Windows Storage Server 2008 R2

Architecture and Deployment White Paper
Version 1.0

Published: February 2011

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Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................ 1 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Overview .................................................... 3 Comparing Windows Server Operating System Storage Offerings .................. 3 Comparing Windows Storage Server with Windows Server ..................... 3 Identifying Windows Storage Server Features ....................................... 4 What’s New in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 .................................. 5 Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2 ................................................................................................ 8 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Editions ................................................10 Identifying Storage Challenges ................................................................12 Identify Scalability Storage Challenges ................................................12 Identify Availability Storage Challenges ...............................................13 Identify Security Storage Challenges ..................................................14 Identify Manageability Storage Challenges ..........................................14 Identify Data Recovery Storage Challenges .........................................14 Identifying Windows Storage Server Solution Benefits ................................14 Identifying Scalability Benefits ...........................................................15 Identifying Availability Benefits ..........................................................15 Identifying Security Benefits ..............................................................16 Identifying Manageability Benefits ......................................................16 Identifying Data Recovery Benefits .....................................................18 Exploring Windows Storage Server Features and Capabilities ............................19 Providing Access to File Services Workloads ..............................................20 Supporting File Services Workloads Using CIFS, SMB, or SMB2 ..............20 Supporting File Services Workloads Using NFS .....................................21 Supporting File Services Workloads Using WebDAV ..............................22 Supporting File Services Workloads Using Windows SharePoint Services ..........................................................................................23 Providing Access to iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ..........................................23 Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target ...............................................................................24 Supporting iSCSI Boot ......................................................................27 Providing Access to Web Services Workloads .............................................30 Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads ..............................................31 Providing Access to Print Services Workloads ............................................31 Providing Reduction in Power Consumption ...............................................33 Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers ...............................33 Processor Power Management ............................................................33 Storage Power Management ..............................................................34 Additional Power Saving Features .......................................................35 Performing Highly Automated Installations ................................................35 Managing Windows Storage Server ................................................................36 Management Tools for All Workloads ........................................................36 Managing Power Consumption for All Workloads ........................................37

........................................47 Managing Print Services Workloads ..............38 Managing File Services Using File Server Resource Manager ..................................41 Managing Single Instance Storage ......................72 Improving Availability of Print Services Workloads ........................................59 Securing File Services Workloads .......................................................................53 Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data ........................................................62 Securing Web Services Workloads......................61 Securing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ..41 Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication ..........................................................................................................44 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads .....................................................................45 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads .......................68 Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Initiators ....................................49 Protecting Windows Storage Server Workload Data .65 Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads .................38 Managing File Services Workloads .exe Tool to Backup IIS Configuration ........67 Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Targets ..........58 Using the PrintBRM...................................................54 Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service ...........65 Improving Availability of File Services Workloads ........................................63 Securing Print Services Workloads ...................................58 Securing Windows Storage Server Workloads .............................................................43 Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ..........................................52 Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data ..59 Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads ..............55 Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization .56 Using Automated System Recovery to Protect Data ...........................................51 Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data .............................................................exe Tool to Backup Printer Information ...........................................................................................57 Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect Data .........................................................................................51 Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data.70 Improving Availability of Web Services Workloads ....46 Managing Web Services Workloads ..38 Managing File Services Using Share and Storage Management ......................................................................................................54 Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap .............................................................56 Using DFS Replication to Protect Data ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................37 In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting .....................................................................................64 Improving Availability of Windows Storage Server Workloads...........................................................................56 Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data .......................................73 ...............45 Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell ..................57 Using the Appcmd..ii Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Remote Manageability of Power Policy............................................................55 Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization .............

.......78 Review Improvements in the SMB2 Protocol ....74 Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Protocol ........................... 100 Creating Branch Office Solutions .................................. 113 Creating Solutions for Heterogeneous Environments .........................................................................................................................................................93 Improving Performance and Scalability for Web Services Workloads .................................................76 Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations ...... 101 Creating Highly-Available Solutions ......................................................................................................................................................................74 Improving Performance and Scalability for All Workloads ............................. 115 Creating Virtualization Solutions ......................................... 120 ....79 Review SMB-based File Services Workload Test Results........... 109 Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation .......87 Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files ....................................................................94 Review Web Services Workload Test Results ................................................74 Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity .............................................................iii Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Performance and Scalability for Windows Storage Server Solutions ............................85 Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache .......90 Review I/O Storage Test Results ...................................................................................................96 Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration .. 120 More Information ......................................................... 118 Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions ............................. 116 Connecting Virtual Machines to iSCSI LUNs..................................................... 119 Conclusion ............................................................................ 116 Running Virtual Machines on Windows Storage Server .....................................................1 in Windows Server 2008 R2 ................................77 Improving Performance and Scalability for File Services Workloads .........................................................94 Improving Performance and Scalability for Print Workloads ....................... 113 Creating Application Consolidation Solutions .......................... 114 Creating Unified Storage Solutions ......................................98 Using Windows Storage Server in iSCSI Block I/O Configuration ................75 Improvements in Network Adapter Performance..................90 Identify Methods for Improving iSCSI Block I/O Workload Performance and Scalability ..................................................................................................................................................... 110 Creating Small to Medium Business Solutions ...........................95 Windows Storage Server Deployment Scenarios .........96 Overview of Windows Storage Server Configurations ...96 Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration ......................................97 Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration ..90 Improving Performance and Scalability for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ...............82 Reviewing Performance Improvements in SMB Version 2....94 Identify Methods for Improving Web Services Workload Performance and Scalability .............

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Provides the ability to share documents. NFS version 3. or Internet printing services. SMB2 provides a superset of the features found in CIFS and provides improved performance and reliability over previous versions of SMB. and how Windows Storage Server appliances address them. Line Printer Daemon (LPD) services. These services also provide high-performance access to remote disk LUNs using the iSCSI industry standard and can act as an iSCSI initiator or an iSCSI target. Windows Storage Server provides a unified solution for the following workloads:  Files services. Web services. Windows Storage Server refers to Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. see Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. The most common feature is to store files in document libraries. and highly-available storage solutions. which are connected using the Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) standard. Provides access to files using the Server Message Block (SMB) version 2. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials provides entrylevel solutions intended for use in organizations with 24 or less computers. Windows Storage Server is only available through Microsoft Partners.  Virtualization services. The following table lists some of the problems and pain points that organizations have with network attached storage appliances. This white paper describes the features and technologies in Windows Storage Server. and operate storage solutions. For more information about Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials. Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV).0. and how to create secure.  Web services.  iSCSI Block storage services. In addition to providing extended features. Provides access to printers using Microsoft print services. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 is built on Windows Server 2008 to create efficient and effective storage solutions.0. This white paper is intended for IT professionals who design. and print services workloads. Provides the ability to run up to two virtual machines on an appliance. which supports check-in and check-out features.  Windows® SharePoint® Services. and share ideas and information. iSCSI block input/output (I/O). Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS). Windows Storage Server provides solutions that complement the file services provided by Windows Server. . File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) protocols. Microsoft OEM partners offer specialized hardware and additional software components to create network attached storage appliances. Windows Storage Server extends the file services in Windows Server by providing addition storage features not found in Windows Server. Note This white paper focuses on all Windows Storage Server editions except for Windows® Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials. or FTP.Introduction Windows® Storage Server 2008 R2 is the latest in the Windows Storage Server family of products and is based on the technologies and features found in Windows Server® 2008 R2. unless otherwise specified. such as Common Internet File System (CIFS) or Network File System (NFS). depending on the Windows Storage Server edition. track tasks. WebDAV. Note In this white paper. Provides access to Web-based content and services. Provides remote network attached storage that appears as a disk logical unit number (LUN) to other computers. Provides access to files managed by the appliance for computers using file access protocols. extensible. deploy. scalable. use email efficiently and effectively.  Print services. which can be accessed using HTTP. including file services. and file history. version control. purchasing Windows Storage Server bundled with partner appliances can be more cost effective than purchasing Windows Server and a server computer separately.

and Network Load Balancing for improved availability and fault tolerance in addition to the hardware fault tolerance features provided by Microsoft OEM partners. Windows Software Update Services (WSUS). Many on-going operations and management tasks can also be automated using System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager. Limited customization and extensibility. and the server software supports extensibility using any application programming interfaces (APIs) supported by Windows Server 2008. performance. availability. Uses familiar Windows Server management consoles. Takes advantage of the breadth and depth of the software and hardware products provided by other vendors that are provided for Windows Server 2008. Share permissions. Limited breadth of vendor support. Limited disaster recovery. Minimal or no integration with existing authentication and authorization system. Integrates with Active Directory® Doman Services (AD DS) and Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services. including Windows Update. including BitLocker® Drive Encryption. and Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager. to provide optimal security. Distributed File System (DFS). NTFS permissions. Provides a set of software update management technologies and products for any sized organization. Lack of comprehensive software update management. Supports industry standard protocols and services that provide interoperability in heterogeneous environments. Limited protection of information stored on the appliance. Loosely integrated with clients that consume the services. Limited provisions for failover or fault tolerant configurations. scalability. . Supports Windows Server Failover Clusters. and Microsoft® Forefront®. Implements nonstandard or proprietary protocols or services. Designed to work "better together" with Windows operating systems. Management of workloads. and manageability. extensible Microsoft OEM vendor hardware platforms. including Windows Vista® and Windows® 7. Supports a wide variety of security products and technologies. Provides Windows Server Backup as part of Windows Storage Server. such as System Center Data Protection Manager. and supports other disaster recovery products from Microsoft.2 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 1. Network Attached Storage Appliance Problems and Pain Points Problem or pain point Windows Storage Server solution Dedicated or limited function Provides servicing of multiple workloads on highly appliance. Ongoing operations and maintenance is labor intensive. Many of the management consoles can be customized to include Microsoft OEM partner branding. and from Microsoft partners.

Windows Server® operating systems have been providing storage solutions since their introduction. and easy to manage. For a more detailed description of the differences between these operating systems. see the “Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2” section in this white paper. Windows Server includes Microsoft file and print services.  Identifying the features that are new to Windows Storage Server 2008 R2.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 editions.  Automation of administration tasks using Windows PowerShell™. DFS-N. but is optimized for storage solutions. such as Active Directory® Domain Services. DFS-R.  Identifying Storage challenges. . and support for web applications running Internet Information Services (IIS).  Efficient management of shared resources using familiar Windows management consoles and command-line utilities. As a general purpose operating system. or Direct Access.  Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2. DHCP Server. scalable. Deduplication of files is a specific form of compression provided by the SIS feature that combines redundant files into a single instance of the file.3 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Overview Windows Storage Server is optimized for file workloads and includes additional technologies. such as deduplication of files using the Single Instance Storage (SIS) feature. and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. and then replaces the files with reparse points (links) to the single instance. it shares all the benefits of Window Server. to provide a unified storage solution. because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server. These optimizations provide enhanced features and performance not found in the general purpose Windows Server operating systems.  Identifying Windows Storage Server solution benefits. full screen remote desktop control of storage server administration using Web RDP. Windows Storage Server is a member of the Windows Sever operating system family that is built on Windows Server. secure. Comparing Windows Server Operating System Storage Offerings Each current Windows® operating system provides some level of storage services. each of these Windows operating systems has different storage capabilities and features. This comparison of Windows Server operating system storage offerings includes:  Comparing Windows Storage Server with Window Server. However. This overview of Windows Storage Server includes the following topics:  Comparing Windows Server operating system storage offerings. Comparing Windows Storage Server with Windows Server Windows Server operating systems are a family of general purpose operating systems that provide a platform for running IT services and applications that are highly-available.  Identifying the features that are unique to Windows Storage Server. Network Access Protection. However. including:  A common application programming interface.  Tightly integrated with Windows infrastructure services.

such as Initial Configuration Tasks window. Potentially lowers deployment cost than Windows Server when new hardware is required. Runs more than two virtual machines in a Microsoft Hyper-V™ environment. as described in the “Step 2: Customize the end user installation experience for the usage scenario” section in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 OEM Deployment Guide.  The ability to extend the Windows user experience for commonly used management tools. Installs on existing computers. In other instances. Provides file deduplicaton using SIS. Consolidate file services and iSCSI block I/O on one appliance Provides file services for an existing SAN solution by acting as a SAN gateway. Table 2.  Full-screen remote desktop management using Windows Internet Explorer® or any web browser that supports Java using the WebRDP feature as described in the “Management Tools for All Workloads” section in this white paper. Identifying Windows Storage Server Features Windows Storage Server includes the following features that are not included in Windows Server:  Deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage (SIS) v2 as described in the section “Managing Single Instance Storage” in this white paper.  The ability to function as an iSCSI target using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. Table 2 lists the reasons for selecting Windows Storage Server or Windows Server as your storage solution. . such as database services or messaging services. such as file services and domain controller on the same computer. Reasons to Select Windows Storage Server or Windows Server Solution Windows Storage Server Why select this solution      Windows Server      Provides iSCSI block I/O storage for application storage scenarios. Provides additional installation and configuration options. Provides multiple roles on the same computer. Runs applications on the same computer.4 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper There are many instances in which Windows Storage Server provides a more costeffective and efficient storage solution than Windows Server. Windows Server many have distinct advantages over Windows Storage Server.3 as described in the section “Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target” in this white paper.

iSCSI Software Target 3. Table 3. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Provides locally cached copies of files to reduce network utilization between locations. NFS client user identities use automatically generated Windows SIDs to access NFS shares. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using Branch Cache”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Dramatic reduction in network utilization for accessing files. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target”  “Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions” DFS namespace (DFS-N) improvements Branch cache hosted cache mode SMB2 file access improvements Unmapped UNIX User Access (UUUA) for NFS file services. which minimizes administrative effort. New or Improved Features in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Feature DFS replication (DFS-R) Description Supports up to 16 simultaneous replication streams. Supports replication to and from failover clusters. For more information. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Supporting Files Services Workloads Using NFS”  “Securing Files Services Workloads” Improved performance for iSCSI block I/O workloads and support for differencing VHDs used in iSCSI boot solutions. For more information.000 domain-based namespaces and improvements in fault tolerances. For more information. For more information. Provides read-only access to replica copies of data. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Review Improvements in the SMB Protocol”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Reduced administrative effort for providing and monitoring access to NFS shares. For more information. For more information.5 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper What’s New in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Table 3 lists the new or improved features in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 that did not exist in previous versions of Windows Storage Server. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication”  “Using DFS Replication to Protect Data”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Scales to support up to 60.3 .

Dramatic reduction in power consumption due to improvements in system resource power management. such as processor power consumption. and increased memory capacity. In addition. For more information. Automation of repetitive administrative tasks using Windows PowerShell Remote management using WebRDP Client. For more information. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity”  “Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using Branch Cache” Performance for I/O operations has been dramatically improved. Performance and manageability for FTP services have been improved. 64-bit processor support. see the “Management Tools for All Workloads” section in this white paper. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Improving Availability of File Services Workloads”  “Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads” Windows PowerShell providers are included for Single Instance Storage and iSCSI block I/O workloads. For more information. see “Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads” section in this white paper. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Providing Reduction in Power Consumption”  “Management Tools for All Workloads” Overall performance enhancements due to operating system optimization. For more information. the Cluster Name and Domain Join Wizard and the Cluster Validation and Setup Wizard. see the “Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations” section in this white paper. Power consumption and power management Performance and memory capacity I/O performance FTP services . For more information. For more information. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell”  “Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell” IT pros can remotely perform full-screen remote desktop management using Internet Explorer or any web browser that supports Java. the power management features can be configured using Group Policy settings.6 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Simplified deployment for two node clusters Description Reduced administrative effort for installing and configuring a failover cluster using two appliances using the Initial Configuration Tasks window.

The classification of files is defined by IT administrators.7 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description Windows File Classification Management of files has been improved though the infrastructure Windows File Classification Infrastructure. see the “Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data” section in this white paper. For more information. and reduced effort for developing a backup extension. Windows PowerShell Windows PowerShell support has been improved for helping to automate storage management tasks. For more information. For more information. For more information. supports concurrent restores. LUN resynchronization can be used to provide faster recovery in some disaster recovery scenarios. see “Performing Highly Automated Installations” in this white paper. which allows files to be managed based on their classification. Windows Server Backup Windows Server Backup provides improved features for performing backup and recovery scenarios. see the “Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data”” section in this white paper. see “Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure” in this white paper. LUN resynchronization Volume Shadow Copy Service improvements . For more information. Provides snapshots of volumes virtual hard disks (VHDs). see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell”  “Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell” Unattended installation and Storage settings can be configured at installation time configuration of storage using the unattended installation. which facilitates fully settings automated installations. see “Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data” section in this white paper. For more information.

NET 3. File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) Full Text Search Group Policy Management Console Integration with Windows Server ecosystems (including backup software.) Internet Printing Client LPR Port Monitor Microsoft file services based on SMB2 Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ) Multipath I/O Network File System (NFS) Peer Name Resolution Protocol Remote Assistance Remove Desktop Connection Remote Differential Compression Remote Server Admin Tools RPC Over HTTP Proxy Simple TCP/IP Services SNMP Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications (SUA) Telnet Server TFTP Client Windows Biometric Framework Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Windows Network Load Balancing Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) Windows PowerShell Windows Process Activation Server .0  BitLocker Drive Encryption Note BitLocker Drive Encryption does not work with failover clusters.                                  BITS Server Extensions Desktop Experience DFS Namespace DFS Replication DHCP Server Failover Clustering Note Failover clustering is available only in the Enterprise edition of Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. and antivirus software.8 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2 The following lists features and technologies common to both Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2:  Administration Tools  Microsoft .

Supports deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage (SIS). Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Differences Feature or technology Availability to organizations. there are some differences between the two products. Supports customized branding of user interface.  Windows Server Migration Tools  WS-Management  Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) Although Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 is based on the features and technologies in Windows Server 2008 R2. Windows Server 2008 R2 Retail channels Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Microsoft OEM partners     Optionally performed by Microsoft OEM partners . Table 4 lists the feature and technology differences between the two products.3. Table 4.9 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Windows Server Backup Note Windows Server Backup does not work with failover clusters and does not support volumes larger than 2 terabytes. Optimized for file services workloads. Supports acting as an iSCSI target using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. Supports full screen remote desktop management using Web RDP.

NFS. and Web services workloads. which provides key functionality to support any sized business and IT storage challenge. Number of disks supported. Deduplication of files using SIS.10 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Editions Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. is available in the following editions:  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Workgroup. Capabilities Maximum number of simultaneous users supported. Table 5 lists the capabilities of Windows Storage Server. Maximum number of network adapters. iSCSI block I/O services. Type of disk adapters supported. Workgroup is an entry-level technology foundation also targeted at small business owners and IT generalists supporting small businesses. Use the information in Table 5 to identify which Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 edition is best suited for your organization.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Standard. Maximum number of processor sockets. Comparison of Windows Storage Editions Maximum system resources support Capabilities Supported processor architecture. BitLocker Drive Encryption    Workgroup 64-bit 4 32 GB 2 6 Any  Workgroup 25     Standard 64-bit 4 32 GB Unlimited Any Any  Standard Unlimited     Enterprise 64-bit 8 2 terabyte Unlimited Any Any  Enterprise Unlimited        . DFS replication. print services. and the support level for the capabilities in each edition of the product. Workgroup provides support for less than 25 users who require access to file services using Microsoft file services or NFS. print services. iSCSI block I/O services. BranchCache in hosted cache mode.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Enterprise. File Classification Infrastructure. Maximum amount of memory. Enterprise is an advanced platform that provides more cost-effective and reliable support for mission-critical workloads. Enterprise provides support for an unlimited number of users with maximum faulttolerance and scalability provided in a Windows Storage Server product. and Web services workloads. deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage. Standard provides support for an unlimited number of users who require access to file services using Microsoft file services or NFS. Hardware RAID supported. Table 5. File Services Resource Manager.

Windows Search services. Fax services. Domain name system (DNS). Domain membership. Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services. Note Some Microsoft partners include the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by default. OEM customization of user interface and experience. Workgroup Optional Standard Optional Enterprise Optional Failover clusters. Number of printers supported for Print Services workloads. Windows Management Instrumentation. see the section. DHCP Server services. "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Specifications" later in this white paper. AD DS read-only domain controller.11 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Capabilities Microsoft iSCSI Target Software. Multipath I/O.      Any    1 Any             2 Any           For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target specifications. . Windows Server Backup. Hyper-V guest support.

and where to find them. policy-driven processes and procedures.  Identify security challenges in storage solutions. Identify Scalability Storage Challenges Internal or external hard disks are the most common way to store data on desktops. Data must be recoverable in the event of a disaster. Business requirements determine the challenges that an organization must solve to provide a comprehensive storage solution. Decentralization of Data As the number of systems increase. Security Manageability Data recovery Identify storage solution challenges by performing the following steps:  Identify scalability challenges in storage solutions. Even when sharing is enabled. or purchase additional computers that each have more hard disks. there is no effective mechanism to determine exactly where information is stored or which version of a document is the most up-todate. Table 6 lists the categories of storage challenges that most organizations experience. it can be difficult to make the data accessible to others. Finding the appropriate solution requires careful optimization of an enterprise-wide storage plan. or branch offices using highly-automated. compromise. and servers. However. Table 6. regardless of the size of their organization. upgrade to higher capacity disks. Data must be accessible by users on an on-demand basis for a high percentage of the time.  Identify manageability challenges in storage solutions. When an administrator finds that these hard disk drives are getting too full.  Compatibility with storage networking solutions. Many organizations must adhere to data retention regulatory requirements to not keep data older than a defined age. in a decentralized structure an administrator can .  Underutilization of storage resources. making it difficult for users to know what resources exist.  Identify availability challenges in storage solutions.  Identify data recovery challenges in storage solutions. and it should be protected from any single point of failure. data is increasingly dispersed throughout a company. Data must be easy to manage and maintain for local users. Storage Challenge Categories Category Scalability Availability Description Data must be accessible in a timely manner based on the response times defined in your Service Level Agreements (SLAs). This is an especially troublesome problem with data stored on desktops — without file sharing enabled on these computers. and inadvertent user error.12 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Storage Challenges IT pros face most of the same storage challenges. unauthorized access. the simplest solutions to increase storage capacity are: add more hard drives. Scalability storage challenges include:  Decentralized of data. workstations. Data must remain free from corruption. remote users.

storage interconnects. and ensuring that the data is protected well enough to meet requirements. These parity-based approaches can provide protection from a disk failure through the maintenance of checksum information. Storage solutions must be able to integrate with. Failure in any of a number of hardware components — storage devices.13 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper face many hurdles when building and applying a consistent policy to the type and age of data that is stored. and offer services for. users still have the problem of not being able to find the data that they need — or in some cases even knowing that it exists. Unfortunately. Anticipating growth and implementing storage solutions that scale with growth remains a problem. but capacity exceeded on another. As data is centralized. and those resources must be provisioned before disk capacity is exceeded. RAID 5. Hard Disk Redundancy Hard disk redundancy can be achieved using RAID types such as RAID 10. such as network attached storage (NAS) and storage area networks (SANs). mechanisms need to be put in place to ensure data availability so that user productivity is not negatively affected. thus space may be available on one server. 24x7.  Server redundancy. Underutilization of Storage Resources Storage that is directly attached to a server is made available to other computers on the network through the operating system’s sharing capabilities. The availability storage challenges include:  Hard disk redundancy. Adding more servers does not eliminate the problem of inefficient utilization of storage space between servers. they also scale well with more advanced storage solutions. motherboards and power supplies — can result in a temporary or permanent loss of data. Some computers inevitably exceed their storage capacity. You can also create more sophisticated. directly attached storage tends to scale poorly over the long term. while others have excess capacity but no means to effectively share those resources. cabling. Fault tolerance can be achieved through redundancy of hardware components. parity-based configurations that spread multiple data over multiple drives. other storage mediums with the end result being consolidated management flow for administrators and a consistent experience for users. Compatibility with Storage Networking Solutions The best storage solutions not only meet today’s storage needs. processors. and is one way to ensure highly available data. Hard disks using the same RAID controller can be combined to provide a fault tolerance disk configuration using RAID subsystems. Identify Availability Storage Challenges Businesses rely on making their services and information available for access. Storage remains local to each server. But. year-round. In this case. . because the data can be readily shared across the network. Effective storage planning requires accurate predictions of which users and applications will require more storage capacity. Migrating a company’s critical data to a centralized server can help the situation. or RAID 6. high latency WAN links. network interconnects. as more servers are added to increase storage capacity (and to provide redundancy in the event of hardware failure). organizations can experience bandwidth bottlenecks as users in remote locations attempt to access data in a central location via potentially slow.

demand is increasing to share data among users whether they are running Windows. Most of these advantages are available because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server 2008 R2. users are rarely effective in performing regular backups. remote users must be able to access the data through remote access connections. With Failover Clustering. extranets. UNIX. However. or another operating system. these solutions provide only partial protection. user error. although many organizations require multiple platforms to support various applications. Access to the data must be secured for users on the organization’s intranet. This redirection can also ensure data availability even when the computer is not connected to the network. but also from data corruption. Administrators are responsible for managing file. and for clustering those servers to ensure effective performance and high availability. even if a server goes down. and disasters. Identify Manageability Storage Challenges System administration can become enormously complex. Identifying Windows Storage Server Solution Benefits Network attached storage appliances running Windows Storage Server have a number of advantages compared to other network attached storage appliances. Technologies such as folder redirection combined with Offline Files can help users store data on servers by redirecting key folders. IT pros have to help ensure the strongest possible security while allowing users the access they require to data.14 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Server Redundancy Failover clustering allows two or more computer systems to perform and be managed as a single system. system administrators strongly advocate storing critical documents and data on a server. such as My Documents to a network location while keeping a cached version of the data on the user’s local machine. Hard disks must be backed up by the individual user. Identify Security Storage Challenges Preventing unauthorized access to confidential data requires tight integration between file services and identity management systems. The benefits to creating storage solutions using Windows Storage Server include:  Scalability  Availability  Security  Manageability  Data recovery . The most common means of protecting data from these problems is through tape backups and restores. Unfortunately. and for that reason. In addition. Finally. especially in midsize and large organizations. application. web. and database servers. applications remain online. Users are redirected to another computer without any loss of services. Identify Data Recovery Storage Challenges System administrators must protect data not only from hardware failure. or the Internet. Security in depth is required in terms of multi-level and multi-factor security in instances where the data is highly confidential. where it can be properly backed up.

memory. Those modifications are compressed during transmission. line of business. In addition. Windows Storage Server includes support for fault tolerate memory synchronization.  Reduces storage requirements. offering the ability to contain and recover from several types of multi-bit ECC errors in memory and cache without operating system or application interruption. Windows Storage Server can failover to an alternate path if the primary path fails. Windows Storage Server can scale up to 256 logical processors to meet the demands of business-critical servers supporting large databases.15 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Scalability Benefits The following are the scalability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Increasing the Effectiveness of File Sharing. When multiple paths exist between servers and storage. and custom applications that sometimes require highly reliable. Failover clustering can help you build redundancy into your network and eliminate single points of failure. and I/O host bridges.  Dynamic hardware partitioning. scalable servers. including fans and power supplies and processors and RAM that runs in lockstep together. therefore. With the release of Windows Server 2008 R2. Distributed File System (DFS) simplifies the user’s process of locating and accessing files distributed across an organization. It is no longer necessary to add an additional server for each additional DFS root directory. On a dynamically partitionable server. This data can be made highly available in a transparent manner using the Distributed File System Namespace. and hot-replace of processors and memory on x64-based and Itanium-based systems which support DHP. and to provide support for Access Based Enumeration (ABE) on DFS Namespaces.  Processor scaling. Single Instance Storage actively compares and eliminates identical files on selected volumes.000-link target limit that previously existed. DFS only displays items in the namespace and folders that the user has access to. and this capability has been maintained in Windows Server 2008 R2. Windows Storage Server supports hot-add of processors. Windows Server® 2003 introduced the ability to accommodate multiple DFS root directories on each server. WHEA has been enhanced to support Machine Check Architecture (MCA) error recovery.  Improved fault tolerance between servers and storage. Fault-tolerant servers contain redundant hardware. the secondary component takes over in a process that is seamless to the application running on the server. faster synchronization. If a primary component fails. ensuring access to the nearest available copy of the data at the lowest cost.  Windows Hardware Error Architecture (WHEA). You can select the failover priority by configuring the load-balancing policies for your storage solution. protection and recovery by Single Instance Store-aware backup solutions can significantly reduce backup windows and recovery times. Duplicate files are transparently replaced with file system links to the single copy retained in the SIS Common Store — saving significant capacity. resulting in less bandwidth used for replication and. DFS has been enhanced to remove the 5. The Distributed File System Replication (DFSR) service controls replication and synchronization of data using Remote Differential Compression (RDC) that only replicates modifications to a file. . Once enabled. Identifying Availability Benefits The following are the availability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Failover clustering.  Fault tolerant hardware. partition units can be added or replaced without restarting the operating system. The Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server helps optimize storage capacity using built-in file deduplication. DFS also offers closest site selection.

You can manage and operate Windows Storage Server using the same IT processes and procedures that are currently used to manage Windows Server 2008 R2.  Manages multi-vendor storage more effectively. Identities from AD DS. In addition. many of the Microsoft management products. such as BitLocker Drive Encryption. and operate storage solutions. Much of this existing knowledge is integrated in the product or available online. NTFS permissions.  Easily extends storage solutions. In addition. Windows Server 2008 R2 contains a number of management interfaces for SAN hardware. and federated domains using Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS). This helps protect your existing investment while developing custom processes and procedures. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS). You can use the same extensive security products and technologies found in Windows Server 2008 to secure Windows Storage Server. Because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server 2008 R2. such as System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager 2007. you can manage and operate Windows Storage Server using other products. In past versions of Windows Server. such as Microsoft Forefront.16 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Improved recovery from configuration errors. Windows Storage Server allows you to take configuration snapshots of the storage subsystem (for example. you can quickly restore the configuration to a previous version. For example. and with less effort. deploy. more precisely. multi-vendor storage device management required a system administrator to manage each device independently and to use a different vendor-supplied interface to do so — all of which adds another layer of complexity to the system administrator’s job. This familiarity dramatically can help reduce your learning curve so that you can quickly and efficiently plan. The broad range of well documented APIs and scripting languages can help you customize Windows Storage Server to meet your organization's requirements.  Manages and operates your storage solution using your existing processes and procedures. Comprehensive Microsoft support for Windows Server products and the extensive community of partners and peers help you resolve storage-related issues with less effort. In the event of a subsequent configuration failure. Forefront Identity Manager (FIM) 2010 also can be used to synchronize identities from other identity systems. you can take advantage of your expertise with Windows Server. build. You can also use Microsoft and partner products to further strengthen the security of your storage solutions. Windows Storage Server integrates easily with existing Windows IT infrastructure services. such as System Center Operations Manager. can be used to access resources shared by Windows Storage Server.  Integrates with existing identity management systems. the iSCSI configuration). You can easily extend the features and services provided by Windows Storage Server using the large number of products and services provided by Microsoft partners or by developing your own solution. such as AD DS. include knowledge from the product groups at Microsoft to help provide you with accurate and relevant information to resolve support issues. Identifying Manageability Benefits The following are the manageability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Reduces time to realize efficient management. Identifying Security Benefits The following are the security benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Secures digital assets. An error in the configuration of the storage subsystem can negatively affect storage availability. and IPsec.  Seamlessly integrates with your existing Windows IT infrastructure.  Resolves support issues faster. the Storage Manager for SANs. In addition. . This level of integration also helps minimize any infrastructure remediation that may be required to deploy and operate your storage solution.

The Windows Storage Server 2008 operating system is a multi-purpose server designed to handle a diverse set of server roles. Takes advantage of existing network infrastructure for SAN storage. Provides unified solution to storage management and operations. Enhancements include:  Administrators can now control volume mounting to protect volumes from unintentional access.  Fibre Channel and iSCSI SANs handling has been improved. such as Linux. You can automate repetitive administrative tasks using Windows PowerShell scripts in Windows Storage Server. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target component in Windows Storage Server allows you to create iSCSI disk LUNs. Web services. Windows Storage Server 2008 is a network-attached storage (NAS) operating system.17 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper       Migrates from other storage solutions to Windows Storage Server. using available iSCSI initiators. You can use the same set of tools and process to manage all the workloads supported by Windows Storage Server. including file and print. storing Exchange Server and virtual server data and directory services. using the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator or application servers running other operating systems. You can migrate workloads from existing Windows Server operating systems to Windows Storage Server using highly-automated migration tools. The integrated storage services available in Windows Server and Windows Storage Server 2008 have been enhanced in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. For example. instead of using a different set of management tools for each workload. built on Windows Server 2008 R2 operating system technologies. . In addition. such as the File Server Migration Tools. you can use other Microsoft products to further automate the administration of Windows Storage Server. In addition. Robust storage solutions. These tools help protect the integrity of your existing data while ensuring the current user permissions and security configuration is transferred to Windows Storage Server. such as Microsoft® Exchange Server 2010 running on a Windows Server operating system. Windows support for iSCSI technology allows users to connect computers to consolidated storage devices using existing Ethernet technologies. remote desktop. Provides centralized storage for applications. iSCSI technology helps bring the advantages of storage area networking (SAN) to midsize and small businesses that otherwise could not afford the extra cost and management of running a separate Fibre Channel network. rather than having to install a separate Fibre Channel network. iSCSI block I/O services.  SAN Host Bus Adapter (HBA) interoperability has been simplified with the SAN MMC management snap-in. You can manage file services. web. Disk LUNs can be remotely mounted by application servers. Reduces administration effort for storage solutions. and new features have been added aimed at helping businesses control storage management costs and increase availability of data. and print services workloads using the well-known management consoles and utilities in Windows Storage Server. For example. which in turn helps lower total cost of ownership (TCO) especially in complex multivendor storage environments. many Microsoft partners produce products to help in migrating workloads to Windows Server products. SAN technology based on IP also removes the physical limitations of moving data associated with Fibre Channel. Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 make it easier to manage and maintain disks. you can draw on the large number of existing scripts developed by the partner and peer communities to further reduce the time required to achieve automation. You can also centrally manage many of the Windows Storage Server configuration settings using Group Policy. The Windows Storage Server 2008 platform now provides better support for SANs. such as System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager.

and best practice guidance to help make certain that the planning. VSS allows administrators to schedule regular copies of data stored on disk. When multiple paths exist between servers and storage. In the case of catastrophic system failures — cases in which all operating system information is lost and the server is effectively stripped down to bare metal — Automated System Recovery makes possible rapid restore of the system’s original state. You can use many of the existing tools. backing up data becomes an increasingly time intensive and potentially disruptive operation.  Windows Server backup tools. thus adding availability to the data. enabling companies to make copies of necessary data. Making data highly available throughout an organization requires data redundancy. The accidental deletion or overwriting of files has long been the bane of system administrators charged with the time-intensive and costly task of locating and restoring single files from tape. As organizations produce more information. The Windows Recovery Environment in Windows Storage Server is a partial version of the operating system and a set of tools that you can use to perform operating system or full server recoveries. and ongoing operations of Windows Storage Server succeed. The Shadow Copy for Shared Folders feature of the new Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) enables users to easily restore their own deleted files without IT intervention. Identifying Data Recovery Benefits The following are the data recovery benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Easier data recovery. With VSS. deployment. Microsoft Solution Accelerators. separate from the originating server. . because only the changes to the data are saved. These can be responsible for flushing buffers and getting data on a disk in a consistent state that is suitable to back up. open file backups are enabled. Windows Storage Server can failover to an alternate path if the primary path fails. shadow copies take up little disk space. Moreover. thus making unnecessary the disruptive practice of shutting down applications during backup to prevent data consistency issues. Because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server. This capability can be extended with technologies like System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM).  Manages backups and restores more effectively. Your IT organization and users are less likely to experience difficulties in using and operating Windows Storage Server because they are already familiar with Windows Server.18 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Minimizes storage solution adoption risk. The VSS process ensures data integrity though the utilization of VSS writers. which can centrally store the snapshot information. You can select the failover priority by configuring the load-balancing policies for your storage solution  Windows Recovery Environment. you can minimize the risk of adoption for your new storage solution.

19 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Exploring Windows Storage Server Features and Capabilities Windows Storage Server includes a rich set of features and capabilities to help service multiple workloads. Workloads supported by Window Storage Server . as illustrated in Figure 1. These features and capabilities allow Windows Storage Server to act as a unified platform to manage various workloads. unlike dedicated or single function network attached storage appliances. Figure 1.

and the prior versions of SMB for previous Windows operating systems.  iSCSI block I/O workloads.  Providing access to iSCSI block I/O workloads in development.20 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper These features and capabilities help you provide access to:  File services workloads. as illustrated in Figure 1. SMB. which is highly-optimized for use with Windows 7. or SMB2 The SMB2 protocol in Windows Storage Server provides access to files and folders for client computers using the SMB or CIFS protocols. see the "Review Improvements in File Services" section later in this white paper.  Providing access to print services workloads. Some network access storage appliances that are not running Windows Storage Server implement generic CIFS-based file services that implement only older versions of SMB and lack the performance advantages and improved reliability of SMB2. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous file services workloads using the following protocols or features:  CIFS.  Print services workloads This section includes the following topics:  Providing access to file services workloads. or production environments. The File Services server role in Windows Storage Server supports both SMB2.  Providing access to FTP services workloads. or SMB2  NFS  WebDAV  Windows SharePoint® Services Supporting File Services Workloads Using CIFS. including the following workloads:  Hyper-V  Microsoft SQL Server®  Microsoft Exchange Server  iSCSI boot  Providing access to Web services workloads. For more information about the improvements available in SMB2. . test. Providing Access to File Services Workloads File services workloads allow computers to access files and folders stored on network access storage appliances. Select this protocol to support homogeneous or heterogeneous environments that contain:  Windows-based computers that use Client for Microsoft Networks to access file services workloads using the SMB protocol.  Computers running other operating systems that access file services workloads using the CIFS protocol.  Web services workloads. Windows-based client computers use the SMB protocol while other operating systems typically use the CIFS protocol. Windows Storage Server can support file services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments with a variety of operating systems. SMB.

0 with the Services for Network File System role service. This method allows all unmapped users to access shared resources using a common anonymous account is configurable. Note The Server for NFS component supports NFS version 2. see Services for NFS Step-by-Step Guide for Windows Server 2008. Windows Server 2008.0. UNIX Version Support The Services for NFS supports the following versions of UNIX:  Sun Microsystems Solaris version 9  Red Hat Linux version 9  IBM AIX version 5L 5. Server for NFS can support unmapped user access using:  Unmapped UNIX User Access. This component allows a computer running Windows Storage Server and Client for NFS to access NFS mount points on NFS servers. For more information about installing and configuring the Services for Network File System role service. download NFS Account Mapping in Windows Server 2008 R2. The Services for Network File System role service includes the following components:  Server for NFS. Select this protocol to support heterogeneous environments that contain computers running an NFS client that access file services workloads using the NFS protocol. A computer running an NFS client can mount the NFS exported folder into the local file system of the operating system running on the computer. This component includes the Services for NFS snap-in.0 and version 3.2  Hewlett Packard HP-UX version 11i The Server for NFS component allows you to share a folder as a NFS exported folder (also known as a NFS shared folder).21 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Supporting File Services Workloads Using NFS Windows Storage Server supports access to file services workloads using the NFS protocol version 3.  Client for NFS. the Identity Management for UNIX Active Directory schema extension includes the UNIX user identifier (UID) and group identifier (GID) fields. The NFS protocol allows any NFS client computer to access files and folders managed by Windows Storage Server using version 2 and version 3 of the NFS protocol. NFS Authentication The Server for NFS component can use Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) for mapped identity management. and a number of command-line tools for managing it. In addition. The Server for NFS component is required to support file services workloads using NFS. In Windows Storage Server. This enables Server for NFS and Client for NFS to look up Windows-to-UNIX user account mappings directly from AD DS or AD LDS. This component allows a computer running Windows Storage Server and Server for NFS to service NFS client computer requests. . the NFS client allows access to the NFS exported folder using a universal naming convention (UNC) path or by mapping the NFS exported folder to a drive letter. For more information about enabling identity (account) mapping for Services for NFS. For computers running Windows.  Anonymous access. This method allows users to access shared resources using automatically generated Windows Security Identifiers (SIDs) based on the UNIX UID and GID. and later Windows Server operating systems.

and then specifies where Server for NFS can find the file containing the character map. In contrast. To accomplish this.) character. and includes the following improvements:  Integration with IIS 7. Supporting File Services Workloads Using WebDAV The WebDAV protocol is a set of extensions to the HTTP protocol that enables file management over any IP network. files are hidden by setting a special attribute for the file. In the case of Windows computers.  Per-site Configuration. The new WebDAV extension module is tightly integrated with this new design.0 per-URL authorization rules.5 can be enabled at the site level. Windows Storage Server includes version 7.5 of the WebDAV extension module for Internet Information Services (IIS) 7. contain special characters. These authoring rules are separate from the IIS 7. WebDAV 7. Administrators can configure Server for NFS to ignore case sensitivity when returning directory and file names. the administrator creates a file that defines how these characters are to be mapped.  Hidden files.  Special characters. Non-Windows file systems simply do not list files whose names begin with a period (. Client computers running a WebDAV redirector can access file services workloads using the WebDAV protocol. Server for NFS is case-sensitive when matching directory. thereby .) character are hidden. This setting can be turned off by administrators to ensure that files whose names begin with a period (. see Nfsadmin. file names can be case sensitive. Depending on the operating system. Also. The differences between Windows and non-Windows filenames include the following:  Case sensitivity.5 supports per-URL authoring rules. For more information.0 has a new administration interface and configuration store. Administrators can specify how characters in directory and file names will be converted when files are shared between Server for NFS and client computers. so colon characters are valid in non-Windows file names.5 is the latest version of WebDAV for Windows Storage Server.and file-access requests to directories and files in its shared directories. a file stored on NTFS cannot contain the colon (:) character because that character separates the drive letter from the rest of the path in a fully qualified path name. but are not case sensitive. allowing you to specify custom WebDAV security settings on a per-URL basis. IIS 7.22 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Non-Windows and Windows File Names Many of the conventions used for naming files and directories on non-Windows systems differ from those used by Windows. For example. The WebDAV extension module is available as a separate download at WebDAV 7.5 for IIS 7. By default. Files can be hidden on both non-Windows and Windows computers. Previous versions of WebDAV only allowed you to enable WebDAV at the server level. For more information. All current Windows operating systems include a WebDAV redirector. or be hidden from users. Most UNIX-like non-Windows file systems are case-sensitive when handling directory and file names. WebDAV 7.0. By default. Server for NFS does not create files with names beginning with a period as hidden files in the Windows file system. Every file system reserves characters for use in path and command syntax.0. see Configure Case Sensitivity for File and Folder Names. it preserves the case of the names of directories and files when creating files on behalf of NFS client computers. Non-Windows file systems do not use letters to identify drives. Windows computers preserve the case.  Per-URL Security Settings.0 (x64). the new WebDAV extension module integrates with the Internet Information Services Manager console to provide ease of administration. Other operating systems also include a WebDAV redirector. WebDAV 7. which provides support for homogeneous and heterogeneous environments.

Also. as illustrated in Figure 2. Windows Storage Server can be an iSCSI. Computers running Windows can also access the document libraries through Windows Explorer. Windows SharePoint Services include a number of collaboration features.0. which allows you to easily restore a previous version of a file and track version history. Serial Attached SCSI (SAS). such as a SAN. As an iSCSI initiator. Windows Storage Server is used to connect to external iSCSI targets. In addition. such as Microsoft Word 2007 or Excel® 2007. Note When Windows Storage Server is deployed in a NAS gateway scenario. For more information. see WebDAV for IIS 7.0 support on Windows Storage Server. iSCSI block I/O workloads include both a server component (iSCSI target) and a client component (iSCSI initiator). Microsoft Office System client applications.23 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper allowing one set of security settings for normal HTTP requests.0 allows users to collaborate with each other using either HTTP or HTTPS. For more information about providing Windows SharePoint Services 3. Providing Access to iSCSI Block I/O Workloads iSCSI block I/O workloads are another type of workload provided by most network access storage appliances. but the feature specific to file services is the document library feature. As an iSCSI target. and a separate set of security settings for WebDAV requests.0. or Fibre Channel initiator based on the type of storage being accessed. Document libraries include the ability to check in and check out files to help maintain version control. see Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3. . Client computers can access the document libraries using either protocol. such as SQL Server® 2008 or Exchange Server 2010. Select this protocol to support heterogeneous environments that contain computers running WebDAV redirectors that need to access the file services workloads using the HTTP or HTTPS protocol. Supporting File Services Workloads Using Windows SharePoint Services Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3. support opening and saving files to document libraries directly within the application. Windows Storage Server is used to support iSCSI block IO workloads for applications. see the section "Using Windows Storage Server as a NAS Gateway in Solutions. you can configure document libraries to retain a specified number of versions for each file in the document library." later in this white paper. For more information about providing WebDAV support on Windows Storage Server.

Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Specifications Table 7 lists the specifications for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3 is the latest version of the iSCSI target software and is an optional component in Window Storage Server Workgroup.3 in Windows Storage Server. see Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. This allows a large number of configuration options for iSCSI block I/O workload solutions.3. Standard.3. . and Enterprise editions. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3 available for Windows Storage Server provides iSCSI target functionality.3. iSCSI block I/O workloads supported by Windows Storage Server Windows Storage Server supports iSCSI block I/O workloads using the iSCSI standard. Windows Storage Server can function as an iSCSI target (the server component) or an iSCSI initiator (the client component). For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Note Some Microsoft partners include the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by default.24 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 2. These specifications are applicable to all Windows Storage Server editions that include Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.

IPsec. IPv6. Table 8. Maximum number of virtual disks per appliance. see the section "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads. we recommend to use Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 in clustered configurations when connecting to the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator includes a multipath I/O Device Specific Module (DSM) for the Microsoft Multipath I/O (MPIO) in Windows Server. Maximum number of iSCSI initiators per appliance. ." later in this white paper. Maximum number of iSCSI initiator sessions that can connect to the same iSCSI target instance. Maximum number of iSCSI initiators that can connect to the same iSCSI target instance. Maximum number of virtual disk per iSCSI target instance. Table 8 lists the support for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with single or multipath I/O connections when connecting to nonclustered or clustered configurations.3 Specifications Specification Maximum number of iSCSI target instances per appliance. Failures on the iSCSI network path may result in delayed failover and recovery times. iSCSI offload. Jumbo frames. Failures for non-network related issues have been tested with acceptable recovery times.25 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 7. For more information about multipath I/O. Support for Single or Multipath IO Connections for Non-Clustered or Clustered Configurations Specification Windows Server 2008 (multipath I/O connection) Windows Server 2008 (single path I/O connection) Windows Server 2008 (multipath I/O connection) Windows Server 2003 (single path I/O connection) Nonclustered Supported Supported Supported Supported Clustered Supported Limited * Limited * Limited* * There is limited support for iSCSI initiators or iSCSI targets in clustered configurations of Windows Server 2003 when connected to the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Maximum number of snapshots per virtual disk. TCP offload. For these reasons. Multipath I/O connections allow for improved fault-tolerance and performance for iSCSI block I/O workloads. Maximum number of virtual disks or snapshots that can be locally mounted by the appliance. Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Version 3. Value 64 128 128 512 32 (or 4 per cluster node) 64 16 64 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Windows Storage Server includes support for single path and multipath I/O connections to nonclustered and clustered configurations. IPv4.

Install the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider on each iSCSI initiator computer running a storage management application (such as the Microsoft Storage Manager for SANs) that uses the hardware provider to manage storage The most recent version of these hardware provider APIs is Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3.x.08 in Windows Server 2003.3 includes a hardware provider for:  Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS).3 and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3.  32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Server® 2003 SP2.3 support the following operating systems:  Windows Server 2008 R2. Note Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.24.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Vista.  64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server 2008 R2.  Virtual Disk Service (VDS).  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows 7.00. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for VSS and VDS Providers Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider is required to create transportable snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks and application-consistent snapshots from iSCSI initiators.3. Prior versions of the hardware providers are not supported by Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.01.  64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server 2008. Customers using a different iSCSI target should refer to the storage array vendor for supported configurations. The backup software must support transporting snapshots.3 of the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider.3 supports only version 3. and for creating volumes on those disks. iSCSI snapshots are created using VSS and a storage array with a hardware provider designed for use with VSS. and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider.07 and 2.26 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note The limitation for iSCSI initiators or iSCSI targets in clustered configurations of Windows Server 2003 is specific to Microsoft iSCSI Software Target usage. firmware 3. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider is required to manage virtual disks on a storage subsystem. . VDS is a set of APIs that provides a single interface for managing disks.3 supports the following iSCSI initiators:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator 2.  32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2008 SP1.  SUSE Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 10.3. VSS is a set of APIs that implement a framework to allow volume backups to be performed while applications on a system continue to write to the volumes.x. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3 and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3. VDS provides an end-to-end solution for managing storage hardware and disks.  Qlogic initiator QLE4062C-SP.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server 2008 R2. Install this hardware provider on the computer running the iSCSI initiator and the computer that is to perform backups.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server 2008 SP1 and SP2.  Red Hat Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 5. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3.

The components in this phase include:  Int 13. Table 9 lists the components in an iSCSI boot solution using Windows Storage Server and provides a brief description of the purpose for each component.3. The iSCSI boot process for Windows operating systems.  iSCSI host bus adapters that support iSCSI boot capability. For network boot programs. This phase is performed by the firmware on the network adapter. This phase of the process is used to initiate the Window iSCSI boot process.  Network boot program software that provides iSCSI boot capability. or network boot program. The Windows Boot Manager is configured to boot using LUNs that are accessible through the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. these components are provided by the partner providing the program. depending on the method used for the diskless computer. see iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT). iSCSI boot process for Windows operating systems For iSCSI boot-enabled network adapters and host bus adapters.  iBFT. iSCSI boot support is provided on diskless computers using one of the following methods:  Network adapters that support iSCSI boot capability. Windows Vista. is divided into the following phases:  Pre-boot.  Windows.27 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The following operating systems are not supported by Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3. iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT) is a block of information containing parameters needed to boot Windows Server 2003 and later versions of Windows using the iSCSI protocol and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. firmware on the host bus adapter. Supporting iSCSI Boot iSCSI boot allows diskless computers (computers without local disk) to boot over the network. Universal Network Device Interface (UNDI) is an application programming interface (API) for network interface cards (NIC) used by the Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) protocol. Independent Hardware Vendors implementing iSCSI boot support in their firmware need to use the table headers defined in this specification to enable the passing of boot critical parameters to the Windows operating system. as illustrated in Figure 3. Figure 3.3:  Any Windows client operating system. This phase of the process is performed by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. and Windows® 7.  32-bit version of Windows Storage Server 2008.  UNDI. . These functions are redirected to the virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server. and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3. all the necessary preboot phase components are in firmware on the adapter. For more information. The BIOS function used to access disk boot functions. including Windows® XP.

28 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 9. The TFTP server is not required for network adapters that support iSCSI boot or an iSCSI host bus adapter.  iSCSI boot software. the DHCP is practical requirement for any scalable requirement. Virtual disk files (. Virtual disk iSCSI connection in diskless computer DHCP server Trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP) server Provides download of boot image to target computer when the virtual disk cannot be directly accessed using the iSCSI connection in the diskless computer. This allows for fast deployment and recovery of diskless computers. Components in an iSCSI Boot Solution Using Windows Storage Server Component Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Description Provides iSCSI block I/O access to virtual disks stored on Windows Storage Server. The diskless computer requires an iSCSI connection to Windows Storage Server.vhd files) stored on Windows Storage Server. Figure 4 illustrates how diskless computers can boot from virtual disk files (. Note The TFTP server is required only if you are using iSCSI boot software that requires a TFTP server.vhd files) stored on Windows Storage Server using a network boot program that provides iSCSI boot capability. which can be any one of the following:  Network adapter that supports iSCSI boot. The iSCSI boot process and Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator can access these virtual disks during the boot process. Differencing virtual disks can be used for multiple computers based on the same fixed virtual disk. However. Note The DHCP server is optional if the network adapter supports IP and iSCSI boot configuration or if you are using an iSCSI host bus adapter.  iSCSI host bus adapter. Provides IP configuration for iSCSI boot using network adapters using DHCP reservation that is configured for BOOTP support. .

29 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 4. 2. The DHCP Server sends IP configuration information to the diskless client. The diskless computer establishes a connection with Windows Storage Server and connects to a virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server. the diskless computer can boot from a virtual disks stored on Windows Storage Server using the following steps for a network boot program: 1. The TFTP Server provides a PXE boot image to the diskless computer. 4. As illustrated in Figure 4. iSCSI boot process from Windows Storage Server DHCP and TFTP services can be provided by Windows Storage Server or Windows Server. The diskless client computer requests IP configuration from the DHCP Server. . The diskless client computer requests a Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) boot image from the TFPT Server. 3. 5.

B that is stored on Windows Storage Server. For example.08  Red Hat Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 5.  The “Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions” section later in this white paper. A differencing virtual disk is a virtual disk type that is based on a fixed or expandable virtual disk. and create a differencing virtual disk as the current virtual disk for the diskless computer. Web services workloads allow users to access Web-based content stored on Windows Storage Server appliances. you can create clean-install system boot operating system virtual disk as a parent. You can use separate virtual disks for each diskless computer or you can use differencing virtual disks. Windows Storage Server can support Web services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments that include a variety of operating system. Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.x  PCI-E network iSCSI Initiator adapter  Broadcom network adapter  qLogic iSCSI host bus adapter  Netboot software For more information about iSCSI boot in Windows operating systems.3 supports iSCSI boot for the following iSCSI initiators:  Any Windows operating system running Microsoft iSCSI Initiator version 2. Windows Storage Server supports Web services workloads. Any subsequent writes to the differencing disk are written to the differencing virtual disk and the parent virtual disk is not modified. The Windows operating system starts.30 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 6. which is the iSCSI LUN specified in the configuration for the computer.  About VHD. Providing Access to Web Services Workloads Unlike most network access storage appliances. see:  Microsoft iSCSI Boot Step-by-Step Guide. Using this method. . 8. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous Web services workloads using the protocols listed in Table 10. All subsequent disk I/O is performed using iSCSI I/O to the virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server. 7.x  SUSE Enterprise Linux version 10. the operating system on the parent virtual disk stays in its original state for quick recovery or for quickly creating more boot images based on additional differencing virtual disks.07 or 2. The diskless computer boots from Differencing Virtual Disk .

 Simplified file transfer.  Support of extended character sets by including UTF8 support. With the new FTP server. using the same folders that can be accessed using any of the file services workloads protocols. Protocols Supported for Web Services Workloads Protocol HTTP Support description Provides:  Access to traditional Web-based content accessed through Web browsers. download only.  Extended IP addressing features provided by IPv6. Print services workloads allow users to access printers managed by Windows Storage Server appliances. but includes additional security protection of using secure sockets layer (SSL) encryption between clients and Windows Storage Server. Provides the same level of support as HTTP. or from a command line. virtual host name for an FTP site. and more. This allows you to provide FTP and Web content from the same website simply by binding an FTP site to a website. for the same files and folders accessed using any of the file services workloads protocols.  Improved integration with web-based applications and services. Providing Access to Print Services Workloads Another advantage to using Windows Storage Server appliances is the ability to support print services workloads.  Reduced effort for support and troubleshooting FTP–related issues. FTP sub statuses. a UNC path. but are differentiated by using unique virtual host names.  Extended support for Internet standards.  The foundation for Web-based remote administration using Terminal Services Web Access. an additional detail field in FTP logs. a mapped drive. Windows Storage Server can support . Provides a simplified file transfer. This allows administrators to perform common administrative tasks within one common administration console. upload or download. which can be essential in some heterogeneous environments. The new FTP server is fully integrated with the IIS 7. This allows you to create multiple FTP sites that use the same IP address.5 administration interface and configuration store. Improved logging that now supports all FTP-related traffic. File transfer can be performed using Windows® Internet Explorer®.  Provides support for the Internet Printing role service. which can be essential in some heterogeneous environments. HTTPS FTP Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 includes FTP services that offer the following improvements:  Reduced administrative effort for FTP server services.  The foundation for the WebDAV protocol used in accessing file services workloads. you can specify a. The new FTP server includes support for:  Improved security by supporting FTP over secure sockets layer (SSL). unique tracking for FTP sessions.31 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 10.

Select this Print Server role service to support any print services workloads in Windows Storage Server. Line Printer Daemon (LPD) Service Internet Printing For more information about:  The Print Services server role. the Print Services Tools Remote Server Administration Tool feature is also installed. If the Print Spooler service is stopped or restarted after the LPD Service is installed. . In order to install the Internet Printing role service. the TCP/IP Print Server service is also stopped — and you must restart it manually. see Print and Document Services. Internet Printing provides access to shared printers using the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) that is encapsulated in HTTP. Provides support for computers that run Line Printer Remote (LPR). The LPD Service installs and starts the TCP/IP Print Server (LPDSVC) service which is implemented in lpdsvc. typically used in heterogeneous environments or to print over the Internet. Select the Printer Server role services when clients must print to printers using the only HTTP protocol. The LDP Service is an optional Print Services role service. which is done automatically during installation. the Print Services and Web Server roles must also be installed.dll. When the LPD Service is installed. Although the installation of the Print Server role service does not require a system restart. If you are supporting only Windows-based computers that are printing with your homogeneous environment. an inbound firewall exception for TCP port 515 is created. Print Server Role Services Supported for Print Services Workloads Role Service Print Server Support description Provides support for Windows-based computers running Client for Microsoft Networks. There is no configuration necessary for the LPD service.32 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper print services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments that include a variety of operating system. select only this role service. The Print Server role service is a mandatory role service for the Print Services role. Administrative Tools. Provides support for computers that run an Internet Printing client. Select this Print Server role service to support LPR clients in heterogeneous environments. The Print Management Console (PMC) is then accessible from Server Manager. Table 11. typically used in heterogeneous environments. However. or as an MMC snap-in.  Printer management in Windows Storage Server. the installation of the service does require a restart of the Print Spooler service. When the Print Server role is installed. see Print Management. the removal of the role service does. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous print services workloads using the Print Server role services listed in Table 11.

Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers Windows Storage Server helps improve the power efficiency of individual servers through a variety of incremental improvements. In addition to the cost-saving associated with reducing power consumption. Window Storage Server includes the following improvements to reduce power consumption:  Reduced power usage of individual servers by including:  A new PPM engine. Figure 5. from idle up to 100 percent utilization. or less power. Power savings with Windows Storage Server Processor Power Management The PPM engine in Windows Storage Server has been rewritten and improved. many data centers are constrained by the number of computers they can support in their data center by the actual power available to the data center. power consumption is of paramount importance. and budget power usage across the system. Figure 5shows the results. manage.  Additional incremental power saving features. average utilization for many servers is 5 to 15 percent.  Storage power management. reducing your power consumption also allows you to support more physical computers while using the same amount of power.  The ability to measure. Measuring power usage only when hardware is fully utilized does not reflect real-world usage. Therefore. Microsoft measured power consumption of Windows Storage Server 2003 and Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 using a representative online transaction processing (OLTP) workload. To quantify the power savings. than before. Throughput was gradually throttled up across the utilization range of the systems.33 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Providing Reduction in Power Consumption With the proliferation of physical computers in data centers. It now provides the ability to fine-tune the processor’s speed and power consumption to match . which demonstrate that many servers that operate within a range of utilization levels will benefit from the improved power efficiency of Windows Server 2008 R2.

 Support for “remove on delete”. Windows Storage Server greatly improves access to storage on SANs. A SAN also makes more efficient use of the available disk space. Windows Storage Server includes support for storage devices that work with solid state drives that can power down unused RAM when a file system deletes files. This feature is integrated with the power management framework to use the new power states (partial and active). which means less communication with the drive and less power consumption. thus saving power.  Optimized link power management for SATA disks. because any server can have access to the available storage on the SAN. The workloads of every logical core in a server are tracked relative to all the others. New parameters for PPM — which administrators can configure — further improve power efficiency. This means that commands are not repeatedly sent to check for media changes. . which eliminates the need for local hard disks (local storage) in the individual server computers and decreases power consumption as a result. Core parking is a feature that enables Windows Storage Server to reduce multi-core processor power consumption by consolidating processing onto fewer processor cores and suspending the inactive cores. This feature helps reduce power usage for managing the communication bus link between the hard disk and the chipset. and also adds the following enhancements:  ATA Slumber feature. The workloads of cores that are not fully utilized can be suspended. and their workloads then shifted to alternate cores. which has a higher storage-capacity-topower-consumption ratio than a typical server. Storage Power Management Another strategy for reducing power used by individual servers is to centralize their storage by using a Storage Area Network (SAN). the system activates the idle processor cores to handle the increased processing requirements.34 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper current demands. as shown in Figure 6. Keeping the unutilized cores in an idle state reduces system power consumption.  Asynchronous notification of media change for optical devices. When additional processing power is required. Windows Server Storage also supports the ability to boot from a SAN. Windows Storage Server provides asynchronous notification of drive media changes.

You can take advantage of most of these technologies in virtualization scenarios to maximize the power efficiency of your virtualized environments. . such as creating a RAID set. The benefit of this automation is that the storage configuration requires minimal or no configuration by IT pros. One processor handles the periodic system timer tick. creating LUNs. However.xml file to run Windows PowerShell scripts or any command-line program that can used to perform storage configuration tasks. Servers without local storage that each consume less power Additional Power Saving Features Windows Storage Server includes Intelligent Timer Tick Distribution (or Tick Skipping). as well as your physical systems. This also allows processors to better utilize the deep C-states.xml file. OEMs can configure the FirstLogonCommand attribute in the Unattend. Performing Highly Automated Installations You can automate the storage subsystem configuration settings in Windows Storage Server by customizing the Windows Storage Server Unattend.) The amount of background work that is performed by the operating system has also been reduced in Windows Storage Server. This feature extends processor idle or deep C-states (processor sleep states within the ACPI specification.35 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 6. in which the processor consumes very little energy but requires time to return to an operational state. thus saving power. other processors are signaled only as necessary. with C3 set as the deepest-sleep state and C0 as the operating state) by not activating the CPU unnecessarily. creating partitions. non-timer interrupts will still activate sleeping processors. or formatting partitions.

Server Manager in Windows Storage Server provides a single source for managing a server's identity and system information. and customize the appliance by adding server roles and features.36 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing Windows Storage Server You can manage Windows Storage Server using the management features in each of the following areas:  Management tools for all workloads. Then you connect to Windows Storage Server using the Microsoft ActiveX® control included in Remote Desktop Client version 6. and the applications and services running on Windows Storage Server.  Management of Web services workloads. secure the appliance. For more information. see Description of Windows Server 2008 Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows Vista Service Pack 1. For more information. identifying problems with server role configuration. Description of Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows 7.  Group Policy.  Management of file services workloads. see Group Policy. Management Tools for All Workloads Windows Storage Server supports the following tools. You can use Group Policy on any Windows Storage Server appliance that is a member of an Active Directory domain. displaying server status. For more information about the Initial Configuration Tasks window.  Remote Desktop Services Web Connection. This feature requires only Internet Explorer to be installed on the computer used to manage Windows Storage Server. You can remotely manage Windows Storage Server using the Remote Desktop Connection feature. which opens immediately after the operating system installation is complete. You can complete these tasks by using commands in the Initial Configuration Tasks window.  Remote Desktop Services Connection. RSAT allows you to remotely manage roles and features in Windows Storage Server from a computer running Windows Vista SP1 or a later Windows operating system.  Microsoft Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT). see Windows Server Initial Configuration Tasks. see Terminal Services in Windows Server 2008.  Management of power consumption for all workloads. You make the initial connection to Windows Storage Server using Internet Explorer and the Terminal Services Web Access Web site. some configuration is required to identify the appliance to other computing resources on your network. and Remote Server Administration Tools Pack. For more information about RSAT.  Server Manager. . and before deploying the new appliance in your enterprise. For more information about Server Manager. and the feature uses the remote desktop protocol (RDP) to communicate with Windows Storage Server. enable administrators to perform tasks on the appliance. and technologies for managing all workloads:  Initial Configuration Tasks window. and managing all roles installed on the server.  Management of iSCSI block I/O workloads. see Server Manager. Group Policy provides an infrastructure for centralized configuration management of Windows Storage Server. You can run RSAT on 32-bit or 64-bit Windows operating systems. After installing Windows Storage Server.1 and later versions. For more information. This feature requires the Remote Desktop Client to be installed on the computer used to manage Windows Storage Server. see Terminal Services Web Access (TS Web Access). and you also can use it to manage 32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server.  Management of Print services workloads. features.

including an improved user interface. For more information. only hardware platform support. exposes the data that is gathered to users. IT workers responsible for power management can control power policies and receive power condition events. additional policy settings. and budget energy usage for individual servers and across the entire server environment. ensuring interoperability across the entire IT environment. Microsoft is pursuing an ACPI standards-based approach to the features that provide these capabilities. You can manage storage with VDS hardware providers using VDS-enabled management tools.NET Framework and is designed to help you automate the administration of Windows Storage Server. manage. Managing Power Consumption for All Workloads Windows Storage Server also helps you better measure and manage power consumption. Windows Storage Server provides a new power namespace. see Windows PowerShell. Telnet. such as the Diskpart command-line tool. both locally and remotely. and in turn making power consumption data an actionable metric. Power metering and budgeting in Windows Storage Server require no additional drivers or hardware changes. Windows PowerShell is a task-based command-line shell and scripting language designed especially for system administration. providing a powerful and convenient way to capture and report information about power consumption. and the applications and services that run on Windows Storage Server. Windows PowerShell is built on the Microsoft . and scripts in the remote command console session. through Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). or management tools in a manner that is compliant with the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) management profiles. You can run command-line programs. This is useful for IT administrators who use WMI queries in scripts to monitor and administer their infrastructure. WMI. see Telnet. Diskraid command-line tool. the infrastructure for management data and operations on Windows-based operating systems. which enables code and scripts to query power data on compliant systems. For more information. Microsoft storage partners develop VDS hardware providers that allow management of their storage solutions. VDS. scripts. You can use any Telnet client to create a remote command console session on a Windows Storage Server appliance. A vast library of existing Windows PowerShell scripts reduces the effort and learning curve for using Windows PowerShell to automate administrative tasks. You can perform disk management for any of the workloads using VDSenabled management tools. Storage Manager for SANs snap-in. which provide the ability to manage Group Policy from the Windows PowerShell command line and to run Windows PowerShell scripts during logon and startup. root\cimv2\power. providing them with the data they need to make informed and timely power management decisions. . In conjunction with server OEMs.37 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper    Windows PowerShell. both locally and remotely across the enterprise. and Windows PowerShell™ cmdlets for Group Policy. For centralized power policy management. or the Share and Storage Management console. there are new features in Group Policy for Windows Storage Server. Windows Storage Server supports the configuration of power policy. Remote Manageability of Power Policy Key in Windows Storage Server is the greatly enhanced ability to measure. just as if you were locally logged on to the host and using a local command prompt.

 DFS management tools. Unauthorized File Types. and this means power data can be queried by Microsoft System Center and other management tools to budget and monitor power usage across the entire IT environment. and generate comprehensive storage reports. the folder structure to store the files. it also aids in the planning and implementation of future changes to the storage infrastructure. and can configure the system so that it automatically takes action when the budget is exceeded. Based on the information gathered. prevent users from saving specific file types to the server. You manage file services workloads running on Windows Storage Server by using:  File Server Resource Manager. and Storage Reports With the File Server Resource Manager snap-in. File Server Resource Manager not only helps you efficiently control and monitor existing storage resources from a central location. Managing File Services Workloads Managing file services workloads includes managing disk volumes. on datacenter components as small as a single server).  Share and Storage Management. Set soft or hard space limits on a volume or folder tree. and the files themselves. Fewer physical machines can lead to reduced costs through lower hardware and energy costs and through reduced management overhead. An administrator can use the performance monitor on a server to view the moment-bymoment power consumption. Managing Disk Usage Quotas.38 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting The new power features introduce new opportunities for managing power consumption. or in a more likely scenario. it becomes an actionable metric for IT staff when appropriate hardware support is available. You can create and apply quota templates with standard quota properties.  Single Instance Storage management tools. . An administrator can set power budgets for the servers and the system. or caps. the workloads of underutilized servers can be consolidated onto a smaller number of better-utilized physical machines using live migration (the ability to move virtual machines between servers with virtually no downtime) with Hyper-V. the IT administrator can write a script or use Microsoft® System Center to centrally collect and monitor power consumption data across the datacenter. The server platform reports information in-band to the Windows Storage Server through the use of ACPI. you can perform three tasks to manage storage resources on local or remote servers:  Quota management. The WMI namespace additions for power meters and supplies mean that the user mode power service can provide data to the WMI namespace. Microsoft recommends a collaborative model between the server platform and the operating system for power metering and budgeting (the process that lets administrators set power limits. Now that power consumption is measurable. Managing File Services Using File Server Resource Manager File Server Resource Manager is a suite of tools in Windows Storage Server that enables you to place storage limits on volumes and folders. Another set of metrics can be used for virtualization and consolidation.

such as sensitivity or criticality of the information in them. more affordable storage solutions. you cannot rely on the user to properly determine the proper classification of information. Even with this knowledge. Policy-based Classification of Files One of the key advantages to the Windows File Classification Infrastructure is the ability to centrally manage the classification of the files by establishing classification policies . file screening activity. data archival schedule. Generate built-in reports to track quota usage. and patterns of storage use.  Are not accessed frequently to move the files to slower. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure in Windows Storage Server provides insight into your data to help you manage your data more effectively. rather than on only simple information such as the location. Because users store files on a network shared with little or no restrictions. The File Classification Infrastructure feature is also managed with the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. You need to be able to centrally categorize these files and then perform IT file operations based on the classification of the files. Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure Managing data stored on file services is usually challenging because of the sheer number of files being stored on network shared folders. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to identify files that:  Contain sensitive information on servers with lower security to move the files to servers with higher security. see File Server Resource Manager.  Notify content owners when a file management task is going to be performed on their content. or date of the file.  Storage reports management. Define filtering rules that monitor or block attempts by users to save certain file types on a volume or folder tree.  Are no longer essential to automatically remove the files from servers. For more information.  Require different backup schedules to back up the files accordingly.39 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  File screening management. size.  Create or purchase custom file management solutions based on the Windows File Classification Infrastructure.  Contain sensitive information to encrypt those files. but is covered separately in the “Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure” section in this white paper. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to:  Centrally define policy-based classification of the files stored in your intranet.  Generate reports about the types of information stored in the files in your intranet.  Require different backup solutions based on the sensitivity of the information in the files. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to establish policies for classifying files and then performing common administrative tasks based on the classification. or through a command-line interface. You can create and apply screening templates with standard file exclusions. the user storing the files is the only individual who has any knowledge of the information stored in the files and other characteristics about the files.  Perform file management tasks based on the file classification that you define. and mitigate risks. You can also apply quota and file screening policies when you provision a shared folder. and other common IT operations tasks. reduce costs.

40 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper using the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. The architecture of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows the use of any supported development . Each rule assigns a single predefined property and value to files within a specified directory.  When running a classification rule. based on installed classification plug-ins. For example. File Owner Notification of File Management Tasks Another feature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure that reduces your administrative effort is the ability to send notifications to content owners when an automated file management task runs. the sensitivity of the files. You can choose to overwrite existing classification values. Execute custom commands based on age. This centralized approach allows you to classify user files without requiring their intervention. For example. update. And the extensible nature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to integrate with existing messaging systems or information portals. IT administrators are able to automatically move data based on policies for either centralizing the location of sensitive data or for moving data to a less expensive storage resource. You can also select the method for notification based on the type of file management task being performed. and string values. ordered lists. there is minimal information that can be used to help identify the usage of the files. numbered. and other relevant information about the files. including:  Grooming of data. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to:  Define classification properties and values.  Custom Tasks. when files become old enough to be automatically expired. optionally re-evaluate files that are already classified. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to automate any file management task by using the file classifications you establish for your organization. date. Improved Development of File Management Tasks You can extend the file management features of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure by creating your own custom file management solution or purchasing a file management solution from an independent software vendor. and run classification rules. You can use the reporting infrastructure to generate information that can be used by another application (such as a comma separated variable format text file that could be imported into Microsoft® Excel®). or add the value to properties that support multiple values. Reporting on Information Stored in Files Most IT organizations have no easy method of providing information about the types of files that are stored and managed. location or other classification categories. which can be assigned to files on a per-server basis by running classification rules. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to help you perform common file management tasks. the content owners can be notified in advance and given the opportunity to prevent the files from being archived or deleted.  Create. You can automatically delete data by using policies based on data age or classification properties to free valuable storage space and intelligently reduce storage demand growth. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to generate reports in multiple formats that can provide statistical information about the files stored on each file server. Property types can include Boolean. Without classification of the files. File Management Tasks The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to perform file management tasks based on the classifications that you define using the File Services Resource Manager snap-in.

You can perform the following tasks using this tool:  Extend the size of a volume. security. Managing File Services Using Share and Storage Management Share and Storage Management in Windows Storage Server provides a centralized location for you to perform:  Shared resource management. or on storage subsystems that have a VDS Hardware Provider using Share and Storage Management.  Manage the local NTFS permissions for the folder or volume you will be sharing.41 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper environments for Windows Storage Server including Windows PowerShell and Microsoft Visual Basic® Scripting Edition (VBScript). offline availability and indexing. Each vendor supplies the VDS Hardware Provider. You can perform the following tasks using this tool:  Specify the folder or volume that you want to share or create a new folder to share.  Format a volume.  Manage the share access permissions. user limits. which can be installed and configured for use in Windows Storage Server. This architecture allows you to select the level of programming sophistication required to automate your file management tasks. Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication The Distributed File System (DFS) technologies offer wide area network (WAN)-friendly replication as well as simplified.  Stop the sharing of a folder or volume. and backup.  Delete a volume. you could write Windows PowerShell scripts to manage files based on the classifications you define for your organization. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider. You can configure shared folders for SMB or NFS protocols and DFS settings using Share and Storage Management.  Access disk tools for error checking.  Publish the shared resource to a DFS namespace. For more information about Share and Storage Management. highly-available access to geographically dispersed files. The technologies in DFS include the following:  DFS Namespaces.  If File Server Resource Manager is installed. For example.  Multi-vendor storage management.  See which users are currently accessing a folder or a file and disconnect a user if necessary. and offline access to files in the shared resource. and create file screens to limit the type of files that can be stored in it. apply storage quotas to the new shared resource. This structure .  Manage NFS-based access permissions for the shared resource. defragmentation. see Overview of Share and Storage Management.  Specify the network sharing protocol used to access the shared resource. DFS Namespaces lets you group shared folders located on different servers into one or more logically structured namespaces. Each namespace appears to users as a single shared folder with a series of subfolders. You can manage storage on disks available on your server.  Change volume properties like compression.

you can use read-only DFS Replication to publish data from a head office to branch offices where users in the branch office should not change the data. This can greatly reduce the amount of traffic transferred over limited-bandwidth networks. and re-arrangements of data in files.exe  DfsrDiag. For example. which replaces the File Replication Service (FRS) as the replication engine for DFS Namespaces.exe  DfsrAdmin.  Read-only DFS Replication.  Using DFS to replicate file services workloads for disaster recovery scenarios. when available. instead of routing them over WAN connections. see the section "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. removals.exe You also can use DFS to replicate files and folders in geographically dispersed environments so that users have a local copy of the files and folders. In addition. such as in Branch office locations. DFS Replication uses a new compression algorithm known as remote differential compression (RDC). RDC is a "diff-over-the wire" client-server protocol that can be used to efficiently update files over a limited-bandwidth network. Read-only DFS Replication is a secure method for replicating data where read-only access is required to the data.  The DFS Management snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder.  The following command line tools:  DfsUtil. see Distributed File System. and the data is not replicated back to the head office. For more information. see Replication. RDC detects insertions.exe  DfsCmd. DFS Replication is an efficient. you can replicate files and folders to another location using DFS for disaster recovery scenarios.42 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper increases availability and automatically connects users to shared folders in the same AD DS site. enabling DFS Replication to replicate only the changed file blocks when files are updated. For more information about:  DFS. multiple-master replication engine that you can use to keep folders synchronized between servers across limited bandwidth network connections.exe  DfsDiag. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Securing File Services Workloads”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” You can manage DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication using the:  The DFS Management snap-in hosted by Server Manager.  Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication.  For more information about DFS Replication." later in this white paper.  DFS Replication. as well as AD DS SYSVOL folder replication in domains that use the Windows Server 2008 domain functional level. see DFS Management. .

Supports system drives. Minimum file size supported. Identifying Single Instance Storage Specifications Table 12 lists the specifications for the Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server. WMI support. Value 128 Yes Yes Yes 32 KB Yes Yes No No No No Yes . Identifying Single Instance Storage Architecture Single Instance Storage consists of the following components that together maintain a database of file signatures:  Groveler service. You can also automate the administration of Single Instance Storage using Windows PowerShell scripting or any other scripting language that supports WMI. Support backup of single instance of file using Single Instance Storage APIs in sisbkup. The Single Instance Storage Filter runs in kernel mode. Table 12. The Groveler service scans the hard-disk volumes on a server for duplicate copies of files. Ability to undo single instancing of files.43 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing Single Instance Storage The Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server reduces the amount of space used to store data on a volume. but the primary administration tool for this feature is Sisadmin.  Managing Single Instance Storage using Sisadmin.  Single Instance Storage Filter. The Groveler discovers duplicate files and initiates the deduplication of files. Supports replication of files using DFS Replication. Supports boot drives. Supports remote drives. For more information about:  The Single Instance Storage feature. Identifying Single Instance Storage Management Tools You can enable or disable Single Instance Storage on a volume through the Share and Storage Management console.exe. The Single Instance Storage Filter is a file system filter service that redirects reads to the common store and performs the replacement of file pointers when users start changing a duplicate file. Single Instance Storage does this by replacing duplicate files with logical links that point to a single copy of the file in the SIS Common Store. Single Instance Storage Feature Specifications in Windows Storage Server Specification Maximum number of volumes per appliance. Requires volumes to be formatted as NTFS. see Managing SIS Using SisAdmin. Failover cluster support.exe.exe. see Single Instance Storage.dll. which is a hidden folder located in the root directory of the volume. Support files with extended attributes. The Groveler service runs in user-mode.

Set-SisVolume. This will cause all linked files to revert to the original file stored in the SIS common store. Get-SisVolumeReport. Returns a list of all the linked files and the corresponding filename in the SIS Common Store. Enable-SisVolume. Configures SIS after it has been installed on a volume. In this scenario. Files stored in user home folders provide the most typical scenario where the larger reduction of storage usage is realized. For more information about managing the Single Instance Storage feature using Windows PowerShell. Uninstalls SIS from a volume. Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The types of management tasks for disk block I/O workload include managing iSCSI targets. Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell You can manage the Single Instance Storage feature using the SingleInstanceStorage module. including the:  Spaced saved. Windows PowerShell Cmdlets for Managing Single Instance storage Category SIS linked files SIS disk volumes Cmdlet and description         Get-SisLinkFile.  Number of linked files. Enables SIS on a volume.44 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Typical Reduction in Storage Usage Using Single Instance Storage The extent to which the Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server can help reduce storage usage depends on the number of duplicate files stored on the appliance. Installs SIS on a volume. build and release provides the largest reduction of storage usage. Install-SisVolume. virtual disks. and connections to storage arrays. Uninstall-SisVolume. IT organizations typically realize storage savings of more than 50 percent. see Single Instance Storage Cmdlets in Windows PowerShell. In this scenario. Get-SisVolume. Disable-SisVolume. which is included in Windows Storage Server.  Number of files in the SIS Common Store. Table 14 lists the Windows PowerShell cmdlets included in the SingleInstanceStorage module and provides a brief description of each cmdlet. Lists all the volumes that have SIS installed enabled. IT organizations typically realize storage savings that average from 10 percent to 30 percent.  Percentage of the volume saved. Displays a SIS summary report for each volume. Disables SIS on a volume. You can manage iSCSI block I/O workloads running on Windows Storage Server for the following components:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator . Table 13. For files in a software development environment.

An iSCSI target can manage multiple virtual disks.  Virtual disks. You manage iSCSI targets using the iSCSI Targets node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. All current Windows operating systems support the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. and the most current version of the . For more information about Share and Storage Management. You manage virtual disks using the Snapshots node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. For more information about managing Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI block I/O workloads. iSCSI targets are the logical endpoint to which an iSCSI initiator connects. "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for VSS and VDS Providers" in this white paper. through an Ethernet network adapter. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target includes the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider that allows LUNs on Windows Storage Server to be managed by any application that uses VDS. see Overview of Share and Storage Management. such as Share and Storage Management. see the previous section. Virtual disk snapshots are point-in-time copies of virtual disks that you can use to back up active virtual disks for disaster recover scenarios or to restore a LUN to a previous state. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. see:  Configuring the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. If you assign multiple iSCSI initiators to the same iSCSI target. For more information about using virtual disk snapshots for backup and in disaster recovery scenarios. For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider. there is a potential for conflict between the computers running the iSCSI initiators. Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Using Share and Storage Management Console You can manage storage on the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using Share and Storage Management.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. The most typical reason for assigning multiple iSCSI initiators to the same iSCSI target is for shared storage in failover clusters.  Virtual disk snapshots. Typically. Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Snap-in Typical tasks that you use the Microsoft iSCSI Target snap-in to perform include managing:  iSCSI targets. You manage virtual disks using the iSCSI Targets node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. You can manage this feature by using the:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. but a virtual disk can only be managed by one iSCSI target." later in this white paper. you assign just one iSCSI initiator to each iSCSI target. see the section "Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect iSCSI Block I/O Workload Data.3 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator enables you to connect Windows operating systems to an external iSCSI-based storage array.  Share and Storage Management console.45 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target feature allows Windows Storage Server appliances to act as an iSCSI target. Virtual disks are the LUNs that the computer running an iSCSI initiator uses.

Once a virtual disk has been assigned to a target. Obtains the iSCSI virtual disks and their associated properties. Obtains the iSCSI targets and their associated properties from the local server or specified computer. Deletes the iSCSI virtual disk object. Windows PowerShell Cmdlets for Managing Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Version 3.    Virtual disk management     . Remove-IscsiVirtualDisk." later in the white paper. and then a virtual disk can be associated with the target. the virtual disk can be assigned to an iSCSI target. Modifies the settings for the virtual disk and returns the corresponding iSCSI virtual disk object if the PassThru parameter is specified. Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell You can manage the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Table 14. For more information about managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. an iSCSI initiator can access the virtual disk after the initiator connects to the target. Table 14 lists the Windows PowerShell cmdlets included in the MicrosoftIscsiTarget module and provides a brief description of each cmdlet.  iSCSICLI.46 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator is version 2. New-IscsiVirtualDisk. Deletes an iSCSI target object. Afterwards. Creates a new iSCSI virtual hard disk (VHD) object with the specified file path and size.exe tool from a command line.exe). Set-IscsiVirtualDisk.3 Category iSCSI target management Cmdlet and description  New-IscsiServerTarget Creates a new iSCSI target object with the specified name. Remove-IscsiServerTarget. An iSCSI initiator cannot access the VHD or LUN after the target is deleted.  iSCSI Control Panel configuration utility (iSCSICPL. You can manage the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator by using the:  Graphical user interface in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. The VHD file is not deleted. Set-IscsiServerTarget. Get-IscsiVirtualDisk. which is included in Windows Storage Server.3 using the MicrosoftIscsiTarget module. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Storage Server allows the server software to connect to other external iSCSIbased storage arrays. the iSCSI target can be assigned to an iSCSI initiator. Afterwards. Modifies settings for the iSCSi target and returns the corresponding iSCSI target object if the PassThru parameter is specified. such as those described in the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration. see the Microsoft iSCSI Initiator Step-by-Step Guide.08. Get-IscsiServerTarget.

 Configure user and role authorization for sites and applications. The virtual disk will be no longer accessible by an iSCSI initiator once the assignment is removed. an iSCSI initiator can access the virtual disk after the initiator connects to the target. Appcmd. For more information. Tools for Managing Web Services Workloads in Windows Storage Server Tool Internet Information Services Manager snap-in Description You can manage IIS 7 using the Internet Information Services Manager snap-in. The management tools available for managing IIS 7. you can combine commands to return more complex data about objects on your web server or to perform tasks that are more complex.0.  Connect to a web server.exe You can manage IIS 7 using the command-line tool Appcmd. which lets you:  Manage IIS and ASP. Managing Web Services Workloads Web services workloads in Windows Storage Server can be managed by any of the management methods available for IIS 7. which provides consistent commands for common queries and configuration tasks. Use IIS 6. see IIS Manager (IIS 7).  For more information about managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Removes the assignment between a virtual disk and iSCSI target. see PowerShell cmdlets for the Microsoft iSCSI Target 3. and for managing Web services workloads.exe. reducing the complexity of learning syntax.exe to configure and query objects on your web server. For example. Once a virtual disk has been assigned to a target.exe.47 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Category LUN management Cmdlet and description  Add-VirtualDiskTargetMapping.  View health and diagnostic information that includes the ability to view currently running requests in real time.0 tools to manage FTP sites.  Delegate site and application configuration to nonadministrators. are listed in Table 15.NET in one tool.0.3 using Windows PowerShell. . and to return output in text or you can use XML. For more information.3. Table 15. see Appcmd. you can complete complex tasks like stopping all sites with pending requests that have been running longer than sixty seconds. All the virtual disks assigned to the same iSCSI target will be accessible by the connected iSCSI initiator.Appcmd. In addition. Assigns a virtual disk to an iSCSI target. or application remotely by using HTTP. Remove-VirtualDiskTargetMapping. Note You cannot use IIS Manager to manage FTP sites in IIS 7 on Windows Storage Server. site.

5 integrates and enhances existing extensions and allows for further enhancements and customizations in the future. By blocking specific HTTP requests. IIS 7. web applications and web servers.  Enhancements to IIS Manager.NET configuration. Scripts using WMI Windows Storage Server includes the following features which help reduce administration.config files for sites.  IIS Manager UI extensions.5 supports the use of managed service accounts for application pool identities. WebAdministration.  Managed service accounts.config file. and troubleshooting effort:  Automation of common tasks through the PowerShell provider.NET applications or adding and editing request filtering rules through a graphical user interface. and manage IIS configuration and run-time data. The hostable .48 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Tool Configuration store Description You can manage IIS 7 using the XML-based configuration store that is modeled after the ASP. and their associated objects and properties using any scripting language that supports WMI. The Request Filtering user interface provides a graphical user interface for configuring the Request Filtering module. In addition. web applications. This module includes the filtering features previously found in URLScan 3. such as Windows PowerShell.5 release that make it possible to manage obscure settings such as those used for FastCGI and ASP.0. unless they have been locked to prevent changes. Settings configured at one level are inherited automatically by lower levels. IIS configuration is stored in the ApplicationHost. the new IIS 7. support. this feature lets the core IIS Web engine to be consumed or hosted by other applications. The Windows PowerShell Provider for IIS is a Windows PowerShell snap-in that allows you to perform IIS administrative tasks. the Request Filter module helps prevent potentially harmful requests from being processed by Web applications on the server. see Configuration Store (IIS 7). You can use WMI to build scripts for web administration. the server administrator is the only user who has permission to view and edit the ApplicationHost.  Request Filtering. By default. contains classes and methods that enable you to script administration of websites. Utilizing the extensible and modular architecture introduced with IIS 7. These enhancements include updates to:  Configuration Editor. Configuration Editor exposes several configuration settings that are not exposed elsewhere in IIS Manager. Developers are able to service HTTP requests directly in their applications by using the hostable Web core feature. a collection of task-oriented cmdlets provide a simple way to manage websites. and directories.config file and can also be distributed among Web. allows management of FastCGI settings while the ASP. For more information. New features have been added to IIS Manager for the 7. Available through a set of APIs. The IIS 7 WMI provider namespace. The FastCGI module. Windows Storage Server allows domain-based service accounts to have passwords that are managed by AD DS. applications.  Hostable Web Core. These new type of accounts reduce the recurrent administrative task of having to update passwords on processes running with these accounts. for example.1. see Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) in IIS 7. For more information. Allows you to manage any configuration section available in the configuration system. allowing those apps to service HTTP requests directly.NET module allows management of authorization and custom error settings.

This provides logging of both reads and writes.49 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper    Web core feature is useful for enabling basic Web server capabilities for custom applications or for debugging applications. Managing Print Services Workloads The Print services workloads in Windows Storage Server that the Print Server role provides can be managed by using the tools listed in Table 16. On printers that provide a web-based management interface. see Server Manager and the Print Services Role. Server Manager also displays print-related events from Event Viewer and includes an instance of the Print Management snap-in. For more information. optional role services. In IIS 7. PHP developers can use the FastCGI module to include IIS trace calls in their applications. For more information. Best Practices Analyzer (BPA). This reduces the effort required for debugging code during development and troubleshooting application errors after deployment by using IIS Failed Request Tracing. For Windows operating systems prior to Windows Vista.5 Web server and reporting on potential configuration issues found.exe tool in a startup script (for percomputer connections) or in a logon script (for per-user connections).5. The new Configuration Logging feature in IIS 7.5 and application configuration. Table 16. as well as logon attempts. Failed Request Tracing for FastCGI. Use Print Management to install printer connections to a group of client computers simultaneously and to monitor print queues remotely. The Print Management snap-in provides current details about the status of printers and print servers on the network. Tools for Managing Print Services Workloads in Windows Storage Server Tool Server Manager Description Use Server Manager to install the Print Services server role. Use Print Management with Group Policy to automatically deploy printer connections to users or computers and install the appropriate printer drivers for computers running Windows Vista and later Windows operating systems. You can access the BPA through Server Manager and Windows PowerShell. Print Management snap-in Group Policy . For more information. Print Management can also help you find printers that have an error condition by using filters. which can administer the local server only. and features. Enhanced auditing of changes to IIS 7. see the Print Management Step-by-Step Guide. such as toner and paper levels.5 is a management tool that can help you reduce best practice violations by scanning an IIS 7. Print Management can display more data. use the PushPrinterConnections. see the Print Management Step-by-Step Guide. file creations and more. changes to path mappings. which allows you to track the configuration changes made to your test and production environments.5 provides enhanced auditing of changes to IIS and application configuration. The BPA for IIS 7. It can also send email notifications or run scripts when a printer or print server needs attention.

see Printer Management Using PowerShell. Printbrm. printer settings. see the Print Migration Tool. This is an efficient way to consolidate multiple print servers or replace an older print server. printer ports.50 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Tool Printer Migration Wizard Description The Printer Migration Wizard allows you to export print queues. Use Windows PowerShell to manage print services workloads.exe command-line tool Windows PowerShell . and then import them on another print server that is running a Windows operating system. For more information about using Windows PowerShell to manage print services workloads. For more information. and language monitors. Provides the same features and functionality as the Printer Migration Wizard.

helps protect the data managed by Windows Storage Server.  Perform a system recovery in case of disasters like hard disk failures.  The Appcmd. Table 17.  Can only back up volumes 2 terabyte or less in size.  Does not implement a method of including media rotation strategies.  Does not support a centralized monitoring ability for enterprise environments.  The PrintBRM. and shared folders.  The Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature.  Cannot back up shared storage in a failover cluster if the storage is moved between active nodes. Table 17 lists the features and limitations of this feature.  Does not include the ability to e-mail or provide notification of the backup status report.51 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protecting Windows Storage Server Workload Data One of the essential aspects to ongoing operations of Windows Storage Server workloads is the ability to protect the data that the server software manages.  The Volume Shadow Copy Service feature. DVDs. folders.  Perform backups of applications like SQL Server to protect application data using VSS functionality. Limitations Windows Server Backup has the following limitations:  Supports backing up only to external and internal disks. you can use most backup and disaster recovery products offered by Microsoft partners for Windows Server 2008 to protect data managed by Windows Storage Server. and technologies. You cannot perform backups to tape. Features and Limitations of Windows Server Backup Features Use Windows Server Backup to:  Back up a full server (all volumes). Note In addition to the products and technologies discussed in this section. . Using proper backup and disaster recovery processes. which is available separately. certain applications. However.  System Center Data Protection Manager. files. and the system state.  The Automated System Recovery feature.  Recover volumes.exe tool to backup printer information. support of tape storage drivers is still included in Windows Storage Server. which will restore your complete system onto the new hard disk by using a full server backup and the Windows Recovery Environment. You can protect the data managed by Windows Storage Server using:  The Windows Server Backup feature. and reduce the risk of potential data loss. tools.  The DFS Replication feature.exe tool to backup IIS configuration.  The LUN resynchronization capabilities. selected volumes. Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data The Windows Server Backup feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 consists of a MMC snap-in and command-line tools that provide a solution for backup and recovery requirements. or the system state.

. The Shadow Copies for Shared Folders features uses the Volume Shadow Copy Service to create the file copies. Accessing previous versions of files. If you accidentally overwrite a file. you can view shared files and folders as they existed at points of time in the past. the oldest shadow copy will be deleted and cannot be retrieved). This feature allows a user to restore selective files or folders from previous versions without IT assistance. If you accidentally delete a file. Note For more information about the Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature. There is a limit of 64 shadow copies per volume (when this limit is reached. is useful because you can:  Recover files that were accidentally deleted. Note This default task can be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization.   The default storage area is on the same volume and its size requires 10 percent of the available space. You can use previous versions when you want to check what has changed between the versions of a file. Monday through Friday. It works by taking snapshots of an entire volume at particular points in time. contact the appropriate Microsoft partner. you can recover a previous version of the file.52 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Features Limitations  Only supports backup of entire volumes (cannot be used to backup individual files and folders. If your backup and recovery requirements are affected by any of the limitations listed above. For more information. With Shadow Copies of Shared Folders.  Recover from accidentally overwriting a file. you can open a previous version and copy it to a safe location. and 12:00 P.)  Compare versions of a file while working. consider using:  System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. You cannot enable this feature for specific shared folders and files on a volume.  Only supports backup of local volumes (cannot be used to backup network shared folders). Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data The Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature in Windows Storage Server is a feature in Windows Server that transparently maintains previous versions of files on selected volumes by using shadow copies. or shadow copies. For more information. see the section "Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data.M.  Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. Shadow Copies of Shared Folders is enabled for an entire volume. Shadow copies are read-only and as such you cannot edit the contents of a shadow copy." later in this white paper. see:  Shadow Copies for Shared Folders Technical Reference. The default configuration for this feature is as follows:  A default task is scheduled to create shadow copies at 7:00 A.  Backup and recovery solutions from Microsoft partners. (The number of versions depends on how many snapshots you have created.M.

Volume Shadow Copy Service Architecture Table 18 lists the components in the Volume Shadow Copy Service architecture and how the components relate to each other. such as those in the sections about "Windows Server Backup. or a system service like Active Directory. Typically. or the Diskshadow command-line tool. This architecture allows the point-in-time snapshots of files stored in Windows Storage Server." "Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. For example. Figure 7 illustrates the architecture of the Volume Copy Shadow Service in Windows Storage Server.53 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data The Volume Shadow Copy Service feature in Windows Storage Server provides the ability to take point-in-time snapshots of files and is the foundation for other applications or features. Writer Provider Source volume Storage volume . Table 18. and the hardware providers included with storage arrays. A component that creates and maintains the shadow copies. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. The volume that contains the data to be shadow copied. Figure 7. Shadow Copy of Shared Folders feature." and "Virtual Disk Snapshots" in this white paper. Examples include the system provider included with the Windows Storage Server operating system. An application that requests that a volume shadow copy be taken. this is a database application like SQL Server or Exchange Server. A component of an application that stores persistent information on one or more volumes that participate in shadow copy synchronization. the Windows Server Backup feature. Components in the Volume Shadow Copy Architecture Component Volume Shadow Copy Service Requestor Description A service that coordinates various components to create consistent shadow copies of one or more volumes. System Center Data Protection Manager. The volume that holds the shadow copy storage files for the system copy-on-write software provider.

LUN resynchronization is a method for quickly restoring volumes that takes advantage of the capabilities of storage arrays. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service LUN resynchronization Recovers entire LUN. the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider is required to create point-in-time snapshots.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. see the "Hardware Providers" section of Virtual Disks and Snapshots. This allows you to create shadow copies of entire LUNs. Table 19. Typically takes less time than restoring by using traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service. which may contain multiple volumes. Typically takes more time than restoring by using LUN resynchronization. using the inherent snapshot or copying features in the storage array. Performed by server computer. and then restore from those shadow copies. or copies. Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data Windows Server 2008 R2 includes support for LUN resynchronization (also known as LUN resynch or LUN revert). . Note You can use DiskShadow.exe command-line tool to manage Volume Shadow Copy Services for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. of the virtual hard disks managed by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Table 19 lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and current features in Volume Shadow Copy Service.54 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper As described in Table 18 and illustrated in Figure 7. Traditional volume shadow copy service Recovers only a volume. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service Window Server 2008 R2 LUN resynchronization support is an extension of the features provided by the Volume Shadow Copy Service in Windows Server 2008 R2. or development environments. such as SANs. You can also use LUN resynchronization to help quickly create duplicates of productions LUNs for use in a storage environment for backup or in test. see Volume Shadow Copy Service Technical Reference. For more information about the:  Volume Shadow Copy Service. The Volume Shadow Copy Services uses the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider to create these snapshots. Performed by storage array hardware. LUN resynchronization uses the same application programming interfaces (APIs) that are used by the Volume Shadow Copy Service. LUN resynchronization creates hardware-based shadow copies that allow you to recover a volume from an existing shadow copy of the volume.

This helps ensure that you can use the same tools and processes for a traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service recovery. Destination LUN does not have to exist or can be unusable. users and applications are still able to access their data. Source LUN must have the same performance as the production LUN. The destination LUN is the target LUN that will be synchronized or swapped with the source LUN. supported APIs in Windows Server 2008 R2. After the recovery of a volume using LUN resynchronization is initiated. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap LUN resynchronization Source (shadow copy) LUN remains unmodified after the resynchronization completes.  Integration with existing volume recovery methods. .  Reduce the workload while recovering volumes. less expensive storage.  Compatibility with future improvements. future versions of Windows Server will also provide support for LUN resynchronization. Source LUN can exist on slower. a shadow copy version of a LUN is exchanged with the active LUN.55 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap LUN swap is a fast volume recovery scenario supported since the release of Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1). This allows the server to continue processing other workloads with the same performance while the LUN resynchronization process completes. Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization The benefits of LUN resynchronization include the following:  Perform recovery of volumes with minimal disruption of service. Table 20 lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and a LUN swap. Table 20. The APIs used to perform LUN resynchronization are the same APIs that perform a traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service recovery. and any information written during the resynchronization. In a LUN swap. Because the hardware storage array is performing the resynchronization. LUN swap Source (shadow copy) LUN becomes the active LUN and is modified. Must create another shadow copy to perform recovery. Although there may be a reduction in performance. Destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN. Source LUN can be used for recovery again. the server hardware resources are only minimally affected. The source LUN is the shadow copy of the LUN that contains the data you wish to use. Because LUN resynchronization uses published. Requires that the destination LUN exists and is usable. users can continue to access data on the volume while the synchronization is being performed. Contains only the information on the source LUN.

including any volume information. plus any data that was written to the destination LUN during the LUN resynchronization process. a system administrator prepares for such a disaster by saving to physical media a complete backup set of information about the how the server was configured. 4. You can use DFS Replication to create replica copies of data in a centralized location and then back up the replica copies. ASR is tightly integrated with VSS. volume requests are directed to the destination LUN. this backup set is used with the ASR restore CD (which contains the necessary software and drivers to allow the restore) to rapidly restore all system setup information. For more information about DFS Replication in branch office scenarios for data protection. You can find more information about how these steps are performed by viewing the Volume Shadow Copy Service APIs on MSDN®. Note At the end of the LUN resynchronization process. The following includes the sequence of events that occur when performing a full volume restore using LUN synchronization: 1. 2. The source and destination LUNs are identified. 3. The LUN resynchronization continues by performing a block-level copy from the source (shadow copy) LUN to the destination LUN. volume requests are directed to the source LUN.56 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization Before you can perform a full volume recovery using LUN synchronization. and disk partition information. The LUN resynchronization completes and all user requests are now performed from the destination LUN. Restoring the base operating system plus the backup application (the minimum required to restore backed up applications and data) is a time intensive process. A critically damaged hard drive will lose all critical registry information. Using DFS Replication to Protect Data DFS Replication can be used as part of a centralized backup solution. For example. because that information is not copied during the backup process. The LUN resynchronization is initiated between the source (shadow copy) and the destination LUNs. . users can access the volume using the following methods:  For read operations. With the Automated System Recovery (ASR) technology in Windows Storage Server. such as fire or electrical surges. Using Automated System Recovery to Protect Data While backing up data to tape protects mission critical data from catastrophic events. 5. nothing remains but the bare metal. and in the Windows Software Development Kit (SDK) for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. it does nothing to protect system software stored on the hard drive.  For write operations. You can make full or differential shadow copies of the LUN. you can use this method in branch office scenarios to create replica copies of data in the branch offices in the head office and then back up the data in the head office. In the event of system failure. system files. see the section "Creating Branch Office Solutions" later in this white paper. During the LUN resynchronization. you need to have a hardware shadow copy (snapshot) of the LUN. the source LUN is unmodified and the destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN.

Combined with Windows Server technology. Data Protection Manager 2007 enables IT administrators and users to easily recover data in minutes from easily accessible disk instead of locating and restoring from less-reliable tapes. They offer the following advantages:  Snapshots can be scheduled to be created automatically. providing an easy-to-manage and robust disk/tape back-end platform. in addition to supporting dynamic disks. To facilitate backup and recovery operations. which are files in the fixed virtual hard disk (VHD) format. Microsoft Virtual Server. ASR has been enhanced to support EFI system partitions. Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 is designed to provide and restore Windows Server applications. a version of Windows PE that contains numerous troubleshooting and system resolution utilities. . Snapshots are useful for backups. Windows 2008 also provides the Recovery Console that utilizes the Windows Recovery Environment (Windows RE). overwritten data. Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect Data The disks you create by using the iSCSI Software Target are iSCSI virtual disks. which recreates all critical volumes and restores the required data. Data Protection Manager 2007 provides technically advanced and comprehensive data protection for organizations ranging in size from small business environments to enterprise environments.  Snapshots are space-efficient because they are differential copies. They can be extended to provide extra capacity on demand. Data Protection Manager 2007 includes the following benefits:  Continuous data protection for Windows application and file services workloads. in case of accidental data deletion by a user. Focused on the primary Microsoft server workloads.  Advanced technology for enterprises of all sizes. SharePoint® Portal Server. and one-click lossless application recovery. This change removes a previous problem in which dynamic disks were always recreated even if a restoration was not necessary. Data Protection Manager 2007 protects core Windows Server workloads by continuously capturing data changes with application-aware byte-level agents. or data corruption resulting from a malicious program. Finally. A snapshot is a point-in-time. Data Protection Manager 2007 blends the best aspects of continuous data protection (CDP) to disk storage with traditional tape backup. you can schedule and create snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks. minimize the time required to create disks. enable efficient storage utilization. In addition.  Snapshots are useful for fast system recovery of files and volumes. and Windows Server operating systems. and minimize the down time that is typically required to install new disks. These virtual disks offer flexible and effective storage. read-only copy of an iSCSI virtual disk. see System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. Data Protection Manager 2007 combines the best aspects of CDP real-time protection with traditional tape backup/restore to provide a comprehensive disk-to-disk-to-tape data recovery solution. Exchange Server.  Rapid and reliable recovery.57 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper ASR provides a VSS Writer for the preparation of an ASR set. Data Protection Manager 2007 was specifically designed to protect and recover files services for SQL Server. For more information about System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. During a restore operation the ASR VSS writer is executed within the Windows PE environment.

so application servers can continue servicing clients without disruption.exe tool in Windows Storage Server.exe tool allows you to export printer information on a periodic basis as a way of backing up a print server. Most modern file systems can recover from this state. The snapshot can be used to provide the ability to rollback services to a previous version.exe Tool to Backup IIS Configuration You can protect data managed by Web services workloads using the Appcmd." in this white paper. Note Snapshots that are created on the iSCSI target server are crash consistent.exe tool in Windows Storage Server. To create an application-consistent snapshot. Virtual disk snapshots require the Volume Shadow Copy Service and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider. Uses for Virtual Disk Snapshots Scenario Provide disaster recovery Create a restore point Use of the virtual disk snapshots The snapshots can be saved to other appliances.0 using this tool. you need to use backup software that works with Volume Shadow Copy Service from a Microsoft partner. Table 21 lists scenarios for using virtual disk snapshots. You can back up the configuration files for IIS 7. To perform backups of the virtual disks. or archival media and then later used to restore the data in the event of a failure. For more information about the Appcmd. Using the PrintBRM. For more information. For more information about:  Virtual disks and virtual disk snapshots. you could create snapshots prior to performing an upgrade to provide the ability to roll back the environment should the upgrade fail. Using the Appcmd.58 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper   Snapshots can be mounted locally or exported to facilitate backup and recovery operations. see the previous section "Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data. Table 21. . see Migrate Print Servers.exe tool. the snapshot must be created from the iSCSI initiator computer by using the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider and other backup software that works with the Volume Shadow Copy Service. servers. Snapshots do not require that you close files or stop programs when you create them. The PrintBRM. see Virtual Disks and Snapshots. see How to backup/restore IIS7 configuration. For example.exe Tool to Backup Printer Information You can protect data managed by Print services workloads using the PrintBRM.  The Volume Shadow Copy Service.

see BitLocker Drive Encryption. secure the Windows Storage Server operating system. help prevent unauthorized local and network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. passwords. Security Features or Technologies for All Workloads Feature or technology BitLocker Drive Encryption Description BitLocker Drive Encryption. access to files and folders are defined by the combination of NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions. you can further secure your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. Secure Windows Storage Server workloads by securing:  Windows Storage Server for all workloads  File services workloads  Disk block I/O workloads  Web services workloads  Print services workloads Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads Before securing specific workloads. and is used for accessing all workloads. . For more information. regardless of the workloads running on Windows Storage Server. stolen. This is especially important for Branch Office scenarios where the physical security may not be as strong as in a data center. or inappropriately decommissioned appliances. Active Directory Domain AD DS provides centralized management of credentials. These security measures can be implemented. NTFS permissions NTFS permissions. included in Windows Storage Server. For more information. included in Windows Storage Server. see the section "NTFS Permissions" in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. Services (AD DS) accounts. For more information. see Active Directory Domain Services Overview. In addition. Note For remote or network users. Table 22. NTFS permissions work with share folder permissions to help prevent unauthorized network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. encrypts data stored on hard disks.59 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Securing Windows Storage Server Workloads Windows Storage Server includes a number of features and technologies to help you secure your workloads. This encryption helps protect the data by preventing unauthorized users from breaking Windows file and system protection on lost. Windows Storage Server includes all of the security features and technologies found in Windows Server. Table 22 lists the features or technologies that you can use to secure Windows Storage Server.

For more information. You can centrally manage IPsec using Group Policy. data integrity.60 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature or technology Shared folder permissions Description Shared folder permission. IPsec supports network-level peer authentication. Note For remote or network users. and management solutions that are integrated with Microsoft user identity management. included in Windows Storage Server. Shared folder permissions work with NTFS permissions to help prevent unauthorized network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. helps reduce the attack surface by blocking unauthorized network traffic flowing into or out of the appliance. allows you to protect the communications between Windows Storage Server and other Windows operating systems. included in Windows Storage Server. Windows operating systems. provide protection. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. available separately. see the section "SMB Permissions" in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. and access. only help prevent unauthorized network access to the files and folders stored on Windows Storage Server. For more information. see Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. For more information. included in Windows Storage Server. IPsec. data confidentiality (encryption). and other Microsoft products. data origin authentication.  Remote connectivity to Windows Storage Server using Forefront Unified Access Gateway 2010. you can help protect:  Windows Storage Server and other Windows-based computers or appliances that communicate with the appliance using Forefront Client Security. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security is integrated with Network Awareness so that it can apply security settings appropriate to the types of networks to which the computer is connected. access to files and folders are defined by the combination of NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions. These shared folder permissions affect users accessing the files and folders using the SMB protocol. Specifically. which dramatically reduces the ongoing administrative and operations effort. IPsec Microsoft Forefront . and replay protection.  Communication with other computers or appliances over the Internet using Forefront Threat Management Gateway 2010. so that the IPsec configuration settings are integrated into the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in. Windows Firewall is also integrated with Internet Protocol Security (IPsec). Microsoft Forefront products.

" earlier in this white paper. To use NFS permissions. any security product that is compatible with Windows Server 2008 R2 is also compatible with Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. This is the home page for all Microsoft security products and technologies for all operating systems and products.exe to create client groups and to add client computers to those groups before configuring NFS share permissions. After installing Services for NFS. For more information. Table 23 lists the file services protocols and how to secure the protocol. Specifically. For more information. NFS-based access control for a shared resource is determined based on network names and groups. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. For more information. you can use the following resources to help secure Windows Storage Server:  Microsoft Security. Securing File Services Workloads File services workloads are secured based on the protocol that provides access to the file services workloads. deploy. In addition to features and technologies listed in Table 22.61 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature or technology Microsoft partner products Description There are a large number of security related products and technologies that are available from Microsoft partners. you must first install the Services for Network File System (NFS) role service using Server Manager. Table 23. integrate. This collection of tools and guidance are free. Typically. and monitor security baselines of Windows operating systems. Use read-only DFS Replication to provide read-only copies of file and folders to servers where only read-  NFS   . see "NTFS Permissions" and "SMB Permissions" sections in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. File Services Protocols and How to Secure the Protocols Protocol SMB How to secure this protocol  Use NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions to secure SMB-based access to shared resources. see the “Creating Branch Office Solutions” section in this white paper. the Security Compliance Management Toolkit Series provides an end-to-end solution to help plan. and operate your security infrastructure. Use read-only DFS Replication to provide read-only copies of file and folders to servers where only readonly access is allowed. see the "NFS Permissions" section in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. use NFSAdmin. You can manage the NFS share permissions using the Share and Storage Management snap-in.  Security Solution Accelerators. authoritative resources to help you to proactively plan.

To use this level of security. All initiators that want to access that target need to use the same secret to start a logon session with the target. The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) secret is set just for the target. you must have a RADIUS server running on your network. WebDAV  Windows SharePoint Services   Securing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Disk block I/O workloads are secured by configuring the appropriate security between the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and the iSCSI initiators. Require authentication for all users that access the appliance using WebDAV. A separate secret is set for each target and for each initiator. For more information. For more information. see Authentication and Security Using WebDAV. For more information. For more information. see the “Creating Branch Office Solutions” section in this white paper. only the iSCSI target authenticates the initiator. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. For more information. the iSCSI initiator is authenticated by a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server. With this level of security. Table 24. With this level of security.  RADIUS authentication. Transactions between the iSCSI initiator and the RADIUS server are also authenticated through the use of a shared secret. The IPsec protocol enforces . Encrypt all Windows SharePoint communication with the appliance using SSL. Table 24 lists the methods of securing the communication for the iSCSI block I/O workloads.  Encrypt all WebDAV communication with the appliance using secure socket layer (SSL).  IPsec authentication. Securing Communication for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Protocol Require authentication How to secure Require all iSCSI initiators to authenticate with the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using one of the following methods:  One-way CHAP authentication. Require authentication for all users that Windows SharePoint Server on the appliance.  Mutual CHAP authentication. the iSCSI target and the initiator authenticate each other.62 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protocol How to secure this protocol only access is allowed. see Authentication and Security Using WebDAV. see Plan authentication settings for Web applications (Windows SharePoint Services). see Plan authentication settings for Web applications (Windows SharePoint Services). or you must deploy one. With this level of security.

FTP    Note IIS 7. For more information.63 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protocol How to secure authentication at the IP packet layer. Web Services Protocols and How to Secure the Protocols Protocol HTTP How to secure this protocol    Use the HTTPS protocol instead to provide encryption of all communication between the appliance and the clients. Isolate the network segments used for communication between the iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by using separate physical network segments or by using virtual local area networks (VLANs). Ensure that all FTP connections require authentication. For more information. Encrypt all communication Protect communication between the iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using IPsec encryption.5. Table 25. Table 25 lists the Web services protocols and how to secure the protocol. use one-way CHAP authentication between iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Use IPsec to protect communication between the appliance and FTP clients. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. every IIS 7. Ensure that all HTTPS connections require authentication as necessary." earlier in this white paper. less-privileged identity. FTP is an insecure protocol and sends all traffic in clear text. Ensure that all HTTP connections require authentication as necessary.5 application pool now runs with a unique. Allow connectivity to the appliance only from computers on your internal network. Note At a minimum. Note HTTPS   HTTPS is a secure protocol and does not need further protection for confidentiality.5 builds on the application pool isolation that was available with IIS 7. This helps harden the security of applications and services running on IIS 7. HTTP is an insecure protocol and sends all traffic in clear text. see iSCSI Security. . see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec.0 that increased security and reliability. Allow connectivity to the appliance only from computers on your internal network. Isolate iSCSI network segments Securing Web Services Workloads Web services workloads are secured based on the protocol that provides access to the Web services workloads.

see Internet Printing and Resulting Internet Communication in Windows Server 2008. Use the HTTPS protocol instead when connecting to the URL for the printer. There is no authentication available or security permissions available. LPD Service Internet Printing . Protect all communication between the Internet Printing clients and the appliance using SSL. The communication between the LPD Service and LPR clients is unsecured. For more information. use IPsec to protect the communication between the LPD Service and LPR clients. For more information. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. see Assigning Delegated Print Administrator and Printer Permission Settings in Windows Server 2008 R2. If required. Print Server Role Services and How to Secure the Role Service Role service Print Server How to secure this protocol Use printer permissions to control access to the appliance running the Print Server role services using the Print Management snapin. For more information." earlier in this white paper.64 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Securing Print Services Workloads Print services workloads are secured based on the Print Server role service that provides access to the file services workloads. Table 26 lists the Print Server role services and how to secure the role service. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. Table 26.

can be used to improve the availability of SMB-based file services workloads. Then you can use DFS Namespace to provide automatic failover to replica copies of content when a local copy of the content is unavailable. you can improve DFS Replication availability by running on failover clusters in Windows Storage Server. as illustrated in Figure 8. see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node File Server Failover Cluster. In addition. complexity.65 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Availability of Windows Storage Server Workloads High levels of availability are essential for mission-critical applications and services.      . The method supports read and write access to the files. You can use DFS Replication to create replica copies of shared network folders. DFS. Table 27 lists the methods for improving the availability for file services workload and which protocols can use that method. This user interface reduces the learning curve. Improve the availability of Windows Storage Server workloads by:  Improving File services workload availability  Improving iSCSI block I/O workload availability  Improving Web services workload availability  Improving Print services workloads availability Improving Availability of File Services Workloads The availability of file services workloads in Windows Storage Server can be improved based on the protocol used to access the file services. In addition. Methods for Improving File Services Workload Availability Method SMB NFS WebDAV Windows SharePoint Services Failover clusters. For more information about failover clusters for file services workloads. Windows Storage Server includes all of the high availability features and technologies found in Windows Server. you can further improve the availability of your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. Windows Storage Server provides an easy to install and configure user interface for creating a two node failover cluster. Table 27. and effort required to create a two node cluster. Failover clusters in Windows Storage Server.

or Fibre Channel connected storage. For more information about using NLB to improve availability for file services workloads. Network Load Balancing. . SAS. Figure 8 illustrates a typically two-node failover cluster for file services workloads. PCI RAID controllers are not supported for shared storage. The Network Load Balancing (NLB) feature in Windows Storage Server can be used to provide fault tolerance for file services workloads.66 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Method SMB NFS WebDAV Windows SharePoint Services For more information. see Network Load Balancing. The shared storage in Figure 8 can be iSCSI. see Distributed File System.   The most common method of improving the availability for file services workloads is by using failover clusters. Note The cluster storage illustrated in Figure 8 could be provided by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server.

For more information. and switches — to create logical paths between the iSCSI initiator and the appliance . see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and the Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node File Server Failover Cluster. Typical two-node failover cluster for file services workloads Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads You can improve the availability iSCSI block I/O workloads by using a combination of the following features in Windows Server products:  Failover clustering. cables. The most common failover cluster used for iSCSI block I/O workloads is a file server failover cluster.67 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 8.  Multipath I/O. Multipath I/O uses physical path components — adapters. You can use failover clusters to improve the availability for the iSCSI initiator running a Windows Server operating system or the iSCSI target running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. A failover cluster is a group of independent computers that work together to increase the availability of applications and services.

see Multipath I/O Overview. For more information. causing the path to fail. As illustrated in Figure 9. Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Targets The highest priority in improving the availability of iSCSI block I/O workloads is to improve the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. . In the event that one or more of these components fails. there is no fault tolerance depicted in the connection between the iSCSI initiator and the clustered iSCSI targets (the storage fabric). Note Multipath connections for Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiators is provided by the MPIO feature in Windows Server.68 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. This section also discusses the following combinations of failover clustering and multipath I/O features:  Creating highly-available iSCSI targets with single or multipath connections.  Creating highly-available iSCSI initiators with single or multipath connections. The configuration in Figure 9 helps prevent loss of iSCSI block I/O workloads in the event of a failure of one of the appliances. you can use failover clusters to improve the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server. Each iSCSI network interface card should be connected by using redundant switch infrastructures to provide continued access to storage in the event of a failure in a storage fabric component. multipathing logic uses an alternate path for I/O so that applications running on the iSCSI initiator can still access their data. Redundancy for iSCSI initiators on other operating systems or hardware iSCSI initiators is provided by network adapter teaming from the network adapter vendor. However. Redundancy for file services and print services is also provided by network adapter teaming support from the network adapter vendor.

such as a switch failure or a disconnected network cable. . Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with a single path connection The configuration in Figure 10 illustrates combining multipath I/O with the failover cluster solution. The network infrastructure for the iSCSI communication between the iSCSI initiator and the clustered nodes running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target has been updated to include redundant network adapters. switches. This redundancy in the physical connectivity helps eliminate any single point of failures due to the network infrastructure for the storage fabric used by iSCSI.69 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 9. and network cables.

The configuration in Figure 11 helps prevent loss of iSCSI block I/O workloads in the event that one of the computers or appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator or Microsoft iSCSI Software Target fails. you can use failover clusters to improve the availability of the computers or appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server operating systems. . you can improve the availability of the iSCSI initiators running Windows Server operating systems.70 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 10. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with multipath connections Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Initiators After improving the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. there is no fault tolerance depicted in the connection between the clustered iSCSI initiators and the clustered iSCSI targets (the storage fabric). However. As illustrated in Figure 11.

Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and iSCSI initiators with single path connections The configuration in Figure 12 illustrates combining multipath I/O with the failover cluster solution for the iSCSI initiators and iSCSI targets in Figure 11. switches. This redundancy in the physical connectivity helps eliminate any single point of failure due to the network infrastructure for the storage fabric used by iSCSI.71 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 11. such as a switch failure or a disconnected network cable. and network cables. . The network infrastructure for the iSCSI communication between the clustered nodes running the iSCSI initiators and the clustered nodes running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target has been updated to include redundant network adapters.

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Figure 12. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and iSCSI initiators with multipath connections

Improving Availability of Web Services Workloads
The NLB feature in Windows Storage Server can be used to provide fault tolerance for Web services workloads. The assumption of this solution is that each of the appliances in the NLB cluster have identical content and are continuously synchronized (such as by DFS Replication). For more information about using NLB to improve availability for Web services workloads, see Network Load Balancing.
Note If the Web applications use a centralized SQL Server database for storing information, you can also use failover clustering to improve the availability of the database. For more information, see Getting Started with SQL Server 2008 Failover Clustering.

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Improving Availability of Print Services Workloads
Failover clusters in Windows Storage Server can be used to improve the availability of Print services workloads. Figure 13 illustrates a typically two-node failover cluster for Print services workloads.
Note The cluster storage illustrated in Figure 13 could be provided by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server.

Figure 13. Typical two-node failover cluster for Print services workloads This method helps prevent any print services outages due to the failure a node in the cluster. Print services outages for specific printers occur in the event of a printer failure. However, the print jobs for the printer continue to be queued until the printer failure is resolved and the printer is restored to normal operation. For more information about failover clusters for file services workloads, see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and the Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node Print Server Failover Cluster.

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Improving Performance and Scalability for Windows Storage Server Solutions
The ability to take full advantage of the system resources of Windows Storage Server based appliance is essential to creating successful solutions. Windows Storage Server includes all of the performance and scalability features and technologies found in Windows Server 2008. In addition, you can further improve the performance and scalability of your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. Improve the performance and scalability of Windows Storage Server workloads by improving performance and scalability for:  All workloads.  File services workloads.  iSCSI block I/O workloads.  Web services workloads.  Print services workloads.

Improving Performance and Scalability for All Workloads
Windows Storage Server includes a number of technologies and features that will improve the performance and scalability for all workloads. These performance and scalability improvements are inherent in Windows Storage Server. Improve the performance and scalability for all workloads by taking advantage of the:  Improvements in processor and memory capacity.  Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol.  Improvements in network adapter performance.  Reduction in processor utilization for I/O operations.

Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity
The improvements in computer design have resulted in modern server computers that support an ever increasing number of processors and increased memory capacity. Current server computers are only shipping with 64-bit processors, multiple processors, and higher memory capacity than ever before. These improvements allow you to create application platforms that are able to support larger workloads, reduce rack space in your data center, reduce power consumption, provide improved reliability, and reduce your overall administrative effort.

Improved Physical Processor and Memory Resources
32-bit processors impose system resource limitations that restrict your ability to handle increased workloads without investing in additional server computers. 64-bit processors allow you to support larger workloads, while minimizing the number of physical computers in your data center. Also, server consolidation by using virtualization requires 64-bit processors to provide the processing and memory resources to support higher ratios of server consolidation. To support the increased processor performance and memory capacity provided by 64bit processors, Windows Storage Server is only available for 64-bit processor architectures. Windows Storage Server supports up to 256 logical processor cores for a single operating system instance.

This feature senses when large TCP segments retransmit and automatically adjusts the Path Maximum Transmission Unit (PMTU) for the connection. Reducing the number of retransmitted TCP segments improves the overall performance of traffic that used the TCP protocol.  Automating the tuning of the maximum receive window size. This feature automatically determines the value of the maximum receive window size for a connection based on the current conditions of the network. and high-loss networking environments. rather than relying on the receipt of the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) error messages. CPU Core Parking enables power savings by scheduling virtual machine execution on only some processor cores and placing the remaining processor cores in a sleep state. and improves overall network performance. and improves overall network performance. especially on high latency connections. Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Protocol With the introduction of Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. The performance and scalability features in the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite include:  Offloading TCP/IP protocol processing to specialized network adapter hardware. CTCP more aggressively increases the Send window for connections with large Receive window sizes and large bandwidth-delay products. The Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite includes a new set of performance enhancements to increase throughput in high-bandwidth. CTCP also ensures that its behavior does not negatively impact other TCP connections. routers experiencing congestion mark the IP packets as they forward them. or scale workloads to greater extremes to match changing demand. SLAT uses special processor functionality available in recent Intel and AMD processors to carry out some virtual machine memory management functions. TCP/IP offloading can be used when a server is performing heavy receive processing with less than 1. high-latency. Optimizing the network to receive TCP data can substantially increase overall network utilization by applications. For example.  Reducing IP packet resending due to router congestion. significantly reducing hypervisor processor time and saving about 1MB of memory per virtual machine. TCP peers receiving marked IP packets lower their transmission rate to ease congestion . However.  Aggressively increasing the TCP Send windows size by using Compound TCP (CTCP). the exact number of connections is vendor specific. CTCP attempts to maximize throughput on these types of connections by monitoring delay variations and losses. Microsoft included a new version of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Aggressively increasing the TCP Send window size allows the maximum amount of data to be transmitted between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. when the computer is performing a backup over the network. Hyper-V in Windows Storage Server also supports Second-Level Address Translation (SLAT) and CPU Core Parking. This feature works with the Compound TCP feature on the sender side. Offloading some of the TCP/IP protocol processing to a network adapter reduces the processor utilization associated with handling TCP/IP connections. With Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) support on both TCP peers and in the routing infrastructure. This increased processor support makes it possible to run even more demanding workloads on a single computer.  Improving black hole router detection. Automatically tuning the receive window size allows the maximum amount of data to be transmitted between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista.500 persistent active connections.75 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Increased Logical Processor Support Hyper-V in Windows Storage Server can support up to 64 logical processors. also referred to as the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite.

0 with RSS prevents bottlenecks for incoming network traffic.  New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Because all processors are able to process incoming network traffic.0 balances the network load from a network adapter across multiple processors. Reducing IP packet resending improves the overall performance of traffic that uses the TCP protocol. Note RSS support has also been released in the scalable networking pack for Windows Server 2003. all processors have available capacity and none are a bottleneck for incoming network traffic. Figure 14 illustrates how the architecture of NDIS 6.0. enables multiple DPCs on different processors for each instance of a network adapter miniport driver. a secure hashing mechanism. see Receive-Side Scaling Enhancements in Windows Server 2008.1 allows a single deferred procedure call (DPC) for each network adapter.  Performance Enhancements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. Improvements in Network Adapter Performance RSS in NDIS 6. see:  Next Generation TCP/IP Stack.76 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper and prevent segment losses. and parallel DPCs. Figure 14. parallel interrupts. using RSS. RSS also supports dynamic load balancing. NDIS 5. NDIS 6. For more information about the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite in Windows Server 2008. Incoming network traffic with RSS For more information about RSS. . while preserving in-order delivery of messages on a per-stream basis.

The interrupt and subsequent completion processing of the I/O operation occurs on Processor 2. reduces the possibility of interrupting an application unrelated to the I/O operation. decryption.77 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations Windows Server 2008 performs dynamic redirection of I/O interrupts and I/O completion processing to reduce overall processor utilization. Figure 15. If the completion processing accesses the data read from the disk. the data will go from memory to Processor 3. if the completion processing accesses data read from the disk (for example to perform virus detection. the interrupt from the disk is directed to Processor 3. Processor 2 subsequently interrupts Processor 3 to indicate that the I/O operation is complete (assuming that the application waiting for the I/O is executing on Processor 3). Multiprocessor I/O operation without NUMA optimization Figure 16 illustrates an example of the components that might be required for processing a dynamically directed I/O completion by using NUMA I/O. or decompression of the data). Furthermore. A disk controller takes advantage of the NonUniform Memory Access (NUMA) I/O functionality in Windows Server 2008 and can use the information specified during the initiation of the I/O operation to select a processor that can most efficiently perform the necessary processing of the completed I/O. In prior versions of Windows. Disk controller drivers can make use of new application programming interfaces (APIs) that allow Windows to specify the processor on which to efficiently perform completion processing for each I/O. when the request is initiated. In this example. and the application will experience a high cache hit ratio when it accesses the data. Figure 15 illustrates an example of the components that might be required for processing a statically directed I/O completion. the interrupt from the disk is directed to Processor 2 because of the static assignment made when the disk was detected at boot time. . reduces the hardware interconnect activity. that data will have to go from memory to Processor 2 over the node interconnect and then back over the node interconnect to Processor 3 when the application starts to access the data. Although the I/O operation is initiated on Processor 3. and minimizes I/O completion processing time. and the subsequent completion processing of the I/O occurs on Processor 3. the I/O operation is initiated on Processor 3. NUMA I/O functionality improves the hardware cache hit ratios. the selection of processors to interrupt and perform completion processing was statically chosen when the device was detected (similar to a round-robin order across all processors).

 Download NUMA I/O Optimizations. For non-NUMA architectures. Figure 16. see:  The "NUMA Support" section of the "Advances in Memory Management for Windows" white paper. In scenarios where the system consists of only Processors 3 and 4 in a single node configuration. For more information about NUMA support in Windows Server 2008. These improvements are largely due to improvements in the SMB2 protocol. For NUMA architectures.  Better NUMA and non-NUMA processor architecture.  Reviewing SMB-based file services workload test results. the node interconnect and all unrelated processors are unaffected by the I/O completion. Identify the performance and scalability improvements for file services workloads by:  Reviewing the performance and scalability improvements in the SMB2 protocol. In the current implementation. the fact that Processor 4 is unaffected by the I/O operation still results in performance benefits. Improving Performance and Scalability for File Services Workloads File services workloads in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of Windows Server.78 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In this example. the I/O processing is localized to a NUMA node or a specific processor within the node.1 in Windows Server 2008 R2.  Improving network performance between head offices and branch offices using the BranchCache feature. Multiprocessor I/O operation with NUMA optimization The dynamic I/O completion redirection (NUMA I/O) improvements in Windows Server 2008 provide the following benefits:  Support for the Message Signaled Interrupt eXtension (MSI-X) that enables a PCI-X or PCI-Express device to use new APIs to specify a processor to complete processing of each specific I/O operation.  Reviewing performance improvements in SMB Version 2. . the I/O processing is performed on a specific processor. the selected completion processor for an I/O is ideally the same processor that initiated the I/O operation.

the new version of SMB that has been redesigned for today’s complex networking environments and next-generation file servers. In SMB 1. For example. . including greater performance when servers connect to file shares over high-latency links.  Support for much larger buffer sizes when compared to SMB 1. The SMB2 protocol features include:  Support for sending multiple SMB commands within the same packet. SMB 1—the technology behind Windows Server versions prior to Windows Server 2008—was originally designed for early Windows-based network operating systems. a common issue in the effective tuning of SMB 1. write request 2 must wait for the write response from write request 1. SMB in Windows Server 2008 and later versions supports SMB 1 as well as SMB2. which is optimized for greater performance over high-latency links. Figure 17 illustrates how SMB 1 processes multiple write operations between a client computer running Windows XP and a server computer running Windows Server 2003. such as Microsoft LAN Manager and Windows for Workgroups.  Support for durable handles that can withstand short interruptions in network availability. Review Improvements in the SMB2 Protocol Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 includes the latest version of SMB. The SMB2 protocol provides a number of communication enhancements.  An increase in the restrictive constants within the protocol design to allow for scalability. and better security through the use of mutual authentication and message signing. each write request must wait for the write response from a previous write request. Windows includes an SMB client (the “Client for Microsoft Windows” component) and an SMB server (the “File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Windows” component).  Support for symbolic links. This reduces the number of packets sent between an SMB client and server. SMB2.79 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Improving network performance between client computers and Windows Storage Server for the folder redirection and offline files features. Examples include an increase in the number of concurrent open file handles on the server and the number of file shares that a server can have.

. Write operations in SMB 1 Figure 18 illustrates how SMB2 processes multiple write operations between a client computer running Windows Vista and a server computer running Windows Server 2008. The overall effect. especially on high-latency network connections. multiple write requests can be issued before receiving a write response. is that remote file operations are much faster.80 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 17. In SMB2.

Write operations in SMB2 For more information about SMB2. see the "Server Message Block 2.0" section of New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. .81 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 18.

Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network For this test.  Accessing files on a shared folder at a remote location over a WAN connection. Figure 19. The server computers running Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003 are in New York while the client computers running Windows Vista and Windows XP are in London. Figure 19 illustrates the environment for tests performed over a WAN connection. The performance gains that are illustrated in these tests are a direct result of the performance and scalability features in Windows Server 2008. . The test results for Windows Server 2003 do not include Windows Firewall.  Copying large files to a remote location over a WAN connection. Environment for performing File Services role tests The following tests were performed for the File Servers role:  Running the Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) on a high-speed network. Windows Firewall imposes a minimal impact (approximately 5 percent) on network throughput. the Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) was run against a server running Windows Server 2008. This test environment emulates two geographic locations (New York and London) separated by a WAN connection. The File Services server role implements SMB-based file services.82 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Review SMB-based File Services Workload Test Results The File Services server role is one of the most common server roles deployed. Note The tests results reflect the performance of Windows Server 2008 with Windows Firewall enabled. This tool simulates a home folders file workload on a set of client computers and computes the maximum number of users a server can support based on the response time of simulated scenarios as illustrated in Figure 20.

Example Performance Characteristics of Appliances with Different System Resources Processor sockets Single socket Single socket Single socket Dual socket Disk configuration 4 SATA drives 10 SATA drives 10 SATA drives 24 SAS drives Raid level RAID 5 RAID 5 RAID 1+0 RAID 1+0 Users supported 600 1. .200 1. For a given number of users accessing data on a file server.6% 7. network. The tool also provides the ability to collect performance counters such as processor. the appliances contained only a single or dual processor socket that is typical for these types of appliances at the time of writing. As reflected by these performance characteristics. Table 28.00% Procesor utilization 70. the tool will compute a throughput number corresponding to the average scenario per second that the server is able to sustain.7% 5.00% 20.00% 60.00% 40.00% 50.700 5. Table 28 lists example performance characteristics for appliances with different system resources. File Services Role scalability test results The scenarios include common operations such as browsing a directory. The number and speed of the drives has the largest influence on the number of users who can be supported.00% 80.00% 0. you can expand the processor and disk resources of the appliances to support tens of thousands of users on a single appliance. and processors.5% 11. In these examples.83 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 450 Number of Scenarios per Second 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 Number of users 100.00% 90.00% 10. and modifying Microsoft Office files.00% Average scenario throughput CPU utilization Figure 20. and disk subsystem utilization details to help identify potential bottlenecks.000 Processor utilization 7.00% 30. memory. copying files.2% A significantly higher number of users can be supported by adding more drives. memory.

two scenarios were performed (as illustrated in Figure 21) over a simulated WAN connection. In the second scenario. the scenarios were performed (as illustrated in Figure 21) over a simulated WAN connection:  Opening a 47-KB Excel spreadsheet stored on a network shared folder in Excel 2007. In the chart in Figure 21. 100 1-megabyte (MB) files were copied between the client computers and the server computers. and Windows XP SP2 with Windows Server 2003 SP2.84 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Copying Large Files to a Remote Location Over a WAN Connection For this test.  Opening a 2-MB Word document stored on a network shared folder in Word 2007.  Copying a 6-MB file to a network shared folder in Windows Explorer. a lower length of time indicates that the file operation occurred faster. one 268-MB file was copied between the client computers and the server computers. the combination of Windows Vista SP1 and Windows Server 2008 provided dramatic performance improvements compared to the combination of Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP2. For both scenarios. a lower length of time indicates that the file copy process occurred faster. For this test. In the chart in Figure 22. .  Browsing a network shared folder that contains 50 files in Windows Explorer. the combination of Windows Vista SP1 and Windows Server 2008 provided dramatic performance improvements compared to the combination of Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP2. In all these scenarios. In the first scenario. Figure 21. The test scenarios were performed for the combination of Windows Vista SP1 with Windows Server 2008. Remote large file copy test results Accessing Files at a Remote Location Over a WAN Connection This test series provides an indication of how typical user applications perform when accessing files and folders on network shared folders on server computers running Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003.

.85 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 22. Previously. which includes the following improvements over previous versions of SMB:  Support for large protocol data unit (PDU) and maximum transmission unit (MTU).  Improved opportunistic file locking method. or SMB2 client requests. This increase in packet size significantly improves the performance for file copies and directory enumerations. Figure 23 and Figure 24 illustrate the SMB performance differences between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 on two servers with different system resources. SMB. Remote file application test results Reviewing Performance Improvements in SMB Version 2. The Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) can be used to help perform file server capacity and performance planning and troubleshooting for CIFS. the SMB packet size can now increase up to 1 MB.1 in Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new version of SMB. a single packet can now contain thousands of directory entries. SMB packet size was limited to 64 KB. This method helps improve application performance when opening and closing files. SMB version 2.1. such as files for Microsoft Office System applications. For example. This improvement helps performance when multiple files are opened in sequence or in parallel by the same client. This improvement helps performance by sending larger SMB packets.  Improved performance for file copy operations. This improvement helps file copy operations performed remotely on network shared folders using the SMB protocol. In SMB version 2.1.

Figure 24. the server has the following system resources:  One processor.  One Fibre Channel host bus adapter.86 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 23.  16 GB of memory.  24 hard disks configured in a RAID-10 array. Performance results with first hardware configuration In the performance results comparison in Figure 23. Performance results with second hardware configuration .

87 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In the performance results comparison in Figure 24.1 are realized only when both operating systems support SMB 2.002) SMB2 (v2. Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache One of the largest problems facing branch offices is how to improve the performance of accessing intranet resources in other locations. SMB 2.002) SMB 2. As illustrated in Figure 24. Versions of SMB Supported Between Different Windows Operating Systems Windows Vista. such as the head office or regional data centers. The type of content that is cached is content returned by SMB requests and HTTP requests. Table 29 shows the version of SMB used between two computers running different combinations of operating systems. Typically branch offices are connected by wide area networks (WANs) that usually have slower data rates than your intranet. if a computer running Windows XP is accessing a computer running Windows Server 2008 R2.002) SMB 1 SMB2 (v2.  Two Fibre Channel host bus adapters. SMB 1 is used for file services traffic. Windows Server 2003. the increased system resources allow Windows Server 2008 R2 to support almost twice as many users as the system resources in Figure 23. The performance improvements in SMB 2. the server has the following system resources:  Two processors.  96 hard disks configured in a RAID-10 array.1 is only supported when both computers are running Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 R2. and prior operating systems Windows Vista. Table 29. Windows Server 2003.1.1 For example. BranchCache Modes BranchCache supports the following operational modes:  Distributed Cache mode  Hosted Cache mode .  72 GB memory. Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008 Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SMB 1 Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008 SMB 1 Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SMB 1 SMB 1 SMB2 (v2. Reducing the network utilization on the WAN network segments provides available network bandwidth for applications and services. The BranchCache feature in Windows Storage Server and Windows 7 reduces the network utilization on WAN segments that connect branch offices by locally caching frequently used files on computers in the branch office. and prior operating systems.

Client 1 searches locally for a computer that has already downloaded and cached the content. This request can be transmitted over any of the BranchCache-enabled protocols. Client 1 receives this request. The disadvantage to this solution is that content is cached on client computers. This request is not marked as BranchCache capable. 4.88 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Distributed Cache Mode In Distributed Cache mode. or headers that are already part of the BranchCache-enabled protocol. Client 1 issues another request to the server in the head office by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. messages. protecting it with the BranchCache encryption scheme. The client then adds this data to its local cache. The server responds. Client 2 uses the BranchCache discovery protocol to search for the content. Client 1 transmits the content to Client 2. Client 2 requests the content from Client 1 by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol. using fields. Client 2 verifies the data against the identifiers downloaded from the server in the head office. so it does not receive any responses. The server responds with the requested data. as illustrated in Figure 25. such as SMB. HTTP. and transmits a set of identifiers that describe the chunks of content the client computer wants to download. Client 1 is the first computer in the branch to download this piece of content. HTTP. . Figure 25. or BITS. which in turn uses HTTP. and sends a response to Client 2. BranchCache Distributed Cache mode The following sequence reflects how the Distributed Cache mode caches content: 1. content is cached on the branch on client computers running Windows 7. or Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS). the content must be retrieved over the WAN connection. 5. 6. 2. which in turn uses WS-Discovery. 3. a multicast protocol sent over UDP. Client 2 issues a request for the same content that Client 1 downloaded earlier. The client computer indicates to the server that it is BranchCache capable. so if the computer containing the cached content is unavailable. finds the requested content in its local cache. Client 1 issues a request for a file on a BranchCache-enabled server in the head office. These identifiers are transmitted by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. Client 2 receives identifiers describing the content from the server in the head office. This search is conducted by using the BranchCache discovery protocol. such as SMB.

A client computer can be configured to use only a single caching mode at one time. BranchCache Hosted Cache mode The following sequence reflects how the Hosted Cache mode caches content: 1. and transmits a set of identifiers that describe the chunks of content that the client computer wants to download. These identifiers are transmitted by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. 3. or headers that are already part of the BranchCache-enabled protocol. Client 1 requests the content from the hosted cache in the branch office by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). Figure 26. which in turn uses HTTP. as illustrated in Figure 26. so the cached content is always available. or BITS. The server responds. The advantage to this mode is that the server is always available. such as SMB. content is cached at the branch office on client computers running Windows Server 2008 R2. The hosted cache response informs Client 1 that the target data is not available. Client 1 issues a request to a BranchCache-enabled server in the head office. The unavailability of any client computer running Windows 7 does not affect the availability of the content cache. HTTP. 2.89 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note Hosted Cache mode and Distributed Cache mode are mutually exclusive. messages. HTTP. The server responds with the requested data. Hosted Cache Mode In Hosted Cache mode. This request can be transmitted over any of the BranchCache-enabled protocols. or BITS. which in turn uses HTTPS. such as SMB. This request is not marked BranchCache capable. Client 1 advertises the newly downloaded content to the Hosted Cache server running Windows Storage Server by using the BranchCache hosted cache protocol (MS-PCHC). using fields. . 4. The client computer indicates to the server that it is BranchCache capable. Client 1 issues another request to the server in the head office by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol.

Client 2 receives identifiers describing the content from the server in the head office. see Network Shell (Netsh) Commands for BranchCache. The hosted cache responds with the data. the client computer returns to the server in the head office and requests a download. Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files Windows 7 includes the following features that allow users to provide user state virtualization:  Folder redirection. 6. A client computer can be configured to use only a single caching mode at one time.90 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 5. Both of these features require access to shared network folders on Windows Storage Server. BranchCache Management You can configure BranchCache behavior by using Group Policy. All of the performance features listed in this section will also improve the performance for folder redirection and offline files. Users are able to modify local copies of files in the event they are disconnected from the network. Identify Methods for Improving iSCSI Block I/O Workload Performance and Scalability You can improve the performance and scalability for iSCSI block I/O workloads by using the following methods:  Ensure the system resources of the appliance are sufficient. Improving Performance and Scalability for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads File services workloads in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of Windows Server. Client 2 requests the content from the hosted cache in the branch office by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). You can improve the performance and scalability for iSCSI block I/O workloads by:  Identifying methods for improving iSCSI block I/O workload performance and scalability. This feature allows users to store the user’s folders in a shared folder on Windows Storage Server. The Hosted Cache server connects to the client and downloads the recently advertised content by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD).  Offline files. Client 2 verifies the data by using the identifiers downloaded from the server in the head office. Client 2 issues a request for the same content that Client 1 downloaded earlier. You can also manage BranchCache by using the NetSH command. Windows Storage Server includes a Group Policy administrative template that you can use to administer the BranchCache configuration settings.  Reviewing the results of I/O storage workload tests. If a client computer cannot locate content on the hosted cache server. For more information about configuring BranchCache by using the NetSH command. which in turn uses HTTP. . This feature allows users to locally cache files stored on a shared folder on Windows Storage Server. which in turn uses HTTP. 7. The typical system resources that are heavily utilized by iSCSI block I/O workloads include memory. Folder redirection allows users to quickly recover from local failures of their computer. Note Hosted Cache mode and Distributed Cache mode are mutually exclusive.

NFS workloads. Although a given number of disks may have adequate storage capacity. When encountering network utilization problems.exe. Ensure that the appliance has sufficient resources to provide adequate performance and scaling. or SMB workloads.vhd files.exe command line tool. After ensuring the number of disks is sufficient for capacity. Different types of workloads on the same physical network can cause overutilization and performance problems.91 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper     disk. . Isolate different types of workloads using separate physical network segments. Configure sector alignment for iSCSI Target volumes and . segregate each type of workload to a separate physical network segment to reduce network contention. and network. When encountering network utilization problems. Dedicate a physical array for each conflicting workload. In this example. Sector alignment allows Windows Storage Server to create partitions that align with the underlying physical disk. Sector alignment helps prevent an I/O operation from spanning two tracks. which causes performance degradation. Always size disks for performance in addition to capacity. Note Consult your storage vendor to determine the proper values to use with the Diskpart. You can configure sector alignment for physical disks using the Diskpart. Figure 27 illustrates a Windows Storage Server solution that has been optimized to provide improved performance and scalability. also ensure they are sufficient for I/O throughput. such as sequential I/O workloads. Different types of workloads on the same physical network can cause overutilization and performance problems. random I/O workloads. the Windows Storage Server solution is optimized to support Exchange Server connecting to disk LUNs on Windows Storage Server. the number may not provide sufficient I/O throughput. Isolate different types of workloads using dedicated physical arrays. segregate each type of workload to a separate physical network segment to reduce network contention. Different types of workloads on the same physical array can degrade performance for the workloads.  Isolate different types of workloads using separate physical network segments.

and file services access using SMB or NFS. including iSCSI sequential I/O.92 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 27. iSCSI random I/O. Separate iSCSI targets that corresponds to the iSCSI sequential I/O and iSCSI random I/O. A Windows Storage Server solution optimized for performance For the sample scenario in Figure 27. An optimized number of disks for disk I/O bandwidth capacity. . Separate arrays dedicated to different iSCSI I/O traffic as the Exchange storage group data is random I/O. Separate network adapters in the Exchange server to support the separate network segments. the following optimizations were chosen:       Sufficient system resources of the Windows Storage Server appliance for the given workloads. while the Exchange storage group logs are sequential I/O. Separate network segments for workload types.

illustrates the number of disk I/O operations per second performed by Windows Server 2008 and Window Server 2003 running on identical hardware. the server computer had 16 dual-core processors for a total of 32 processor cores.93 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Sector-aligned disk arrays to help prevent I/O operations from spanning multiple tracks. For this test. Windows Server 2008 can perform more than 20 percent more disk I/O operations per second than Windows Server 2003. General disk I/O operation test results . shown in the chart in Figure 28. The test result. Figure 28. Review I/O Storage Test Results The results of this test provide an indication of the improvements in disk I/O operations. regardless of the server role running on the server computer.

0 running on Windows Server 2008. For more information about configuring output caching. The results were obtained by closely monitoring the performance over a 72-hour period for both test cases. see Configuring HTTP Compression in IIS 7.0 provides a powerful. IIS also lets you use bandwidth more effectively and efficiently by using common compression mechanisms such as Gzip and Deflate.0 and Windows Server 2003.0 and Windows Server 2008 on the same computer resources.microsoft.com running IIS 6. Identify Methods for Improving Web Services Workload Performance and Scalability IIS 7.0 in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of IIS and Windows Server.94 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Performance and Scalability for Web Services Workloads Web services workloads running on Internet Information Services (IIS) 7. unified facility for output caching by integrating the dynamic output-caching capabilities of ASP. The chart in Figure 29 illustrates the performance gain by running IIS 7. You can improve the performance and scalability for Web services workloads by:  Identifying methods for improving Web services workload performance and scalability.  Reviewing Web services workload test results. . For more information about improving Web services workload performance and scalability.0 and Windows Server 2008 can support more than 10 percent higher throughput than IIS 6.com processing more than an additional 100 million requests per day at the same processor utilization. You can configure HTTP compression for both static and dynamic sites.0 on Window Server 2003.0. see Optimize IIS Performance (IIS 7).  Output Caching. In IIS Manager. Output caching allows you to manage output caching rules and to control the caching of served content.NET with the static output-caching capabilities that were present in IIS 6. edit existing caching rules. you can create caching rules. and configure output cache settings. These improvements are largely due to improvements in data compression of content and caching of content. For more information about how to configure compression. Review Web Services Workload Test Results These results were obtained by measuring the performance of www. Performance includes the following features:  Compression.microsoft. This improvement in performance results in www. IIS 7. and IIS 7. HTTP compression lets you make more efficient use of bandwidth and enhances the performance of sites and applications. see Configuring Output Caching in IIS 7.

For more information about improving the performance and scalability of print services workloads.  The operating system version or versions on each client machine. . size. The maximum load and performance level of a print server greatly depends on key configuration decisions.95 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 29. see the Windows Print Server Scalability and Sizing Technical Overview.  The number. Some of the factors that influence print server performance and capacity include:  The number of print server clients.  The number and type of printers served by the print server and the types of printer drivers each printer uses. and frequency of print jobs. This section of the white paper provides information to help you size a server to meet an organization's needs by identifying and investigating primary issues and configuration details to maximize print server performance.  The types of print jobs sent to the print server. Web Services (IIS) Role test results Improving Performance and Scalability for Print Workloads Print server scalability plays a key role in the deployment of Windows Storage Server print servers.

 NAS gateway.  Creating unified storage solutions.  Creating application consolidation solutions.  Creating small. .  Creating highly-available solutions.to medium-sized business solutions. such as Just a Bunch of Disks (JBOD Disks) or RAID configurations (RAID 5 or RAID 1+0).  It can create a variety of disk configurations.  It can support 4 to 12 disks in the single enclosure using RAID interfaces.  Creating virtualization solutions.  The processors and storage reside in a single appliance enclosure. Regardless of the solution complexity.  Creating solutions for heterogeneous environments.  Creating iSCSI boot solutions. industry standard hardware that can be readily expanded." in this white paper. Windows Storage Server provides the following basic configurations:  Stand-alone network attached storage (NAS). Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration The stand-alone NAS configuration. review the following:  Overview of NAS configurations. However. Overview of Windows Storage Server Configurations Window Storage Server provides a wide range of storage solutions for all size organizations. some Microsoft partners provide additional storage in external enclosures.  The solution is based on low cost.  Highly-available NAS.  Creating solutions for storage consolidation. The typical characteristics of the appliance are as follows:  The appliance has the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network. is based on a single Windows Storage Server appliance. illustrated in Figure 30.  Creating branch office solutions. To select the appropriate deployment scenario for you.96 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server Deployment Scenarios You can use Windows Storage Server to provide a wide range of storage solutions.

 New storage is included as part of the solution (existing storage is not used in the solution). illustrated in Figure 31.  Storage is separate from the appliance enclosure. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network. .  The appliances are configured as nodes in a Windows failover cluster to provide higher availability. Note The failover cluster in Figure 31 can be quickly and easily configured using the Initial Configuration Tasks form in Windows Storage Server. Windows Storage Server stand-alone NAS configuration Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration The highly-available NAS configuration.  Multipath I/O connections exist between the appliances. is based on two or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide some degree of fault tolerance." in this white paper. and it is shared between two or more appliances.  Additional appliances can be added to the solution to provide improved scalability.97 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 30.

98 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 31. Windows Storage Server highly-available NAS configuration Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration The NAS gateway configuration.  They connect to existing storage that supports SAN block I/O protocols. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network. in Figure 32. ." in this white paper. is based on one or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide connectivity to existing storage devices.

They provide highly-available configurations based on solution availability requirements. Figure 32.99 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper   They provide an inexpensive iSCSI target. SMB file access. and NFS file access to storage. Windows Storage Server NAS gateway configuration .

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Using Windows Storage Server in iSCSI Block I/O Configuration
The iSCSI block I/O configuration, in Figure 32, is based on one or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide iSCSI access to storage resources. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network," in this white paper.  They can be used with any combination of the following storage configurations:  Located within the appliance.  Located within an enclosure external to the appliance.  Existing storage subsystem that supports SAN block I/O protocols.  They provide highly-available configurations based on solution availability requirements.  They provide an inexpensive iSCSI target access to storage.  They provide iSCSI boot support for diskless computers.  They integrate with DHCP and TFTP servers to provide iSCSI boot support for diskless computers.

Figure 33. Windows Storage Server iSCSI Block I/O configuration

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Creating Branch Office Solutions
In a branch office solution, an organization has a number geographically distributed branch office locations that are connected to one or more centralized head offices. Table 30 lists the types of data to manage in the branch office solution, as illustrated in Figure 34, and a description of the type of data. Table 30. Types of Data to Manage in the Branch Office Solution Type of data User folders Description Contains user home directories and user shares within the branch office in addition to the well-known Windows folders, such as Documents, Videos, Pictures, and Music. The well-known Windows folders are typically stored on the local computer, but can be stored on network shared folders using the Folder Direction feature. The Folder Redirection feature allows user folders to be stored on appliances in the branch offices and to be replicated to appliances in the head office for backup and centralized management using DFS Replication. The user folders are accessed within the branch office, but are archived in the head office. Contains content that is published from the head offices to the branch offices as read-only content. The content is a set of data that is relevant to the branch office, regardless of the region where the branch office is located, for example:  Templates, such as Word or Excel templates.  Source for software distribution files, such as files from 2007 Microsoft Office System or Windows 7. Contains content used in collaborative efforts between branch offices. The collaboration content is stored on the Windows Storage Server appliances in the head office. Users in the branch offices access the collaboration content over the WAN connections. The collaboration content can be stored in network shared folders or in Windows SharePoint Service document libraries.

Published content

Collaboration content

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Figure 34. Branch office solution for Windows Storage Server

Most of the computers in the branch office are running Windows operating systems. BranchCache dramatically reduces the network File services using NFS BranchCache in hosted caching mode . Centralized management of the appliances in the branch office is essential and remote administration is required. The appliance in the branch office is configured for BranchCache hosted caching mode. Mobile users need to access their user folders when they are not connected to the internal network in the branch office. failover clusters can be an optional part of this solution. In addition.103 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The assumptions in this scenario are:  The data centers have local IT personnel. SMB2 helps minimize WAN network utilization because of the efficiencies provided by SMB2. Provides file services for computers running NFS clients. Table 31. Features Used In Branch Office Solutions Feature File services using SMB2 Description Provides file services for computers running Windows operating systems. This helps protect the user profile folders in the branch office in the event of a catastrophic disaster in the branch office location that results in the total failure of the appliance. The branch offices typically do not have local IT personnel and require assistance from the IT personnel in the head office. Most of the configuration and all of the support is provided by the IT personnel in the head office. Due to cost constraints and lack of local IT personnel. depending on the availability requirements of the branch offices. such back up and data protection. Table 31 lists the Windows Storage Server and Windows client operating system features used in the branch office solution and provides a brief description of the role each plays in the solution.  Minimizing the utilization of the WAN connections is essential. Provides local caching of the collaboration content stored on the appliances in the head office. The solution must minimize the utilization of the WAN connection as much as possible. In some instances there may be computers running other operating systems. such as Linux or the Mac OS. while the branch offices have minimal or no local IT personnel.  Computers are running mostly Windows operating systems. all users need to access their user folders regardless of any scheduled maintenance of the appliance or appliance failure. For more information. see the section "Review Improvements in the SMB Protocol. Also. see the previous section "Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-alone NAS Configuration.  Users must have access to their user folders regardless of connectivity to the branch office appliance. The available network speed of the WAN connections between the head offices and the branch offices is a limited resource in terms of both available bandwidth and cost.  Consolidating of data in head office to provide centralized management. All user profile folders in the branch offices need to be copied to the head offices for centralized management." in this white paper. For more information about this type of appliance.  Stand-alone NAS appliances are used. IT personnel in the head office must be able to manage the configuration settings of the devices and users in the branch offices. which allows the appliance to provide local caching of the collaboration content accessed using the SMB and HTTP protocols. including the computers running Linux or Mac OS.  Centralized management of the branch office." earlier in this white paper.

see the section. see the section. see the section." earlier in this white paper. The files and folders are set to read-only access by DFS Replication. Uses DFS Replication to provide replication of files and folder structure from the head office to the branch offices. which:  Reduces WAN network utilization by providing local access to the files. The Folder Redirection feature allows the user folders to be available from any computer on the network. see:  Folder Redirection Overview. The user folders are copied to the head office for backup and centralized management functions. For more information. and Windows XP.  Provides improved file access for users in the branch office because the files are accessed locally instead of over the WAN connection. see the section "Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data. Computers running Windows client operating systems are using the Folder Redirection feature to redirect the user folders to network shared folders on the appliance in the branch office. DFS Replication Provides replication of files and folder structure from the branch offices to the head office. which provides data consolidation in the head office so that all backups are performed in the head office. You can administer the Folder Redirection feature using Group Policy. Windows Vista. which dramatically reduces the network bandwidth utilization." earlier in this white paper. DFS Replication uses RDC to transmit only the changes to a file." earlier in this white paper. For more information.104 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description utilization for accessing these files. For more information. including Windows 7. Any updates to the collaboration content are automatically saved on the appliances in the head office. "Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache. "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data." earlier in this white paper. Read-only DFS Replicated Folders Shadow Copies of Shared Folders Folder Redirection . Helps reduce the effort spent by IT personnel in data centers for recovery of files. Allows users to recover files by themselves without the assistance of IT professionals. This is primarily for files that are for public use and are typically read-only at the branch office. For more information. This allows the head office to avoid doing backups over the WAN link. The Folder Redirection feature is available in all current Windows client operating systems. "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. For more information.

When the appliance is restored to service. see:  Understanding offline files. The Offline Files feature provides access to files:  When users are not connected to the branch office network. Computers running Linux or Mac OS can print to the printers in the branch office using the print services workloads provided by Windows Storage Server.  Working with network files when you are offline. any new or modified files are automatically synchronized with the network shared folders on the appliance. You can administer the Offline Files feature using Group Policy. Users can continue to work on copies of the files on their local computers." earlier in the white paper. Mobile users may want to access their files while away from the office. The local read-only domain controller also Offline Files Print Server LPD Print Services Read-only domain controller . including Windows 7. The Offline Files feature allows users to modify local copies of their files while disconnected from the network. Windows Vista.105 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description  Folder redirection overview for GPMC.  The “Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files” section in this white paper. see the section "Providing Access to Print Services Workloads." earlier in the white paper. For more information. Computers running Windows can print to the printers in the branch office using the print services workloads provided by Windows Storage Server. any new or modified files are automatically synchronized with the network shared folders on the appliance. The Offline Files feature is available in all current Windows client operating systems.  Configuring Offline Files.  The “Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files” section in this white paper.  In the event the appliance is taken offline for maintenance or of an appliance failure. and Windows XP.  Configuring Folder Redirection. The Offline Files feature allows users to always have access to files from network shared folder by synchronizing the contents of the network shared folder to the Offline Files cache on the user’s computer. The read-only domain controller provides enhanced security by preventing unauthorized or inadvertent updates to AD DS. For more information. see the section "Providing Access to Print Services Workloads.  Configuring Group Policy for Offline Files. For more information. When users reconnect to the network. Authentication is performed using an AD DS read-only domain controller on the local appliance.

The local DHCP Server reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because DHCP configuration is performed locally. see File Server Resource Manager. Computers in the branch office that are configured using DHCP can be configured using the DHCP Server running on the local appliance. DNS Server Computers in the branch office can resolve DNS names using the DNS Server running on the local appliance. control. Most of the features and configuration settings available in all Windows products can be configured by using Group Policy. and they are centrally configured by the IT personnel in the head office using Group Policy. DHCP Server File Server Resource Manager Group Policy Table 32 lists how to manage each type of data is accessed by users. You can use File Server Resource Manager to:  Limit the amount of disk space used by using the Quota Management feature. File Server Resource Manager allows you to understand.106 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because authentication is performed locally. Group Policy allows you to centrally configure the Windows Storage Server appliances and Windowsbased computers in the branch office.  Prevent storage of certain file types by using the File Screening feature. Note All of these features operate transparently to users in the branch office. and manage the quantity and type of data stored on Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. For more information.  Use Storage Reports to profile storage usage and trends within the branch. The local DNS Server reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because DNS queries are resolved locally. For more information. see Group Policy. .

If the branch office replica copy is unavailable. then DFS Namespace directs the client computers to access the replica copy in the Active Directory site with the next lowest cost. DFS Replication replicates the user profile folders to the head office so that they can be centrally backed up and managed by the IT personnel. the Folder Redirection feature helps in fast recovery of computers because the user profile folders are not stored on the local computer. The replica copies of the published content in the branch offices are maintained read-only by DFS Replication so that users in the branch office have read-only access to the replica content. DFS Namespace will automatically direct users to use the replica copy in the branch office. any changes in the user profile folders are replicated to the head office using DFS Replication. which minimizes the bandwidth utilization on the connection between the branch offices and the head office. Managing Types of Data in the Branch Office Solution Type of data User folders Managed using  Offline Files. depending on the availability of the branch office appliance. Folder Redirection. Any new files or changes made to the cached copy of the files are automatically synchronized when the connection to the appliance is restored. In addition. which are typically stored locally on the user’s computer. The head office and each of the branch offices is a separate Active Directory site. on the branch office appliance. This feature allows for users to transparently access the published content on the appliances in the branch office or in the head office. After the user profile folders are stored on the branch office appliance. DFS Namespace always preferentially directs client computers to access a local replica copy of the published content within the local site (lower cost than other sites). which in this scenario is the head office.107 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 32. Once these files are synchronized with the branch office appliances. This feature stores the user profile folders. Read-only DFS Replicated Folders. When the branch office replica copy becomes available again.  Published content   . DFS Namespace. Remote Differential Compression in DFS Replication replicates only the changes to the user profile folders. This feature determines which replica copy to access based on the availability of the copy and the location of the copy using Active Directory sites. This feature allows users to access their user profile folders when not connected to the appliance. DFS Replication replicates the published content stored on the head office appliances to the branch office appliances.

This feature allows users to access the content from the head office appliances using the HTTP or HTTPS protocol. check in. network shared folders and Windows SharePoint services are used instead DFS Replication. The BranchCache feature dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch office when users access content stored on the network shared folders that has already been locally cached on the appliance in the branch office. and check out capabilities. This feature allows users to access the content from the head office appliances. This feature also supports version control. .108 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Type of data Collaboration content Managed using  Network shared folders.  Any updates to the content from users in the branch offices.  For the collaboration content in Table 32. Because multiple users need to modify the content. The BranchCache feature dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch offices when users access Web content that has already been locally cached on the appliance in the branch office. The SMB2 protocol dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch offices for:  The initial local caching of the content using BranchCache. Windows SharePoint Services. network shared folders and SharePoint Services with the BranchCache feature provide the appropriate solution. This is because DFS Replication in Windows Storage Server is appropriate when only one copy of the content is centrally modified and all replica copies are read-only.

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Creating Highly-Available Solutions
In a highly-available solution, the workloads provided by Windows Storage Server must provide improved fault tolerance. Figure 35 illustrates how to create highly-available solutions using Windows Storage Server and Windows Server operating systems using Windows failover clusters and multipath I/O.

Figure 35. Highly-available solution using Windows Storage Server The key elements of the highly-available solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  The application servers are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an application server failure.

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The Windows Storage Server appliances act as iSCSI targets by running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  The application servers are using the multipath I/O feature to provide redundant connections to the clustered appliances.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the clustered appliances to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. For more information about Windows failover clustering for iSCSI targets, see the following sections earlier in this white paper:  "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration." For more information about Multipath I/O for iSCSI initiators in Windows Server operating system, see the following sections earlier in this white paper:  "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration."

Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation
In the storage consolidation solution, all the myriad of devices providing SMB file services, NFS file services, and iSCSI block I/O are consolidated into a few, highlyavailable Windows Storage Server appliances. Typically this solution is used in medium to large organizations that want to reduce the number and types of devices in the organization. This consolidation effort can help reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. Figure 36 illustrates an IT environment prior to implementing the storage consolidation solution. There are a number of different computers providing file services and applications. Each computer has local storage that is used to support the services that each provides. This configuration provides inefficient storage management and usage. For example, one Exchange server may have insufficient available disk space while a file server may have many more times the available disk space than is required.

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Figure 36. IT environment prior to implementing the storage consolidation solution

Figure 37 illustrates the same IT environment after implementing the storage consolidation solution. The number of computers to be supported has been dramatically decreased, which reduces ongoing operations effort and complexity. Also, the overall availability of workloads has been improved. Because storage is centralized, the effort for ongoing storage management is dramatically reduced. And, because all storage resources are pooled, storage can be easily allocated to the appropriate computer.

IT environment after implementing the storage consolidation solution .112 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 37.

 The Windows Storage Server appliances are:  Acting as iSCSI targets and are running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.0.  Collaboration using Windows SharePoint Services. The key elements of the small. such as providing iSCSI LUNs for SQL Server or Exchange Server. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management.  The appliances may be configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  Providing SMB file services.  Access to Web-based content using IIS 7. The key elements of the solutions for heterogeneous environments include:  Windows Storage Server appliances that provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support.  Highly-automated management tools.113 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The key elements of the storage consolidation solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  The appliances provide centralized storage management.  The Windows Storage Server appliances provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support. .  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. the organization needs to support a variety of operating systems. and Internet printing.  Centralized storage for application servers using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.to medium-sized business solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  NFS file services for NFS clients. depending on the availability requirements of the organization. such as Group Policy. as described in the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration.  Typically configured as a stand-alone NAS. Creating Solutions for Heterogeneous Environments In solutions for heterogeneous environments.  Providing NFS file services.  Windows print services. LPR print services. Creating Small to Medium Business Solutions In small. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management.to medium-sized business solutions. the organization needs to provide multiple workloads on Windows Storage Server appliances." earlier in this white paper.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.

 The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. Access to Web-based content using IIS 7. see AD LDS Identity Mapping for Services for NFS. Typically this solution is used in medium to large organizations that want to increase the efficiency of storage allocation and management for application servers. depending on the availability requirements of the organization. Collaboration using Windows SharePoint Services. such as described in the section "Creating Highly-Available Solutions" earlier in this white paper. Centralized storage for all operating systems that have supported iSCSI initiators using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.114 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper             NFS file services for NFS clients. This consolidation effort can help reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management. such as Group Policy.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric. There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. The appliances provide centralized storage management.  Typically the application servers are configured in clustered configurations to improve availability. For more information. AD LDS can be used to provide identity mapping for NFS file services in environments where an Active Directory infrastructure does not already exist.  The Windows Storage Server appliances act as iSCSI targets and are running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Creating Application Consolidation Solutions In the application consolidation solution.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. earlier in this white paper. SQL Server. . and other application servers that have a significant dependency on storage. see the section "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators" earlier in this white paper. all the local or shared storage for the application servers in the IT environment are consolidated into a few. The types of application servers that are consolidated include those running Exchange Server. The appliances may be configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. highly-available Windows Storage Server appliances. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management. For more information about supported iSCSI initiators. LPR print services for other operating systems. The key elements of the application consolidation solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28. Highly-automated management tools. This solution is very similar to the storage consolidation solution described in the section "Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation" and as illustrated in Figure 36 and Figure 37. Windows print services for Windows operating systems.0.

. see AD LDS Identity Mapping for Services for NFS. depending on the availability requirements of the organization. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management.  NAS gateway services for existing storage solutions that do not provide SMBbased file services. file and iSCSI block I/O storage services in the IT environment are consolidated into a few. For more information about the supported iSCSI initiators.  Centralized storage for all operating systems that have supported iSCSI initiators using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management. For more information. see the section "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators" earlier in this white paper. The key elements of the solutions for heterogeneous environments include:  Windows Storage Server appliances that provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support. This centralization of storage management helps reduce the inefficiency of storage allocation and management and helps reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. NFS-base file services. earlier in this white paper.  NFS file services for NFS clients. or iSCSI connectivity. such as Group Policy. This solution is very similar to the storage consolidation solution described in the section "Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation" and as illustrated in Figure 36 and Figure 37. After implementing this scenario.115 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating Unified Storage Solutions In the unified storage consolidation solution. iSCSI block I/O storage.  AD LDS can be used to provide identity mapping for NFS file services in environments where an Active Directory infrastructure does not already exist. highly-available Windows Storage Server appliances. and other storage connections (such as Fibre Channel or SAS). all of the storage resources in the organization are managed using Windows Storage Server.  Highly-automated management tools. For more information about NAS gateway configurations. In this scenario. NFS-based file services.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric and provide fault tolerant network connectivity. the existing IT environment has separate devices provide SMB-based file services.  The appliances provide centralized storage management. see the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration" earlier in this white paper.  The appliances are typically configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.

Windows Storage Server in virtualization solutions Table 33 lists the different methods that virtual machines can use to connect to iSCSI LUNs . Connecting Virtual Machines to iSCSI LUNs Virtual machines running on Hyper-V can access iSCSI LUNs using a number of different methods. Each virtual machine is referred to as a child partition.  Running virtual machines on Windows Storage Server. the physical computer is referred to as the parent partition.116 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating Virtualization Solutions You can create virtualized solutions using Windows Storage Server by:  Connecting virtual machines to iSCSI LUNs managed by Windows Storage Server. as illustrated in Figure 38. Figure 38. In the virtualization solution. Windows Storage Server runs the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target to provide iSCSI LUNs for use by virtual machines performing the Hyper-V server role in Windows Server 2008. In Hyper-V.

 Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine. However the parent partition is unaware of the child partition using the LUN because the child partition is directly accessing the LUN.  Allows the virtual machine to boot from the iSCSI LUN.vhd file is created on the volume that is accessed by the virtual machine. regardless if the operating system supports an iSCSI initiator. the parent partition connects to LUN-B and Virtual Machine B directly connects to the partition. The iSCSI LUN is attached to the parent partition and the virtual machine directly accesses the partition. the child partition connects to LUN-A. the parent partition is also aware of the child partition using the LUN.vhd file for Virtual Machine C is created on the E: volume. For more information.vhd files on the same iSCSI LUN. As illustrated in Figure 38.  Supports Live Migration scenarios using Cluster Shared Volumes.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine that have a supported iSCSI initiator. A . This method:  Allows only one virtual machine to use the iSCSI LUN.117 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 33. the parent partition formats LUN-C as E: and the . Methods that Virtual Machines Can Use to Connect to iSCSI LUNs Method VHD created on parent partition volume Description The iSCSI LUN is attached to the parent partition and is formatted as an NTFS volume and assigned a drive letter in the parent partition. Pass-through parent partition disk Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN . As illustrated in Figure 38.  Allows the virtual machine to boot from the iSCSI LUN. regardless if the operating system supports an iSCSI initiator. This method:  Allows multiple virtual machines to store . As illustrated in Figure 38. see Hyper-V: Using Live Migration with Cluster Shared Volumes in Windows Server 2008 R2. However. This method:  Allows only one virtual machine to use the iSCSI LUN. The iSCSI LUN is attached to the child partition and the virtual machine directly accesses the partition.  Does not natively support boot from the iSCSI LUN and requires products available from Microsoft partners to support iSCSI boot for virtual machines.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine.

iSCSI LUNs that are connected using the Pass-through parent partition disk or the Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN methods must be backed up separately in addition to performing a complete backup of the parent partition. It is also recommended that you create a separate iSCSI target for each LUN that you connect to the parent partition to improve performance. You can run up to two virtual machines on Windows Storage Server depending on the Windows Storage Server edition. You can run:  One virtual machine on Windows Storage Server Standard Edition.118 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note Performing a complete backup of the parent partition will back up iSCSI LUNs that are connected using the VHD created on parent partition method. This feature allows you to provide other services in the virtual machines running on Windows Storage Server. For example. you could install an instance of Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) in a virtual machine that can be used for NFS account mapping. such as the .  The associated virtual machine files.  Two virtual machines on Windows Storage Server Enterprise Edition. Running Virtual Machines on Windows Storage Server Windows Storage Server can also run the Hyper-V server role.  There is minimal performance difference between the VHD created on parent partition and the Pass-through parent partition disk methods. This reduces the complexity in providing your solution by reducing the number of physical appliances to manage and minimizes the power consumption for your solution (with the appropriate licensing).vhd files reside using this method. This allows you to create a NFS file access solution that runs on one appliance.bin files. are stored on the same LUN where the . The recommended method is the VHD created on parent partition method for the following reasons:  Backups are complex using the Pass-through parent partition disk or the Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN methods. . Creating a separate iSCSI target for each LUN will improve performance because each iSCSI target has its own I/O submission queue.

Figure 39. see the “Supporting iSCSI Boot” section earlier in this white paper. For more information about how to support iSCSI boot using Windows Storage Server. There are many solutions that can take advantage of iSCSI boot. In this solution. the nodes can use the storage .  Thin clients in libraries or schools. including those that provide iSCSI boot services for:  Web blades configured to support the same application in a web farm.  Interactive kiosks in retail stores.  Computer nodes in Windows High-Performance Computing (HPC) Server clusters. Figure 39 illustrates how iSCSI boot can support a Windows HPC Server cluster solution.119 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server supports iSCSI boot for solutions that include diskless physical computers or virtual machines. Windows Storage Server in Windows HPC iSCSI Boot Deployment By using iSCSI and Windows Storage Server. Instead. the nodes in the cluster do not require a local hard disk drive to serve as a system disk. Windows Storage Server centralizes the storage for the HPC cluster.

instead of dedicated or single function appliances. Branch offices can be easily managed from central head offices using these management features. The NFS file services. Each cluster node boots from a differencing virtual disk that is based on the same fixed virtual disk. More Information For more information.to medium-sized organizations and branch offices to take advantage of a multifunction appliance. This allows for fast deployment and recovery of the nodes. Solutions can be scaled up by adding costeffective. A variety of Windows Storage Server appliances are available from Microsoft partners that can support entry level to enterprise level workloads. deploy. and more cost effective than other dedicated appliances or storage solutions.3 Technical Library . and iSCSI target services features in Windows Storage Server help protect investments in existing networks with other operating systems. easier to maintain. you can:  Deploy Windows HPC Server to 256 cluster nodes in approximately 34 minutes. Because Windows Storage Server is an optimized version of Windows Server 2008 R2. centralized management features. IT pros can quickly plan. LPR print services. Web services. Nodes that use the storage resources on the storage array to boot over iSCSI are called iSCSI boot nodes. All aspects of storage management can be centrally managed. Conclusion Windows Storage Server provides storage solutions for all types and sizes of organizations.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Technical Library  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. such as Linux or Mac OS. DFS Namespace. The high-availability features in Windows Storage Server help create mission-critical solutions that require maximum uptime. disk usage quotas. the NAS gateway capabilities extend the storage services provided by existing storage solutions. Windows Storage Server can run file services. and DFS Replication features in Windows Storage Server enhance performance.120 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper resources on Windows Storage Server to boot Windows HPC Server over the network. Also. This allows small. including filtering of content. print services. Windows Storage Server appliances can provide storage solutions that are flexible. and iSCSI block I/O services on a single appliance. Tight integration with other Microsoft products and technologies also helps IT pros use existing infrastructure services (such as AD DS). and the creation of shared network storage resources. see the following resources:  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 home page. Highly-efficient. such as Group Policy. availability. and operate Window Storage Server solutions in their organization. operations and management products (such as the System Center family of products). Using this solution.  Subsequently boot the 256 cluster nodes in less than 9 minutes. industry-standard hardware to appliances or they can be scaled out by adding additional appliances.  Windows Storage Server blog. The SMB2 protocol. and security products (such as Microsoft Forefront products). and scalability for Windows operating systems. help reduce the ongoing operations and management of storage solutions.