which demonstrate that many servers that operate within a range of utilization levels will benefit from the improved power efficiency of Windows Server 2008 R2. In addition to the cost-saving associated with reducing power consumption. many data centers are constrained by the number of computers they can support in their data center by the actual power available to the data center. from idle up to 100 percent utilization. Microsoft measured power consumption of Windows Storage Server 2003 and Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 using a representative online transaction processing (OLTP) workload. Throughput was gradually throttled up across the utilization range of the systems. Figure 5. Power savings with Windows Storage Server Processor Power Management The PPM engine in Windows Storage Server has been rewritten and improved.

and their workloads then shifted to alternate cores. Keeping the unutilized cores in an idle state reduces system power consumption. and also adds the following enhancements:  ATA Slumber feature. New parameters for PPM — which administrators can configure — further improve power efficiency. This means that commands are not repeatedly sent to check for media changes. Windows Storage Server provides asynchronous notification of drive media changes. Windows Storage Server includes support for storage devices that work with solid state drives that can power down unused RAM when a file system deletes files. Windows Server Storage also supports the ability to boot from a SAN. Core parking is a feature that enables Windows Storage Server to reduce multi-core processor power consumption by consolidating processing onto fewer processor cores and suspending the inactive cores. This feature helps reduce power usage for managing the communication bus link between the hard disk and the chipset.  Asynchronous notification of media change for optical devices.34 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper current demands. This feature is integrated with the power management framework to use the new power states (partial and active). as shown in Figure 6. because any server can have access to the available storage on the SAN. which has a higher storage-capacity-topower-consumption ratio than a typical server. When additional processing power is required. which means less communication with the drive and less power consumption. Windows Storage Server greatly improves access to storage on SANs. thus saving power. the system activates the idle processor cores to handle the increased processing requirements. .  Support for “remove on delete”.  Optimized link power management for SATA disks. The workloads of every logical core in a server are tracked relative to all the others. A SAN also makes more efficient use of the available disk space. Storage Power Management Another strategy for reducing power used by individual servers is to centralize their storage by using a Storage Area Network (SAN). The workloads of cores that are not fully utilized can be suspended. which eliminates the need for local hard disks (local storage) in the individual server computers and decreases power consumption as a result.

) The amount of background work that is performed by the operating system has also been reduced in Windows Storage Server. One processor handles the periodic system timer tick. Performing Highly Automated Installations You can automate the storage subsystem configuration settings in Windows Storage Server by customizing the Windows Storage Server Unattend. or formatting partitions. This also allows processors to better utilize the deep C-states. You can take advantage of most of these technologies in virtualization scenarios to maximize the power efficiency of your virtualized environments. . creating partitions.xml file to run Windows PowerShell scripts or any command-line program that can used to perform storage configuration tasks. non-timer interrupts will still activate sleeping processors. such as creating a RAID set. The benefit of this automation is that the storage configuration requires minimal or no configuration by IT pros. in which the processor consumes very little energy but requires time to return to an operational state. OEMs can configure the FirstLogonCommand attribute in the Unattend.xml file. However. thus saving power. Servers without local storage that each consume less power Additional Power Saving Features Windows Storage Server includes Intelligent Timer Tick Distribution (or Tick Skipping). as well as your physical systems. creating LUNs. other processors are signaled only as necessary.35 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 6. with C3 set as the deepest-sleep state and C0 as the operating state) by not activating the CPU unnecessarily. This feature extends processor idle or deep C-states (processor sleep states within the ACPI specification.

some configuration is required to identify the appliance to other computing resources on your network. For more information. features. For more information. and managing all roles installed on the server. displaying server status. Group Policy provides an infrastructure for centralized configuration management of Windows Storage Server. Then you connect to Windows Storage Server using the Microsoft ActiveX® control included in Remote Desktop Client version 6. which opens immediately after the operating system installation is complete. You can run RSAT on 32-bit or 64-bit Windows operating systems. and you also can use it to manage 32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server. For more information about Server Manager. and customize the appliance by adding server roles and features.  Remote Desktop Services Web Connection.  Management of Web services workloads. Description of Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows 7. Management Tools for All Workloads Windows Storage Server supports the following tools. see Windows Server Initial Configuration Tasks. Server Manager in Windows Storage Server provides a single source for managing a server's identity and system information. You can use Group Policy on any Windows Storage Server appliance that is a member of an Active Directory domain. enable administrators to perform tasks on the appliance.  Microsoft Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT). see Terminal Services in Windows Server 2008. For more information about RSAT. identifying problems with server role configuration.  Management of Print services workloads. . and the feature uses the remote desktop protocol (RDP) to communicate with Windows Storage Server. You make the initial connection to Windows Storage Server using Internet Explorer and the Terminal Services Web Access Web site. and the applications and services running on Windows Storage Server. see Server Manager. and technologies for managing all workloads:  Initial Configuration Tasks window.  Management of power consumption for all workloads.  Management of file services workloads. see Description of Windows Server 2008 Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows Vista Service Pack 1.36 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing Windows Storage Server You can manage Windows Storage Server using the management features in each of the following areas:  Management tools for all workloads.1 and later versions. and Remote Server Administration Tools Pack. and before deploying the new appliance in your enterprise. You can complete these tasks by using commands in the Initial Configuration Tasks window. This feature requires only Internet Explorer to be installed on the computer used to manage Windows Storage Server. secure the appliance.  Remote Desktop Services Connection. RSAT allows you to remotely manage roles and features in Windows Storage Server from a computer running Windows Vista SP1 or a later Windows operating system. see Group Policy.  Management of iSCSI block I/O workloads.  Server Manager. see Terminal Services Web Access (TS Web Access). You can remotely manage Windows Storage Server using the Remote Desktop Connection feature. For more information about the Initial Configuration Tasks window. After installing Windows Storage Server.  Group Policy. For more information. This feature requires the Remote Desktop Client to be installed on the computer used to manage Windows Storage Server.

providing a powerful and convenient way to capture and report information about power consumption. and budget energy usage for individual servers and across the entire server environment. Windows Storage Server provides a new power namespace. VDS. including an improved user interface. which enables code and scripts to query power data on compliant systems. Remote Manageability of Power Policy Key in Windows Storage Server is the greatly enhanced ability to measure. and the applications and services that run on Windows Storage Server. Windows PowerShell is built on the Microsoft . or management tools in a manner that is compliant with the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) management profiles. Power metering and budgeting in Windows Storage Server require no additional drivers or hardware changes. providing them with the data they need to make informed and timely power management decisions. Microsoft is pursuing an ACPI standards-based approach to the features that provide these capabilities. only hardware platform support. or the Share and Storage Management console. You can use any Telnet client to create a remote command console session on a Windows Storage Server appliance. IT workers responsible for power management can control power policies and receive power condition events. You can manage storage with VDS hardware providers using VDS-enabled management tools. which provide the ability to manage Group Policy from the Windows PowerShell command line and to run Windows PowerShell scripts during logon and startup. and scripts in the remote command console session. Windows PowerShell is a task-based command-line shell and scripting language designed especially for system administration. scripts. the infrastructure for management data and operations on Windows-based operating systems. exposes the data that is gathered to users. ensuring interoperability across the entire IT environment. For more information. For centralized power policy management. see Telnet. WMI. additional policy settings.37 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper    Windows PowerShell. Diskraid command-line tool. You can run command-line programs. For more information. Microsoft storage partners develop VDS hardware providers that allow management of their storage solutions. both locally and remotely across the enterprise. Telnet. both locally and remotely. and in turn making power consumption data an actionable metric. You can perform disk management for any of the workloads using VDSenabled management tools.NET Framework and is designed to help you automate the administration of Windows Storage Server. . root\cimv2\power. Windows Storage Server supports the configuration of power policy. such as the Diskpart command-line tool. manage. Storage Manager for SANs snap-in. just as if you were locally logged on to the host and using a local command prompt. there are new features in Group Policy for Windows Storage Server. see Windows PowerShell. This is useful for IT administrators who use WMI queries in scripts to monitor and administer their infrastructure. In conjunction with server OEMs. Managing Power Consumption for All Workloads Windows Storage Server also helps you better measure and manage power consumption. through Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). A vast library of existing Windows PowerShell scripts reduces the effort and learning curve for using Windows PowerShell to automate administrative tasks. and Windows PowerShell™ cmdlets for Group Policy.

Managing Disk Usage Quotas. and the files themselves.  Single Instance Storage management tools. and generate comprehensive storage reports. You can create and apply quota templates with standard quota properties. Managing File Services Using File Server Resource Manager File Server Resource Manager is a suite of tools in Windows Storage Server that enables you to place storage limits on volumes and folders. or caps. and this means power data can be queried by Microsoft System Center and other management tools to budget and monitor power usage across the entire IT environment. it also aids in the planning and implementation of future changes to the storage infrastructure. the workloads of underutilized servers can be consolidated onto a smaller number of better-utilized physical machines using live migration (the ability to move virtual machines between servers with virtually no downtime) with Hyper-V. File Server Resource Manager not only helps you efficiently control and monitor existing storage resources from a central location. prevent users from saving specific file types to the server. and can configure the system so that it automatically takes action when the budget is exceeded. The WMI namespace additions for power meters and supplies mean that the user mode power service can provide data to the WMI namespace. Now that power consumption is measurable. . An administrator can set power budgets for the servers and the system. the IT administrator can write a script or use Microsoft® System Center to centrally collect and monitor power consumption data across the datacenter. it becomes an actionable metric for IT staff when appropriate hardware support is available.38 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting The new power features introduce new opportunities for managing power consumption. Another set of metrics can be used for virtualization and consolidation. Based on the information gathered. or in a more likely scenario.  DFS management tools. Managing File Services Workloads Managing file services workloads includes managing disk volumes.  Share and Storage Management. The server platform reports information in-band to the Windows Storage Server through the use of ACPI. Set soft or hard space limits on a volume or folder tree. on datacenter components as small as a single server). An administrator can use the performance monitor on a server to view the moment-bymoment power consumption. Fewer physical machines can lead to reduced costs through lower hardware and energy costs and through reduced management overhead. Unauthorized File Types. You manage file services workloads running on Windows Storage Server by using:  File Server Resource Manager. the folder structure to store the files. Microsoft recommends a collaborative model between the server platform and the operating system for power metering and budgeting (the process that lets administrators set power limits. you can perform three tasks to manage storage resources on local or remote servers:  Quota management. and Storage Reports With the File Server Resource Manager snap-in.

The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to establish policies for classifying files and then performing common administrative tasks based on the classification. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to identify files that:  Contain sensitive information on servers with lower security to move the files to servers with higher security. the user storing the files is the only individual who has any knowledge of the information stored in the files and other characteristics about the files. you cannot rely on the user to properly determine the proper classification of information.  Are not accessed frequently to move the files to slower. but is covered separately in the “Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure” section in this white paper. Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure Managing data stored on file services is usually challenging because of the sheer number of files being stored on network shared folders.  Notify content owners when a file management task is going to be performed on their content. or through a command-line interface.  Storage reports management.  Contain sensitive information to encrypt those files. Even with this knowledge. and other common IT operations tasks. You need to be able to centrally categorize these files and then perform IT file operations based on the classification of the files.  Create or purchase custom file management solutions based on the Windows File Classification Infrastructure. Because users store files on a network shared with little or no restrictions. see File Server Resource Manager.  Require different backup schedules to back up the files accordingly. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to:  Centrally define policy-based classification of the files stored in your intranet. and mitigate risks. data archival schedule.  Generate reports about the types of information stored in the files in your intranet. Define filtering rules that monitor or block attempts by users to save certain file types on a volume or folder tree. rather than on only simple information such as the location. file screening activity. more affordable storage solutions. size. You can create and apply screening templates with standard file exclusions. The File Classification Infrastructure feature is also managed with the File Services Resource Manager snap-in.  Require different backup solutions based on the sensitivity of the information in the files. For more information. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure in Windows Storage Server provides insight into your data to help you manage your data more effectively.39 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  File screening management.  Perform file management tasks based on the file classification that you define.  Are no longer essential to automatically remove the files from servers. Generate built-in reports to track quota usage. such as sensitivity or criticality of the information in them. reduce costs. and patterns of storage use. or date of the file. Policy-based Classification of Files One of the key advantages to the Windows File Classification Infrastructure is the ability to centrally manage the classification of the files by establishing classification policies . You can also apply quota and file screening policies when you provision a shared folder.

The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to automate any file management task by using the file classifications you establish for your organization. File Management Tasks The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to perform file management tasks based on the classifications that you define using the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. For example. You can also select the method for notification based on the type of file management task being performed. You can choose to overwrite existing classification values. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to:  Define classification properties and values. And the extensible nature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to integrate with existing messaging systems or information portals.  Create. numbered. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to generate reports in multiple formats that can provide statistical information about the files stored on each file server. File Owner Notification of File Management Tasks Another feature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure that reduces your administrative effort is the ability to send notifications to content owners when an automated file management task runs. the content owners can be notified in advance and given the opportunity to prevent the files from being archived or deleted. Each rule assigns a single predefined property and value to files within a specified directory. For example. Property types can include Boolean. there is minimal information that can be used to help identify the usage of the files. optionally re-evaluate files that are already classified. which can be assigned to files on a per-server basis by running classification rules. location or other classification categories. You can automatically delete data by using policies based on data age or classification properties to free valuable storage space and intelligently reduce storage demand growth.  When running a classification rule. ordered lists. and string values. Reporting on Information Stored in Files Most IT organizations have no easy method of providing information about the types of files that are stored and managed. You can use the reporting infrastructure to generate information that can be used by another application (such as a comma separated variable format text file that could be imported into Microsoft® Excel®). including:  Grooming of data. the sensitivity of the files. and run classification rules. Execute custom commands based on age.40 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper using the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. date. when files become old enough to be automatically expired. and other relevant information about the files. or add the value to properties that support multiple values. based on installed classification plug-ins. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to help you perform common file management tasks. Without classification of the files. Improved Development of File Management Tasks You can extend the file management features of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure by creating your own custom file management solution or purchasing a file management solution from an independent software vendor. This centralized approach allows you to classify user files without requiring their intervention. The architecture of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows the use of any supported development .  Custom Tasks. IT administrators are able to automatically move data based on policies for either centralizing the location of sensitive data or for moving data to a less expensive storage resource. update.

 Specify the network sharing protocol used to access the shared resource.41 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper environments for Windows Storage Server including Windows PowerShell and Microsoft Visual Basic® Scripting Edition (VBScript). such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider. You can perform the following tasks using this tool:  Extend the size of a volume. you could write Windows PowerShell scripts to manage files based on the classifications you define for your organization.  Format a volume. apply storage quotas to the new shared resource.  Manage the share access permissions.  Manage the local NTFS permissions for the folder or volume you will be sharing. The technologies in DFS include the following:  DFS Namespaces.  See which users are currently accessing a folder or a file and disconnect a user if necessary. You can manage storage on disks available on your server. This architecture allows you to select the level of programming sophistication required to automate your file management tasks. which can be installed and configured for use in Windows Storage Server. You can configure shared folders for SMB or NFS protocols and DFS settings using Share and Storage Management. defragmentation. and create file screens to limit the type of files that can be stored in it.  Delete a volume. For more information about Share and Storage Management. Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication The Distributed File System (DFS) technologies offer wide area network (WAN)-friendly replication as well as simplified. and backup. You can perform the following tasks using this tool:  Specify the folder or volume that you want to share or create a new folder to share. and offline access to files in the shared resource. security. Each namespace appears to users as a single shared folder with a series of subfolders.  Stop the sharing of a folder or volume. Managing File Services Using Share and Storage Management Share and Storage Management in Windows Storage Server provides a centralized location for you to perform:  Shared resource management. For example.  Manage NFS-based access permissions for the shared resource.  Publish the shared resource to a DFS namespace.  Multi-vendor storage management. see Overview of Share and Storage Management.  Access disk tools for error checking. highly-available access to geographically dispersed files. user limits.  Change volume properties like compression. This structure .  If File Server Resource Manager is installed. DFS Namespaces lets you group shared folders located on different servers into one or more logically structured namespaces. Each vendor supplies the VDS Hardware Provider. offline availability and indexing. or on storage subsystems that have a VDS Hardware Provider using Share and Storage Management.

which replaces the File Replication Service (FRS) as the replication engine for DFS Namespaces. RDC is a "diff-over-the wire" client-server protocol that can be used to efficiently update files over a limited-bandwidth network. removals. when available.  The following command line tools:  DfsUtil. see Replication. DFS Replication is an efficient. see DFS Management.  Read-only DFS Replication. For more information about:  DFS. such as in Branch office locations.exe  DfsrDiag. This can greatly reduce the amount of traffic transferred over limited-bandwidth networks." later in this white paper. see the section "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. RDC detects insertions.  For more information about DFS Replication. For more information. .  DFS Replication. and re-arrangements of data in files. and the data is not replicated back to the head office. enabling DFS Replication to replicate only the changed file blocks when files are updated. you can use read-only DFS Replication to publish data from a head office to branch offices where users in the branch office should not change the data. For example. DFS Replication uses a new compression algorithm known as remote differential compression (RDC).exe You also can use DFS to replicate files and folders in geographically dispersed environments so that users have a local copy of the files and folders. Read-only DFS Replication is a secure method for replicating data where read-only access is required to the data.exe  DfsDiag. see Distributed File System.42 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper increases availability and automatically connects users to shared folders in the same AD DS site.  Using DFS to replicate file services workloads for disaster recovery scenarios.  Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication. In addition.exe  DfsCmd. you can replicate files and folders to another location using DFS for disaster recovery scenarios. instead of routing them over WAN connections. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Securing File Services Workloads”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” You can manage DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication using the:  The DFS Management snap-in hosted by Server Manager.exe  DfsrAdmin. as well as AD DS SYSVOL folder replication in domains that use the Windows Server 2008 domain functional level. multiple-master replication engine that you can use to keep folders synchronized between servers across limited bandwidth network connections.  The DFS Management snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder.

43 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing Single Instance Storage The Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server reduces the amount of space used to store data on a volume. see Single Instance Storage.  Managing Single Instance Storage using Sisadmin. For more information about:  The Single Instance Storage feature. Supports boot drives. WMI support. Support backup of single instance of file using Single Instance Storage APIs in sisbkup. You can also automate the administration of Single Instance Storage using Windows PowerShell scripting or any other scripting language that supports WMI. Table 12. Requires volumes to be formatted as NTFS. which is a hidden folder located in the root directory of the volume. Single Instance Storage does this by replacing duplicate files with logical links that point to a single copy of the file in the SIS Common Store. The Groveler service scans the hard-disk volumes on a server for duplicate copies of files. but the primary administration tool for this feature is Sisadmin.  Single Instance Storage Filter. Supports replication of files using DFS Replication. The Groveler service runs in user-mode. Single Instance Storage Feature Specifications in Windows Storage Server Specification Maximum number of volumes per appliance. Minimum file size supported. see Managing SIS Using SisAdmin. Identifying Single Instance Storage Architecture Single Instance Storage consists of the following components that together maintain a database of file signatures:  Groveler service. Identifying Single Instance Storage Specifications Table 12 lists the specifications for the Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server. The Single Instance Storage Filter runs in kernel mode. The Groveler discovers duplicate files and initiates the deduplication of files. Supports remote drives. Ability to undo single instancing of files. Support files with extended attributes. Failover cluster support. Identifying Single Instance Storage Management Tools You can enable or disable Single Instance Storage on a volume through the Share and Storage Management console.exe.dll.exe.exe. The Single Instance Storage Filter is a file system filter service that redirects reads to the common store and performs the replacement of file pointers when users start changing a duplicate file. Value 128 Yes Yes Yes 32 KB Yes Yes No No No No Yes . Supports system drives.

and connections to storage arrays. Displays a SIS summary report for each volume. Get-SisVolumeReport. Enables SIS on a volume.  Percentage of the volume saved. Uninstall-SisVolume. In this scenario.  Number of files in the SIS Common Store. Disables SIS on a volume. You can manage iSCSI block I/O workloads running on Windows Storage Server for the following components:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator . In this scenario.44 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Typical Reduction in Storage Usage Using Single Instance Storage The extent to which the Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server can help reduce storage usage depends on the number of duplicate files stored on the appliance. Windows PowerShell Cmdlets for Managing Single Instance storage Category SIS linked files SIS disk volumes Cmdlet and description         Get-SisLinkFile. Lists all the volumes that have SIS installed enabled. including the:  Spaced saved. Installs SIS on a volume. Set-SisVolume. see Single Instance Storage Cmdlets in Windows PowerShell. IT organizations typically realize storage savings that average from 10 percent to 30 percent. Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell You can manage the Single Instance Storage feature using the SingleInstanceStorage module. IT organizations typically realize storage savings of more than 50 percent. build and release provides the largest reduction of storage usage. For files in a software development environment. which is included in Windows Storage Server. Returns a list of all the linked files and the corresponding filename in the SIS Common Store. Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The types of management tasks for disk block I/O workload include managing iSCSI targets. Table 14 lists the Windows PowerShell cmdlets included in the SingleInstanceStorage module and provides a brief description of each cmdlet. For more information about managing the Single Instance Storage feature using Windows PowerShell. virtual disks. Files stored in user home folders provide the most typical scenario where the larger reduction of storage usage is realized. Configures SIS after it has been installed on a volume. Get-SisVolume. This will cause all linked files to revert to the original file stored in the SIS common store. Enable-SisVolume. Install-SisVolume. Disable-SisVolume. Uninstalls SIS from a volume. Table 13.  Number of linked files.

Virtual disk snapshots are point-in-time copies of virtual disks that you can use to back up active virtual disks for disaster recover scenarios or to restore a LUN to a previous state.45 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target feature allows Windows Storage Server appliances to act as an iSCSI target. "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for VSS and VDS Providers" in this white paper.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. For more information about using virtual disk snapshots for backup and in disaster recovery scenarios. For more information about managing Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI block I/O workloads. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. An iSCSI target can manage multiple virtual disks.3 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator enables you to connect Windows operating systems to an external iSCSI-based storage array. Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Snap-in Typical tasks that you use the Microsoft iSCSI Target snap-in to perform include managing:  iSCSI targets. The most typical reason for assigning multiple iSCSI initiators to the same iSCSI target is for shared storage in failover clusters.  Virtual disks.  Virtual disk snapshots. see Overview of Share and Storage Management. see:  Configuring the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Typically. there is a potential for conflict between the computers running the iSCSI initiators. If you assign multiple iSCSI initiators to the same iSCSI target. Virtual disks are the LUNs that the computer running an iSCSI initiator uses. You can manage this feature by using the:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. iSCSI targets are the logical endpoint to which an iSCSI initiator connects. you assign just one iSCSI initiator to each iSCSI target. see the previous section. see the section "Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect iSCSI Block I/O Workload Data. You manage virtual disks using the iSCSI Targets node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. through an Ethernet network adapter." later in this white paper. All current Windows operating systems support the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Using Share and Storage Management Console You can manage storage on the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using Share and Storage Management. For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider. and the most current version of the . You manage virtual disks using the Snapshots node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target includes the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider that allows LUNs on Windows Storage Server to be managed by any application that uses VDS. such as Share and Storage Management.  Share and Storage Management console. but a virtual disk can only be managed by one iSCSI target. You manage iSCSI targets using the iSCSI Targets node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. For more information about Share and Storage Management.

Creates a new iSCSI virtual hard disk (VHD) object with the specified file path and size. and then a virtual disk can be associated with the target. Afterwards. Remove-IscsiServerTarget. the virtual disk can be assigned to an iSCSI target.46 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator is version 2.    Virtual disk management     . Modifies the settings for the virtual disk and returns the corresponding iSCSI virtual disk object if the PassThru parameter is specified.08. An iSCSI initiator cannot access the VHD or LUN after the target is deleted. Table 14 lists the Windows PowerShell cmdlets included in the MicrosoftIscsiTarget module and provides a brief description of each cmdlet. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Storage Server allows the server software to connect to other external iSCSIbased storage arrays. Table 14. such as those described in the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration. the iSCSI target can be assigned to an iSCSI initiator. Deletes the iSCSI virtual disk object." later in the white paper. Get-IscsiServerTarget. which is included in Windows Storage Server. Deletes an iSCSI target object. Get-IscsiVirtualDisk. The VHD file is not deleted. see the Microsoft iSCSI Initiator Step-by-Step Guide. Remove-IscsiVirtualDisk. Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell You can manage the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Set-IscsiServerTarget. Obtains the iSCSI targets and their associated properties from the local server or specified computer.  iSCSI Control Panel configuration utility (iSCSICPL. For more information about managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator.exe). You can manage the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator by using the:  Graphical user interface in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator.exe tool from a command line. an iSCSI initiator can access the virtual disk after the initiator connects to the target.3 Category iSCSI target management Cmdlet and description  New-IscsiServerTarget Creates a new iSCSI target object with the specified name.3 using the MicrosoftIscsiTarget module. Once a virtual disk has been assigned to a target. Afterwards. New-IscsiVirtualDisk. Windows PowerShell Cmdlets for Managing Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Version 3. Modifies settings for the iSCSi target and returns the corresponding iSCSI target object if the PassThru parameter is specified.  iSCSICLI. Set-IscsiVirtualDisk. Obtains the iSCSI virtual disks and their associated properties.

an iSCSI initiator can access the virtual disk after the initiator connects to the target. or application remotely by using HTTP.3.  Delegate site and application configuration to nonadministrators.Appcmd. For example.NET in one tool. see IIS Manager (IIS 7). Table 15. The virtual disk will be no longer accessible by an iSCSI initiator once the assignment is removed. The management tools available for managing IIS 7. Removes the assignment between a virtual disk and iSCSI target. which lets you:  Manage IIS and ASP. For more information. see Appcmd.0 tools to manage FTP sites.exe. Assigns a virtual disk to an iSCSI target. Tools for Managing Web Services Workloads in Windows Storage Server Tool Internet Information Services Manager snap-in Description You can manage IIS 7 using the Internet Information Services Manager snap-in.  Configure user and role authorization for sites and applications. .0. you can complete complex tasks like stopping all sites with pending requests that have been running longer than sixty seconds. All the virtual disks assigned to the same iSCSI target will be accessible by the connected iSCSI initiator.0.exe to configure and query objects on your web server.3 using Windows PowerShell.  View health and diagnostic information that includes the ability to view currently running requests in real time.  Connect to a web server. which provides consistent commands for common queries and configuration tasks. see PowerShell cmdlets for the Microsoft iSCSI Target 3. Remove-VirtualDiskTargetMapping. site. Appcmd. and to return output in text or you can use XML. Managing Web Services Workloads Web services workloads in Windows Storage Server can be managed by any of the management methods available for IIS 7.47 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Category LUN management Cmdlet and description  Add-VirtualDiskTargetMapping. For more information. you can combine commands to return more complex data about objects on your web server or to perform tasks that are more complex. are listed in Table 15.  For more information about managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. reducing the complexity of learning syntax. In addition. and for managing Web services workloads.exe. Once a virtual disk has been assigned to a target. Note You cannot use IIS Manager to manage FTP sites in IIS 7 on Windows Storage Server.exe You can manage IIS 7 using the command-line tool Appcmd. Use IIS 6.

In addition. By blocking specific HTTP requests. These enhancements include updates to:  Configuration Editor. The Windows PowerShell Provider for IIS is a Windows PowerShell snap-in that allows you to perform IIS administrative tasks. Developers are able to service HTTP requests directly in their applications by using the hostable Web core feature. such as Windows PowerShell. Available through a set of APIs.1.  IIS Manager UI extensions.NET applications or adding and editing request filtering rules through a graphical user interface. and their associated objects and properties using any scripting language that supports WMI. Windows Storage Server allows domain-based service accounts to have passwords that are managed by AD DS. Utilizing the extensible and modular architecture introduced with IIS 7. The IIS 7 WMI provider namespace. Allows you to manage any configuration section available in the configuration system.config file.NET module allows management of authorization and custom error settings.5 supports the use of managed service accounts for application pool identities. unless they have been locked to prevent changes. for example. This module includes the filtering features previously found in URLScan 3. For more information. support. These new type of accounts reduce the recurrent administrative task of having to update passwords on processes running with these accounts. the new IIS 7. and troubleshooting effort:  Automation of common tasks through the PowerShell provider.config files for sites.  Hostable Web Core. New features have been added to IIS Manager for the 7. For more information. the server administrator is the only user who has permission to view and edit the ApplicationHost. the Request Filter module helps prevent potentially harmful requests from being processed by Web applications on the server. web applications and web servers.config file and can also be distributed among Web. and directories. By default. WebAdministration.  Request Filtering. and manage IIS configuration and run-time data. The Request Filtering user interface provides a graphical user interface for configuring the Request Filtering module. allowing those apps to service HTTP requests directly. see Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) in IIS 7. Configuration Editor exposes several configuration settings that are not exposed elsewhere in IIS Manager. IIS 7. The hostable . contains classes and methods that enable you to script administration of websites.  Enhancements to IIS Manager. IIS configuration is stored in the ApplicationHost. You can use WMI to build scripts for web administration.5 release that make it possible to manage obscure settings such as those used for FastCGI and ASP. applications. Settings configured at one level are inherited automatically by lower levels. The FastCGI module.48 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Tool Configuration store Description You can manage IIS 7 using the XML-based configuration store that is modeled after the ASP.0.  Managed service accounts.5 integrates and enhances existing extensions and allows for further enhancements and customizations in the future. Scripts using WMI Windows Storage Server includes the following features which help reduce administration. this feature lets the core IIS Web engine to be consumed or hosted by other applications. see Configuration Store (IIS 7). web applications. a collection of task-oriented cmdlets provide a simple way to manage websites.NET configuration. allows management of FastCGI settings while the ASP.

Table 16. You can access the BPA through Server Manager and Windows PowerShell. file creations and more.5 and application configuration. use the PushPrinterConnections. The BPA for IIS 7.5 provides enhanced auditing of changes to IIS and application configuration. optional role services. PHP developers can use the FastCGI module to include IIS trace calls in their applications. Server Manager also displays print-related events from Event Viewer and includes an instance of the Print Management snap-in. Failed Request Tracing for FastCGI. In IIS 7. and features. see the Print Management Step-by-Step Guide. This reduces the effort required for debugging code during development and troubleshooting application errors after deployment by using IIS Failed Request Tracing. Managing Print Services Workloads The Print services workloads in Windows Storage Server that the Print Server role provides can be managed by using the tools listed in Table 16. On printers that provide a web-based management interface. Use Print Management to install printer connections to a group of client computers simultaneously and to monitor print queues remotely. which allows you to track the configuration changes made to your test and production environments. Use Print Management with Group Policy to automatically deploy printer connections to users or computers and install the appropriate printer drivers for computers running Windows Vista and later Windows operating systems. Print Management can display more data. see Server Manager and the Print Services Role. changes to path mappings. Best Practices Analyzer (BPA). see the Print Management Step-by-Step Guide. The new Configuration Logging feature in IIS 7.5. For Windows operating systems prior to Windows Vista.49 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper    Web core feature is useful for enabling basic Web server capabilities for custom applications or for debugging applications. For more information.5 Web server and reporting on potential configuration issues found. as well as logon attempts. Tools for Managing Print Services Workloads in Windows Storage Server Tool Server Manager Description Use Server Manager to install the Print Services server role. such as toner and paper levels. Print Management can also help you find printers that have an error condition by using filters.exe tool in a startup script (for percomputer connections) or in a logon script (for per-user connections). For more information.5 is a management tool that can help you reduce best practice violations by scanning an IIS 7. For more information. It can also send email notifications or run scripts when a printer or print server needs attention. This provides logging of both reads and writes. Enhanced auditing of changes to IIS 7. Print Management snap-in Group Policy . which can administer the local server only. The Print Management snap-in provides current details about the status of printers and print servers on the network.

printer ports. and then import them on another print server that is running a Windows operating system. Use Windows PowerShell to manage print services workloads. Printbrm. see the Print Migration Tool. For more information about using Windows PowerShell to manage print services workloads.50 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Tool Printer Migration Wizard Description The Printer Migration Wizard allows you to export print queues. printer settings. For more information. This is an efficient way to consolidate multiple print servers or replace an older print server. Provides the same features and functionality as the Printer Migration Wizard. and language monitors.exe command-line tool Windows PowerShell . see Printer Management Using PowerShell.

.  Perform backups of applications like SQL Server to protect application data using VSS functionality. tools. You cannot perform backups to tape.  Does not include the ability to e-mail or provide notification of the backup status report. certain applications. helps protect the data managed by Windows Storage Server. which will restore your complete system onto the new hard disk by using a full server backup and the Windows Recovery Environment. DVDs.  The LUN resynchronization capabilities. files. and technologies.  The Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature. you can use most backup and disaster recovery products offered by Microsoft partners for Windows Server 2008 to protect data managed by Windows Storage Server. Note In addition to the products and technologies discussed in this section. and the system state.  The DFS Replication feature.  The Appcmd.exe tool to backup IIS configuration.  The PrintBRM. Features and Limitations of Windows Server Backup Features Use Windows Server Backup to:  Back up a full server (all volumes). Table 17.exe tool to backup printer information. selected volumes. or the system state. and reduce the risk of potential data loss. support of tape storage drivers is still included in Windows Storage Server.  Cannot back up shared storage in a failover cluster if the storage is moved between active nodes. Table 17 lists the features and limitations of this feature.  Does not support a centralized monitoring ability for enterprise environments.  Can only back up volumes 2 terabyte or less in size. Using proper backup and disaster recovery processes.  The Automated System Recovery feature.  System Center Data Protection Manager. Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data The Windows Server Backup feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 consists of a MMC snap-in and command-line tools that provide a solution for backup and recovery requirements.  Recover volumes. However. You can protect the data managed by Windows Storage Server using:  The Windows Server Backup feature. which is available separately.51 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protecting Windows Storage Server Workload Data One of the essential aspects to ongoing operations of Windows Storage Server workloads is the ability to protect the data that the server software manages.  Perform a system recovery in case of disasters like hard disk failures.  The Volume Shadow Copy Service feature. Limitations Windows Server Backup has the following limitations:  Supports backing up only to external and internal disks. folders.  Does not implement a method of including media rotation strategies. and shared folders.

The Shadow Copies for Shared Folders features uses the Volume Shadow Copy Service to create the file copies. see the section "Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data. Note This default task can be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization.)  Compare versions of a file while working. If you accidentally overwrite a file. contact the appropriate Microsoft partner.  Recover from accidentally overwriting a file. (The number of versions depends on how many snapshots you have created. is useful because you can:  Recover files that were accidentally deleted. Monday through Friday. you can recover a previous version of the file. With Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. .52 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Features Limitations  Only supports backup of entire volumes (cannot be used to backup individual files and folders. If your backup and recovery requirements are affected by any of the limitations listed above. Shadow copies are read-only and as such you cannot edit the contents of a shadow copy. and 12:00 P.M. Accessing previous versions of files. For more information.M. You can use previous versions when you want to check what has changed between the versions of a file.  Backup and recovery solutions from Microsoft partners. Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data The Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature in Windows Storage Server is a feature in Windows Server that transparently maintains previous versions of files on selected volumes by using shadow copies.   The default storage area is on the same volume and its size requires 10 percent of the available space. For more information. see:  Shadow Copies for Shared Folders Technical Reference. or shadow copies. Shadow Copies of Shared Folders is enabled for an entire volume. you can open a previous version and copy it to a safe location.  Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. This feature allows a user to restore selective files or folders from previous versions without IT assistance. You cannot enable this feature for specific shared folders and files on a volume. Note For more information about the Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature.  Only supports backup of local volumes (cannot be used to backup network shared folders). the oldest shadow copy will be deleted and cannot be retrieved). It works by taking snapshots of an entire volume at particular points in time. There is a limit of 64 shadow copies per volume (when this limit is reached. If you accidentally delete a file." later in this white paper. you can view shared files and folders as they existed at points of time in the past. consider using:  System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. The default configuration for this feature is as follows:  A default task is scheduled to create shadow copies at 7:00 A.

The volume that contains the data to be shadow copied. A component that creates and maintains the shadow copies. or the Diskshadow command-line tool. Writer Provider Source volume Storage volume . such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. System Center Data Protection Manager. Figure 7 illustrates the architecture of the Volume Copy Shadow Service in Windows Storage Server." "Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. For example.53 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data The Volume Shadow Copy Service feature in Windows Storage Server provides the ability to take point-in-time snapshots of files and is the foundation for other applications or features." and "Virtual Disk Snapshots" in this white paper. Figure 7. Volume Shadow Copy Service Architecture Table 18 lists the components in the Volume Shadow Copy Service architecture and how the components relate to each other. A component of an application that stores persistent information on one or more volumes that participate in shadow copy synchronization. or a system service like Active Directory. and the hardware providers included with storage arrays. An application that requests that a volume shadow copy be taken. Components in the Volume Shadow Copy Architecture Component Volume Shadow Copy Service Requestor Description A service that coordinates various components to create consistent shadow copies of one or more volumes. the Windows Server Backup feature. this is a database application like SQL Server or Exchange Server. Shadow Copy of Shared Folders feature. This architecture allows the point-in-time snapshots of files stored in Windows Storage Server. Typically. Examples include the system provider included with the Windows Storage Server operating system. such as those in the sections about "Windows Server Backup. The volume that holds the shadow copy storage files for the system copy-on-write software provider. Table 18.

or copies. Typically takes less time than restoring by using traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service. see the "Hardware Providers" section of Virtual Disks and Snapshots. . which may contain multiple volumes. Traditional volume shadow copy service Recovers only a volume. Table 19. For more information about the:  Volume Shadow Copy Service.54 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper As described in Table 18 and illustrated in Figure 7. Table 19 lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and current features in Volume Shadow Copy Service. and then restore from those shadow copies. This allows you to create shadow copies of entire LUNs. LUN resynchronization creates hardware-based shadow copies that allow you to recover a volume from an existing shadow copy of the volume. or development environments. such as SANs. using the inherent snapshot or copying features in the storage array. of the virtual hard disks managed by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Performed by storage array hardware. LUN resynchronization is a method for quickly restoring volumes that takes advantage of the capabilities of storage arrays. Note You can use DiskShadow. see Volume Shadow Copy Service Technical Reference. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service LUN resynchronization Recovers entire LUN. the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider is required to create point-in-time snapshots. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service Window Server 2008 R2 LUN resynchronization support is an extension of the features provided by the Volume Shadow Copy Service in Windows Server 2008 R2. The Volume Shadow Copy Services uses the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider to create these snapshots. You can also use LUN resynchronization to help quickly create duplicates of productions LUNs for use in a storage environment for backup or in test.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. LUN resynchronization uses the same application programming interfaces (APIs) that are used by the Volume Shadow Copy Service.exe command-line tool to manage Volume Shadow Copy Services for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Typically takes more time than restoring by using LUN resynchronization. Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data Windows Server 2008 R2 includes support for LUN resynchronization (also known as LUN resynch or LUN revert). Performed by server computer.

Destination LUN does not have to exist or can be unusable. and any information written during the resynchronization. users can continue to access data on the volume while the synchronization is being performed. Must create another shadow copy to perform recovery. Although there may be a reduction in performance. Destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN. This allows the server to continue processing other workloads with the same performance while the LUN resynchronization process completes. Because LUN resynchronization uses published. Contains only the information on the source LUN.  Integration with existing volume recovery methods. After the recovery of a volume using LUN resynchronization is initiated. This helps ensure that you can use the same tools and processes for a traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service recovery. LUN swap Source (shadow copy) LUN becomes the active LUN and is modified. a shadow copy version of a LUN is exchanged with the active LUN. Source LUN can exist on slower. supported APIs in Windows Server 2008 R2. The APIs used to perform LUN resynchronization are the same APIs that perform a traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service recovery. future versions of Windows Server will also provide support for LUN resynchronization.  Reduce the workload while recovering volumes. Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization The benefits of LUN resynchronization include the following:  Perform recovery of volumes with minimal disruption of service. Requires that the destination LUN exists and is usable. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap LUN resynchronization Source (shadow copy) LUN remains unmodified after the resynchronization completes. users and applications are still able to access their data. Table 20 lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and a LUN swap. In a LUN swap. . the server hardware resources are only minimally affected. The source LUN is the shadow copy of the LUN that contains the data you wish to use. Because the hardware storage array is performing the resynchronization.55 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap LUN swap is a fast volume recovery scenario supported since the release of Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1). Table 20. The destination LUN is the target LUN that will be synchronized or swapped with the source LUN.  Compatibility with future improvements. less expensive storage. Source LUN can be used for recovery again. Source LUN must have the same performance as the production LUN.

volume requests are directed to the destination LUN. users can access the volume using the following methods:  For read operations. For example. The source and destination LUNs are identified. 4. The LUN resynchronization continues by performing a block-level copy from the source (shadow copy) LUN to the destination LUN. In the event of system failure. this backup set is used with the ASR restore CD (which contains the necessary software and drivers to allow the restore) to rapidly restore all system setup information. Restoring the base operating system plus the backup application (the minimum required to restore backed up applications and data) is a time intensive process. Using DFS Replication to Protect Data DFS Replication can be used as part of a centralized backup solution. nothing remains but the bare metal.56 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization Before you can perform a full volume recovery using LUN synchronization. You can make full or differential shadow copies of the LUN. ASR is tightly integrated with VSS. plus any data that was written to the destination LUN during the LUN resynchronization process. With the Automated System Recovery (ASR) technology in Windows Storage Server. the source LUN is unmodified and the destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN. you can use this method in branch office scenarios to create replica copies of data in the branch offices in the head office and then back up the data in the head office. 5. Note At the end of the LUN resynchronization process. You can use DFS Replication to create replica copies of data in a centralized location and then back up the replica copies. 3. it does nothing to protect system software stored on the hard drive.  For write operations. a system administrator prepares for such a disaster by saving to physical media a complete backup set of information about the how the server was configured. see the section "Creating Branch Office Solutions" later in this white paper. The following includes the sequence of events that occur when performing a full volume restore using LUN synchronization: 1. you need to have a hardware shadow copy (snapshot) of the LUN. volume requests are directed to the source LUN. including any volume information. system files. The LUN resynchronization completes and all user requests are now performed from the destination LUN. because that information is not copied during the backup process. During the LUN resynchronization. The LUN resynchronization is initiated between the source (shadow copy) and the destination LUNs. and disk partition information. For more information about DFS Replication in branch office scenarios for data protection. Using Automated System Recovery to Protect Data While backing up data to tape protects mission critical data from catastrophic events. such as fire or electrical surges. . 2. and in the Windows Software Development Kit (SDK) for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. A critically damaged hard drive will lose all critical registry information. You can find more information about how these steps are performed by viewing the Volume Shadow Copy Service APIs on MSDN®.

Snapshots are useful for backups.57 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper ASR provides a VSS Writer for the preparation of an ASR set. Data Protection Manager 2007 was specifically designed to protect and recover files services for SQL Server. This change removes a previous problem in which dynamic disks were always recreated even if a restoration was not necessary. or data corruption resulting from a malicious program. Data Protection Manager 2007 enables IT administrators and users to easily recover data in minutes from easily accessible disk instead of locating and restoring from less-reliable tapes. Focused on the primary Microsoft server workloads. A snapshot is a point-in-time. overwritten data. read-only copy of an iSCSI virtual disk. These virtual disks offer flexible and effective storage.  Snapshots are useful for fast system recovery of files and volumes.  Advanced technology for enterprises of all sizes. During a restore operation the ASR VSS writer is executed within the Windows PE environment. and Windows Server operating systems. which are files in the fixed virtual hard disk (VHD) format. and one-click lossless application recovery. Data Protection Manager 2007 provides technically advanced and comprehensive data protection for organizations ranging in size from small business environments to enterprise environments. Data Protection Manager 2007 blends the best aspects of continuous data protection (CDP) to disk storage with traditional tape backup. Microsoft Virtual Server. providing an easy-to-manage and robust disk/tape back-end platform. For more information about System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. minimize the time required to create disks. Data Protection Manager 2007 includes the following benefits:  Continuous data protection for Windows application and file services workloads. Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 is designed to provide and restore Windows Server applications. They can be extended to provide extra capacity on demand. Exchange Server.  Snapshots are space-efficient because they are differential copies. which recreates all critical volumes and restores the required data. a version of Windows PE that contains numerous troubleshooting and system resolution utilities. you can schedule and create snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks. Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect Data The disks you create by using the iSCSI Software Target are iSCSI virtual disks. enable efficient storage utilization.  Rapid and reliable recovery. Data Protection Manager 2007 combines the best aspects of CDP real-time protection with traditional tape backup/restore to provide a comprehensive disk-to-disk-to-tape data recovery solution. Windows 2008 also provides the Recovery Console that utilizes the Windows Recovery Environment (Windows RE). To facilitate backup and recovery operations. In addition. Finally. in case of accidental data deletion by a user. . Data Protection Manager 2007 protects core Windows Server workloads by continuously capturing data changes with application-aware byte-level agents. in addition to supporting dynamic disks. ASR has been enhanced to support EFI system partitions. see System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. They offer the following advantages:  Snapshots can be scheduled to be created automatically. SharePoint® Portal Server. Combined with Windows Server technology. and minimize the down time that is typically required to install new disks.

you need to use backup software that works with Volume Shadow Copy Service from a Microsoft partner. see the previous section "Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data. To perform backups of the virtual disks.exe Tool to Backup Printer Information You can protect data managed by Print services workloads using the PrintBRM. Virtual disk snapshots require the Volume Shadow Copy Service and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider. the snapshot must be created from the iSCSI initiator computer by using the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider and other backup software that works with the Volume Shadow Copy Service. For more information about the Appcmd. You can back up the configuration files for IIS 7. see Virtual Disks and Snapshots. For more information about:  Virtual disks and virtual disk snapshots. For example. Table 21. Note Snapshots that are created on the iSCSI target server are crash consistent. Using the Appcmd. see How to backup/restore IIS7 configuration. so application servers can continue servicing clients without disruption.  The Volume Shadow Copy Service. Snapshots do not require that you close files or stop programs when you create them. Table 21 lists scenarios for using virtual disk snapshots.exe Tool to Backup IIS Configuration You can protect data managed by Web services workloads using the Appcmd. . Uses for Virtual Disk Snapshots Scenario Provide disaster recovery Create a restore point Use of the virtual disk snapshots The snapshots can be saved to other appliances.0 using this tool. The snapshot can be used to provide the ability to rollback services to a previous version." in this white paper. you could create snapshots prior to performing an upgrade to provide the ability to roll back the environment should the upgrade fail. see Migrate Print Servers. The PrintBRM.58 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper   Snapshots can be mounted locally or exported to facilitate backup and recovery operations. For more information.exe tool in Windows Storage Server. Most modern file systems can recover from this state. Using the PrintBRM. To create an application-consistent snapshot.exe tool in Windows Storage Server.exe tool. servers. or archival media and then later used to restore the data in the event of a failure.exe tool allows you to export printer information on a periodic basis as a way of backing up a print server.

included in Windows Storage Server. These security measures can be implemented. and is used for accessing all workloads. This is especially important for Branch Office scenarios where the physical security may not be as strong as in a data center. access to files and folders are defined by the combination of NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions. Table 22 lists the features or technologies that you can use to secure Windows Storage Server. regardless of the workloads running on Windows Storage Server. NTFS permissions NTFS permissions. see the section "NTFS Permissions" in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. For more information. This encryption helps protect the data by preventing unauthorized users from breaking Windows file and system protection on lost.59 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Securing Windows Storage Server Workloads Windows Storage Server includes a number of features and technologies to help you secure your workloads. or inappropriately decommissioned appliances. Secure Windows Storage Server workloads by securing:  Windows Storage Server for all workloads  File services workloads  Disk block I/O workloads  Web services workloads  Print services workloads Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads Before securing specific workloads. For more information. Windows Storage Server includes all of the security features and technologies found in Windows Server. help prevent unauthorized local and network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. Security Features or Technologies for All Workloads Feature or technology BitLocker Drive Encryption Description BitLocker Drive Encryption. see BitLocker Drive Encryption. encrypts data stored on hard disks. In addition. . passwords. Note For remote or network users. stolen. Table 22. NTFS permissions work with share folder permissions to help prevent unauthorized network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. included in Windows Storage Server. see Active Directory Domain Services Overview. Active Directory Domain AD DS provides centralized management of credentials. you can further secure your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. secure the Windows Storage Server operating system. For more information. Services (AD DS) accounts.

Shared folder permissions work with NTFS permissions to help prevent unauthorized network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. and replay protection. available separately. and other Microsoft products. For more information. included in Windows Storage Server. access to files and folders are defined by the combination of NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions. and management solutions that are integrated with Microsoft user identity management. These shared folder permissions affect users accessing the files and folders using the SMB protocol. allows you to protect the communications between Windows Storage Server and other Windows operating systems. only help prevent unauthorized network access to the files and folders stored on Windows Storage Server. and access. For more information. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Windows Firewall with Advanced Security.  Remote connectivity to Windows Storage Server using Forefront Unified Access Gateway 2010. Microsoft Forefront products. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. IPsec Microsoft Forefront . data confidentiality (encryption). For more information. provide protection. which dramatically reduces the ongoing administrative and operations effort. see the section "SMB Permissions" in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. helps reduce the attack surface by blocking unauthorized network traffic flowing into or out of the appliance. see Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. data integrity. included in Windows Storage Server. Windows operating systems.60 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature or technology Shared folder permissions Description Shared folder permission. Note For remote or network users. included in Windows Storage Server. IPsec. data origin authentication.  Communication with other computers or appliances over the Internet using Forefront Threat Management Gateway 2010. You can centrally manage IPsec using Group Policy. so that the IPsec configuration settings are integrated into the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in. Windows Firewall is also integrated with Internet Protocol Security (IPsec). Specifically. you can help protect:  Windows Storage Server and other Windows-based computers or appliances that communicate with the appliance using Forefront Client Security. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security is integrated with Network Awareness so that it can apply security settings appropriate to the types of networks to which the computer is connected. IPsec supports network-level peer authentication.

Typically. This is the home page for all Microsoft security products and technologies for all operating systems and products. Use read-only DFS Replication to provide read-only copies of file and folders to servers where only read-  NFS   . use NFSAdmin. see the "NFS Permissions" section in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. For more information. Table 23 lists the file services protocols and how to secure the protocol. authoritative resources to help you to proactively plan.  Security Solution Accelerators. see "NTFS Permissions" and "SMB Permissions" sections in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. you must first install the Services for Network File System (NFS) role service using Server Manager. This collection of tools and guidance are free. Use read-only DFS Replication to provide read-only copies of file and folders to servers where only readonly access is allowed. see the “Creating Branch Office Solutions” section in this white paper. you can use the following resources to help secure Windows Storage Server:  Microsoft Security. NFS-based access control for a shared resource is determined based on network names and groups. Table 23. For more information. and operate your security infrastructure. any security product that is compatible with Windows Server 2008 R2 is also compatible with Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. deploy. After installing Services for NFS.exe to create client groups and to add client computers to those groups before configuring NFS share permissions. the Security Compliance Management Toolkit Series provides an end-to-end solution to help plan. You can manage the NFS share permissions using the Share and Storage Management snap-in. Securing File Services Workloads File services workloads are secured based on the protocol that provides access to the file services workloads. File Services Protocols and How to Secure the Protocols Protocol SMB How to secure this protocol  Use NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions to secure SMB-based access to shared resources. Specifically." earlier in this white paper. To use NFS permissions.61 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature or technology Microsoft partner products Description There are a large number of security related products and technologies that are available from Microsoft partners. and monitor security baselines of Windows operating systems. For more information. integrate. In addition to features and technologies listed in Table 22.

such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator.62 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protocol How to secure this protocol only access is allowed. or you must deploy one. With this level of security. To use this level of security. see Plan authentication settings for Web applications (Windows SharePoint Services). For more information. you must have a RADIUS server running on your network. see the “Creating Branch Office Solutions” section in this white paper. For more information. For more information. Securing Communication for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Protocol Require authentication How to secure Require all iSCSI initiators to authenticate with the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using one of the following methods:  One-way CHAP authentication. Table 24 lists the methods of securing the communication for the iSCSI block I/O workloads. Require authentication for all users that Windows SharePoint Server on the appliance. WebDAV  Windows SharePoint Services   Securing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Disk block I/O workloads are secured by configuring the appropriate security between the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and the iSCSI initiators. For more information. Transactions between the iSCSI initiator and the RADIUS server are also authenticated through the use of a shared secret.  Mutual CHAP authentication. the iSCSI initiator is authenticated by a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server. A separate secret is set for each target and for each initiator. The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) secret is set just for the target.  IPsec authentication. The IPsec protocol enforces . With this level of security. All initiators that want to access that target need to use the same secret to start a logon session with the target. see Authentication and Security Using WebDAV. see Authentication and Security Using WebDAV. Encrypt all Windows SharePoint communication with the appliance using SSL. see Plan authentication settings for Web applications (Windows SharePoint Services). Require authentication for all users that access the appliance using WebDAV. only the iSCSI target authenticates the initiator. With this level of security.  Encrypt all WebDAV communication with the appliance using secure socket layer (SSL). the iSCSI target and the initiator authenticate each other. Table 24.  RADIUS authentication. For more information.

5 builds on the application pool isolation that was available with IIS 7. Note At a minimum. FTP    Note IIS 7. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads.0 that increased security and reliability. Isolate iSCSI network segments Securing Web Services Workloads Web services workloads are secured based on the protocol that provides access to the Web services workloads. Allow connectivity to the appliance only from computers on your internal network. Ensure that all HTTP connections require authentication as necessary." earlier in this white paper. HTTP is an insecure protocol and sends all traffic in clear text. This helps harden the security of applications and services running on IIS 7. FTP is an insecure protocol and sends all traffic in clear text.5 application pool now runs with a unique. . Allow connectivity to the appliance only from computers on your internal network. every IIS 7. Table 25. Table 25 lists the Web services protocols and how to secure the protocol. Use IPsec to protect communication between the appliance and FTP clients.5. see iSCSI Security.63 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protocol How to secure authentication at the IP packet layer. Encrypt all communication Protect communication between the iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using IPsec encryption. For more information. Ensure that all FTP connections require authentication. Ensure that all HTTPS connections require authentication as necessary. For more information. less-privileged identity. Web Services Protocols and How to Secure the Protocols Protocol HTTP How to secure this protocol    Use the HTTPS protocol instead to provide encryption of all communication between the appliance and the clients. Note HTTPS   HTTPS is a secure protocol and does not need further protection for confidentiality. use one-way CHAP authentication between iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Isolate the network segments used for communication between the iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by using separate physical network segments or by using virtual local area networks (VLANs).

Print Server Role Services and How to Secure the Role Service Role service Print Server How to secure this protocol Use printer permissions to control access to the appliance running the Print Server role services using the Print Management snapin. LPD Service Internet Printing . see Assigning Delegated Print Administrator and Printer Permission Settings in Windows Server 2008 R2.64 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Securing Print Services Workloads Print services workloads are secured based on the Print Server role service that provides access to the file services workloads. Protect all communication between the Internet Printing clients and the appliance using SSL. use IPsec to protect the communication between the LPD Service and LPR clients. Table 26. For more information. The communication between the LPD Service and LPR clients is unsecured. If required." earlier in this white paper. Use the HTTPS protocol instead when connecting to the URL for the printer. see Internet Printing and Resulting Internet Communication in Windows Server 2008. For more information. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. There is no authentication available or security permissions available. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. For more information. Table 26 lists the Print Server role services and how to secure the role service.

     . complexity. Table 27. can be used to improve the availability of SMB-based file services workloads. Windows Storage Server provides an easy to install and configure user interface for creating a two node failover cluster. This user interface reduces the learning curve. Methods for Improving File Services Workload Availability Method SMB NFS WebDAV Windows SharePoint Services Failover clusters. Windows Storage Server includes all of the high availability features and technologies found in Windows Server. In addition. as illustrated in Figure 8. Table 27 lists the methods for improving the availability for file services workload and which protocols can use that method. The method supports read and write access to the files. Improve the availability of Windows Storage Server workloads by:  Improving File services workload availability  Improving iSCSI block I/O workload availability  Improving Web services workload availability  Improving Print services workloads availability Improving Availability of File Services Workloads The availability of file services workloads in Windows Storage Server can be improved based on the protocol used to access the file services. In addition. You can use DFS Replication to create replica copies of shared network folders. Then you can use DFS Namespace to provide automatic failover to replica copies of content when a local copy of the content is unavailable. you can further improve the availability of your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. you can improve DFS Replication availability by running on failover clusters in Windows Storage Server.65 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Availability of Windows Storage Server Workloads High levels of availability are essential for mission-critical applications and services. see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node File Server Failover Cluster. DFS. Failover clusters in Windows Storage Server. For more information about failover clusters for file services workloads. and effort required to create a two node cluster.

see Distributed File System.   The most common method of improving the availability for file services workloads is by using failover clusters. For more information about using NLB to improve availability for file services workloads. SAS. Note The cluster storage illustrated in Figure 8 could be provided by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server. . see Network Load Balancing. PCI RAID controllers are not supported for shared storage. Figure 8 illustrates a typically two-node failover cluster for file services workloads. or Fibre Channel connected storage. The Network Load Balancing (NLB) feature in Windows Storage Server can be used to provide fault tolerance for file services workloads. Network Load Balancing.66 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Method SMB NFS WebDAV Windows SharePoint Services For more information. The shared storage in Figure 8 can be iSCSI.

Typical two-node failover cluster for file services workloads Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads You can improve the availability iSCSI block I/O workloads by using a combination of the following features in Windows Server products:  Failover clustering. You can use failover clusters to improve the availability for the iSCSI initiator running a Windows Server operating system or the iSCSI target running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. and switches — to create logical paths between the iSCSI initiator and the appliance .67 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 8.  Multipath I/O. For more information. The most common failover cluster used for iSCSI block I/O workloads is a file server failover cluster. cables. Multipath I/O uses physical path components — adapters. see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and the Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node File Server Failover Cluster. A failover cluster is a group of independent computers that work together to increase the availability of applications and services.

see Multipath I/O Overview. Redundancy for file services and print services is also provided by network adapter teaming support from the network adapter vendor. In the event that one or more of these components fails. you can use failover clusters to improve the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server. This section also discusses the following combinations of failover clustering and multipath I/O features:  Creating highly-available iSCSI targets with single or multipath connections. causing the path to fail. Each iSCSI network interface card should be connected by using redundant switch infrastructures to provide continued access to storage in the event of a failure in a storage fabric component. multipathing logic uses an alternate path for I/O so that applications running on the iSCSI initiator can still access their data.  Creating highly-available iSCSI initiators with single or multipath connections. For more information. As illustrated in Figure 9.68 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. However. Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Targets The highest priority in improving the availability of iSCSI block I/O workloads is to improve the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. there is no fault tolerance depicted in the connection between the iSCSI initiator and the clustered iSCSI targets (the storage fabric). The configuration in Figure 9 helps prevent loss of iSCSI block I/O workloads in the event of a failure of one of the appliances. Redundancy for iSCSI initiators on other operating systems or hardware iSCSI initiators is provided by network adapter teaming from the network adapter vendor. . Note Multipath connections for Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiators is provided by the MPIO feature in Windows Server.

. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with a single path connection The configuration in Figure 10 illustrates combining multipath I/O with the failover cluster solution. such as a switch failure or a disconnected network cable.69 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 9. switches. The network infrastructure for the iSCSI communication between the iSCSI initiator and the clustered nodes running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target has been updated to include redundant network adapters. This redundancy in the physical connectivity helps eliminate any single point of failures due to the network infrastructure for the storage fabric used by iSCSI. and network cables.

. As illustrated in Figure 11. you can improve the availability of the iSCSI initiators running Windows Server operating systems. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with multipath connections Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Initiators After improving the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.70 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 10. However. there is no fault tolerance depicted in the connection between the clustered iSCSI initiators and the clustered iSCSI targets (the storage fabric). The configuration in Figure 11 helps prevent loss of iSCSI block I/O workloads in the event that one of the computers or appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator or Microsoft iSCSI Software Target fails. you can use failover clusters to improve the availability of the computers or appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server operating systems.

and network cables. such as a switch failure or a disconnected network cable.71 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 11. . This redundancy in the physical connectivity helps eliminate any single point of failure due to the network infrastructure for the storage fabric used by iSCSI. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and iSCSI initiators with single path connections The configuration in Figure 12 illustrates combining multipath I/O with the failover cluster solution for the iSCSI initiators and iSCSI targets in Figure 11. The network infrastructure for the iSCSI communication between the clustered nodes running the iSCSI initiators and the clustered nodes running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target has been updated to include redundant network adapters. switches.

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Figure 12. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and iSCSI initiators with multipath connections

Improving Availability of Web Services Workloads
The NLB feature in Windows Storage Server can be used to provide fault tolerance for Web services workloads. The assumption of this solution is that each of the appliances in the NLB cluster have identical content and are continuously synchronized (such as by DFS Replication). For more information about using NLB to improve availability for Web services workloads, see Network Load Balancing.
Note If the Web applications use a centralized SQL Server database for storing information, you can also use failover clustering to improve the availability of the database. For more information, see Getting Started with SQL Server 2008 Failover Clustering.

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Improving Availability of Print Services Workloads
Failover clusters in Windows Storage Server can be used to improve the availability of Print services workloads. Figure 13 illustrates a typically two-node failover cluster for Print services workloads.
Note The cluster storage illustrated in Figure 13 could be provided by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server.

Figure 13. Typical two-node failover cluster for Print services workloads This method helps prevent any print services outages due to the failure a node in the cluster. Print services outages for specific printers occur in the event of a printer failure. However, the print jobs for the printer continue to be queued until the printer failure is resolved and the printer is restored to normal operation. For more information about failover clusters for file services workloads, see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and the Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node Print Server Failover Cluster.

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Improving Performance and Scalability for Windows Storage Server Solutions
The ability to take full advantage of the system resources of Windows Storage Server based appliance is essential to creating successful solutions. Windows Storage Server includes all of the performance and scalability features and technologies found in Windows Server 2008. In addition, you can further improve the performance and scalability of your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. Improve the performance and scalability of Windows Storage Server workloads by improving performance and scalability for:  All workloads.  File services workloads.  iSCSI block I/O workloads.  Web services workloads.  Print services workloads.

Improving Performance and Scalability for All Workloads
Windows Storage Server includes a number of technologies and features that will improve the performance and scalability for all workloads. These performance and scalability improvements are inherent in Windows Storage Server. Improve the performance and scalability for all workloads by taking advantage of the:  Improvements in processor and memory capacity.  Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol.  Improvements in network adapter performance.  Reduction in processor utilization for I/O operations.

Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity
The improvements in computer design have resulted in modern server computers that support an ever increasing number of processors and increased memory capacity. Current server computers are only shipping with 64-bit processors, multiple processors, and higher memory capacity than ever before. These improvements allow you to create application platforms that are able to support larger workloads, reduce rack space in your data center, reduce power consumption, provide improved reliability, and reduce your overall administrative effort.

Improved Physical Processor and Memory Resources
32-bit processors impose system resource limitations that restrict your ability to handle increased workloads without investing in additional server computers. 64-bit processors allow you to support larger workloads, while minimizing the number of physical computers in your data center. Also, server consolidation by using virtualization requires 64-bit processors to provide the processing and memory resources to support higher ratios of server consolidation. To support the increased processor performance and memory capacity provided by 64bit processors, Windows Storage Server is only available for 64-bit processor architectures. Windows Storage Server supports up to 256 logical processor cores for a single operating system instance.

and high-loss networking environments.500 persistent active connections.  Aggressively increasing the TCP Send windows size by using Compound TCP (CTCP). when the computer is performing a backup over the network. TCP peers receiving marked IP packets lower their transmission rate to ease congestion . also referred to as the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite. This increased processor support makes it possible to run even more demanding workloads on a single computer. significantly reducing hypervisor processor time and saving about 1MB of memory per virtual machine. The performance and scalability features in the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite include:  Offloading TCP/IP protocol processing to specialized network adapter hardware. With Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) support on both TCP peers and in the routing infrastructure. Hyper-V in Windows Storage Server also supports Second-Level Address Translation (SLAT) and CPU Core Parking.  Reducing IP packet resending due to router congestion. However. The Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite includes a new set of performance enhancements to increase throughput in high-bandwidth. This feature senses when large TCP segments retransmit and automatically adjusts the Path Maximum Transmission Unit (PMTU) for the connection. CPU Core Parking enables power savings by scheduling virtual machine execution on only some processor cores and placing the remaining processor cores in a sleep state. SLAT uses special processor functionality available in recent Intel and AMD processors to carry out some virtual machine memory management functions. rather than relying on the receipt of the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) error messages. high-latency. This feature automatically determines the value of the maximum receive window size for a connection based on the current conditions of the network. Microsoft included a new version of the TCP/IP protocol suite.  Improving black hole router detection. and improves overall network performance.  Automating the tuning of the maximum receive window size. Automatically tuning the receive window size allows the maximum amount of data to be transmitted between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Optimizing the network to receive TCP data can substantially increase overall network utilization by applications.75 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Increased Logical Processor Support Hyper-V in Windows Storage Server can support up to 64 logical processors. For example. CTCP attempts to maximize throughput on these types of connections by monitoring delay variations and losses. CTCP more aggressively increases the Send window for connections with large Receive window sizes and large bandwidth-delay products. TCP/IP offloading can be used when a server is performing heavy receive processing with less than 1. CTCP also ensures that its behavior does not negatively impact other TCP connections. This feature works with the Compound TCP feature on the sender side. routers experiencing congestion mark the IP packets as they forward them. the exact number of connections is vendor specific. or scale workloads to greater extremes to match changing demand. Reducing the number of retransmitted TCP segments improves the overall performance of traffic that used the TCP protocol. and improves overall network performance. Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Protocol With the introduction of Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. Aggressively increasing the TCP Send window size allows the maximum amount of data to be transmitted between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Offloading some of the TCP/IP protocol processing to a network adapter reduces the processor utilization associated with handling TCP/IP connections. especially on high latency connections.

1 allows a single deferred procedure call (DPC) for each network adapter. For more information about the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite in Windows Server 2008. . see Receive-Side Scaling Enhancements in Windows Server 2008. NDIS 5.0. parallel interrupts. Note RSS support has also been released in the scalable networking pack for Windows Server 2003.0 with RSS prevents bottlenecks for incoming network traffic. Figure 14 illustrates how the architecture of NDIS 6. while preserving in-order delivery of messages on a per-stream basis. all processors have available capacity and none are a bottleneck for incoming network traffic.  New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. NDIS 6. using RSS. Improvements in Network Adapter Performance RSS in NDIS 6. Figure 14. RSS also supports dynamic load balancing.0 balances the network load from a network adapter across multiple processors.76 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper and prevent segment losses.  Performance Enhancements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. Reducing IP packet resending improves the overall performance of traffic that uses the TCP protocol. Because all processors are able to process incoming network traffic. and parallel DPCs. enables multiple DPCs on different processors for each instance of a network adapter miniport driver. a secure hashing mechanism. Incoming network traffic with RSS For more information about RSS. see:  Next Generation TCP/IP Stack.

the data will go from memory to Processor 3. the selection of processors to interrupt and perform completion processing was statically chosen when the device was detected (similar to a round-robin order across all processors). that data will have to go from memory to Processor 2 over the node interconnect and then back over the node interconnect to Processor 3 when the application starts to access the data. when the request is initiated. reduces the possibility of interrupting an application unrelated to the I/O operation. Figure 15. Furthermore. decryption. the interrupt from the disk is directed to Processor 2 because of the static assignment made when the disk was detected at boot time. In this example. Although the I/O operation is initiated on Processor 3. If the completion processing accesses the data read from the disk. the interrupt from the disk is directed to Processor 3. Disk controller drivers can make use of new application programming interfaces (APIs) that allow Windows to specify the processor on which to efficiently perform completion processing for each I/O. Multiprocessor I/O operation without NUMA optimization Figure 16 illustrates an example of the components that might be required for processing a dynamically directed I/O completion by using NUMA I/O. the I/O operation is initiated on Processor 3. if the completion processing accesses data read from the disk (for example to perform virus detection. Figure 15 illustrates an example of the components that might be required for processing a statically directed I/O completion. and minimizes I/O completion processing time. A disk controller takes advantage of the NonUniform Memory Access (NUMA) I/O functionality in Windows Server 2008 and can use the information specified during the initiation of the I/O operation to select a processor that can most efficiently perform the necessary processing of the completed I/O. Processor 2 subsequently interrupts Processor 3 to indicate that the I/O operation is complete (assuming that the application waiting for the I/O is executing on Processor 3). In prior versions of Windows. and the application will experience a high cache hit ratio when it accesses the data. NUMA I/O functionality improves the hardware cache hit ratios.77 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations Windows Server 2008 performs dynamic redirection of I/O interrupts and I/O completion processing to reduce overall processor utilization. and the subsequent completion processing of the I/O occurs on Processor 3. or decompression of the data). . reduces the hardware interconnect activity. The interrupt and subsequent completion processing of the I/O operation occurs on Processor 2.

78 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In this example. In scenarios where the system consists of only Processors 3 and 4 in a single node configuration. For NUMA architectures.  Download NUMA I/O Optimizations. the I/O processing is localized to a NUMA node or a specific processor within the node.  Reviewing performance improvements in SMB Version 2. the selected completion processor for an I/O is ideally the same processor that initiated the I/O operation.  Improving network performance between head offices and branch offices using the BranchCache feature.1 in Windows Server 2008 R2. . the node interconnect and all unrelated processors are unaffected by the I/O completion.  Better NUMA and non-NUMA processor architecture.  Reviewing SMB-based file services workload test results. In the current implementation. the I/O processing is performed on a specific processor. Improving Performance and Scalability for File Services Workloads File services workloads in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of Windows Server. For non-NUMA architectures. For more information about NUMA support in Windows Server 2008. Identify the performance and scalability improvements for file services workloads by:  Reviewing the performance and scalability improvements in the SMB2 protocol. These improvements are largely due to improvements in the SMB2 protocol. the fact that Processor 4 is unaffected by the I/O operation still results in performance benefits. Multiprocessor I/O operation with NUMA optimization The dynamic I/O completion redirection (NUMA I/O) improvements in Windows Server 2008 provide the following benefits:  Support for the Message Signaled Interrupt eXtension (MSI-X) that enables a PCI-X or PCI-Express device to use new APIs to specify a processor to complete processing of each specific I/O operation. Figure 16. see:  The "NUMA Support" section of the "Advances in Memory Management for Windows" white paper.

. Windows includes an SMB client (the “Client for Microsoft Windows” component) and an SMB server (the “File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Windows” component).  Support for durable handles that can withstand short interruptions in network availability.  Support for much larger buffer sizes when compared to SMB 1. and better security through the use of mutual authentication and message signing. SMB in Windows Server 2008 and later versions supports SMB 1 as well as SMB2. Examples include an increase in the number of concurrent open file handles on the server and the number of file shares that a server can have. each write request must wait for the write response from a previous write request. such as Microsoft LAN Manager and Windows for Workgroups. SMB 1—the technology behind Windows Server versions prior to Windows Server 2008—was originally designed for early Windows-based network operating systems. a common issue in the effective tuning of SMB 1. Figure 17 illustrates how SMB 1 processes multiple write operations between a client computer running Windows XP and a server computer running Windows Server 2003.  An increase in the restrictive constants within the protocol design to allow for scalability. This reduces the number of packets sent between an SMB client and server. The SMB2 protocol features include:  Support for sending multiple SMB commands within the same packet. including greater performance when servers connect to file shares over high-latency links. SMB2. Review Improvements in the SMB2 Protocol Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 includes the latest version of SMB. which is optimized for greater performance over high-latency links. In SMB 1. write request 2 must wait for the write response from write request 1.79 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Improving network performance between client computers and Windows Storage Server for the folder redirection and offline files features. the new version of SMB that has been redesigned for today’s complex networking environments and next-generation file servers. The SMB2 protocol provides a number of communication enhancements. For example.  Support for symbolic links.

Write operations in SMB 1 Figure 18 illustrates how SMB2 processes multiple write operations between a client computer running Windows Vista and a server computer running Windows Server 2008. is that remote file operations are much faster. The overall effect. In SMB2. .80 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 17. especially on high-latency network connections. multiple write requests can be issued before receiving a write response.

0" section of New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. . Write operations in SMB2 For more information about SMB2. see the "Server Message Block 2.81 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 18.

Figure 19. The File Services server role implements SMB-based file services. Environment for performing File Services role tests The following tests were performed for the File Servers role:  Running the Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) on a high-speed network. The test results for Windows Server 2003 do not include Windows Firewall.82 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Review SMB-based File Services Workload Test Results The File Services server role is one of the most common server roles deployed. This test environment emulates two geographic locations (New York and London) separated by a WAN connection.  Accessing files on a shared folder at a remote location over a WAN connection. . This tool simulates a home folders file workload on a set of client computers and computes the maximum number of users a server can support based on the response time of simulated scenarios as illustrated in Figure 20. The performance gains that are illustrated in these tests are a direct result of the performance and scalability features in Windows Server 2008. The server computers running Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003 are in New York while the client computers running Windows Vista and Windows XP are in London.  Copying large files to a remote location over a WAN connection. Windows Firewall imposes a minimal impact (approximately 5 percent) on network throughput. Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network For this test. Figure 19 illustrates the environment for tests performed over a WAN connection. Note The tests results reflect the performance of Windows Server 2008 with Windows Firewall enabled. the Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) was run against a server running Windows Server 2008.

00% 40.00% Procesor utilization 70. As reflected by these performance characteristics. Table 28 lists example performance characteristics for appliances with different system resources.00% 30.00% 90. and modifying Microsoft Office files.200 1.00% 50.5% 11. the appliances contained only a single or dual processor socket that is typical for these types of appliances at the time of writing. For a given number of users accessing data on a file server.000 Processor utilization 7. The number and speed of the drives has the largest influence on the number of users who can be supported.00% 20. copying files.700 5.00% 60.00% 0. you can expand the processor and disk resources of the appliances to support tens of thousands of users on a single appliance.00% 10. the tool will compute a throughput number corresponding to the average scenario per second that the server is able to sustain. Table 28. network. .7% 5. and disk subsystem utilization details to help identify potential bottlenecks. and processors.6% 7. Example Performance Characteristics of Appliances with Different System Resources Processor sockets Single socket Single socket Single socket Dual socket Disk configuration 4 SATA drives 10 SATA drives 10 SATA drives 24 SAS drives Raid level RAID 5 RAID 5 RAID 1+0 RAID 1+0 Users supported 600 1. memory.83 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 450 Number of Scenarios per Second 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 Number of users 100. The tool also provides the ability to collect performance counters such as processor. memory. In these examples.2% A significantly higher number of users can be supported by adding more drives. File Services Role scalability test results The scenarios include common operations such as browsing a directory.00% 80.00% Average scenario throughput CPU utilization Figure 20.

.  Copying a 6-MB file to a network shared folder in Windows Explorer. and Windows XP SP2 with Windows Server 2003 SP2. In all these scenarios. a lower length of time indicates that the file operation occurred faster. the combination of Windows Vista SP1 and Windows Server 2008 provided dramatic performance improvements compared to the combination of Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP2. The test scenarios were performed for the combination of Windows Vista SP1 with Windows Server 2008.  Opening a 2-MB Word document stored on a network shared folder in Word 2007. a lower length of time indicates that the file copy process occurred faster. two scenarios were performed (as illustrated in Figure 21) over a simulated WAN connection. In the chart in Figure 21. For this test. the combination of Windows Vista SP1 and Windows Server 2008 provided dramatic performance improvements compared to the combination of Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP2. one 268-MB file was copied between the client computers and the server computers.84 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Copying Large Files to a Remote Location Over a WAN Connection For this test. In the chart in Figure 22. 100 1-megabyte (MB) files were copied between the client computers and the server computers. In the second scenario. the scenarios were performed (as illustrated in Figure 21) over a simulated WAN connection:  Opening a 47-KB Excel spreadsheet stored on a network shared folder in Excel 2007. Remote large file copy test results Accessing Files at a Remote Location Over a WAN Connection This test series provides an indication of how typical user applications perform when accessing files and folders on network shared folders on server computers running Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003. In the first scenario. Figure 21. For both scenarios.  Browsing a network shared folder that contains 50 files in Windows Explorer.

1. the SMB packet size can now increase up to 1 MB. This improvement helps performance when multiple files are opened in sequence or in parallel by the same client. such as files for Microsoft Office System applications. The Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) can be used to help perform file server capacity and performance planning and troubleshooting for CIFS. SMB.  Improved opportunistic file locking method. which includes the following improvements over previous versions of SMB:  Support for large protocol data unit (PDU) and maximum transmission unit (MTU).  Improved performance for file copy operations. Previously. a single packet can now contain thousands of directory entries. SMB version 2.1. For example. This improvement helps performance by sending larger SMB packets. This method helps improve application performance when opening and closing files.85 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 22. Figure 23 and Figure 24 illustrate the SMB performance differences between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 on two servers with different system resources. SMB packet size was limited to 64 KB. In SMB version 2. This improvement helps file copy operations performed remotely on network shared folders using the SMB protocol. Remote file application test results Reviewing Performance Improvements in SMB Version 2. or SMB2 client requests. This increase in packet size significantly improves the performance for file copies and directory enumerations. .1 in Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new version of SMB.

the server has the following system resources:  One processor.  16 GB of memory. Performance results with first hardware configuration In the performance results comparison in Figure 23. Performance results with second hardware configuration . Figure 24.86 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 23.  24 hard disks configured in a RAID-10 array.  One Fibre Channel host bus adapter.

BranchCache Modes BranchCache supports the following operational modes:  Distributed Cache mode  Hosted Cache mode .002) SMB2 (v2.1 For example.87 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In the performance results comparison in Figure 24. Windows Server 2003. Table 29 shows the version of SMB used between two computers running different combinations of operating systems.  Two Fibre Channel host bus adapters. The performance improvements in SMB 2.  72 GB memory. SMB 2. The BranchCache feature in Windows Storage Server and Windows 7 reduces the network utilization on WAN segments that connect branch offices by locally caching frequently used files on computers in the branch office. the server has the following system resources:  Two processors. Table 29.1 are realized only when both operating systems support SMB 2.1. As illustrated in Figure 24. Typically branch offices are connected by wide area networks (WANs) that usually have slower data rates than your intranet. The type of content that is cached is content returned by SMB requests and HTTP requests. the increased system resources allow Windows Server 2008 R2 to support almost twice as many users as the system resources in Figure 23. Windows Server 2003.002) SMB 1 SMB2 (v2. and prior operating systems Windows Vista.  96 hard disks configured in a RAID-10 array.1 is only supported when both computers are running Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 R2. such as the head office or regional data centers. if a computer running Windows XP is accessing a computer running Windows Server 2008 R2. SMB 1 is used for file services traffic. Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008 Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SMB 1 Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008 SMB 1 Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SMB 1 SMB 1 SMB2 (v2. and prior operating systems. Reducing the network utilization on the WAN network segments provides available network bandwidth for applications and services. Versions of SMB Supported Between Different Windows Operating Systems Windows Vista.002) SMB 2. Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache One of the largest problems facing branch offices is how to improve the performance of accessing intranet resources in other locations.

88 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Distributed Cache Mode In Distributed Cache mode. The server responds with the requested data. HTTP. The client computer indicates to the server that it is BranchCache capable. using fields. such as SMB. and transmits a set of identifiers that describe the chunks of content the client computer wants to download. Client 2 verifies the data against the identifiers downloaded from the server in the head office. a multicast protocol sent over UDP. 6. The server responds. or Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS). This search is conducted by using the BranchCache discovery protocol. 2. Figure 25. messages. Client 1 is the first computer in the branch to download this piece of content. BranchCache Distributed Cache mode The following sequence reflects how the Distributed Cache mode caches content: 1. which in turn uses WS-Discovery. Client 1 issues a request for a file on a BranchCache-enabled server in the head office. protecting it with the BranchCache encryption scheme. Client 1 receives this request. or BITS. Client 1 transmits the content to Client 2. which in turn uses HTTP. HTTP. This request can be transmitted over any of the BranchCache-enabled protocols. Client 1 searches locally for a computer that has already downloaded and cached the content. Client 2 uses the BranchCache discovery protocol to search for the content. finds the requested content in its local cache. The disadvantage to this solution is that content is cached on client computers. Client 2 receives identifiers describing the content from the server in the head office. These identifiers are transmitted by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. The client then adds this data to its local cache. 5. so if the computer containing the cached content is unavailable. 3. This request is not marked as BranchCache capable. 4. . such as SMB. Client 2 requests the content from Client 1 by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol. and sends a response to Client 2. or headers that are already part of the BranchCache-enabled protocol. so it does not receive any responses. content is cached on the branch on client computers running Windows 7. Client 1 issues another request to the server in the head office by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. the content must be retrieved over the WAN connection. as illustrated in Figure 25. Client 2 issues a request for the same content that Client 1 downloaded earlier.

4.89 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note Hosted Cache mode and Distributed Cache mode are mutually exclusive. messages. This request is not marked BranchCache capable. Client 1 advertises the newly downloaded content to the Hosted Cache server running Windows Storage Server by using the BranchCache hosted cache protocol (MS-PCHC). The server responds with the requested data. as illustrated in Figure 26. The server responds. Hosted Cache Mode In Hosted Cache mode. Figure 26. using fields. or headers that are already part of the BranchCache-enabled protocol. BranchCache Hosted Cache mode The following sequence reflects how the Hosted Cache mode caches content: 1. 3. Client 1 issues a request to a BranchCache-enabled server in the head office. and transmits a set of identifiers that describe the chunks of content that the client computer wants to download. which in turn uses HTTPS. HTTP. or BITS. such as SMB. A client computer can be configured to use only a single caching mode at one time. The advantage to this mode is that the server is always available. HTTP. The unavailability of any client computer running Windows 7 does not affect the availability of the content cache. such as SMB. The client computer indicates to the server that it is BranchCache capable. Client 1 issues another request to the server in the head office by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. 2. content is cached at the branch office on client computers running Windows Server 2008 R2. so the cached content is always available. or BITS. which in turn uses HTTP. . This request can be transmitted over any of the BranchCache-enabled protocols. The hosted cache response informs Client 1 that the target data is not available. These identifiers are transmitted by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. Client 1 requests the content from the hosted cache in the branch office by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD).

The typical system resources that are heavily utilized by iSCSI block I/O workloads include memory.  Offline files. Client 2 receives identifiers describing the content from the server in the head office. 6. Client 2 issues a request for the same content that Client 1 downloaded earlier. the client computer returns to the server in the head office and requests a download. which in turn uses HTTP. The hosted cache responds with the data. Client 2 requests the content from the hosted cache in the branch office by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). Users are able to modify local copies of files in the event they are disconnected from the network. The Hosted Cache server connects to the client and downloads the recently advertised content by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). You can improve the performance and scalability for iSCSI block I/O workloads by:  Identifying methods for improving iSCSI block I/O workload performance and scalability. Improving Performance and Scalability for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads File services workloads in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of Windows Server. 7. Note Hosted Cache mode and Distributed Cache mode are mutually exclusive. You can also manage BranchCache by using the NetSH command. All of the performance features listed in this section will also improve the performance for folder redirection and offline files. Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files Windows 7 includes the following features that allow users to provide user state virtualization:  Folder redirection. which in turn uses HTTP. This feature allows users to locally cache files stored on a shared folder on Windows Storage Server. If a client computer cannot locate content on the hosted cache server. Identify Methods for Improving iSCSI Block I/O Workload Performance and Scalability You can improve the performance and scalability for iSCSI block I/O workloads by using the following methods:  Ensure the system resources of the appliance are sufficient. A client computer can be configured to use only a single caching mode at one time. .  Reviewing the results of I/O storage workload tests. Both of these features require access to shared network folders on Windows Storage Server. This feature allows users to store the user’s folders in a shared folder on Windows Storage Server. Folder redirection allows users to quickly recover from local failures of their computer. see Network Shell (Netsh) Commands for BranchCache. Client 2 verifies the data by using the identifiers downloaded from the server in the head office.90 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 5. For more information about configuring BranchCache by using the NetSH command. BranchCache Management You can configure BranchCache behavior by using Group Policy. Windows Storage Server includes a Group Policy administrative template that you can use to administer the BranchCache configuration settings.

When encountering network utilization problems. You can configure sector alignment for physical disks using the Diskpart. When encountering network utilization problems. NFS workloads. .91 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper     disk. Sector alignment helps prevent an I/O operation from spanning two tracks. Dedicate a physical array for each conflicting workload. Different types of workloads on the same physical network can cause overutilization and performance problems. and network.  Isolate different types of workloads using separate physical network segments.exe. segregate each type of workload to a separate physical network segment to reduce network contention. Configure sector alignment for iSCSI Target volumes and . Figure 27 illustrates a Windows Storage Server solution that has been optimized to provide improved performance and scalability. also ensure they are sufficient for I/O throughput. Ensure that the appliance has sufficient resources to provide adequate performance and scaling.exe command line tool. After ensuring the number of disks is sufficient for capacity. Different types of workloads on the same physical array can degrade performance for the workloads. which causes performance degradation. random I/O workloads. the Windows Storage Server solution is optimized to support Exchange Server connecting to disk LUNs on Windows Storage Server. Although a given number of disks may have adequate storage capacity. Sector alignment allows Windows Storage Server to create partitions that align with the underlying physical disk. or SMB workloads. the number may not provide sufficient I/O throughput. Different types of workloads on the same physical network can cause overutilization and performance problems.vhd files. Always size disks for performance in addition to capacity. Isolate different types of workloads using dedicated physical arrays. such as sequential I/O workloads. segregate each type of workload to a separate physical network segment to reduce network contention. Note Consult your storage vendor to determine the proper values to use with the Diskpart. In this example. Isolate different types of workloads using separate physical network segments.

Separate iSCSI targets that corresponds to the iSCSI sequential I/O and iSCSI random I/O. Separate arrays dedicated to different iSCSI I/O traffic as the Exchange storage group data is random I/O. Separate network adapters in the Exchange server to support the separate network segments. An optimized number of disks for disk I/O bandwidth capacity. iSCSI random I/O. A Windows Storage Server solution optimized for performance For the sample scenario in Figure 27.92 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 27. including iSCSI sequential I/O. the following optimizations were chosen:       Sufficient system resources of the Windows Storage Server appliance for the given workloads. Separate network segments for workload types. while the Exchange storage group logs are sequential I/O. . and file services access using SMB or NFS.

For this test.93 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Sector-aligned disk arrays to help prevent I/O operations from spanning multiple tracks. The test result. regardless of the server role running on the server computer. Windows Server 2008 can perform more than 20 percent more disk I/O operations per second than Windows Server 2003. Review I/O Storage Test Results The results of this test provide an indication of the improvements in disk I/O operations. General disk I/O operation test results . the server computer had 16 dual-core processors for a total of 32 processor cores. shown in the chart in Figure 28. illustrates the number of disk I/O operations per second performed by Windows Server 2008 and Window Server 2003 running on identical hardware. Figure 28.

The chart in Figure 29 illustrates the performance gain by running IIS 7. see Configuring HTTP Compression in IIS 7. For more information about how to configure compression.0 in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of IIS and Windows Server. Performance includes the following features:  Compression. HTTP compression lets you make more efficient use of bandwidth and enhances the performance of sites and applications. IIS also lets you use bandwidth more effectively and efficiently by using common compression mechanisms such as Gzip and Deflate.0.com running IIS 6.  Output Caching.0 provides a powerful. unified facility for output caching by integrating the dynamic output-caching capabilities of ASP.0 on Window Server 2003. edit existing caching rules.microsoft.0 running on Windows Server 2008. You can improve the performance and scalability for Web services workloads by:  Identifying methods for improving Web services workload performance and scalability. . You can configure HTTP compression for both static and dynamic sites. Output caching allows you to manage output caching rules and to control the caching of served content. you can create caching rules.NET with the static output-caching capabilities that were present in IIS 6.com processing more than an additional 100 million requests per day at the same processor utilization. see Configuring Output Caching in IIS 7.0 and Windows Server 2008 can support more than 10 percent higher throughput than IIS 6.94 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Performance and Scalability for Web Services Workloads Web services workloads running on Internet Information Services (IIS) 7. These improvements are largely due to improvements in data compression of content and caching of content. This improvement in performance results in www. For more information about improving Web services workload performance and scalability. IIS 7.0 and Windows Server 2008 on the same computer resources.  Reviewing Web services workload test results. For more information about configuring output caching.0 and Windows Server 2003. The results were obtained by closely monitoring the performance over a 72-hour period for both test cases. see Optimize IIS Performance (IIS 7). and configure output cache settings. and IIS 7.microsoft. In IIS Manager. Review Web Services Workload Test Results These results were obtained by measuring the performance of www. Identify Methods for Improving Web Services Workload Performance and Scalability IIS 7.

The maximum load and performance level of a print server greatly depends on key configuration decisions. Some of the factors that influence print server performance and capacity include:  The number of print server clients.  The number.  The operating system version or versions on each client machine.95 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 29. size.  The number and type of printers served by the print server and the types of printer drivers each printer uses.  The types of print jobs sent to the print server. see the Windows Print Server Scalability and Sizing Technical Overview. and frequency of print jobs. Web Services (IIS) Role test results Improving Performance and Scalability for Print Workloads Print server scalability plays a key role in the deployment of Windows Storage Server print servers. For more information about improving the performance and scalability of print services workloads. This section of the white paper provides information to help you size a server to meet an organization's needs by identifying and investigating primary issues and configuration details to maximize print server performance. .

 Creating unified storage solutions.  NAS gateway. Windows Storage Server provides the following basic configurations:  Stand-alone network attached storage (NAS). some Microsoft partners provide additional storage in external enclosures. industry standard hardware that can be readily expanded. The typical characteristics of the appliance are as follows:  The appliance has the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network.  Creating virtualization solutions. Overview of Windows Storage Server Configurations Window Storage Server provides a wide range of storage solutions for all size organizations. However.  Creating branch office solutions.  It can support 4 to 12 disks in the single enclosure using RAID interfaces.  Creating small. Regardless of the solution complexity. review the following:  Overview of NAS configurations. such as Just a Bunch of Disks (JBOD Disks) or RAID configurations (RAID 5 or RAID 1+0).96 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server Deployment Scenarios You can use Windows Storage Server to provide a wide range of storage solutions. To select the appropriate deployment scenario for you. ." in this white paper.  Creating solutions for storage consolidation.  The solution is based on low cost.  Creating highly-available solutions. Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration The stand-alone NAS configuration.  Creating solutions for heterogeneous environments.  Creating iSCSI boot solutions.  It can create a variety of disk configurations.  Creating application consolidation solutions.  Highly-available NAS.to medium-sized business solutions.  The processors and storage reside in a single appliance enclosure. illustrated in Figure 30. is based on a single Windows Storage Server appliance.

Windows Storage Server stand-alone NAS configuration Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration The highly-available NAS configuration.97 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 30.  Storage is separate from the appliance enclosure.  Additional appliances can be added to the solution to provide improved scalability.  The appliances are configured as nodes in a Windows failover cluster to provide higher availability. . illustrated in Figure 31." in this white paper.  Multipath I/O connections exist between the appliances. is based on two or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide some degree of fault tolerance.  New storage is included as part of the solution (existing storage is not used in the solution). and it is shared between two or more appliances. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network. Note The failover cluster in Figure 31 can be quickly and easily configured using the Initial Configuration Tasks form in Windows Storage Server.

98 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 31." in this white paper. in Figure 32. . is based on one or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide connectivity to existing storage devices. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network. Windows Storage Server highly-available NAS configuration Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration The NAS gateway configuration.  They connect to existing storage that supports SAN block I/O protocols.

They provide highly-available configurations based on solution availability requirements.99 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper   They provide an inexpensive iSCSI target. SMB file access. Windows Storage Server NAS gateway configuration . and NFS file access to storage. Figure 32.

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Using Windows Storage Server in iSCSI Block I/O Configuration
The iSCSI block I/O configuration, in Figure 32, is based on one or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide iSCSI access to storage resources. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network," in this white paper.  They can be used with any combination of the following storage configurations:  Located within the appliance.  Located within an enclosure external to the appliance.  Existing storage subsystem that supports SAN block I/O protocols.  They provide highly-available configurations based on solution availability requirements.  They provide an inexpensive iSCSI target access to storage.  They provide iSCSI boot support for diskless computers.  They integrate with DHCP and TFTP servers to provide iSCSI boot support for diskless computers.

Figure 33. Windows Storage Server iSCSI Block I/O configuration

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Creating Branch Office Solutions
In a branch office solution, an organization has a number geographically distributed branch office locations that are connected to one or more centralized head offices. Table 30 lists the types of data to manage in the branch office solution, as illustrated in Figure 34, and a description of the type of data. Table 30. Types of Data to Manage in the Branch Office Solution Type of data User folders Description Contains user home directories and user shares within the branch office in addition to the well-known Windows folders, such as Documents, Videos, Pictures, and Music. The well-known Windows folders are typically stored on the local computer, but can be stored on network shared folders using the Folder Direction feature. The Folder Redirection feature allows user folders to be stored on appliances in the branch offices and to be replicated to appliances in the head office for backup and centralized management using DFS Replication. The user folders are accessed within the branch office, but are archived in the head office. Contains content that is published from the head offices to the branch offices as read-only content. The content is a set of data that is relevant to the branch office, regardless of the region where the branch office is located, for example:  Templates, such as Word or Excel templates.  Source for software distribution files, such as files from 2007 Microsoft Office System or Windows 7. Contains content used in collaborative efforts between branch offices. The collaboration content is stored on the Windows Storage Server appliances in the head office. Users in the branch offices access the collaboration content over the WAN connections. The collaboration content can be stored in network shared folders or in Windows SharePoint Service document libraries.

Published content

Collaboration content

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Figure 34. Branch office solution for Windows Storage Server

For more information.  Stand-alone NAS appliances are used. Provides file services for computers running NFS clients. Table 31. IT personnel in the head office must be able to manage the configuration settings of the devices and users in the branch offices. including the computers running Linux or Mac OS.  Computers are running mostly Windows operating systems. Due to cost constraints and lack of local IT personnel. Most of the configuration and all of the support is provided by the IT personnel in the head office. failover clusters can be an optional part of this solution. BranchCache dramatically reduces the network File services using NFS BranchCache in hosted caching mode . Also. The branch offices typically do not have local IT personnel and require assistance from the IT personnel in the head office. Provides local caching of the collaboration content stored on the appliances in the head office. Mobile users need to access their user folders when they are not connected to the internal network in the branch office." earlier in this white paper.  Consolidating of data in head office to provide centralized management. such back up and data protection. Most of the computers in the branch office are running Windows operating systems. For more information about this type of appliance.103 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The assumptions in this scenario are:  The data centers have local IT personnel. In addition. The solution must minimize the utilization of the WAN connection as much as possible. Table 31 lists the Windows Storage Server and Windows client operating system features used in the branch office solution and provides a brief description of the role each plays in the solution. depending on the availability requirements of the branch offices. SMB2 helps minimize WAN network utilization because of the efficiencies provided by SMB2. This helps protect the user profile folders in the branch office in the event of a catastrophic disaster in the branch office location that results in the total failure of the appliance. see the previous section "Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-alone NAS Configuration. while the branch offices have minimal or no local IT personnel. All user profile folders in the branch offices need to be copied to the head offices for centralized management. see the section "Review Improvements in the SMB Protocol. such as Linux or the Mac OS. The available network speed of the WAN connections between the head offices and the branch offices is a limited resource in terms of both available bandwidth and cost. The appliance in the branch office is configured for BranchCache hosted caching mode. all users need to access their user folders regardless of any scheduled maintenance of the appliance or appliance failure.  Users must have access to their user folders regardless of connectivity to the branch office appliance.  Minimizing the utilization of the WAN connections is essential.  Centralized management of the branch office. which allows the appliance to provide local caching of the collaboration content accessed using the SMB and HTTP protocols. In some instances there may be computers running other operating systems." in this white paper. Centralized management of the appliances in the branch office is essential and remote administration is required. Features Used In Branch Office Solutions Feature File services using SMB2 Description Provides file services for computers running Windows operating systems.

The Folder Redirection feature allows the user folders to be available from any computer on the network. For more information. see the section. including Windows 7. "Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache. This allows the head office to avoid doing backups over the WAN link. Allows users to recover files by themselves without the assistance of IT professionals. see:  Folder Redirection Overview. Computers running Windows client operating systems are using the Folder Redirection feature to redirect the user folders to network shared folders on the appliance in the branch office. "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data." earlier in this white paper. The user folders are copied to the head office for backup and centralized management functions. see the section. and Windows XP. You can administer the Folder Redirection feature using Group Policy.104 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description utilization for accessing these files. The Folder Redirection feature is available in all current Windows client operating systems. DFS Replication uses RDC to transmit only the changes to a file. DFS Replication Provides replication of files and folder structure from the branch offices to the head office. which:  Reduces WAN network utilization by providing local access to the files. Read-only DFS Replicated Folders Shadow Copies of Shared Folders Folder Redirection . For more information. Any updates to the collaboration content are automatically saved on the appliances in the head office." earlier in this white paper.  Provides improved file access for users in the branch office because the files are accessed locally instead of over the WAN connection. which dramatically reduces the network bandwidth utilization. Helps reduce the effort spent by IT personnel in data centers for recovery of files. The files and folders are set to read-only access by DFS Replication. For more information. "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. For more information. see the section. Windows Vista." earlier in this white paper. This is primarily for files that are for public use and are typically read-only at the branch office. For more information. see the section "Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data. Uses DFS Replication to provide replication of files and folder structure from the head office to the branch offices." earlier in this white paper. which provides data consolidation in the head office so that all backups are performed in the head office.

 Working with network files when you are offline. The Offline Files feature allows users to always have access to files from network shared folder by synchronizing the contents of the network shared folder to the Offline Files cache on the user’s computer. any new or modified files are automatically synchronized with the network shared folders on the appliance. Mobile users may want to access their files while away from the office. and Windows XP. see:  Understanding offline files. any new or modified files are automatically synchronized with the network shared folders on the appliance. You can administer the Offline Files feature using Group Policy.  Configuring Folder Redirection. Computers running Windows can print to the printers in the branch office using the print services workloads provided by Windows Storage Server. The read-only domain controller provides enhanced security by preventing unauthorized or inadvertent updates to AD DS. see the section "Providing Access to Print Services Workloads.  In the event the appliance is taken offline for maintenance or of an appliance failure. Users can continue to work on copies of the files on their local computers. Windows Vista.  Configuring Offline Files." earlier in the white paper.  Configuring Group Policy for Offline Files. When users reconnect to the network. Authentication is performed using an AD DS read-only domain controller on the local appliance.  The “Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files” section in this white paper. The Offline Files feature allows users to modify local copies of their files while disconnected from the network. The Offline Files feature provides access to files:  When users are not connected to the branch office network. When the appliance is restored to service. Computers running Linux or Mac OS can print to the printers in the branch office using the print services workloads provided by Windows Storage Server. For more information.  The “Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files” section in this white paper. The local read-only domain controller also Offline Files Print Server LPD Print Services Read-only domain controller . see the section "Providing Access to Print Services Workloads. For more information.105 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description  Folder redirection overview for GPMC. For more information. The Offline Files feature is available in all current Windows client operating systems. including Windows 7." earlier in the white paper.

and they are centrally configured by the IT personnel in the head office using Group Policy. Most of the features and configuration settings available in all Windows products can be configured by using Group Policy. The local DNS Server reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because DNS queries are resolved locally. Note All of these features operate transparently to users in the branch office. You can use File Server Resource Manager to:  Limit the amount of disk space used by using the Quota Management feature.  Use Storage Reports to profile storage usage and trends within the branch. For more information. Group Policy allows you to centrally configure the Windows Storage Server appliances and Windowsbased computers in the branch office. For more information. DNS Server Computers in the branch office can resolve DNS names using the DNS Server running on the local appliance.106 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because authentication is performed locally. File Server Resource Manager allows you to understand. control. Computers in the branch office that are configured using DHCP can be configured using the DHCP Server running on the local appliance. see File Server Resource Manager. The local DHCP Server reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because DHCP configuration is performed locally. DHCP Server File Server Resource Manager Group Policy Table 32 lists how to manage each type of data is accessed by users.  Prevent storage of certain file types by using the File Screening feature. see Group Policy. . and manage the quantity and type of data stored on Windows Storage Server 2008 R2.

DFS Namespace always preferentially directs client computers to access a local replica copy of the published content within the local site (lower cost than other sites). The head office and each of the branch offices is a separate Active Directory site. The replica copies of the published content in the branch offices are maintained read-only by DFS Replication so that users in the branch office have read-only access to the replica content. Once these files are synchronized with the branch office appliances.  Published content   . depending on the availability of the branch office appliance. which minimizes the bandwidth utilization on the connection between the branch offices and the head office. This feature allows users to access their user profile folders when not connected to the appliance. Any new files or changes made to the cached copy of the files are automatically synchronized when the connection to the appliance is restored. the Folder Redirection feature helps in fast recovery of computers because the user profile folders are not stored on the local computer. This feature determines which replica copy to access based on the availability of the copy and the location of the copy using Active Directory sites. DFS Replication replicates the user profile folders to the head office so that they can be centrally backed up and managed by the IT personnel. Folder Redirection. which are typically stored locally on the user’s computer. DFS Namespace will automatically direct users to use the replica copy in the branch office. After the user profile folders are stored on the branch office appliance. on the branch office appliance. DFS Namespace. any changes in the user profile folders are replicated to the head office using DFS Replication. then DFS Namespace directs the client computers to access the replica copy in the Active Directory site with the next lowest cost. This feature allows for users to transparently access the published content on the appliances in the branch office or in the head office. When the branch office replica copy becomes available again. In addition. Managing Types of Data in the Branch Office Solution Type of data User folders Managed using  Offline Files. which in this scenario is the head office. This feature stores the user profile folders. Read-only DFS Replicated Folders.107 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 32. If the branch office replica copy is unavailable. DFS Replication replicates the published content stored on the head office appliances to the branch office appliances. Remote Differential Compression in DFS Replication replicates only the changes to the user profile folders.

 For the collaboration content in Table 32. This is because DFS Replication in Windows Storage Server is appropriate when only one copy of the content is centrally modified and all replica copies are read-only. This feature allows users to access the content from the head office appliances using the HTTP or HTTPS protocol. The BranchCache feature dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch office when users access content stored on the network shared folders that has already been locally cached on the appliance in the branch office. The SMB2 protocol dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch offices for:  The initial local caching of the content using BranchCache.  Any updates to the content from users in the branch offices. Windows SharePoint Services. This feature also supports version control. The BranchCache feature dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch offices when users access Web content that has already been locally cached on the appliance in the branch office.108 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Type of data Collaboration content Managed using  Network shared folders. network shared folders and Windows SharePoint services are used instead DFS Replication. check in. This feature allows users to access the content from the head office appliances. . and check out capabilities. Because multiple users need to modify the content. network shared folders and SharePoint Services with the BranchCache feature provide the appropriate solution.

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Creating Highly-Available Solutions
In a highly-available solution, the workloads provided by Windows Storage Server must provide improved fault tolerance. Figure 35 illustrates how to create highly-available solutions using Windows Storage Server and Windows Server operating systems using Windows failover clusters and multipath I/O.

Figure 35. Highly-available solution using Windows Storage Server The key elements of the highly-available solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  The application servers are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an application server failure.

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The Windows Storage Server appliances act as iSCSI targets by running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  The application servers are using the multipath I/O feature to provide redundant connections to the clustered appliances.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the clustered appliances to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. For more information about Windows failover clustering for iSCSI targets, see the following sections earlier in this white paper:  "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration." For more information about Multipath I/O for iSCSI initiators in Windows Server operating system, see the following sections earlier in this white paper:  "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration."

Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation
In the storage consolidation solution, all the myriad of devices providing SMB file services, NFS file services, and iSCSI block I/O are consolidated into a few, highlyavailable Windows Storage Server appliances. Typically this solution is used in medium to large organizations that want to reduce the number and types of devices in the organization. This consolidation effort can help reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. Figure 36 illustrates an IT environment prior to implementing the storage consolidation solution. There are a number of different computers providing file services and applications. Each computer has local storage that is used to support the services that each provides. This configuration provides inefficient storage management and usage. For example, one Exchange server may have insufficient available disk space while a file server may have many more times the available disk space than is required.

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Figure 36. IT environment prior to implementing the storage consolidation solution

Figure 37 illustrates the same IT environment after implementing the storage consolidation solution. The number of computers to be supported has been dramatically decreased, which reduces ongoing operations effort and complexity. Also, the overall availability of workloads has been improved. Because storage is centralized, the effort for ongoing storage management is dramatically reduced. And, because all storage resources are pooled, storage can be easily allocated to the appropriate computer.

IT environment after implementing the storage consolidation solution .112 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 37.

 NFS file services for NFS clients.to medium-sized business solutions." earlier in this white paper. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management.  Providing SMB file services. Creating Small to Medium Business Solutions In small. The key elements of the small.  The Windows Storage Server appliances are:  Acting as iSCSI targets and are running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. the organization needs to support a variety of operating systems. and Internet printing. LPR print services. .  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.to medium-sized business solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  The appliances provide centralized storage management. such as Group Policy. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management.  Typically configured as a stand-alone NAS. depending on the availability requirements of the organization.0.  The appliances may be configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. as described in the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration.  Centralized storage for application servers using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  Access to Web-based content using IIS 7. The key elements of the solutions for heterogeneous environments include:  Windows Storage Server appliances that provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support. such as providing iSCSI LUNs for SQL Server or Exchange Server.  Collaboration using Windows SharePoint Services.  Windows print services. the organization needs to provide multiple workloads on Windows Storage Server appliances.113 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The key elements of the storage consolidation solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric.  Highly-automated management tools.  The Windows Storage Server appliances provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support.  Providing NFS file services. Creating Solutions for Heterogeneous Environments In solutions for heterogeneous environments.

Windows print services for Windows operating systems. such as Group Policy. earlier in this white paper. For more information about supported iSCSI initiators. Centralized storage for all operating systems that have supported iSCSI initiators using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. see AD LDS Identity Mapping for Services for NFS. all the local or shared storage for the application servers in the IT environment are consolidated into a few. Typically this solution is used in medium to large organizations that want to increase the efficiency of storage allocation and management for application servers. LPR print services for other operating systems. Access to Web-based content using IIS 7. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management. Highly-automated management tools. There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. depending on the availability requirements of the organization. The appliances may be configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. SQL Server.0. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management. This consolidation effort can help reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. and other application servers that have a significant dependency on storage. The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric. The appliances provide centralized storage management. see the section "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators" earlier in this white paper. The types of application servers that are consolidated include those running Exchange Server. highly-available Windows Storage Server appliances. AD LDS can be used to provide identity mapping for NFS file services in environments where an Active Directory infrastructure does not already exist. For more information.  Typically the application servers are configured in clustered configurations to improve availability. such as described in the section "Creating Highly-Available Solutions" earlier in this white paper.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric. .  The Windows Storage Server appliances act as iSCSI targets and are running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. The key elements of the application consolidation solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. Collaboration using Windows SharePoint Services.114 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper             NFS file services for NFS clients. Creating Application Consolidation Solutions In the application consolidation solution. This solution is very similar to the storage consolidation solution described in the section "Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation" and as illustrated in Figure 36 and Figure 37.

see the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration" earlier in this white paper. file and iSCSI block I/O storage services in the IT environment are consolidated into a few. In this scenario. This solution is very similar to the storage consolidation solution described in the section "Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation" and as illustrated in Figure 36 and Figure 37.  NAS gateway services for existing storage solutions that do not provide SMBbased file services.  Centralized storage for all operating systems that have supported iSCSI initiators using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. see AD LDS Identity Mapping for Services for NFS. This centralization of storage management helps reduce the inefficiency of storage allocation and management and helps reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. For more information about NAS gateway configurations.115 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating Unified Storage Solutions In the unified storage consolidation solution. or iSCSI connectivity.  The appliances provide centralized storage management. earlier in this white paper. For more information about the supported iSCSI initiators. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management.  Highly-automated management tools. .  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric and provide fault tolerant network connectivity. all of the storage resources in the organization are managed using Windows Storage Server.  NFS file services for NFS clients. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management. and other storage connections (such as Fibre Channel or SAS). highly-available Windows Storage Server appliances. the existing IT environment has separate devices provide SMB-based file services. depending on the availability requirements of the organization. For more information.  The appliances are typically configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. After implementing this scenario. The key elements of the solutions for heterogeneous environments include:  Windows Storage Server appliances that provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support. such as Group Policy.  AD LDS can be used to provide identity mapping for NFS file services in environments where an Active Directory infrastructure does not already exist. NFS-base file services. see the section "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators" earlier in this white paper. NFS-based file services. iSCSI block I/O storage.

116 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating Virtualization Solutions You can create virtualized solutions using Windows Storage Server by:  Connecting virtual machines to iSCSI LUNs managed by Windows Storage Server.  Running virtual machines on Windows Storage Server. In Hyper-V. Each virtual machine is referred to as a child partition. the physical computer is referred to as the parent partition. In the virtualization solution. as illustrated in Figure 38. Connecting Virtual Machines to iSCSI LUNs Virtual machines running on Hyper-V can access iSCSI LUNs using a number of different methods. Windows Storage Server runs the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target to provide iSCSI LUNs for use by virtual machines performing the Hyper-V server role in Windows Server 2008. Windows Storage Server in virtualization solutions Table 33 lists the different methods that virtual machines can use to connect to iSCSI LUNs . Figure 38.

However the parent partition is unaware of the child partition using the LUN because the child partition is directly accessing the LUN. regardless if the operating system supports an iSCSI initiator. The iSCSI LUN is attached to the child partition and the virtual machine directly accesses the partition.  Does not natively support boot from the iSCSI LUN and requires products available from Microsoft partners to support iSCSI boot for virtual machines. As illustrated in Figure 38.  Allows the virtual machine to boot from the iSCSI LUN. The iSCSI LUN is attached to the parent partition and the virtual machine directly accesses the partition. the parent partition formats LUN-C as E: and the .vhd files on the same iSCSI LUN. see Hyper-V: Using Live Migration with Cluster Shared Volumes in Windows Server 2008 R2. the parent partition is also aware of the child partition using the LUN. This method:  Allows only one virtual machine to use the iSCSI LUN.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine. regardless if the operating system supports an iSCSI initiator. This method:  Allows multiple virtual machines to store .  Supports Live Migration scenarios using Cluster Shared Volumes. Pass-through parent partition disk Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN .  Allows the virtual machine to boot from the iSCSI LUN.vhd file for Virtual Machine C is created on the E: volume. Methods that Virtual Machines Can Use to Connect to iSCSI LUNs Method VHD created on parent partition volume Description The iSCSI LUN is attached to the parent partition and is formatted as an NTFS volume and assigned a drive letter in the parent partition. However. the child partition connects to LUN-A. As illustrated in Figure 38.vhd file is created on the volume that is accessed by the virtual machine. the parent partition connects to LUN-B and Virtual Machine B directly connects to the partition. A . This method:  Allows only one virtual machine to use the iSCSI LUN.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine that have a supported iSCSI initiator. For more information.117 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 33. As illustrated in Figure 38.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine.

such as the .118 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note Performing a complete backup of the parent partition will back up iSCSI LUNs that are connected using the VHD created on parent partition method.  There is minimal performance difference between the VHD created on parent partition and the Pass-through parent partition disk methods.  The associated virtual machine files. you could install an instance of Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) in a virtual machine that can be used for NFS account mapping. iSCSI LUNs that are connected using the Pass-through parent partition disk or the Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN methods must be backed up separately in addition to performing a complete backup of the parent partition. The recommended method is the VHD created on parent partition method for the following reasons:  Backups are complex using the Pass-through parent partition disk or the Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN methods. . Running Virtual Machines on Windows Storage Server Windows Storage Server can also run the Hyper-V server role. This feature allows you to provide other services in the virtual machines running on Windows Storage Server. This reduces the complexity in providing your solution by reducing the number of physical appliances to manage and minimizes the power consumption for your solution (with the appropriate licensing). For example. You can run up to two virtual machines on Windows Storage Server depending on the Windows Storage Server edition. This allows you to create a NFS file access solution that runs on one appliance. are stored on the same LUN where the .vhd files reside using this method.  Two virtual machines on Windows Storage Server Enterprise Edition.bin files. You can run:  One virtual machine on Windows Storage Server Standard Edition. It is also recommended that you create a separate iSCSI target for each LUN that you connect to the parent partition to improve performance. Creating a separate iSCSI target for each LUN will improve performance because each iSCSI target has its own I/O submission queue.

Figure 39 illustrates how iSCSI boot can support a Windows HPC Server cluster solution. including those that provide iSCSI boot services for:  Web blades configured to support the same application in a web farm. In this solution. the nodes can use the storage . see the “Supporting iSCSI Boot” section earlier in this white paper.  Computer nodes in Windows High-Performance Computing (HPC) Server clusters.  Interactive kiosks in retail stores. the nodes in the cluster do not require a local hard disk drive to serve as a system disk. For more information about how to support iSCSI boot using Windows Storage Server. There are many solutions that can take advantage of iSCSI boot.119 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server supports iSCSI boot for solutions that include diskless physical computers or virtual machines. Instead.  Thin clients in libraries or schools. Figure 39. Windows Storage Server in Windows HPC iSCSI Boot Deployment By using iSCSI and Windows Storage Server. Windows Storage Server centralizes the storage for the HPC cluster.

Tight integration with other Microsoft products and technologies also helps IT pros use existing infrastructure services (such as AD DS). Conclusion Windows Storage Server provides storage solutions for all types and sizes of organizations. the NAS gateway capabilities extend the storage services provided by existing storage solutions. including filtering of content. Using this solution.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Technical Library  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. A variety of Windows Storage Server appliances are available from Microsoft partners that can support entry level to enterprise level workloads. availability. industry-standard hardware to appliances or they can be scaled out by adding additional appliances. The high-availability features in Windows Storage Server help create mission-critical solutions that require maximum uptime. and security products (such as Microsoft Forefront products). and scalability for Windows operating systems. such as Group Policy. This allows small. LPR print services. deploy. Windows Storage Server appliances can provide storage solutions that are flexible. Web services. Branch offices can be easily managed from central head offices using these management features. centralized management features. Highly-efficient. All aspects of storage management can be centrally managed.120 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper resources on Windows Storage Server to boot Windows HPC Server over the network.3 Technical Library . This allows for fast deployment and recovery of the nodes. and iSCSI target services features in Windows Storage Server help protect investments in existing networks with other operating systems. Also. and iSCSI block I/O services on a single appliance. easier to maintain. and more cost effective than other dedicated appliances or storage solutions. Nodes that use the storage resources on the storage array to boot over iSCSI are called iSCSI boot nodes. operations and management products (such as the System Center family of products). DFS Namespace.  Windows Storage Server blog. such as Linux or Mac OS. The SMB2 protocol. disk usage quotas. The NFS file services. help reduce the ongoing operations and management of storage solutions. see the following resources:  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 home page. Windows Storage Server can run file services.to medium-sized organizations and branch offices to take advantage of a multifunction appliance. Solutions can be scaled up by adding costeffective. and DFS Replication features in Windows Storage Server enhance performance.  Subsequently boot the 256 cluster nodes in less than 9 minutes. you can:  Deploy Windows HPC Server to 256 cluster nodes in approximately 34 minutes. print services. Each cluster node boots from a differencing virtual disk that is based on the same fixed virtual disk. More Information For more information. Because Windows Storage Server is an optimized version of Windows Server 2008 R2. and operate Window Storage Server solutions in their organization. and the creation of shared network storage resources. IT pros can quickly plan. instead of dedicated or single function appliances.

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