Windows Storage Server 2008 R2

Architecture and Deployment White Paper
Version 1.0

Published: February 2011

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Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................ 1 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Overview .................................................... 3 Comparing Windows Server Operating System Storage Offerings .................. 3 Comparing Windows Storage Server with Windows Server ..................... 3 Identifying Windows Storage Server Features ....................................... 4 What’s New in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 .................................. 5 Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2 ................................................................................................ 8 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Editions ................................................10 Identifying Storage Challenges ................................................................12 Identify Scalability Storage Challenges ................................................12 Identify Availability Storage Challenges ...............................................13 Identify Security Storage Challenges ..................................................14 Identify Manageability Storage Challenges ..........................................14 Identify Data Recovery Storage Challenges .........................................14 Identifying Windows Storage Server Solution Benefits ................................14 Identifying Scalability Benefits ...........................................................15 Identifying Availability Benefits ..........................................................15 Identifying Security Benefits ..............................................................16 Identifying Manageability Benefits ......................................................16 Identifying Data Recovery Benefits .....................................................18 Exploring Windows Storage Server Features and Capabilities ............................19 Providing Access to File Services Workloads ..............................................20 Supporting File Services Workloads Using CIFS, SMB, or SMB2 ..............20 Supporting File Services Workloads Using NFS .....................................21 Supporting File Services Workloads Using WebDAV ..............................22 Supporting File Services Workloads Using Windows SharePoint Services ..........................................................................................23 Providing Access to iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ..........................................23 Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target ...............................................................................24 Supporting iSCSI Boot ......................................................................27 Providing Access to Web Services Workloads .............................................30 Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads ..............................................31 Providing Access to Print Services Workloads ............................................31 Providing Reduction in Power Consumption ...............................................33 Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers ...............................33 Processor Power Management ............................................................33 Storage Power Management ..............................................................34 Additional Power Saving Features .......................................................35 Performing Highly Automated Installations ................................................35 Managing Windows Storage Server ................................................................36 Management Tools for All Workloads ........................................................36 Managing Power Consumption for All Workloads ........................................37

............................................................................................................57 Using the Appcmd..................................................................................................................................................43 Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ........................................72 Improving Availability of Print Services Workloads ..............................................55 Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization ....56 Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data .....49 Protecting Windows Storage Server Workload Data .......55 Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization ....................56 Using Automated System Recovery to Protect Data .....................................................................................................................................54 Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service ....65 Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ..................................................................................................67 Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Targets ........................................62 Securing Web Services Workloads............41 Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication ..58 Securing Windows Storage Server Workloads ............................................................................................53 Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data ........54 Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap ................59 Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads .......................................................................38 Managing File Services Using Share and Storage Management ..........64 Improving Availability of Windows Storage Server Workloads....................................................................................................ii Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Remote Manageability of Power Policy......51 Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data......................73 ..................................................................56 Using DFS Replication to Protect Data ............................................................38 Managing File Services Workloads ...........59 Securing File Services Workloads ........41 Managing Single Instance Storage .........70 Improving Availability of Web Services Workloads .......44 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ...............................................................................65 Improving Availability of File Services Workloads .............................................57 Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect Data ...51 Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data ...............................58 Using the PrintBRM.......68 Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Initiators ..........................................................................................................................................63 Securing Print Services Workloads ..............................................................38 Managing File Services Using File Server Resource Manager .46 Managing Web Services Workloads .................45 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads .................................exe Tool to Backup IIS Configuration ......................................exe Tool to Backup Printer Information ........................45 Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell .....37 In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting ......................................................47 Managing Print Services Workloads ...............................61 Securing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ...........................................................................................................................................52 Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data ...

........... 116 Running Virtual Machines on Windows Storage Server ........................................ 116 Connecting Virtual Machines to iSCSI LUNs..........................74 Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity .................................94 Improving Performance and Scalability for Print Workloads ......96 Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration ............................................................................................. 109 Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation ...................................................1 in Windows Server 2008 R2 ...75 Improvements in Network Adapter Performance...............76 Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations ...............................78 Review Improvements in the SMB2 Protocol ....................................................................................................... 120 More Information ................................................74 Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Protocol .................................. 118 Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions ..... 101 Creating Highly-Available Solutions ......................................................................................... 110 Creating Small to Medium Business Solutions .....................................96 Overview of Windows Storage Server Configurations ................ 119 Conclusion ......................85 Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache ......................................... 115 Creating Virtualization Solutions ..................77 Improving Performance and Scalability for File Services Workloads ..74 Improving Performance and Scalability for All Workloads ................................... 113 Creating Solutions for Heterogeneous Environments .......... 113 Creating Application Consolidation Solutions .................................90 Identify Methods for Improving iSCSI Block I/O Workload Performance and Scalability ........................................................................90 Review I/O Storage Test Results ............................................................................82 Reviewing Performance Improvements in SMB Version 2..........98 Using Windows Storage Server in iSCSI Block I/O Configuration ........................................79 Review SMB-based File Services Workload Test Results..96 Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration ................................iii Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Performance and Scalability for Windows Storage Server Solutions ......................... 114 Creating Unified Storage Solutions ........................................................................................90 Improving Performance and Scalability for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ...........................94 Identify Methods for Improving Web Services Workload Performance and Scalability ........................................................................................................97 Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration ....................................94 Review Web Services Workload Test Results ....................................................................... 120 .................................95 Windows Storage Server Deployment Scenarios ............................................................ 100 Creating Branch Office Solutions ........................................................87 Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files ...............................93 Improving Performance and Scalability for Web Services Workloads ........................

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These services also provide high-performance access to remote disk LUNs using the iSCSI industry standard and can act as an iSCSI initiator or an iSCSI target. see Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. scalable. extensible. and share ideas and information. . depending on the Windows Storage Server edition. For more information about Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS). Microsoft OEM partners offer specialized hardware and additional software components to create network attached storage appliances. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials provides entrylevel solutions intended for use in organizations with 24 or less computers. Provides the ability to share documents.  Virtualization services. and file history. Provides access to printers using Microsoft print services. The following table lists some of the problems and pain points that organizations have with network attached storage appliances. and highly-available storage solutions. purchasing Windows Storage Server bundled with partner appliances can be more cost effective than purchasing Windows Server and a server computer separately. Windows Storage Server provides solutions that complement the file services provided by Windows Server. NFS version 3. which supports check-in and check-out features.0. Note This white paper focuses on all Windows Storage Server editions except for Windows® Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials. Note In this white paper. Line Printer Daemon (LPD) services. and print services workloads.  Windows® SharePoint® Services. SMB2 provides a superset of the features found in CIFS and provides improved performance and reliability over previous versions of SMB. The most common feature is to store files in document libraries. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) protocols. This white paper describes the features and technologies in Windows Storage Server. Web services.Introduction Windows® Storage Server 2008 R2 is the latest in the Windows Storage Server family of products and is based on the technologies and features found in Windows Server® 2008 R2. and how Windows Storage Server appliances address them. iSCSI block input/output (I/O). unless otherwise specified. Provides access to files managed by the appliance for computers using file access protocols. such as Common Internet File System (CIFS) or Network File System (NFS).0. Provides access to Web-based content and services. WebDAV. and operate storage solutions. Windows Storage Server provides a unified solution for the following workloads:  Files services. Windows Storage Server extends the file services in Windows Server by providing addition storage features not found in Windows Server. track tasks.  Print services. In addition to providing extended features. and how to create secure. or Internet printing services. including file services. This white paper is intended for IT professionals who design. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 is built on Windows Server 2008 to create efficient and effective storage solutions. or FTP.  Web services. Windows Storage Server refers to Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. use email efficiently and effectively. which can be accessed using HTTP. Windows Storage Server is only available through Microsoft Partners. deploy. Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV). version control.  iSCSI Block storage services. which are connected using the Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) standard. Provides the ability to run up to two virtual machines on an appliance. Provides remote network attached storage that appears as a disk logical unit number (LUN) to other computers. Provides access to files using the Server Message Block (SMB) version 2.

Limited customization and extensibility. Windows Software Update Services (WSUS). NTFS permissions. Distributed File System (DFS). Lack of comprehensive software update management. Management of workloads. extensible Microsoft OEM vendor hardware platforms. and supports other disaster recovery products from Microsoft. Designed to work "better together" with Windows operating systems. Uses familiar Windows Server management consoles. Minimal or no integration with existing authentication and authorization system. including Windows Update. and from Microsoft partners. Limited protection of information stored on the appliance. Provides Windows Server Backup as part of Windows Storage Server. Share permissions. Many on-going operations and management tasks can also be automated using System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager. Provides a set of software update management technologies and products for any sized organization. to provide optimal security. Supports Windows Server Failover Clusters. scalability. Takes advantage of the breadth and depth of the software and hardware products provided by other vendors that are provided for Windows Server 2008. and manageability. Network Attached Storage Appliance Problems and Pain Points Problem or pain point Windows Storage Server solution Dedicated or limited function Provides servicing of multiple workloads on highly appliance. and Network Load Balancing for improved availability and fault tolerance in addition to the hardware fault tolerance features provided by Microsoft OEM partners. Supports industry standard protocols and services that provide interoperability in heterogeneous environments. such as System Center Data Protection Manager. . Ongoing operations and maintenance is labor intensive. Limited disaster recovery. Implements nonstandard or proprietary protocols or services. and Microsoft® Forefront®. and Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager. availability. Supports a wide variety of security products and technologies. Limited breadth of vendor support. including BitLocker® Drive Encryption. including Windows Vista® and Windows® 7. Loosely integrated with clients that consume the services. Limited provisions for failover or fault tolerant configurations. and the server software supports extensibility using any application programming interfaces (APIs) supported by Windows Server 2008. Many of the management consoles can be customized to include Microsoft OEM partner branding. Integrates with Active Directory® Doman Services (AD DS) and Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services.2 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 1. performance.

because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server. Deduplication of files is a specific form of compression provided by the SIS feature that combines redundant files into a single instance of the file. However. . This overview of Windows Storage Server includes the following topics:  Comparing Windows Server operating system storage offerings. each of these Windows operating systems has different storage capabilities and features. DFS-N. full screen remote desktop control of storage server administration using Web RDP. For a more detailed description of the differences between these operating systems. such as deduplication of files using the Single Instance Storage (SIS) feature.  Identifying the features that are unique to Windows Storage Server. Network Access Protection.  Identifying the features that are new to Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. scalable. or Direct Access. DHCP Server. As a general purpose operating system.  Identifying Storage challenges.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 editions. These optimizations provide enhanced features and performance not found in the general purpose Windows Server operating systems. This comparison of Windows Server operating system storage offerings includes:  Comparing Windows Storage Server with Window Server. and easy to manage. Comparing Windows Server Operating System Storage Offerings Each current Windows® operating system provides some level of storage services. DFS-R. Windows Storage Server is a member of the Windows Sever operating system family that is built on Windows Server.3 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Overview Windows Storage Server is optimized for file workloads and includes additional technologies.  Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2. secure. and support for web applications running Internet Information Services (IIS). Comparing Windows Storage Server with Windows Server Windows Server operating systems are a family of general purpose operating systems that provide a platform for running IT services and applications that are highly-available. Windows Server includes Microsoft file and print services. but is optimized for storage solutions.  Tightly integrated with Windows infrastructure services. and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. see the “Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2” section in this white paper. it shares all the benefits of Window Server. to provide a unified storage solution.  Automation of administration tasks using Windows PowerShell™. However.  Efficient management of shared resources using familiar Windows management consoles and command-line utilities. Windows Server® operating systems have been providing storage solutions since their introduction. including:  A common application programming interface. such as Active Directory® Domain Services.  Identifying Windows Storage Server solution benefits. and then replaces the files with reparse points (links) to the single instance.

Consolidate file services and iSCSI block I/O on one appliance Provides file services for an existing SAN solution by acting as a SAN gateway.3 as described in the section “Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target” in this white paper. such as file services and domain controller on the same computer. Identifying Windows Storage Server Features Windows Storage Server includes the following features that are not included in Windows Server:  Deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage (SIS) v2 as described in the section “Managing Single Instance Storage” in this white paper.4 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper There are many instances in which Windows Storage Server provides a more costeffective and efficient storage solution than Windows Server. Provides file deduplicaton using SIS.  The ability to function as an iSCSI target using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. Potentially lowers deployment cost than Windows Server when new hardware is required. . Provides additional installation and configuration options. Provides multiple roles on the same computer.  Full-screen remote desktop management using Windows Internet Explorer® or any web browser that supports Java using the WebRDP feature as described in the “Management Tools for All Workloads” section in this white paper. Table 2. Runs applications on the same computer. such as database services or messaging services. In other instances. Reasons to Select Windows Storage Server or Windows Server Solution Windows Storage Server Why select this solution      Windows Server      Provides iSCSI block I/O storage for application storage scenarios. as described in the “Step 2: Customize the end user installation experience for the usage scenario” section in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 OEM Deployment Guide. such as Initial Configuration Tasks window.  The ability to extend the Windows user experience for commonly used management tools. Runs more than two virtual machines in a Microsoft Hyper-V™ environment. Installs on existing computers. Windows Server many have distinct advantages over Windows Storage Server. Table 2 lists the reasons for selecting Windows Storage Server or Windows Server as your storage solution.

see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Provides locally cached copies of files to reduce network utilization between locations.3 . see the following sections in this white paper:  “Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using Branch Cache”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Dramatic reduction in network utilization for accessing files. New or Improved Features in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Feature DFS replication (DFS-R) Description Supports up to 16 simultaneous replication streams. For more information. For more information. Table 3. For more information. Supports replication to and from failover clusters. NFS client user identities use automatically generated Windows SIDs to access NFS shares. Provides read-only access to replica copies of data. For more information. iSCSI Software Target 3. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication”  “Using DFS Replication to Protect Data”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Scales to support up to 60. which minimizes administrative effort. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Review Improvements in the SMB Protocol”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Reduced administrative effort for providing and monitoring access to NFS shares.000 domain-based namespaces and improvements in fault tolerances. For more information.5 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper What’s New in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Table 3 lists the new or improved features in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 that did not exist in previous versions of Windows Storage Server. For more information. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target”  “Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions” DFS namespace (DFS-N) improvements Branch cache hosted cache mode SMB2 file access improvements Unmapped UNIX User Access (UUUA) for NFS file services. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Supporting Files Services Workloads Using NFS”  “Securing Files Services Workloads” Improved performance for iSCSI block I/O workloads and support for differencing VHDs used in iSCSI boot solutions.

such as processor power consumption. For more information. For more information. and increased memory capacity.6 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Simplified deployment for two node clusters Description Reduced administrative effort for installing and configuring a failover cluster using two appliances using the Initial Configuration Tasks window. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell”  “Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell” IT pros can remotely perform full-screen remote desktop management using Internet Explorer or any web browser that supports Java. Performance and manageability for FTP services have been improved. the power management features can be configured using Group Policy settings. Power consumption and power management Performance and memory capacity I/O performance FTP services . see the “Management Tools for All Workloads” section in this white paper. For more information. For more information. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity”  “Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using Branch Cache” Performance for I/O operations has been dramatically improved. 64-bit processor support. see the “Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations” section in this white paper. the Cluster Name and Domain Join Wizard and the Cluster Validation and Setup Wizard. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Providing Reduction in Power Consumption”  “Management Tools for All Workloads” Overall performance enhancements due to operating system optimization. Dramatic reduction in power consumption due to improvements in system resource power management. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Improving Availability of File Services Workloads”  “Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads” Windows PowerShell providers are included for Single Instance Storage and iSCSI block I/O workloads. Automation of repetitive administrative tasks using Windows PowerShell Remote management using WebRDP Client. see “Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads” section in this white paper. In addition. For more information. For more information.

see the “Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data” section in this white paper. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell”  “Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell” Unattended installation and Storage settings can be configured at installation time configuration of storage using the unattended installation. and reduced effort for developing a backup extension. For more information. For more information. For more information. which allows files to be managed based on their classification. see “Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure” in this white paper. see the “Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data”” section in this white paper. see “Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data” section in this white paper. which facilitates fully settings automated installations. For more information. see “Performing Highly Automated Installations” in this white paper.7 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description Windows File Classification Management of files has been improved though the infrastructure Windows File Classification Infrastructure. For more information. LUN resynchronization can be used to provide faster recovery in some disaster recovery scenarios. For more information. Provides snapshots of volumes virtual hard disks (VHDs). LUN resynchronization Volume Shadow Copy Service improvements . supports concurrent restores. Windows PowerShell Windows PowerShell support has been improved for helping to automate storage management tasks. The classification of files is defined by IT administrators. Windows Server Backup Windows Server Backup provides improved features for performing backup and recovery scenarios.

File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) Full Text Search Group Policy Management Console Integration with Windows Server ecosystems (including backup software.0  BitLocker Drive Encryption Note BitLocker Drive Encryption does not work with failover clusters.8 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2 The following lists features and technologies common to both Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2:  Administration Tools  Microsoft . and antivirus software.                                  BITS Server Extensions Desktop Experience DFS Namespace DFS Replication DHCP Server Failover Clustering Note Failover clustering is available only in the Enterprise edition of Windows Storage Server 2008 R2.NET 3.) Internet Printing Client LPR Port Monitor Microsoft file services based on SMB2 Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ) Multipath I/O Network File System (NFS) Peer Name Resolution Protocol Remote Assistance Remove Desktop Connection Remote Differential Compression Remote Server Admin Tools RPC Over HTTP Proxy Simple TCP/IP Services SNMP Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications (SUA) Telnet Server TFTP Client Windows Biometric Framework Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Windows Network Load Balancing Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) Windows PowerShell Windows Process Activation Server .

Supports full screen remote desktop management using Web RDP. Supports deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage (SIS). Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Differences Feature or technology Availability to organizations. Table 4 lists the feature and technology differences between the two products.9 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Windows Server Backup Note Windows Server Backup does not work with failover clusters and does not support volumes larger than 2 terabytes. Windows Server 2008 R2 Retail channels Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Microsoft OEM partners     Optionally performed by Microsoft OEM partners . Supports customized branding of user interface.  Windows Server Migration Tools  WS-Management  Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) Although Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 is based on the features and technologies in Windows Server 2008 R2. there are some differences between the two products.3. Optimized for file services workloads. Supports acting as an iSCSI target using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. Table 4.

BitLocker Drive Encryption    Workgroup 64-bit 4 32 GB 2 6 Any  Workgroup 25     Standard 64-bit 4 32 GB Unlimited Any Any  Standard Unlimited     Enterprise 64-bit 8 2 terabyte Unlimited Any Any  Enterprise Unlimited        . Table 5. Workgroup is an entry-level technology foundation also targeted at small business owners and IT generalists supporting small businesses.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Standard. print services. Deduplication of files using SIS. and Web services workloads. Number of disks supported. Capabilities Maximum number of simultaneous users supported. Maximum amount of memory.10 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Editions Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Hardware RAID supported. NFS. Table 5 lists the capabilities of Windows Storage Server. Enterprise provides support for an unlimited number of users with maximum faulttolerance and scalability provided in a Windows Storage Server product. File Classification Infrastructure. and the support level for the capabilities in each edition of the product. Workgroup provides support for less than 25 users who require access to file services using Microsoft file services or NFS. Use the information in Table 5 to identify which Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 edition is best suited for your organization. DFS replication. Maximum number of processor sockets. deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage. Standard provides support for an unlimited number of users who require access to file services using Microsoft file services or NFS. is available in the following editions:  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Workgroup. iSCSI block I/O services. print services. Maximum number of network adapters. and Web services workloads. Type of disk adapters supported. which provides key functionality to support any sized business and IT storage challenge. BranchCache in hosted cache mode. Enterprise is an advanced platform that provides more cost-effective and reliable support for mission-critical workloads. Comparison of Windows Storage Editions Maximum system resources support Capabilities Supported processor architecture. File Services Resource Manager. iSCSI block I/O services.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Enterprise.

AD DS read-only domain controller. Windows Server Backup. Domain name system (DNS). Hyper-V guest support. . OEM customization of user interface and experience.11 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Capabilities Microsoft iSCSI Target Software. Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services. Windows Search services. Number of printers supported for Print Services workloads. see the section. Workgroup Optional Standard Optional Enterprise Optional Failover clusters. Multipath I/O. Fax services. "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Specifications" later in this white paper. Note Some Microsoft partners include the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by default. Domain membership.      Any    1 Any             2 Any           For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target specifications. DHCP Server services. Windows Management Instrumentation.

 Compatibility with storage networking solutions. Finding the appropriate solution requires careful optimization of an enterprise-wide storage plan. making it difficult for users to know what resources exist. unauthorized access. Storage Challenge Categories Category Scalability Availability Description Data must be accessible in a timely manner based on the response times defined in your Service Level Agreements (SLAs).  Identify availability challenges in storage solutions.12 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Storage Challenges IT pros face most of the same storage challenges. Scalability storage challenges include:  Decentralized of data. Data must be accessible by users on an on-demand basis for a high percentage of the time. upgrade to higher capacity disks.  Underutilization of storage resources. in a decentralized structure an administrator can . there is no effective mechanism to determine exactly where information is stored or which version of a document is the most up-todate. and inadvertent user error. Table 6. Table 6 lists the categories of storage challenges that most organizations experience.  Identify manageability challenges in storage solutions. it can be difficult to make the data accessible to others. the simplest solutions to increase storage capacity are: add more hard drives.  Identify security challenges in storage solutions. policy-driven processes and procedures. workstations. Security Manageability Data recovery Identify storage solution challenges by performing the following steps:  Identify scalability challenges in storage solutions. regardless of the size of their organization. Identify Scalability Storage Challenges Internal or external hard disks are the most common way to store data on desktops. When an administrator finds that these hard disk drives are getting too full. Data must remain free from corruption. and where to find them. or branch offices using highly-automated. This is an especially troublesome problem with data stored on desktops — without file sharing enabled on these computers. Data must be recoverable in the event of a disaster. Decentralization of Data As the number of systems increase. data is increasingly dispersed throughout a company. and servers. remote users. Business requirements determine the challenges that an organization must solve to provide a comprehensive storage solution. or purchase additional computers that each have more hard disks. Data must be easy to manage and maintain for local users. compromise. Many organizations must adhere to data retention regulatory requirements to not keep data older than a defined age. Even when sharing is enabled. and it should be protected from any single point of failure. However.  Identify data recovery challenges in storage solutions.

 Server redundancy. and offer services for. The availability storage challenges include:  Hard disk redundancy. thus space may be available on one server. processors. Failure in any of a number of hardware components — storage devices. and those resources must be provisioned before disk capacity is exceeded. network interconnects. Hard disks using the same RAID controller can be combined to provide a fault tolerance disk configuration using RAID subsystems. Storage solutions must be able to integrate with. such as network attached storage (NAS) and storage area networks (SANs). Migrating a company’s critical data to a centralized server can help the situation. Compatibility with Storage Networking Solutions The best storage solutions not only meet today’s storage needs. . Storage remains local to each server. users still have the problem of not being able to find the data that they need — or in some cases even knowing that it exists. year-round. motherboards and power supplies — can result in a temporary or permanent loss of data. directly attached storage tends to scale poorly over the long term. high latency WAN links. In this case. storage interconnects. while others have excess capacity but no means to effectively share those resources. mechanisms need to be put in place to ensure data availability so that user productivity is not negatively affected. and is one way to ensure highly available data. As data is centralized. because the data can be readily shared across the network. Identify Availability Storage Challenges Businesses rely on making their services and information available for access. Hard Disk Redundancy Hard disk redundancy can be achieved using RAID types such as RAID 10. Underutilization of Storage Resources Storage that is directly attached to a server is made available to other computers on the network through the operating system’s sharing capabilities. RAID 5. These parity-based approaches can provide protection from a disk failure through the maintenance of checksum information. cabling. Adding more servers does not eliminate the problem of inefficient utilization of storage space between servers. parity-based configurations that spread multiple data over multiple drives. but capacity exceeded on another. as more servers are added to increase storage capacity (and to provide redundancy in the event of hardware failure).13 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper face many hurdles when building and applying a consistent policy to the type and age of data that is stored. they also scale well with more advanced storage solutions. 24x7. Effective storage planning requires accurate predictions of which users and applications will require more storage capacity. Fault tolerance can be achieved through redundancy of hardware components. Anticipating growth and implementing storage solutions that scale with growth remains a problem. You can also create more sophisticated. and ensuring that the data is protected well enough to meet requirements. But. other storage mediums with the end result being consolidated management flow for administrators and a consistent experience for users. organizations can experience bandwidth bottlenecks as users in remote locations attempt to access data in a central location via potentially slow. Unfortunately. or RAID 6. Some computers inevitably exceed their storage capacity.

and for that reason. Security in depth is required in terms of multi-level and multi-factor security in instances where the data is highly confidential.14 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Server Redundancy Failover clustering allows two or more computer systems to perform and be managed as a single system. especially in midsize and large organizations. With Failover Clustering. Finally. demand is increasing to share data among users whether they are running Windows. Identify Manageability Storage Challenges System administration can become enormously complex. even if a server goes down. or another operating system. Identify Data Recovery Storage Challenges System administrators must protect data not only from hardware failure. IT pros have to help ensure the strongest possible security while allowing users the access they require to data. In addition. web. or the Internet. The most common means of protecting data from these problems is through tape backups and restores. but also from data corruption. UNIX. where it can be properly backed up. Identifying Windows Storage Server Solution Benefits Network attached storage appliances running Windows Storage Server have a number of advantages compared to other network attached storage appliances. Unfortunately. application. such as My Documents to a network location while keeping a cached version of the data on the user’s local machine. applications remain online. Identify Security Storage Challenges Preventing unauthorized access to confidential data requires tight integration between file services and identity management systems. Users are redirected to another computer without any loss of services. user error. and for clustering those servers to ensure effective performance and high availability. extranets. users are rarely effective in performing regular backups. Hard disks must be backed up by the individual user. This redirection can also ensure data availability even when the computer is not connected to the network. Administrators are responsible for managing file. The benefits to creating storage solutions using Windows Storage Server include:  Scalability  Availability  Security  Manageability  Data recovery . Technologies such as folder redirection combined with Offline Files can help users store data on servers by redirecting key folders. However. Most of these advantages are available because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server 2008 R2. these solutions provide only partial protection. Access to the data must be secured for users on the organization’s intranet. system administrators strongly advocate storing critical documents and data on a server. remote users must be able to access the data through remote access connections. and database servers. and disasters. although many organizations require multiple platforms to support various applications.

and this capability has been maintained in Windows Server 2008 R2. Failover clustering can help you build redundancy into your network and eliminate single points of failure. including fans and power supplies and processors and RAM that runs in lockstep together.  Fault tolerant hardware. Duplicate files are transparently replaced with file system links to the single copy retained in the SIS Common Store — saving significant capacity. Windows Storage Server can scale up to 256 logical processors to meet the demands of business-critical servers supporting large databases. and custom applications that sometimes require highly reliable. With the release of Windows Server 2008 R2. and I/O host bridges. faster synchronization. DFS also offers closest site selection. memory. WHEA has been enhanced to support Machine Check Architecture (MCA) error recovery. offering the ability to contain and recover from several types of multi-bit ECC errors in memory and cache without operating system or application interruption. If a primary component fails. Single Instance Storage actively compares and eliminates identical files on selected volumes.  Dynamic hardware partitioning.  Reduces storage requirements. It is no longer necessary to add an additional server for each additional DFS root directory.15 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Scalability Benefits The following are the scalability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Increasing the Effectiveness of File Sharing. partition units can be added or replaced without restarting the operating system. This data can be made highly available in a transparent manner using the Distributed File System Namespace. resulting in less bandwidth used for replication and. DFS has been enhanced to remove the 5. protection and recovery by Single Instance Store-aware backup solutions can significantly reduce backup windows and recovery times. and to provide support for Access Based Enumeration (ABE) on DFS Namespaces. When multiple paths exist between servers and storage.  Processor scaling. the secondary component takes over in a process that is seamless to the application running on the server. In addition. ensuring access to the nearest available copy of the data at the lowest cost. Identifying Availability Benefits The following are the availability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Failover clustering. scalable servers. The Distributed File System Replication (DFSR) service controls replication and synchronization of data using Remote Differential Compression (RDC) that only replicates modifications to a file. line of business. Those modifications are compressed during transmission. and hot-replace of processors and memory on x64-based and Itanium-based systems which support DHP.000-link target limit that previously existed.  Windows Hardware Error Architecture (WHEA). Distributed File System (DFS) simplifies the user’s process of locating and accessing files distributed across an organization. therefore. Once enabled. Windows Storage Server supports hot-add of processors. Windows Server® 2003 introduced the ability to accommodate multiple DFS root directories on each server.  Improved fault tolerance between servers and storage. Windows Storage Server can failover to an alternate path if the primary path fails. The Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server helps optimize storage capacity using built-in file deduplication. Windows Storage Server includes support for fault tolerate memory synchronization. You can select the failover priority by configuring the load-balancing policies for your storage solution. . Fault-tolerant servers contain redundant hardware. On a dynamically partitionable server. DFS only displays items in the namespace and folders that the user has access to.

deploy. and with less effort. . NTFS permissions.  Resolves support issues faster. such as System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager 2007. Windows Storage Server allows you to take configuration snapshots of the storage subsystem (for example. In addition.  Seamlessly integrates with your existing Windows IT infrastructure. Because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server 2008 R2. This helps protect your existing investment while developing custom processes and procedures. the iSCSI configuration).  Easily extends storage solutions. such as AD DS. Identifying Manageability Benefits The following are the manageability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Reduces time to realize efficient management. you can manage and operate Windows Storage Server using other products. more precisely. In addition. Identifying Security Benefits The following are the security benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Secures digital assets.  Manages multi-vendor storage more effectively. You can manage and operate Windows Storage Server using the same IT processes and procedures that are currently used to manage Windows Server 2008 R2. build. Windows Storage Server integrates easily with existing Windows IT infrastructure services. Windows Server 2008 R2 contains a number of management interfaces for SAN hardware. In the event of a subsequent configuration failure. the Storage Manager for SANs. and operate storage solutions. You can easily extend the features and services provided by Windows Storage Server using the large number of products and services provided by Microsoft partners or by developing your own solution.16 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Improved recovery from configuration errors. such as System Center Operations Manager. many of the Microsoft management products. You can also use Microsoft and partner products to further strengthen the security of your storage solutions.  Manages and operates your storage solution using your existing processes and procedures. Much of this existing knowledge is integrated in the product or available online. and federated domains using Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS). you can quickly restore the configuration to a previous version.  Integrates with existing identity management systems. In past versions of Windows Server. Forefront Identity Manager (FIM) 2010 also can be used to synchronize identities from other identity systems. In addition. include knowledge from the product groups at Microsoft to help provide you with accurate and relevant information to resolve support issues. Comprehensive Microsoft support for Windows Server products and the extensive community of partners and peers help you resolve storage-related issues with less effort. Identities from AD DS. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS). and IPsec. you can take advantage of your expertise with Windows Server. such as BitLocker Drive Encryption. An error in the configuration of the storage subsystem can negatively affect storage availability. such as Microsoft Forefront. can be used to access resources shared by Windows Storage Server. This level of integration also helps minimize any infrastructure remediation that may be required to deploy and operate your storage solution. For example. You can use the same extensive security products and technologies found in Windows Server 2008 to secure Windows Storage Server. This familiarity dramatically can help reduce your learning curve so that you can quickly and efficiently plan. The broad range of well documented APIs and scripting languages can help you customize Windows Storage Server to meet your organization's requirements. multi-vendor storage device management required a system administrator to manage each device independently and to use a different vendor-supplied interface to do so — all of which adds another layer of complexity to the system administrator’s job.

The Windows Storage Server 2008 operating system is a multi-purpose server designed to handle a diverse set of server roles.  Fibre Channel and iSCSI SANs handling has been improved. You can migrate workloads from existing Windows Server operating systems to Windows Storage Server using highly-automated migration tools. and print services workloads using the well-known management consoles and utilities in Windows Storage Server. Web services. Provides unified solution to storage management and operations. remote desktop. These tools help protect the integrity of your existing data while ensuring the current user permissions and security configuration is transferred to Windows Storage Server. In addition. Windows support for iSCSI technology allows users to connect computers to consolidated storage devices using existing Ethernet technologies. In addition. The Windows Storage Server 2008 platform now provides better support for SANs. which in turn helps lower total cost of ownership (TCO) especially in complex multivendor storage environments. Windows Storage Server 2008 is a network-attached storage (NAS) operating system. many Microsoft partners produce products to help in migrating workloads to Windows Server products. You can also centrally manage many of the Windows Storage Server configuration settings using Group Policy. Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 make it easier to manage and maintain disks. storing Exchange Server and virtual server data and directory services. . You can use the same set of tools and process to manage all the workloads supported by Windows Storage Server. and new features have been added aimed at helping businesses control storage management costs and increase availability of data. you can draw on the large number of existing scripts developed by the partner and peer communities to further reduce the time required to achieve automation. built on Windows Server 2008 R2 operating system technologies. such as the File Server Migration Tools. such as System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager. Disk LUNs can be remotely mounted by application servers. Takes advantage of existing network infrastructure for SAN storage.17 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper       Migrates from other storage solutions to Windows Storage Server. instead of using a different set of management tools for each workload. For example.  SAN Host Bus Adapter (HBA) interoperability has been simplified with the SAN MMC management snap-in. You can manage file services. using the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator or application servers running other operating systems. including file and print. such as Linux. you can use other Microsoft products to further automate the administration of Windows Storage Server. iSCSI block I/O services. rather than having to install a separate Fibre Channel network. SAN technology based on IP also removes the physical limitations of moving data associated with Fibre Channel. Enhancements include:  Administrators can now control volume mounting to protect volumes from unintentional access. Provides centralized storage for applications. Robust storage solutions. web. iSCSI technology helps bring the advantages of storage area networking (SAN) to midsize and small businesses that otherwise could not afford the extra cost and management of running a separate Fibre Channel network. You can automate repetitive administrative tasks using Windows PowerShell scripts in Windows Storage Server. using available iSCSI initiators. The integrated storage services available in Windows Server and Windows Storage Server 2008 have been enhanced in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Reduces administration effort for storage solutions. For example. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target component in Windows Storage Server allows you to create iSCSI disk LUNs. such as Microsoft® Exchange Server 2010 running on a Windows Server operating system.

When multiple paths exist between servers and storage. Moreover.18 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Minimizes storage solution adoption risk. The Shadow Copy for Shared Folders feature of the new Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) enables users to easily restore their own deleted files without IT intervention. The accidental deletion or overwriting of files has long been the bane of system administrators charged with the time-intensive and costly task of locating and restoring single files from tape. open file backups are enabled. . thus adding availability to the data. Identifying Data Recovery Benefits The following are the data recovery benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Easier data recovery. you can minimize the risk of adoption for your new storage solution. enabling companies to make copies of necessary data. deployment. Your IT organization and users are less likely to experience difficulties in using and operating Windows Storage Server because they are already familiar with Windows Server. These can be responsible for flushing buffers and getting data on a disk in a consistent state that is suitable to back up. Microsoft Solution Accelerators. backing up data becomes an increasingly time intensive and potentially disruptive operation. As organizations produce more information. Because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server. because only the changes to the data are saved. The VSS process ensures data integrity though the utilization of VSS writers. You can select the failover priority by configuring the load-balancing policies for your storage solution  Windows Recovery Environment. separate from the originating server. You can use many of the existing tools. thus making unnecessary the disruptive practice of shutting down applications during backup to prevent data consistency issues. and best practice guidance to help make certain that the planning.  Windows Server backup tools. Making data highly available throughout an organization requires data redundancy. VSS allows administrators to schedule regular copies of data stored on disk.  Manages backups and restores more effectively. Windows Storage Server can failover to an alternate path if the primary path fails. With VSS. This capability can be extended with technologies like System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM). shadow copies take up little disk space. The Windows Recovery Environment in Windows Storage Server is a partial version of the operating system and a set of tools that you can use to perform operating system or full server recoveries. and ongoing operations of Windows Storage Server succeed. In the case of catastrophic system failures — cases in which all operating system information is lost and the server is effectively stripped down to bare metal — Automated System Recovery makes possible rapid restore of the system’s original state. which can centrally store the snapshot information.

Figure 1. These features and capabilities allow Windows Storage Server to act as a unified platform to manage various workloads.19 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Exploring Windows Storage Server Features and Capabilities Windows Storage Server includes a rich set of features and capabilities to help service multiple workloads. Workloads supported by Window Storage Server . unlike dedicated or single function network attached storage appliances. as illustrated in Figure 1.

 Providing access to iSCSI block I/O workloads in development. which is highly-optimized for use with Windows 7. SMB. or SMB2  NFS  WebDAV  Windows SharePoint® Services Supporting File Services Workloads Using CIFS. and the prior versions of SMB for previous Windows operating systems. as illustrated in Figure 1. The File Services server role in Windows Storage Server supports both SMB2. or SMB2 The SMB2 protocol in Windows Storage Server provides access to files and folders for client computers using the SMB or CIFS protocols.20 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper These features and capabilities help you provide access to:  File services workloads. Providing Access to File Services Workloads File services workloads allow computers to access files and folders stored on network access storage appliances. Select this protocol to support homogeneous or heterogeneous environments that contain:  Windows-based computers that use Client for Microsoft Networks to access file services workloads using the SMB protocol. .  Computers running other operating systems that access file services workloads using the CIFS protocol. Some network access storage appliances that are not running Windows Storage Server implement generic CIFS-based file services that implement only older versions of SMB and lack the performance advantages and improved reliability of SMB2. including the following workloads:  Hyper-V  Microsoft SQL Server®  Microsoft Exchange Server  iSCSI boot  Providing access to Web services workloads. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous file services workloads using the following protocols or features:  CIFS. Windows Storage Server can support file services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments with a variety of operating systems.  Providing access to FTP services workloads.  Providing access to print services workloads. or production environments. see the "Review Improvements in File Services" section later in this white paper. test. SMB.  iSCSI block I/O workloads.  Print services workloads This section includes the following topics:  Providing access to file services workloads. For more information about the improvements available in SMB2.  Web services workloads. Windows-based client computers use the SMB protocol while other operating systems typically use the CIFS protocol.

In Windows Storage Server. This component includes the Services for NFS snap-in.  Anonymous access. For computers running Windows.0 and version 3. The Server for NFS component is required to support file services workloads using NFS. The NFS protocol allows any NFS client computer to access files and folders managed by Windows Storage Server using version 2 and version 3 of the NFS protocol. For more information about installing and configuring the Services for Network File System role service. Select this protocol to support heterogeneous environments that contain computers running an NFS client that access file services workloads using the NFS protocol.0 with the Services for Network File System role service. Note The Server for NFS component supports NFS version 2. . NFS Authentication The Server for NFS component can use Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) for mapped identity management. This component allows a computer running Windows Storage Server and Client for NFS to access NFS mount points on NFS servers. and a number of command-line tools for managing it. download NFS Account Mapping in Windows Server 2008 R2. and later Windows Server operating systems. This enables Server for NFS and Client for NFS to look up Windows-to-UNIX user account mappings directly from AD DS or AD LDS. A computer running an NFS client can mount the NFS exported folder into the local file system of the operating system running on the computer. For more information about enabling identity (account) mapping for Services for NFS. Windows Server 2008. This method allows all unmapped users to access shared resources using a common anonymous account is configurable. This component allows a computer running Windows Storage Server and Server for NFS to service NFS client computer requests. see Services for NFS Step-by-Step Guide for Windows Server 2008. UNIX Version Support The Services for NFS supports the following versions of UNIX:  Sun Microsystems Solaris version 9  Red Hat Linux version 9  IBM AIX version 5L 5. Server for NFS can support unmapped user access using:  Unmapped UNIX User Access.2  Hewlett Packard HP-UX version 11i The Server for NFS component allows you to share a folder as a NFS exported folder (also known as a NFS shared folder). The Services for Network File System role service includes the following components:  Server for NFS.21 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Supporting File Services Workloads Using NFS Windows Storage Server supports access to file services workloads using the NFS protocol version 3. This method allows users to access shared resources using automatically generated Windows Security Identifiers (SIDs) based on the UNIX UID and GID.0. the Identity Management for UNIX Active Directory schema extension includes the UNIX user identifier (UID) and group identifier (GID) fields. the NFS client allows access to the NFS exported folder using a universal naming convention (UNC) path or by mapping the NFS exported folder to a drive letter.  Client for NFS. In addition.

The WebDAV extension module is available as a separate download at WebDAV 7. WebDAV 7. Also. Every file system reserves characters for use in path and command syntax. and then specifies where Server for NFS can find the file containing the character map. Client computers running a WebDAV redirector can access file services workloads using the WebDAV protocol. or be hidden from users.5 can be enabled at the site level. IIS 7. In the case of Windows computers. the administrator creates a file that defines how these characters are to be mapped. Files can be hidden on both non-Windows and Windows computers.0 has a new administration interface and configuration store. Supporting File Services Workloads Using WebDAV The WebDAV protocol is a set of extensions to the HTTP protocol that enables file management over any IP network. thereby . Server for NFS does not create files with names beginning with a period as hidden files in the Windows file system. it preserves the case of the names of directories and files when creating files on behalf of NFS client computers.0 (x64). For example.0. Most UNIX-like non-Windows file systems are case-sensitive when handling directory and file names.22 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Non-Windows and Windows File Names Many of the conventions used for naming files and directories on non-Windows systems differ from those used by Windows. Windows Storage Server includes version 7.  Per-site Configuration. and includes the following improvements:  Integration with IIS 7. files are hidden by setting a special attribute for the file. Windows computers preserve the case. To accomplish this. WebDAV 7. Non-Windows file systems simply do not list files whose names begin with a period (.5 supports per-URL authoring rules. see Nfsadmin. All current Windows operating systems include a WebDAV redirector. These authoring rules are separate from the IIS 7. so colon characters are valid in non-Windows file names.0.  Per-URL Security Settings. Server for NFS is case-sensitive when matching directory. The new WebDAV extension module is tightly integrated with this new design. contain special characters. By default. Administrators can specify how characters in directory and file names will be converted when files are shared between Server for NFS and client computers.0 per-URL authorization rules. Depending on the operating system.) character are hidden.  Special characters. For more information. For more information. allowing you to specify custom WebDAV security settings on a per-URL basis. see Configure Case Sensitivity for File and Folder Names. which provides support for homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. This setting can be turned off by administrators to ensure that files whose names begin with a period (.5 is the latest version of WebDAV for Windows Storage Server. Previous versions of WebDAV only allowed you to enable WebDAV at the server level. a file stored on NTFS cannot contain the colon (:) character because that character separates the drive letter from the rest of the path in a fully qualified path name. file names can be case sensitive. By default. Administrators can configure Server for NFS to ignore case sensitivity when returning directory and file names.and file-access requests to directories and files in its shared directories. In contrast.) character. Non-Windows file systems do not use letters to identify drives. the new WebDAV extension module integrates with the Internet Information Services Manager console to provide ease of administration. The differences between Windows and non-Windows filenames include the following:  Case sensitivity.  Hidden files. but are not case sensitive.5 of the WebDAV extension module for Internet Information Services (IIS) 7. WebDAV 7. Other operating systems also include a WebDAV redirector.5 for IIS 7.

see Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3.0.0. or Fibre Channel initiator based on the type of storage being accessed." later in this white paper. Providing Access to iSCSI Block I/O Workloads iSCSI block I/O workloads are another type of workload provided by most network access storage appliances. iSCSI block I/O workloads include both a server component (iSCSI target) and a client component (iSCSI initiator). but the feature specific to file services is the document library feature. Note When Windows Storage Server is deployed in a NAS gateway scenario. For more information.23 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper allowing one set of security settings for normal HTTP requests. Windows SharePoint Services include a number of collaboration features. As an iSCSI target. which allows you to easily restore a previous version of a file and track version history. Microsoft Office System client applications. Serial Attached SCSI (SAS). . see the section "Using Windows Storage Server as a NAS Gateway in Solutions.0 allows users to collaborate with each other using either HTTP or HTTPS. As an iSCSI initiator. In addition. Windows Storage Server can be an iSCSI. Document libraries include the ability to check in and check out files to help maintain version control. Computers running Windows can also access the document libraries through Windows Explorer. Also. Windows Storage Server is used to connect to external iSCSI targets. such as Microsoft Word 2007 or Excel® 2007. see WebDAV for IIS 7. Select this protocol to support heterogeneous environments that contain computers running WebDAV redirectors that need to access the file services workloads using the HTTP or HTTPS protocol.0 support on Windows Storage Server. Supporting File Services Workloads Using Windows SharePoint Services Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3. Client computers can access the document libraries using either protocol. Windows Storage Server is used to support iSCSI block IO workloads for applications. such as SQL Server® 2008 or Exchange Server 2010. For more information about providing Windows SharePoint Services 3. support opening and saving files to document libraries directly within the application. as illustrated in Figure 2. you can configure document libraries to retain a specified number of versions for each file in the document library. such as a SAN. For more information about providing WebDAV support on Windows Storage Server. and a separate set of security settings for WebDAV requests.

Windows Storage Server can function as an iSCSI target (the server component) or an iSCSI initiator (the client component).3 is the latest version of the iSCSI target software and is an optional component in Window Storage Server Workgroup. .3 in Windows Storage Server. iSCSI block I/O workloads supported by Windows Storage Server Windows Storage Server supports iSCSI block I/O workloads using the iSCSI standard. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Standard.24 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 2.3. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Specifications Table 7 lists the specifications for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. and Enterprise editions. For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. These specifications are applicable to all Windows Storage Server editions that include Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. see Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3.3. This allows a large number of configuration options for iSCSI block I/O workload solutions.3 available for Windows Storage Server provides iSCSI target functionality.3. Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Note Some Microsoft partners include the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by default.

IPv6." later in this white paper. IPsec. Support for Single or Multipath IO Connections for Non-Clustered or Clustered Configurations Specification Windows Server 2008 (multipath I/O connection) Windows Server 2008 (single path I/O connection) Windows Server 2008 (multipath I/O connection) Windows Server 2003 (single path I/O connection) Nonclustered Supported Supported Supported Supported Clustered Supported Limited * Limited * Limited* * There is limited support for iSCSI initiators or iSCSI targets in clustered configurations of Windows Server 2003 when connected to the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Maximum number of iSCSI initiator sessions that can connect to the same iSCSI target instance. Maximum number of virtual disk per iSCSI target instance. Table 8 lists the support for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with single or multipath I/O connections when connecting to nonclustered or clustered configurations. Value 64 128 128 512 32 (or 4 per cluster node) 64 16 64 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Windows Storage Server includes support for single path and multipath I/O connections to nonclustered and clustered configurations. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator includes a multipath I/O Device Specific Module (DSM) for the Microsoft Multipath I/O (MPIO) in Windows Server. Failures on the iSCSI network path may result in delayed failover and recovery times. Maximum number of virtual disks or snapshots that can be locally mounted by the appliance. Maximum number of iSCSI initiators that can connect to the same iSCSI target instance. Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Version 3. Table 8. Maximum number of iSCSI initiators per appliance. Maximum number of snapshots per virtual disk. For these reasons. we recommend to use Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 in clustered configurations when connecting to the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Failures for non-network related issues have been tested with acceptable recovery times. see the section "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads. IPv4. For more information about multipath I/O. Jumbo frames. . iSCSI offload.25 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 7. Maximum number of virtual disks per appliance. TCP offload.3 Specifications Specification Maximum number of iSCSI target instances per appliance. Multipath I/O connections allow for improved fault-tolerance and performance for iSCSI block I/O workloads.

01.3.  Virtual Disk Service (VDS).x.  Red Hat Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 5. . and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider.3 supports the following iSCSI initiators:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator 2. iSCSI snapshots are created using VSS and a storage array with a hardware provider designed for use with VSS.  SUSE Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 10.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server 2008 SP1 and SP2.24.00. firmware 3.3 includes a hardware provider for:  Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS).  Qlogic initiator QLE4062C-SP. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider is required to create transportable snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks and application-consistent snapshots from iSCSI initiators. Prior versions of the hardware providers are not supported by Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.  32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2008 SP1. The backup software must support transporting snapshots. Install the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider on each iSCSI initiator computer running a storage management application (such as the Microsoft Storage Manager for SANs) that uses the hardware provider to manage storage The most recent version of these hardware provider APIs is Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3.  64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server 2008 R2.3 and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows 7.07 and 2.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Vista.  64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server 2008. and for creating volumes on those disks. Customers using a different iSCSI target should refer to the storage array vendor for supported configurations. Note Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3 support the following operating systems:  Windows Server 2008 R2. VDS is a set of APIs that provides a single interface for managing disks. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for VSS and VDS Providers Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3 supports only version 3. VDS provides an end-to-end solution for managing storage hardware and disks. VSS is a set of APIs that implement a framework to allow volume backups to be performed while applications on a system continue to write to the volumes.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server 2008 R2.  32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Server® 2003 SP2.3 of the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider is required to manage virtual disks on a storage subsystem. Install this hardware provider on the computer running the iSCSI initiator and the computer that is to perform backups.x.26 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note The limitation for iSCSI initiators or iSCSI targets in clustered configurations of Windows Server 2003 is specific to Microsoft iSCSI Software Target usage. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3.3 and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3.08 in Windows Server 2003.

as illustrated in Figure 3. Universal Network Device Interface (UNDI) is an application programming interface (API) for network interface cards (NIC) used by the Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) protocol.  UNDI. is divided into the following phases:  Pre-boot.  32-bit version of Windows Storage Server 2008. these components are provided by the partner providing the program. all the necessary preboot phase components are in firmware on the adapter. This phase of the process is used to initiate the Window iSCSI boot process. depending on the method used for the diskless computer. This phase is performed by the firmware on the network adapter.  iSCSI host bus adapters that support iSCSI boot capability. iSCSI boot process for Windows operating systems For iSCSI boot-enabled network adapters and host bus adapters. Supporting iSCSI Boot iSCSI boot allows diskless computers (computers without local disk) to boot over the network. Independent Hardware Vendors implementing iSCSI boot support in their firmware need to use the table headers defined in this specification to enable the passing of boot critical parameters to the Windows operating system. Table 9 lists the components in an iSCSI boot solution using Windows Storage Server and provides a brief description of the purpose for each component. . and Windows® 7. The iSCSI boot process for Windows operating systems. Windows Vista. Figure 3. The BIOS function used to access disk boot functions. including Windows® XP.3:  Any Windows client operating system. firmware on the host bus adapter. and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3.3. For network boot programs.  iBFT. see iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT).  Network boot program software that provides iSCSI boot capability. iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT) is a block of information containing parameters needed to boot Windows Server 2003 and later versions of Windows using the iSCSI protocol and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. These functions are redirected to the virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server.  Windows.27 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The following operating systems are not supported by Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3. The components in this phase include:  Int 13. or network boot program. This phase of the process is performed by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. iSCSI boot support is provided on diskless computers using one of the following methods:  Network adapters that support iSCSI boot capability. The Windows Boot Manager is configured to boot using LUNs that are accessible through the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. For more information.

The iSCSI boot process and Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator can access these virtual disks during the boot process. The TFTP server is not required for network adapters that support iSCSI boot or an iSCSI host bus adapter. Virtual disk files (. Provides IP configuration for iSCSI boot using network adapters using DHCP reservation that is configured for BOOTP support. Differencing virtual disks can be used for multiple computers based on the same fixed virtual disk.  iSCSI boot software. Virtual disk iSCSI connection in diskless computer DHCP server Trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP) server Provides download of boot image to target computer when the virtual disk cannot be directly accessed using the iSCSI connection in the diskless computer.  iSCSI host bus adapter.vhd files) stored on Windows Storage Server.28 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 9. the DHCP is practical requirement for any scalable requirement. Components in an iSCSI Boot Solution Using Windows Storage Server Component Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Description Provides iSCSI block I/O access to virtual disks stored on Windows Storage Server. which can be any one of the following:  Network adapter that supports iSCSI boot. . The diskless computer requires an iSCSI connection to Windows Storage Server. Note The DHCP server is optional if the network adapter supports IP and iSCSI boot configuration or if you are using an iSCSI host bus adapter. However.vhd files) stored on Windows Storage Server using a network boot program that provides iSCSI boot capability. Note The TFTP server is required only if you are using iSCSI boot software that requires a TFTP server. Figure 4 illustrates how diskless computers can boot from virtual disk files (. This allows for fast deployment and recovery of diskless computers.

iSCSI boot process from Windows Storage Server DHCP and TFTP services can be provided by Windows Storage Server or Windows Server. 4. the diskless computer can boot from a virtual disks stored on Windows Storage Server using the following steps for a network boot program: 1. The TFTP Server provides a PXE boot image to the diskless computer. 2. The DHCP Server sends IP configuration information to the diskless client. . As illustrated in Figure 4. The diskless client computer requests IP configuration from the DHCP Server. 3. The diskless computer establishes a connection with Windows Storage Server and connects to a virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server. The diskless client computer requests a Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) boot image from the TFPT Server.29 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 4. 5.

All subsequent disk I/O is performed using iSCSI I/O to the virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server. A differencing virtual disk is a virtual disk type that is based on a fixed or expandable virtual disk. 8. Using this method.B that is stored on Windows Storage Server. You can use separate virtual disks for each diskless computer or you can use differencing virtual disks. 7.x  PCI-E network iSCSI Initiator adapter  Broadcom network adapter  qLogic iSCSI host bus adapter  Netboot software For more information about iSCSI boot in Windows operating systems.08  Red Hat Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 5. Windows Storage Server supports Web services workloads. the operating system on the parent virtual disk stays in its original state for quick recovery or for quickly creating more boot images based on additional differencing virtual disks.3 supports iSCSI boot for the following iSCSI initiators:  Any Windows operating system running Microsoft iSCSI Initiator version 2. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous Web services workloads using the protocols listed in Table 10. The diskless computer boots from Differencing Virtual Disk .x  SUSE Enterprise Linux version 10. The Windows operating system starts.30 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 6. Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. . which is the iSCSI LUN specified in the configuration for the computer. Providing Access to Web Services Workloads Unlike most network access storage appliances.07 or 2. see:  Microsoft iSCSI Boot Step-by-Step Guide. and create a differencing virtual disk as the current virtual disk for the diskless computer. you can create clean-install system boot operating system virtual disk as a parent. Web services workloads allow users to access Web-based content stored on Windows Storage Server appliances.  About VHD. For example. Windows Storage Server can support Web services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments that include a variety of operating system. Any subsequent writes to the differencing disk are written to the differencing virtual disk and the parent virtual disk is not modified.  The “Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions” section later in this white paper.

 Simplified file transfer. This allows you to provide FTP and Web content from the same website simply by binding an FTP site to a website. a mapped drive. With the new FTP server.  Provides support for the Internet Printing role service. Improved logging that now supports all FTP-related traffic. using the same folders that can be accessed using any of the file services workloads protocols.31 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 10. but includes additional security protection of using secure sockets layer (SSL) encryption between clients and Windows Storage Server. for the same files and folders accessed using any of the file services workloads protocols.  Extended IP addressing features provided by IPv6.  Support of extended character sets by including UTF8 support. you can specify a. FTP sub statuses. download only. Provides the same level of support as HTTP.  Improved integration with web-based applications and services. a UNC path. File transfer can be performed using Windows® Internet Explorer®.5 administration interface and configuration store. which can be essential in some heterogeneous environments. upload or download.  The foundation for Web-based remote administration using Terminal Services Web Access. but are differentiated by using unique virtual host names. Protocols Supported for Web Services Workloads Protocol HTTP Support description Provides:  Access to traditional Web-based content accessed through Web browsers.  The foundation for the WebDAV protocol used in accessing file services workloads.  Reduced effort for support and troubleshooting FTP–related issues. and more. Print services workloads allow users to access printers managed by Windows Storage Server appliances. which can be essential in some heterogeneous environments. or from a command line. an additional detail field in FTP logs. This allows you to create multiple FTP sites that use the same IP address. Providing Access to Print Services Workloads Another advantage to using Windows Storage Server appliances is the ability to support print services workloads. The new FTP server includes support for:  Improved security by supporting FTP over secure sockets layer (SSL). Windows Storage Server can support . virtual host name for an FTP site. This allows administrators to perform common administrative tasks within one common administration console. HTTPS FTP Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 includes FTP services that offer the following improvements:  Reduced administrative effort for FTP server services. unique tracking for FTP sessions. Provides a simplified file transfer.  Extended support for Internet standards. The new FTP server is fully integrated with the IIS 7.

The Print Server role service is a mandatory role service for the Print Services role. Line Printer Daemon (LPD) Service Internet Printing For more information about:  The Print Services server role. Select this Print Server role service to support any print services workloads in Windows Storage Server. However. The LPD Service installs and starts the TCP/IP Print Server (LPDSVC) service which is implemented in lpdsvc. typically used in heterogeneous environments. The LDP Service is an optional Print Services role service. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous print services workloads using the Print Server role services listed in Table 11. When the LPD Service is installed. Select the Printer Server role services when clients must print to printers using the only HTTP protocol.dll. the installation of the service does require a restart of the Print Spooler service. Provides support for computers that run an Internet Printing client. Print Server Role Services Supported for Print Services Workloads Role Service Print Server Support description Provides support for Windows-based computers running Client for Microsoft Networks. Internet Printing provides access to shared printers using the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) that is encapsulated in HTTP. see Print Management.  Printer management in Windows Storage Server. . In order to install the Internet Printing role service. Select this Print Server role service to support LPR clients in heterogeneous environments. the Print Services and Web Server roles must also be installed. Provides support for computers that run Line Printer Remote (LPR). Administrative Tools. see Print and Document Services. Table 11. When the Print Server role is installed. If the Print Spooler service is stopped or restarted after the LPD Service is installed. The Print Management Console (PMC) is then accessible from Server Manager. the TCP/IP Print Server service is also stopped — and you must restart it manually. If you are supporting only Windows-based computers that are printing with your homogeneous environment. the removal of the role service does.32 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper print services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments that include a variety of operating system. There is no configuration necessary for the LPD service. an inbound firewall exception for TCP port 515 is created. the Print Services Tools Remote Server Administration Tool feature is also installed. or as an MMC snap-in. select only this role service. Although the installation of the Print Server role service does not require a system restart. typically used in heterogeneous environments or to print over the Internet. which is done automatically during installation.

Figure 5.  Storage power management. In addition to the cost-saving associated with reducing power consumption. To quantify the power savings. Measuring power usage only when hardware is fully utilized does not reflect real-world usage. Window Storage Server includes the following improvements to reduce power consumption:  Reduced power usage of individual servers by including:  A new PPM engine. than before. average utilization for many servers is 5 to 15 percent.  Additional incremental power saving features. Power savings with Windows Storage Server Processor Power Management The PPM engine in Windows Storage Server has been rewritten and improved. It now provides the ability to fine-tune the processor’s speed and power consumption to match . Figure 5shows the results.  The ability to measure. manage. and budget power usage across the system. from idle up to 100 percent utilization. Therefore. Throughput was gradually throttled up across the utilization range of the systems. Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers Windows Storage Server helps improve the power efficiency of individual servers through a variety of incremental improvements. Microsoft measured power consumption of Windows Storage Server 2003 and Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 using a representative online transaction processing (OLTP) workload. or less power. many data centers are constrained by the number of computers they can support in their data center by the actual power available to the data center. power consumption is of paramount importance.33 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Providing Reduction in Power Consumption With the proliferation of physical computers in data centers. reducing your power consumption also allows you to support more physical computers while using the same amount of power. which demonstrate that many servers that operate within a range of utilization levels will benefit from the improved power efficiency of Windows Server 2008 R2.

Windows Storage Server includes support for storage devices that work with solid state drives that can power down unused RAM when a file system deletes files. and their workloads then shifted to alternate cores. which means less communication with the drive and less power consumption. which has a higher storage-capacity-topower-consumption ratio than a typical server.34 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper current demands. . A SAN also makes more efficient use of the available disk space. Windows Storage Server greatly improves access to storage on SANs. This means that commands are not repeatedly sent to check for media changes. thus saving power.  Asynchronous notification of media change for optical devices. Windows Storage Server provides asynchronous notification of drive media changes. because any server can have access to the available storage on the SAN.  Optimized link power management for SATA disks. New parameters for PPM — which administrators can configure — further improve power efficiency. and also adds the following enhancements:  ATA Slumber feature. The workloads of every logical core in a server are tracked relative to all the others. Storage Power Management Another strategy for reducing power used by individual servers is to centralize their storage by using a Storage Area Network (SAN). This feature helps reduce power usage for managing the communication bus link between the hard disk and the chipset. the system activates the idle processor cores to handle the increased processing requirements. Core parking is a feature that enables Windows Storage Server to reduce multi-core processor power consumption by consolidating processing onto fewer processor cores and suspending the inactive cores.  Support for “remove on delete”. When additional processing power is required. Windows Server Storage also supports the ability to boot from a SAN. which eliminates the need for local hard disks (local storage) in the individual server computers and decreases power consumption as a result. This feature is integrated with the power management framework to use the new power states (partial and active). Keeping the unutilized cores in an idle state reduces system power consumption. The workloads of cores that are not fully utilized can be suspended. as shown in Figure 6.

creating LUNs. Servers without local storage that each consume less power Additional Power Saving Features Windows Storage Server includes Intelligent Timer Tick Distribution (or Tick Skipping). or formatting partitions. non-timer interrupts will still activate sleeping processors.) The amount of background work that is performed by the operating system has also been reduced in Windows Storage Server. other processors are signaled only as necessary.xml file. One processor handles the periodic system timer tick. thus saving power. . with C3 set as the deepest-sleep state and C0 as the operating state) by not activating the CPU unnecessarily. in which the processor consumes very little energy but requires time to return to an operational state. as well as your physical systems. This feature extends processor idle or deep C-states (processor sleep states within the ACPI specification. However. OEMs can configure the FirstLogonCommand attribute in the Unattend. creating partitions. This also allows processors to better utilize the deep C-states.xml file to run Windows PowerShell scripts or any command-line program that can used to perform storage configuration tasks. You can take advantage of most of these technologies in virtualization scenarios to maximize the power efficiency of your virtualized environments.35 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 6. Performing Highly Automated Installations You can automate the storage subsystem configuration settings in Windows Storage Server by customizing the Windows Storage Server Unattend. The benefit of this automation is that the storage configuration requires minimal or no configuration by IT pros. such as creating a RAID set.

enable administrators to perform tasks on the appliance. For more information about RSAT.  Management of file services workloads. For more information. secure the appliance.  Group Policy. For more information. and Remote Server Administration Tools Pack. see Group Policy. You can remotely manage Windows Storage Server using the Remote Desktop Connection feature. You can complete these tasks by using commands in the Initial Configuration Tasks window. and technologies for managing all workloads:  Initial Configuration Tasks window.  Server Manager. Group Policy provides an infrastructure for centralized configuration management of Windows Storage Server. see Terminal Services Web Access (TS Web Access).36 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing Windows Storage Server You can manage Windows Storage Server using the management features in each of the following areas:  Management tools for all workloads.  Remote Desktop Services Connection.  Management of power consumption for all workloads. For more information about the Initial Configuration Tasks window. . and the feature uses the remote desktop protocol (RDP) to communicate with Windows Storage Server. and managing all roles installed on the server. and before deploying the new appliance in your enterprise. features.  Microsoft Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT).  Management of iSCSI block I/O workloads. see Windows Server Initial Configuration Tasks. and you also can use it to manage 32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server. You make the initial connection to Windows Storage Server using Internet Explorer and the Terminal Services Web Access Web site. Description of Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows 7. Then you connect to Windows Storage Server using the Microsoft ActiveX® control included in Remote Desktop Client version 6. You can run RSAT on 32-bit or 64-bit Windows operating systems. For more information. After installing Windows Storage Server. see Server Manager. see Terminal Services in Windows Server 2008. Management Tools for All Workloads Windows Storage Server supports the following tools.1 and later versions. some configuration is required to identify the appliance to other computing resources on your network. You can use Group Policy on any Windows Storage Server appliance that is a member of an Active Directory domain. This feature requires the Remote Desktop Client to be installed on the computer used to manage Windows Storage Server. which opens immediately after the operating system installation is complete.  Management of Print services workloads. This feature requires only Internet Explorer to be installed on the computer used to manage Windows Storage Server. and the applications and services running on Windows Storage Server. identifying problems with server role configuration. Server Manager in Windows Storage Server provides a single source for managing a server's identity and system information. For more information about Server Manager. and customize the appliance by adding server roles and features. RSAT allows you to remotely manage roles and features in Windows Storage Server from a computer running Windows Vista SP1 or a later Windows operating system. displaying server status.  Management of Web services workloads.  Remote Desktop Services Web Connection. see Description of Windows Server 2008 Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows Vista Service Pack 1.

or the Share and Storage Management console. Diskraid command-line tool. just as if you were locally logged on to the host and using a local command prompt. providing a powerful and convenient way to capture and report information about power consumption. For more information. . Telnet. and Windows PowerShell™ cmdlets for Group Policy. Microsoft storage partners develop VDS hardware providers that allow management of their storage solutions. For more information. You can run command-line programs. exposes the data that is gathered to users. IT workers responsible for power management can control power policies and receive power condition events. Windows PowerShell is a task-based command-line shell and scripting language designed especially for system administration. which enables code and scripts to query power data on compliant systems. or management tools in a manner that is compliant with the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) management profiles. Microsoft is pursuing an ACPI standards-based approach to the features that provide these capabilities. You can perform disk management for any of the workloads using VDSenabled management tools. manage. and scripts in the remote command console session. additional policy settings. Windows PowerShell is built on the Microsoft . scripts. the infrastructure for management data and operations on Windows-based operating systems. including an improved user interface. Windows Storage Server supports the configuration of power policy. You can manage storage with VDS hardware providers using VDS-enabled management tools. see Telnet. In conjunction with server OEMs. ensuring interoperability across the entire IT environment. Managing Power Consumption for All Workloads Windows Storage Server also helps you better measure and manage power consumption. Remote Manageability of Power Policy Key in Windows Storage Server is the greatly enhanced ability to measure. Storage Manager for SANs snap-in. through Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). and budget energy usage for individual servers and across the entire server environment. such as the Diskpart command-line tool. VDS. This is useful for IT administrators who use WMI queries in scripts to monitor and administer their infrastructure. both locally and remotely across the enterprise. You can use any Telnet client to create a remote command console session on a Windows Storage Server appliance. root\cimv2\power. For centralized power policy management. there are new features in Group Policy for Windows Storage Server. both locally and remotely. providing them with the data they need to make informed and timely power management decisions. A vast library of existing Windows PowerShell scripts reduces the effort and learning curve for using Windows PowerShell to automate administrative tasks. see Windows PowerShell. Power metering and budgeting in Windows Storage Server require no additional drivers or hardware changes. WMI.37 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper    Windows PowerShell. only hardware platform support. which provide the ability to manage Group Policy from the Windows PowerShell command line and to run Windows PowerShell scripts during logon and startup. and the applications and services that run on Windows Storage Server. Windows Storage Server provides a new power namespace.NET Framework and is designed to help you automate the administration of Windows Storage Server. and in turn making power consumption data an actionable metric.

An administrator can use the performance monitor on a server to view the moment-bymoment power consumption.  Share and Storage Management. An administrator can set power budgets for the servers and the system. the workloads of underutilized servers can be consolidated onto a smaller number of better-utilized physical machines using live migration (the ability to move virtual machines between servers with virtually no downtime) with Hyper-V. The server platform reports information in-band to the Windows Storage Server through the use of ACPI. and this means power data can be queried by Microsoft System Center and other management tools to budget and monitor power usage across the entire IT environment. You manage file services workloads running on Windows Storage Server by using:  File Server Resource Manager. Managing Disk Usage Quotas.38 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting The new power features introduce new opportunities for managing power consumption. and the files themselves. it also aids in the planning and implementation of future changes to the storage infrastructure. or in a more likely scenario. Based on the information gathered.  Single Instance Storage management tools. Now that power consumption is measurable. Another set of metrics can be used for virtualization and consolidation. Microsoft recommends a collaborative model between the server platform and the operating system for power metering and budgeting (the process that lets administrators set power limits.  DFS management tools. File Server Resource Manager not only helps you efficiently control and monitor existing storage resources from a central location. you can perform three tasks to manage storage resources on local or remote servers:  Quota management. Managing File Services Using File Server Resource Manager File Server Resource Manager is a suite of tools in Windows Storage Server that enables you to place storage limits on volumes and folders. . You can create and apply quota templates with standard quota properties. and Storage Reports With the File Server Resource Manager snap-in. Unauthorized File Types. Managing File Services Workloads Managing file services workloads includes managing disk volumes. the folder structure to store the files. the IT administrator can write a script or use Microsoft® System Center to centrally collect and monitor power consumption data across the datacenter. prevent users from saving specific file types to the server. it becomes an actionable metric for IT staff when appropriate hardware support is available. or caps. Set soft or hard space limits on a volume or folder tree. The WMI namespace additions for power meters and supplies mean that the user mode power service can provide data to the WMI namespace. on datacenter components as small as a single server). Fewer physical machines can lead to reduced costs through lower hardware and energy costs and through reduced management overhead. and can configure the system so that it automatically takes action when the budget is exceeded. and generate comprehensive storage reports.

 Generate reports about the types of information stored in the files in your intranet. You can create and apply screening templates with standard file exclusions.  Contain sensitive information to encrypt those files. Policy-based Classification of Files One of the key advantages to the Windows File Classification Infrastructure is the ability to centrally manage the classification of the files by establishing classification policies . size. Even with this knowledge. reduce costs.  Are no longer essential to automatically remove the files from servers. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to establish policies for classifying files and then performing common administrative tasks based on the classification. and patterns of storage use.  Are not accessed frequently to move the files to slower. file screening activity. Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure Managing data stored on file services is usually challenging because of the sheer number of files being stored on network shared folders. more affordable storage solutions. the user storing the files is the only individual who has any knowledge of the information stored in the files and other characteristics about the files. data archival schedule. Define filtering rules that monitor or block attempts by users to save certain file types on a volume or folder tree. You need to be able to centrally categorize these files and then perform IT file operations based on the classification of the files. or date of the file. Because users store files on a network shared with little or no restrictions. you cannot rely on the user to properly determine the proper classification of information. You can also apply quota and file screening policies when you provision a shared folder. The File Classification Infrastructure feature is also managed with the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure in Windows Storage Server provides insight into your data to help you manage your data more effectively.39 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  File screening management. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to:  Centrally define policy-based classification of the files stored in your intranet. Generate built-in reports to track quota usage. or through a command-line interface. and mitigate risks. such as sensitivity or criticality of the information in them. see File Server Resource Manager.  Notify content owners when a file management task is going to be performed on their content. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to identify files that:  Contain sensitive information on servers with lower security to move the files to servers with higher security.  Perform file management tasks based on the file classification that you define.  Require different backup solutions based on the sensitivity of the information in the files. rather than on only simple information such as the location.  Storage reports management. For more information.  Require different backup schedules to back up the files accordingly. and other common IT operations tasks. but is covered separately in the “Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure” section in this white paper.  Create or purchase custom file management solutions based on the Windows File Classification Infrastructure.

You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to help you perform common file management tasks. You can use the reporting infrastructure to generate information that can be used by another application (such as a comma separated variable format text file that could be imported into Microsoft® Excel®). there is minimal information that can be used to help identify the usage of the files. update. And the extensible nature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to integrate with existing messaging systems or information portals. This centralized approach allows you to classify user files without requiring their intervention. or add the value to properties that support multiple values.  When running a classification rule. Each rule assigns a single predefined property and value to files within a specified directory. the sensitivity of the files. Without classification of the files. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to:  Define classification properties and values. The architecture of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows the use of any supported development .  Create. and run classification rules. You can choose to overwrite existing classification values. numbered. optionally re-evaluate files that are already classified. and other relevant information about the files. which can be assigned to files on a per-server basis by running classification rules. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to generate reports in multiple formats that can provide statistical information about the files stored on each file server. Reporting on Information Stored in Files Most IT organizations have no easy method of providing information about the types of files that are stored and managed. File Owner Notification of File Management Tasks Another feature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure that reduces your administrative effort is the ability to send notifications to content owners when an automated file management task runs. For example. based on installed classification plug-ins. including:  Grooming of data. File Management Tasks The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to perform file management tasks based on the classifications that you define using the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. Property types can include Boolean. when files become old enough to be automatically expired. You can also select the method for notification based on the type of file management task being performed. the content owners can be notified in advance and given the opportunity to prevent the files from being archived or deleted.40 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper using the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. IT administrators are able to automatically move data based on policies for either centralizing the location of sensitive data or for moving data to a less expensive storage resource. You can automatically delete data by using policies based on data age or classification properties to free valuable storage space and intelligently reduce storage demand growth. ordered lists. Execute custom commands based on age. location or other classification categories.  Custom Tasks. For example. and string values. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to automate any file management task by using the file classifications you establish for your organization. date. Improved Development of File Management Tasks You can extend the file management features of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure by creating your own custom file management solution or purchasing a file management solution from an independent software vendor.

or on storage subsystems that have a VDS Hardware Provider using Share and Storage Management. You can manage storage on disks available on your server.41 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper environments for Windows Storage Server including Windows PowerShell and Microsoft Visual Basic® Scripting Edition (VBScript). and backup. highly-available access to geographically dispersed files. Each vendor supplies the VDS Hardware Provider. apply storage quotas to the new shared resource. Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication The Distributed File System (DFS) technologies offer wide area network (WAN)-friendly replication as well as simplified.  Manage the share access permissions. and create file screens to limit the type of files that can be stored in it. You can perform the following tasks using this tool:  Extend the size of a volume.  Change volume properties like compression. You can configure shared folders for SMB or NFS protocols and DFS settings using Share and Storage Management. This architecture allows you to select the level of programming sophistication required to automate your file management tasks. This structure .  Multi-vendor storage management. DFS Namespaces lets you group shared folders located on different servers into one or more logically structured namespaces. The technologies in DFS include the following:  DFS Namespaces.  Publish the shared resource to a DFS namespace.  Specify the network sharing protocol used to access the shared resource. Each namespace appears to users as a single shared folder with a series of subfolders. see Overview of Share and Storage Management. you could write Windows PowerShell scripts to manage files based on the classifications you define for your organization.  Delete a volume. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider.  Stop the sharing of a folder or volume.  Manage NFS-based access permissions for the shared resource. For example. You can perform the following tasks using this tool:  Specify the folder or volume that you want to share or create a new folder to share.  Format a volume.  See which users are currently accessing a folder or a file and disconnect a user if necessary.  If File Server Resource Manager is installed. Managing File Services Using Share and Storage Management Share and Storage Management in Windows Storage Server provides a centralized location for you to perform:  Shared resource management. user limits. and offline access to files in the shared resource. which can be installed and configured for use in Windows Storage Server.  Manage the local NTFS permissions for the folder or volume you will be sharing. offline availability and indexing. For more information about Share and Storage Management. defragmentation.  Access disk tools for error checking. security.

see the following sections in this white paper:  “Securing File Services Workloads”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” You can manage DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication using the:  The DFS Management snap-in hosted by Server Manager. when available.  The DFS Management snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. RDC detects insertions.exe You also can use DFS to replicate files and folders in geographically dispersed environments so that users have a local copy of the files and folders. see the section "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. instead of routing them over WAN connections. For more information. such as in Branch office locations." later in this white paper. DFS Replication uses a new compression algorithm known as remote differential compression (RDC).42 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper increases availability and automatically connects users to shared folders in the same AD DS site. and the data is not replicated back to the head office. see DFS Management.exe  DfsDiag. RDC is a "diff-over-the wire" client-server protocol that can be used to efficiently update files over a limited-bandwidth network.  Using DFS to replicate file services workloads for disaster recovery scenarios.  Read-only DFS Replication. and re-arrangements of data in files. see Replication. which replaces the File Replication Service (FRS) as the replication engine for DFS Namespaces. you can use read-only DFS Replication to publish data from a head office to branch offices where users in the branch office should not change the data.exe  DfsrDiag.  For more information about DFS Replication. . enabling DFS Replication to replicate only the changed file blocks when files are updated. as well as AD DS SYSVOL folder replication in domains that use the Windows Server 2008 domain functional level. For more information about:  DFS. removals.exe  DfsCmd. In addition.  Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication. multiple-master replication engine that you can use to keep folders synchronized between servers across limited bandwidth network connections.  The following command line tools:  DfsUtil. This can greatly reduce the amount of traffic transferred over limited-bandwidth networks. Read-only DFS Replication is a secure method for replicating data where read-only access is required to the data. see Distributed File System. DFS Replication is an efficient.exe  DfsrAdmin.  DFS Replication. For example. you can replicate files and folders to another location using DFS for disaster recovery scenarios.

Ability to undo single instancing of files. Supports replication of files using DFS Replication. Identifying Single Instance Storage Specifications Table 12 lists the specifications for the Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server.  Managing Single Instance Storage using Sisadmin. The Single Instance Storage Filter is a file system filter service that redirects reads to the common store and performs the replacement of file pointers when users start changing a duplicate file. The Groveler service scans the hard-disk volumes on a server for duplicate copies of files. The Groveler service runs in user-mode. see Single Instance Storage. Minimum file size supported. Requires volumes to be formatted as NTFS.exe. Support backup of single instance of file using Single Instance Storage APIs in sisbkup. see Managing SIS Using SisAdmin. Supports boot drives. The Groveler discovers duplicate files and initiates the deduplication of files. Support files with extended attributes. Single Instance Storage Feature Specifications in Windows Storage Server Specification Maximum number of volumes per appliance. Failover cluster support. Value 128 Yes Yes Yes 32 KB Yes Yes No No No No Yes . Identifying Single Instance Storage Architecture Single Instance Storage consists of the following components that together maintain a database of file signatures:  Groveler service. The Single Instance Storage Filter runs in kernel mode.  Single Instance Storage Filter. which is a hidden folder located in the root directory of the volume. WMI support. Supports system drives. Single Instance Storage does this by replacing duplicate files with logical links that point to a single copy of the file in the SIS Common Store. but the primary administration tool for this feature is Sisadmin.exe.43 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing Single Instance Storage The Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server reduces the amount of space used to store data on a volume. Identifying Single Instance Storage Management Tools You can enable or disable Single Instance Storage on a volume through the Share and Storage Management console. You can also automate the administration of Single Instance Storage using Windows PowerShell scripting or any other scripting language that supports WMI. Table 12.exe.dll. For more information about:  The Single Instance Storage feature. Supports remote drives.

Uninstalls SIS from a volume. and connections to storage arrays. Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The types of management tasks for disk block I/O workload include managing iSCSI targets. Windows PowerShell Cmdlets for Managing Single Instance storage Category SIS linked files SIS disk volumes Cmdlet and description         Get-SisLinkFile. Get-SisVolume.  Number of linked files. Get-SisVolumeReport. IT organizations typically realize storage savings that average from 10 percent to 30 percent. see Single Instance Storage Cmdlets in Windows PowerShell. Disables SIS on a volume. You can manage iSCSI block I/O workloads running on Windows Storage Server for the following components:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator . Lists all the volumes that have SIS installed enabled. Install-SisVolume. Files stored in user home folders provide the most typical scenario where the larger reduction of storage usage is realized. Disable-SisVolume. Uninstall-SisVolume. IT organizations typically realize storage savings of more than 50 percent. Enable-SisVolume. Installs SIS on a volume. Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell You can manage the Single Instance Storage feature using the SingleInstanceStorage module. In this scenario. For more information about managing the Single Instance Storage feature using Windows PowerShell. Table 14 lists the Windows PowerShell cmdlets included in the SingleInstanceStorage module and provides a brief description of each cmdlet. Set-SisVolume. build and release provides the largest reduction of storage usage.  Percentage of the volume saved. This will cause all linked files to revert to the original file stored in the SIS common store. which is included in Windows Storage Server. virtual disks. Returns a list of all the linked files and the corresponding filename in the SIS Common Store. Table 13.44 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Typical Reduction in Storage Usage Using Single Instance Storage The extent to which the Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server can help reduce storage usage depends on the number of duplicate files stored on the appliance. including the:  Spaced saved. Displays a SIS summary report for each volume.  Number of files in the SIS Common Store. In this scenario. Enables SIS on a volume. For files in a software development environment. Configures SIS after it has been installed on a volume.

You manage virtual disks using the iSCSI Targets node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in." later in this white paper. Typically. there is a potential for conflict between the computers running the iSCSI initiators. see Overview of Share and Storage Management. see the previous section. If you assign multiple iSCSI initiators to the same iSCSI target.45 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target feature allows Windows Storage Server appliances to act as an iSCSI target.  Share and Storage Management console. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target includes the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider that allows LUNs on Windows Storage Server to be managed by any application that uses VDS. through an Ethernet network adapter. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. you assign just one iSCSI initiator to each iSCSI target. You manage virtual disks using the Snapshots node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. The most typical reason for assigning multiple iSCSI initiators to the same iSCSI target is for shared storage in failover clusters. An iSCSI target can manage multiple virtual disks. You can manage this feature by using the:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Using Share and Storage Management Console You can manage storage on the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using Share and Storage Management. such as Share and Storage Management. For more information about Share and Storage Management.  Virtual disks. You manage iSCSI targets using the iSCSI Targets node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. but a virtual disk can only be managed by one iSCSI target. For more information about using virtual disk snapshots for backup and in disaster recovery scenarios. and the most current version of the . All current Windows operating systems support the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. Virtual disks are the LUNs that the computer running an iSCSI initiator uses. see:  Configuring the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. see the section "Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect iSCSI Block I/O Workload Data. For more information about managing Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI block I/O workloads. iSCSI targets are the logical endpoint to which an iSCSI initiator connects.  Virtual disk snapshots. For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider. Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Snap-in Typical tasks that you use the Microsoft iSCSI Target snap-in to perform include managing:  iSCSI targets. Virtual disk snapshots are point-in-time copies of virtual disks that you can use to back up active virtual disks for disaster recover scenarios or to restore a LUN to a previous state.3 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator enables you to connect Windows operating systems to an external iSCSI-based storage array. "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for VSS and VDS Providers" in this white paper.

Modifies the settings for the virtual disk and returns the corresponding iSCSI virtual disk object if the PassThru parameter is specified. Afterwards." later in the white paper. Get-IscsiVirtualDisk. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Storage Server allows the server software to connect to other external iSCSIbased storage arrays. Remove-IscsiVirtualDisk. Get-IscsiServerTarget. For more information about managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator.3 Category iSCSI target management Cmdlet and description  New-IscsiServerTarget Creates a new iSCSI target object with the specified name. Deletes the iSCSI virtual disk object. You can manage the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator by using the:  Graphical user interface in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. Obtains the iSCSI targets and their associated properties from the local server or specified computer. Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell You can manage the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. the iSCSI target can be assigned to an iSCSI initiator.  iSCSI Control Panel configuration utility (iSCSICPL. Creates a new iSCSI virtual hard disk (VHD) object with the specified file path and size.08.46 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator is version 2.    Virtual disk management     . Table 14.  iSCSICLI. Once a virtual disk has been assigned to a target. Table 14 lists the Windows PowerShell cmdlets included in the MicrosoftIscsiTarget module and provides a brief description of each cmdlet. The VHD file is not deleted.exe). Set-IscsiServerTarget. Modifies settings for the iSCSi target and returns the corresponding iSCSI target object if the PassThru parameter is specified.3 using the MicrosoftIscsiTarget module. Obtains the iSCSI virtual disks and their associated properties.exe tool from a command line. which is included in Windows Storage Server. an iSCSI initiator can access the virtual disk after the initiator connects to the target. such as those described in the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration. the virtual disk can be assigned to an iSCSI target. Set-IscsiVirtualDisk. Remove-IscsiServerTarget. and then a virtual disk can be associated with the target. see the Microsoft iSCSI Initiator Step-by-Step Guide. New-IscsiVirtualDisk. Afterwards. Deletes an iSCSI target object. An iSCSI initiator cannot access the VHD or LUN after the target is deleted. Windows PowerShell Cmdlets for Managing Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Version 3.

Assigns a virtual disk to an iSCSI target. an iSCSI initiator can access the virtual disk after the initiator connects to the target.exe to configure and query objects on your web server.0. . reducing the complexity of learning syntax.0 tools to manage FTP sites.  Delegate site and application configuration to nonadministrators.NET in one tool. Tools for Managing Web Services Workloads in Windows Storage Server Tool Internet Information Services Manager snap-in Description You can manage IIS 7 using the Internet Information Services Manager snap-in. which lets you:  Manage IIS and ASP.0. and for managing Web services workloads. Note You cannot use IIS Manager to manage FTP sites in IIS 7 on Windows Storage Server.Appcmd. For example.exe. see IIS Manager (IIS 7).exe You can manage IIS 7 using the command-line tool Appcmd. Use IIS 6. see PowerShell cmdlets for the Microsoft iSCSI Target 3. For more information.3 using Windows PowerShell. and to return output in text or you can use XML. Managing Web Services Workloads Web services workloads in Windows Storage Server can be managed by any of the management methods available for IIS 7. you can combine commands to return more complex data about objects on your web server or to perform tasks that are more complex.47 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Category LUN management Cmdlet and description  Add-VirtualDiskTargetMapping. All the virtual disks assigned to the same iSCSI target will be accessible by the connected iSCSI initiator. Once a virtual disk has been assigned to a target. Appcmd. Remove-VirtualDiskTargetMapping.  For more information about managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.  Connect to a web server. see Appcmd. Table 15. Removes the assignment between a virtual disk and iSCSI target.  Configure user and role authorization for sites and applications. site. which provides consistent commands for common queries and configuration tasks. The virtual disk will be no longer accessible by an iSCSI initiator once the assignment is removed.exe.  View health and diagnostic information that includes the ability to view currently running requests in real time. For more information. or application remotely by using HTTP.3. you can complete complex tasks like stopping all sites with pending requests that have been running longer than sixty seconds. are listed in Table 15. The management tools available for managing IIS 7. In addition.

 Request Filtering.  Enhancements to IIS Manager. a collection of task-oriented cmdlets provide a simple way to manage websites. Developers are able to service HTTP requests directly in their applications by using the hostable Web core feature. This module includes the filtering features previously found in URLScan 3.0.config files for sites. the server administrator is the only user who has permission to view and edit the ApplicationHost.  Hostable Web Core. this feature lets the core IIS Web engine to be consumed or hosted by other applications. These enhancements include updates to:  Configuration Editor. The Request Filtering user interface provides a graphical user interface for configuring the Request Filtering module. For more information.config file. In addition. The hostable . WebAdministration. and directories. These new type of accounts reduce the recurrent administrative task of having to update passwords on processes running with these accounts. Available through a set of APIs. By default. support. By blocking specific HTTP requests.NET applications or adding and editing request filtering rules through a graphical user interface. You can use WMI to build scripts for web administration.  IIS Manager UI extensions. web applications. The FastCGI module.5 release that make it possible to manage obscure settings such as those used for FastCGI and ASP. Settings configured at one level are inherited automatically by lower levels.1.NET configuration. For more information. Utilizing the extensible and modular architecture introduced with IIS 7. Allows you to manage any configuration section available in the configuration system. The Windows PowerShell Provider for IIS is a Windows PowerShell snap-in that allows you to perform IIS administrative tasks. and manage IIS configuration and run-time data. contains classes and methods that enable you to script administration of websites. The IIS 7 WMI provider namespace.48 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Tool Configuration store Description You can manage IIS 7 using the XML-based configuration store that is modeled after the ASP. IIS 7.5 supports the use of managed service accounts for application pool identities. and troubleshooting effort:  Automation of common tasks through the PowerShell provider. Windows Storage Server allows domain-based service accounts to have passwords that are managed by AD DS. applications. such as Windows PowerShell. see Configuration Store (IIS 7).NET module allows management of authorization and custom error settings. unless they have been locked to prevent changes. the Request Filter module helps prevent potentially harmful requests from being processed by Web applications on the server. and their associated objects and properties using any scripting language that supports WMI. allows management of FastCGI settings while the ASP. Configuration Editor exposes several configuration settings that are not exposed elsewhere in IIS Manager. for example. see Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) in IIS 7. Scripts using WMI Windows Storage Server includes the following features which help reduce administration.config file and can also be distributed among Web.  Managed service accounts. New features have been added to IIS Manager for the 7. the new IIS 7. web applications and web servers. allowing those apps to service HTTP requests directly. IIS configuration is stored in the ApplicationHost.5 integrates and enhances existing extensions and allows for further enhancements and customizations in the future.

This reduces the effort required for debugging code during development and troubleshooting application errors after deployment by using IIS Failed Request Tracing. which allows you to track the configuration changes made to your test and production environments. For more information. This provides logging of both reads and writes.exe tool in a startup script (for percomputer connections) or in a logon script (for per-user connections). Table 16. which can administer the local server only.5 provides enhanced auditing of changes to IIS and application configuration. Best Practices Analyzer (BPA). For more information. as well as logon attempts. Print Management snap-in Group Policy . Enhanced auditing of changes to IIS 7. Server Manager also displays print-related events from Event Viewer and includes an instance of the Print Management snap-in. In IIS 7. changes to path mappings. The BPA for IIS 7. see Server Manager and the Print Services Role.5 and application configuration. The Print Management snap-in provides current details about the status of printers and print servers on the network. PHP developers can use the FastCGI module to include IIS trace calls in their applications. It can also send email notifications or run scripts when a printer or print server needs attention. and features. Use Print Management with Group Policy to automatically deploy printer connections to users or computers and install the appropriate printer drivers for computers running Windows Vista and later Windows operating systems. The new Configuration Logging feature in IIS 7.5. see the Print Management Step-by-Step Guide. see the Print Management Step-by-Step Guide. use the PushPrinterConnections. file creations and more. Use Print Management to install printer connections to a group of client computers simultaneously and to monitor print queues remotely. Print Management can display more data. Failed Request Tracing for FastCGI. optional role services. On printers that provide a web-based management interface. You can access the BPA through Server Manager and Windows PowerShell.5 Web server and reporting on potential configuration issues found. Tools for Managing Print Services Workloads in Windows Storage Server Tool Server Manager Description Use Server Manager to install the Print Services server role.49 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper    Web core feature is useful for enabling basic Web server capabilities for custom applications or for debugging applications. For more information. Print Management can also help you find printers that have an error condition by using filters. Managing Print Services Workloads The Print services workloads in Windows Storage Server that the Print Server role provides can be managed by using the tools listed in Table 16. For Windows operating systems prior to Windows Vista. such as toner and paper levels.5 is a management tool that can help you reduce best practice violations by scanning an IIS 7.

Use Windows PowerShell to manage print services workloads. and language monitors.50 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Tool Printer Migration Wizard Description The Printer Migration Wizard allows you to export print queues. printer ports. Printbrm. see Printer Management Using PowerShell. This is an efficient way to consolidate multiple print servers or replace an older print server. and then import them on another print server that is running a Windows operating system. Provides the same features and functionality as the Printer Migration Wizard. For more information about using Windows PowerShell to manage print services workloads. see the Print Migration Tool. printer settings.exe command-line tool Windows PowerShell . For more information.

Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data The Windows Server Backup feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 consists of a MMC snap-in and command-line tools that provide a solution for backup and recovery requirements. and technologies.  The DFS Replication feature.  Perform backups of applications like SQL Server to protect application data using VSS functionality.  Recover volumes.  System Center Data Protection Manager. You can protect the data managed by Windows Storage Server using:  The Windows Server Backup feature.51 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protecting Windows Storage Server Workload Data One of the essential aspects to ongoing operations of Windows Storage Server workloads is the ability to protect the data that the server software manages.  Cannot back up shared storage in a failover cluster if the storage is moved between active nodes. Limitations Windows Server Backup has the following limitations:  Supports backing up only to external and internal disks. Table 17 lists the features and limitations of this feature. and shared folders.  Does not include the ability to e-mail or provide notification of the backup status report. which will restore your complete system onto the new hard disk by using a full server backup and the Windows Recovery Environment.  The Appcmd. support of tape storage drivers is still included in Windows Storage Server.  Does not support a centralized monitoring ability for enterprise environments. certain applications.exe tool to backup printer information. you can use most backup and disaster recovery products offered by Microsoft partners for Windows Server 2008 to protect data managed by Windows Storage Server. Using proper backup and disaster recovery processes.  The Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature. files. However. Note In addition to the products and technologies discussed in this section. DVDs. You cannot perform backups to tape.  Perform a system recovery in case of disasters like hard disk failures. which is available separately. Features and Limitations of Windows Server Backup Features Use Windows Server Backup to:  Back up a full server (all volumes).  Does not implement a method of including media rotation strategies. and reduce the risk of potential data loss.exe tool to backup IIS configuration.  The PrintBRM.  The LUN resynchronization capabilities.  The Volume Shadow Copy Service feature. and the system state. tools. Table 17.  The Automated System Recovery feature. .  Can only back up volumes 2 terabyte or less in size. folders. or the system state. helps protect the data managed by Windows Storage Server. selected volumes.

If you accidentally overwrite a file. is useful because you can:  Recover files that were accidentally deleted. you can open a previous version and copy it to a safe location. contact the appropriate Microsoft partner. and 12:00 P. the oldest shadow copy will be deleted and cannot be retrieved)." later in this white paper. Shadow copies are read-only and as such you cannot edit the contents of a shadow copy. Accessing previous versions of files. For more information. Shadow Copies of Shared Folders is enabled for an entire volume. Note This default task can be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. or shadow copies.M.  Only supports backup of local volumes (cannot be used to backup network shared folders). you can view shared files and folders as they existed at points of time in the past.)  Compare versions of a file while working. With Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. For more information. It works by taking snapshots of an entire volume at particular points in time. Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data The Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature in Windows Storage Server is a feature in Windows Server that transparently maintains previous versions of files on selected volumes by using shadow copies. If your backup and recovery requirements are affected by any of the limitations listed above.  Recover from accidentally overwriting a file. Note For more information about the Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature. The default configuration for this feature is as follows:  A default task is scheduled to create shadow copies at 7:00 A.   The default storage area is on the same volume and its size requires 10 percent of the available space.  Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. You cannot enable this feature for specific shared folders and files on a volume.  Backup and recovery solutions from Microsoft partners. This feature allows a user to restore selective files or folders from previous versions without IT assistance.M.52 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Features Limitations  Only supports backup of entire volumes (cannot be used to backup individual files and folders. you can recover a previous version of the file. You can use previous versions when you want to check what has changed between the versions of a file. There is a limit of 64 shadow copies per volume (when this limit is reached. see:  Shadow Copies for Shared Folders Technical Reference. Monday through Friday. The Shadow Copies for Shared Folders features uses the Volume Shadow Copy Service to create the file copies. . consider using:  System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. (The number of versions depends on how many snapshots you have created. see the section "Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data. If you accidentally delete a file.

System Center Data Protection Manager. An application that requests that a volume shadow copy be taken." and "Virtual Disk Snapshots" in this white paper. this is a database application like SQL Server or Exchange Server. Shadow Copy of Shared Folders feature. For example. Figure 7. Table 18. The volume that holds the shadow copy storage files for the system copy-on-write software provider. A component of an application that stores persistent information on one or more volumes that participate in shadow copy synchronization." "Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. such as those in the sections about "Windows Server Backup. A component that creates and maintains the shadow copies. Components in the Volume Shadow Copy Architecture Component Volume Shadow Copy Service Requestor Description A service that coordinates various components to create consistent shadow copies of one or more volumes. Typically. Figure 7 illustrates the architecture of the Volume Copy Shadow Service in Windows Storage Server.53 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data The Volume Shadow Copy Service feature in Windows Storage Server provides the ability to take point-in-time snapshots of files and is the foundation for other applications or features. or a system service like Active Directory. Examples include the system provider included with the Windows Storage Server operating system. Volume Shadow Copy Service Architecture Table 18 lists the components in the Volume Shadow Copy Service architecture and how the components relate to each other. This architecture allows the point-in-time snapshots of files stored in Windows Storage Server. or the Diskshadow command-line tool. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. and the hardware providers included with storage arrays. The volume that contains the data to be shadow copied. Writer Provider Source volume Storage volume . the Windows Server Backup feature.

Table 19 lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and current features in Volume Shadow Copy Service. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service Window Server 2008 R2 LUN resynchronization support is an extension of the features provided by the Volume Shadow Copy Service in Windows Server 2008 R2. Traditional volume shadow copy service Recovers only a volume. Table 19. LUN resynchronization creates hardware-based shadow copies that allow you to recover a volume from an existing shadow copy of the volume. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service LUN resynchronization Recovers entire LUN. Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data Windows Server 2008 R2 includes support for LUN resynchronization (also known as LUN resynch or LUN revert).54 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper As described in Table 18 and illustrated in Figure 7. and then restore from those shadow copies. Performed by storage array hardware. or copies. For more information about the:  Volume Shadow Copy Service. You can also use LUN resynchronization to help quickly create duplicates of productions LUNs for use in a storage environment for backup or in test.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. . the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider is required to create point-in-time snapshots. Typically takes less time than restoring by using traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service. The Volume Shadow Copy Services uses the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider to create these snapshots. This allows you to create shadow copies of entire LUNs. which may contain multiple volumes. such as SANs. Note You can use DiskShadow. see Volume Shadow Copy Service Technical Reference. using the inherent snapshot or copying features in the storage array. Performed by server computer.exe command-line tool to manage Volume Shadow Copy Services for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. see the "Hardware Providers" section of Virtual Disks and Snapshots. of the virtual hard disks managed by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Typically takes more time than restoring by using LUN resynchronization. LUN resynchronization uses the same application programming interfaces (APIs) that are used by the Volume Shadow Copy Service. LUN resynchronization is a method for quickly restoring volumes that takes advantage of the capabilities of storage arrays. or development environments.

a shadow copy version of a LUN is exchanged with the active LUN. Contains only the information on the source LUN. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap LUN resynchronization Source (shadow copy) LUN remains unmodified after the resynchronization completes. The APIs used to perform LUN resynchronization are the same APIs that perform a traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service recovery. This allows the server to continue processing other workloads with the same performance while the LUN resynchronization process completes. Table 20 lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and a LUN swap. This helps ensure that you can use the same tools and processes for a traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service recovery.  Reduce the workload while recovering volumes. supported APIs in Windows Server 2008 R2. Destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN. the server hardware resources are only minimally affected. less expensive storage. Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization The benefits of LUN resynchronization include the following:  Perform recovery of volumes with minimal disruption of service. Because LUN resynchronization uses published.  Compatibility with future improvements. future versions of Windows Server will also provide support for LUN resynchronization. LUN swap Source (shadow copy) LUN becomes the active LUN and is modified. users and applications are still able to access their data.  Integration with existing volume recovery methods. Although there may be a reduction in performance. Source LUN can be used for recovery again. Requires that the destination LUN exists and is usable. .55 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap LUN swap is a fast volume recovery scenario supported since the release of Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1). users can continue to access data on the volume while the synchronization is being performed. Source LUN can exist on slower. The destination LUN is the target LUN that will be synchronized or swapped with the source LUN. Must create another shadow copy to perform recovery. Source LUN must have the same performance as the production LUN. Table 20. Destination LUN does not have to exist or can be unusable. Because the hardware storage array is performing the resynchronization. After the recovery of a volume using LUN resynchronization is initiated. The source LUN is the shadow copy of the LUN that contains the data you wish to use. and any information written during the resynchronization. In a LUN swap.

it does nothing to protect system software stored on the hard drive. the source LUN is unmodified and the destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN. volume requests are directed to the source LUN. The source and destination LUNs are identified. For more information about DFS Replication in branch office scenarios for data protection. 4. 2. A critically damaged hard drive will lose all critical registry information. you need to have a hardware shadow copy (snapshot) of the LUN. The LUN resynchronization continues by performing a block-level copy from the source (shadow copy) LUN to the destination LUN. You can use DFS Replication to create replica copies of data in a centralized location and then back up the replica copies. For example. With the Automated System Recovery (ASR) technology in Windows Storage Server.56 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization Before you can perform a full volume recovery using LUN synchronization. and in the Windows Software Development Kit (SDK) for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. Using DFS Replication to Protect Data DFS Replication can be used as part of a centralized backup solution. system files. a system administrator prepares for such a disaster by saving to physical media a complete backup set of information about the how the server was configured. volume requests are directed to the destination LUN. such as fire or electrical surges. Note At the end of the LUN resynchronization process. In the event of system failure. The LUN resynchronization completes and all user requests are now performed from the destination LUN. Using Automated System Recovery to Protect Data While backing up data to tape protects mission critical data from catastrophic events. 5. you can use this method in branch office scenarios to create replica copies of data in the branch offices in the head office and then back up the data in the head office. and disk partition information. Restoring the base operating system plus the backup application (the minimum required to restore backed up applications and data) is a time intensive process. ASR is tightly integrated with VSS. plus any data that was written to the destination LUN during the LUN resynchronization process. . During the LUN resynchronization. this backup set is used with the ASR restore CD (which contains the necessary software and drivers to allow the restore) to rapidly restore all system setup information. users can access the volume using the following methods:  For read operations. 3. The LUN resynchronization is initiated between the source (shadow copy) and the destination LUNs. nothing remains but the bare metal. You can find more information about how these steps are performed by viewing the Volume Shadow Copy Service APIs on MSDN®.  For write operations. including any volume information. The following includes the sequence of events that occur when performing a full volume restore using LUN synchronization: 1. You can make full or differential shadow copies of the LUN. because that information is not copied during the backup process. see the section "Creating Branch Office Solutions" later in this white paper.

Focused on the primary Microsoft server workloads.  Rapid and reliable recovery. For more information about System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. overwritten data. a version of Windows PE that contains numerous troubleshooting and system resolution utilities. in case of accidental data deletion by a user.  Snapshots are space-efficient because they are differential copies.57 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper ASR provides a VSS Writer for the preparation of an ASR set. minimize the time required to create disks. in addition to supporting dynamic disks. They can be extended to provide extra capacity on demand. Exchange Server. Snapshots are useful for backups. Finally. SharePoint® Portal Server. and minimize the down time that is typically required to install new disks. Data Protection Manager 2007 enables IT administrators and users to easily recover data in minutes from easily accessible disk instead of locating and restoring from less-reliable tapes. see System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. providing an easy-to-manage and robust disk/tape back-end platform. Data Protection Manager 2007 combines the best aspects of CDP real-time protection with traditional tape backup/restore to provide a comprehensive disk-to-disk-to-tape data recovery solution. Data Protection Manager 2007 blends the best aspects of continuous data protection (CDP) to disk storage with traditional tape backup. In addition. Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 is designed to provide and restore Windows Server applications. and Windows Server operating systems. which are files in the fixed virtual hard disk (VHD) format. Data Protection Manager 2007 includes the following benefits:  Continuous data protection for Windows application and file services workloads. Data Protection Manager 2007 provides technically advanced and comprehensive data protection for organizations ranging in size from small business environments to enterprise environments. Windows 2008 also provides the Recovery Console that utilizes the Windows Recovery Environment (Windows RE). . Microsoft Virtual Server. A snapshot is a point-in-time. To facilitate backup and recovery operations. enable efficient storage utilization. ASR has been enhanced to support EFI system partitions. These virtual disks offer flexible and effective storage. you can schedule and create snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks. Data Protection Manager 2007 was specifically designed to protect and recover files services for SQL Server. which recreates all critical volumes and restores the required data. Combined with Windows Server technology. During a restore operation the ASR VSS writer is executed within the Windows PE environment. read-only copy of an iSCSI virtual disk. They offer the following advantages:  Snapshots can be scheduled to be created automatically. This change removes a previous problem in which dynamic disks were always recreated even if a restoration was not necessary. Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect Data The disks you create by using the iSCSI Software Target are iSCSI virtual disks. Data Protection Manager 2007 protects core Windows Server workloads by continuously capturing data changes with application-aware byte-level agents.  Snapshots are useful for fast system recovery of files and volumes. or data corruption resulting from a malicious program. and one-click lossless application recovery.  Advanced technology for enterprises of all sizes.

" in this white paper.exe tool in Windows Storage Server.58 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper   Snapshots can be mounted locally or exported to facilitate backup and recovery operations.exe tool. For more information about:  Virtual disks and virtual disk snapshots. you need to use backup software that works with Volume Shadow Copy Service from a Microsoft partner.  The Volume Shadow Copy Service. see the previous section "Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data. you could create snapshots prior to performing an upgrade to provide the ability to roll back the environment should the upgrade fail. the snapshot must be created from the iSCSI initiator computer by using the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider and other backup software that works with the Volume Shadow Copy Service. Snapshots do not require that you close files or stop programs when you create them. Most modern file systems can recover from this state.exe Tool to Backup IIS Configuration You can protect data managed by Web services workloads using the Appcmd.0 using this tool. see How to backup/restore IIS7 configuration. To perform backups of the virtual disks.exe tool in Windows Storage Server. For example. so application servers can continue servicing clients without disruption. The PrintBRM.exe Tool to Backup Printer Information You can protect data managed by Print services workloads using the PrintBRM. You can back up the configuration files for IIS 7. Using the Appcmd. For more information. or archival media and then later used to restore the data in the event of a failure. servers. Note Snapshots that are created on the iSCSI target server are crash consistent. Table 21. To create an application-consistent snapshot. Virtual disk snapshots require the Volume Shadow Copy Service and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider. Using the PrintBRM. Uses for Virtual Disk Snapshots Scenario Provide disaster recovery Create a restore point Use of the virtual disk snapshots The snapshots can be saved to other appliances. Table 21 lists scenarios for using virtual disk snapshots. see Virtual Disks and Snapshots. For more information about the Appcmd. . The snapshot can be used to provide the ability to rollback services to a previous version.exe tool allows you to export printer information on a periodic basis as a way of backing up a print server. see Migrate Print Servers.

NTFS permissions NTFS permissions. secure the Windows Storage Server operating system. Table 22. stolen. This is especially important for Branch Office scenarios where the physical security may not be as strong as in a data center. encrypts data stored on hard disks. Security Features or Technologies for All Workloads Feature or technology BitLocker Drive Encryption Description BitLocker Drive Encryption. included in Windows Storage Server. NTFS permissions work with share folder permissions to help prevent unauthorized network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. or inappropriately decommissioned appliances. see BitLocker Drive Encryption. In addition. These security measures can be implemented. you can further secure your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. see Active Directory Domain Services Overview. Note For remote or network users. passwords. Table 22 lists the features or technologies that you can use to secure Windows Storage Server. included in Windows Storage Server. For more information. regardless of the workloads running on Windows Storage Server. and is used for accessing all workloads. Windows Storage Server includes all of the security features and technologies found in Windows Server.59 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Securing Windows Storage Server Workloads Windows Storage Server includes a number of features and technologies to help you secure your workloads. For more information. Active Directory Domain AD DS provides centralized management of credentials. Secure Windows Storage Server workloads by securing:  Windows Storage Server for all workloads  File services workloads  Disk block I/O workloads  Web services workloads  Print services workloads Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads Before securing specific workloads. Services (AD DS) accounts. . For more information. This encryption helps protect the data by preventing unauthorized users from breaking Windows file and system protection on lost. help prevent unauthorized local and network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. see the section "NTFS Permissions" in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. access to files and folders are defined by the combination of NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions.

You can centrally manage IPsec using Group Policy.  Remote connectivity to Windows Storage Server using Forefront Unified Access Gateway 2010. and replay protection. For more information. Shared folder permissions work with NTFS permissions to help prevent unauthorized network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. IPsec supports network-level peer authentication. provide protection. which dramatically reduces the ongoing administrative and operations effort.  Communication with other computers or appliances over the Internet using Forefront Threat Management Gateway 2010. access to files and folders are defined by the combination of NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions. available separately. Microsoft Forefront products. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security is integrated with Network Awareness so that it can apply security settings appropriate to the types of networks to which the computer is connected. included in Windows Storage Server. included in Windows Storage Server. IPsec Microsoft Forefront . and access. helps reduce the attack surface by blocking unauthorized network traffic flowing into or out of the appliance. only help prevent unauthorized network access to the files and folders stored on Windows Storage Server. For more information. you can help protect:  Windows Storage Server and other Windows-based computers or appliances that communicate with the appliance using Forefront Client Security. data confidentiality (encryption). data origin authentication. Note For remote or network users. included in Windows Storage Server. see Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. IPsec. allows you to protect the communications between Windows Storage Server and other Windows operating systems. see the section "SMB Permissions" in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. These shared folder permissions affect users accessing the files and folders using the SMB protocol. Windows operating systems. For more information. and management solutions that are integrated with Microsoft user identity management. Specifically. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. and other Microsoft products. Windows Firewall is also integrated with Internet Protocol Security (IPsec).60 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature or technology Shared folder permissions Description Shared folder permission. so that the IPsec configuration settings are integrated into the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in. data integrity.

File Services Protocols and How to Secure the Protocols Protocol SMB How to secure this protocol  Use NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions to secure SMB-based access to shared resources.61 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature or technology Microsoft partner products Description There are a large number of security related products and technologies that are available from Microsoft partners. For more information.  Security Solution Accelerators. Table 23 lists the file services protocols and how to secure the protocol. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. use NFSAdmin. see the “Creating Branch Office Solutions” section in this white paper. any security product that is compatible with Windows Server 2008 R2 is also compatible with Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. you can use the following resources to help secure Windows Storage Server:  Microsoft Security. Use read-only DFS Replication to provide read-only copies of file and folders to servers where only readonly access is allowed. see the "NFS Permissions" section in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. see "NTFS Permissions" and "SMB Permissions" sections in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. and operate your security infrastructure. Typically. integrate. deploy. In addition to features and technologies listed in Table 22. For more information. After installing Services for NFS. Specifically. the Security Compliance Management Toolkit Series provides an end-to-end solution to help plan. This collection of tools and guidance are free." earlier in this white paper.exe to create client groups and to add client computers to those groups before configuring NFS share permissions. you must first install the Services for Network File System (NFS) role service using Server Manager. This is the home page for all Microsoft security products and technologies for all operating systems and products. Table 23. Use read-only DFS Replication to provide read-only copies of file and folders to servers where only read-  NFS   . and monitor security baselines of Windows operating systems. NFS-based access control for a shared resource is determined based on network names and groups. For more information. Securing File Services Workloads File services workloads are secured based on the protocol that provides access to the file services workloads. authoritative resources to help you to proactively plan. To use NFS permissions. You can manage the NFS share permissions using the Share and Storage Management snap-in.

 Mutual CHAP authentication. For more information. For more information. With this level of security. see the “Creating Branch Office Solutions” section in this white paper. Table 24 lists the methods of securing the communication for the iSCSI block I/O workloads. see Authentication and Security Using WebDAV. All initiators that want to access that target need to use the same secret to start a logon session with the target.  IPsec authentication. Require authentication for all users that access the appliance using WebDAV.  Encrypt all WebDAV communication with the appliance using secure socket layer (SSL). Transactions between the iSCSI initiator and the RADIUS server are also authenticated through the use of a shared secret. the iSCSI target and the initiator authenticate each other. Table 24. see Plan authentication settings for Web applications (Windows SharePoint Services). To use this level of security. only the iSCSI target authenticates the initiator. For more information. For more information. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. With this level of security. For more information. or you must deploy one. see Plan authentication settings for Web applications (Windows SharePoint Services). see Authentication and Security Using WebDAV.  RADIUS authentication. The IPsec protocol enforces . The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) secret is set just for the target. the iSCSI initiator is authenticated by a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server. With this level of security. WebDAV  Windows SharePoint Services   Securing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Disk block I/O workloads are secured by configuring the appropriate security between the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and the iSCSI initiators. A separate secret is set for each target and for each initiator. Securing Communication for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Protocol Require authentication How to secure Require all iSCSI initiators to authenticate with the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using one of the following methods:  One-way CHAP authentication.62 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protocol How to secure this protocol only access is allowed. Encrypt all Windows SharePoint communication with the appliance using SSL. Require authentication for all users that Windows SharePoint Server on the appliance. you must have a RADIUS server running on your network.

Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. Allow connectivity to the appliance only from computers on your internal network. see iSCSI Security. . Use IPsec to protect communication between the appliance and FTP clients.5 application pool now runs with a unique. This helps harden the security of applications and services running on IIS 7. every IIS 7. Ensure that all HTTP connections require authentication as necessary. Table 25. Isolate the network segments used for communication between the iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by using separate physical network segments or by using virtual local area networks (VLANs).0 that increased security and reliability. Ensure that all HTTPS connections require authentication as necessary. FTP is an insecure protocol and sends all traffic in clear text. Note HTTPS   HTTPS is a secure protocol and does not need further protection for confidentiality.5 builds on the application pool isolation that was available with IIS 7.63 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protocol How to secure authentication at the IP packet layer. Encrypt all communication Protect communication between the iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using IPsec encryption. HTTP is an insecure protocol and sends all traffic in clear text. For more information." earlier in this white paper. FTP    Note IIS 7. use one-way CHAP authentication between iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Web Services Protocols and How to Secure the Protocols Protocol HTTP How to secure this protocol    Use the HTTPS protocol instead to provide encryption of all communication between the appliance and the clients. Table 25 lists the Web services protocols and how to secure the protocol. For more information. Ensure that all FTP connections require authentication. Allow connectivity to the appliance only from computers on your internal network. Isolate iSCSI network segments Securing Web Services Workloads Web services workloads are secured based on the protocol that provides access to the Web services workloads. less-privileged identity.5. Note At a minimum. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec.

There is no authentication available or security permissions available. The communication between the LPD Service and LPR clients is unsecured. Protect all communication between the Internet Printing clients and the appliance using SSL. For more information. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. use IPsec to protect the communication between the LPD Service and LPR clients. Table 26. Print Server Role Services and How to Secure the Role Service Role service Print Server How to secure this protocol Use printer permissions to control access to the appliance running the Print Server role services using the Print Management snapin.64 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Securing Print Services Workloads Print services workloads are secured based on the Print Server role service that provides access to the file services workloads. If required. Table 26 lists the Print Server role services and how to secure the role service. For more information. LPD Service Internet Printing . Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. see Assigning Delegated Print Administrator and Printer Permission Settings in Windows Server 2008 R2. see Internet Printing and Resulting Internet Communication in Windows Server 2008. For more information. Use the HTTPS protocol instead when connecting to the URL for the printer." earlier in this white paper.

In addition.      . you can further improve the availability of your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. For more information about failover clusters for file services workloads. see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node File Server Failover Cluster. In addition. Failover clusters in Windows Storage Server. complexity. Then you can use DFS Namespace to provide automatic failover to replica copies of content when a local copy of the content is unavailable. Table 27 lists the methods for improving the availability for file services workload and which protocols can use that method. Windows Storage Server includes all of the high availability features and technologies found in Windows Server. Improve the availability of Windows Storage Server workloads by:  Improving File services workload availability  Improving iSCSI block I/O workload availability  Improving Web services workload availability  Improving Print services workloads availability Improving Availability of File Services Workloads The availability of file services workloads in Windows Storage Server can be improved based on the protocol used to access the file services. you can improve DFS Replication availability by running on failover clusters in Windows Storage Server. DFS. and effort required to create a two node cluster. can be used to improve the availability of SMB-based file services workloads. Table 27. The method supports read and write access to the files.65 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Availability of Windows Storage Server Workloads High levels of availability are essential for mission-critical applications and services. Methods for Improving File Services Workload Availability Method SMB NFS WebDAV Windows SharePoint Services Failover clusters. You can use DFS Replication to create replica copies of shared network folders. Windows Storage Server provides an easy to install and configure user interface for creating a two node failover cluster. This user interface reduces the learning curve. as illustrated in Figure 8.

Figure 8 illustrates a typically two-node failover cluster for file services workloads.66 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Method SMB NFS WebDAV Windows SharePoint Services For more information. The Network Load Balancing (NLB) feature in Windows Storage Server can be used to provide fault tolerance for file services workloads. Network Load Balancing. The shared storage in Figure 8 can be iSCSI. PCI RAID controllers are not supported for shared storage. For more information about using NLB to improve availability for file services workloads. see Distributed File System. Note The cluster storage illustrated in Figure 8 could be provided by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server. . SAS. or Fibre Channel connected storage.   The most common method of improving the availability for file services workloads is by using failover clusters. see Network Load Balancing.

You can use failover clusters to improve the availability for the iSCSI initiator running a Windows Server operating system or the iSCSI target running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Multipath I/O uses physical path components — adapters. see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and the Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node File Server Failover Cluster. A failover cluster is a group of independent computers that work together to increase the availability of applications and services. For more information.67 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 8. The most common failover cluster used for iSCSI block I/O workloads is a file server failover cluster. and switches — to create logical paths between the iSCSI initiator and the appliance .  Multipath I/O. Typical two-node failover cluster for file services workloads Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads You can improve the availability iSCSI block I/O workloads by using a combination of the following features in Windows Server products:  Failover clustering. cables.

This section also discusses the following combinations of failover clustering and multipath I/O features:  Creating highly-available iSCSI targets with single or multipath connections. Note Multipath connections for Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiators is provided by the MPIO feature in Windows Server.  Creating highly-available iSCSI initiators with single or multipath connections.68 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Redundancy for iSCSI initiators on other operating systems or hardware iSCSI initiators is provided by network adapter teaming from the network adapter vendor. see Multipath I/O Overview. there is no fault tolerance depicted in the connection between the iSCSI initiator and the clustered iSCSI targets (the storage fabric). As illustrated in Figure 9. Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Targets The highest priority in improving the availability of iSCSI block I/O workloads is to improve the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. The configuration in Figure 9 helps prevent loss of iSCSI block I/O workloads in the event of a failure of one of the appliances. In the event that one or more of these components fails. multipathing logic uses an alternate path for I/O so that applications running on the iSCSI initiator can still access their data. . Each iSCSI network interface card should be connected by using redundant switch infrastructures to provide continued access to storage in the event of a failure in a storage fabric component. Redundancy for file services and print services is also provided by network adapter teaming support from the network adapter vendor. For more information. causing the path to fail. you can use failover clusters to improve the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server. However.

Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with a single path connection The configuration in Figure 10 illustrates combining multipath I/O with the failover cluster solution.69 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 9. This redundancy in the physical connectivity helps eliminate any single point of failures due to the network infrastructure for the storage fabric used by iSCSI. switches. such as a switch failure or a disconnected network cable. and network cables. . The network infrastructure for the iSCSI communication between the iSCSI initiator and the clustered nodes running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target has been updated to include redundant network adapters.

. you can use failover clusters to improve the availability of the computers or appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server operating systems.70 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 10. As illustrated in Figure 11. However. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with multipath connections Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Initiators After improving the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. The configuration in Figure 11 helps prevent loss of iSCSI block I/O workloads in the event that one of the computers or appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator or Microsoft iSCSI Software Target fails. there is no fault tolerance depicted in the connection between the clustered iSCSI initiators and the clustered iSCSI targets (the storage fabric). you can improve the availability of the iSCSI initiators running Windows Server operating systems.

Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and iSCSI initiators with single path connections The configuration in Figure 12 illustrates combining multipath I/O with the failover cluster solution for the iSCSI initiators and iSCSI targets in Figure 11. and network cables. switches.71 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 11. The network infrastructure for the iSCSI communication between the clustered nodes running the iSCSI initiators and the clustered nodes running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target has been updated to include redundant network adapters. such as a switch failure or a disconnected network cable. . This redundancy in the physical connectivity helps eliminate any single point of failure due to the network infrastructure for the storage fabric used by iSCSI.

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Figure 12. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and iSCSI initiators with multipath connections

Improving Availability of Web Services Workloads
The NLB feature in Windows Storage Server can be used to provide fault tolerance for Web services workloads. The assumption of this solution is that each of the appliances in the NLB cluster have identical content and are continuously synchronized (such as by DFS Replication). For more information about using NLB to improve availability for Web services workloads, see Network Load Balancing.
Note If the Web applications use a centralized SQL Server database for storing information, you can also use failover clustering to improve the availability of the database. For more information, see Getting Started with SQL Server 2008 Failover Clustering.

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Improving Availability of Print Services Workloads
Failover clusters in Windows Storage Server can be used to improve the availability of Print services workloads. Figure 13 illustrates a typically two-node failover cluster for Print services workloads.
Note The cluster storage illustrated in Figure 13 could be provided by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server.

Figure 13. Typical two-node failover cluster for Print services workloads This method helps prevent any print services outages due to the failure a node in the cluster. Print services outages for specific printers occur in the event of a printer failure. However, the print jobs for the printer continue to be queued until the printer failure is resolved and the printer is restored to normal operation. For more information about failover clusters for file services workloads, see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and the Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node Print Server Failover Cluster.

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Improving Performance and Scalability for Windows Storage Server Solutions
The ability to take full advantage of the system resources of Windows Storage Server based appliance is essential to creating successful solutions. Windows Storage Server includes all of the performance and scalability features and technologies found in Windows Server 2008. In addition, you can further improve the performance and scalability of your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. Improve the performance and scalability of Windows Storage Server workloads by improving performance and scalability for:  All workloads.  File services workloads.  iSCSI block I/O workloads.  Web services workloads.  Print services workloads.

Improving Performance and Scalability for All Workloads
Windows Storage Server includes a number of technologies and features that will improve the performance and scalability for all workloads. These performance and scalability improvements are inherent in Windows Storage Server. Improve the performance and scalability for all workloads by taking advantage of the:  Improvements in processor and memory capacity.  Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol.  Improvements in network adapter performance.  Reduction in processor utilization for I/O operations.

Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity
The improvements in computer design have resulted in modern server computers that support an ever increasing number of processors and increased memory capacity. Current server computers are only shipping with 64-bit processors, multiple processors, and higher memory capacity than ever before. These improvements allow you to create application platforms that are able to support larger workloads, reduce rack space in your data center, reduce power consumption, provide improved reliability, and reduce your overall administrative effort.

Improved Physical Processor and Memory Resources
32-bit processors impose system resource limitations that restrict your ability to handle increased workloads without investing in additional server computers. 64-bit processors allow you to support larger workloads, while minimizing the number of physical computers in your data center. Also, server consolidation by using virtualization requires 64-bit processors to provide the processing and memory resources to support higher ratios of server consolidation. To support the increased processor performance and memory capacity provided by 64bit processors, Windows Storage Server is only available for 64-bit processor architectures. Windows Storage Server supports up to 256 logical processor cores for a single operating system instance.

With Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) support on both TCP peers and in the routing infrastructure. or scale workloads to greater extremes to match changing demand. CPU Core Parking enables power savings by scheduling virtual machine execution on only some processor cores and placing the remaining processor cores in a sleep state. SLAT uses special processor functionality available in recent Intel and AMD processors to carry out some virtual machine memory management functions. This increased processor support makes it possible to run even more demanding workloads on a single computer.500 persistent active connections. high-latency.  Automating the tuning of the maximum receive window size. The performance and scalability features in the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite include:  Offloading TCP/IP protocol processing to specialized network adapter hardware.  Reducing IP packet resending due to router congestion.75 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Increased Logical Processor Support Hyper-V in Windows Storage Server can support up to 64 logical processors. Offloading some of the TCP/IP protocol processing to a network adapter reduces the processor utilization associated with handling TCP/IP connections. TCP/IP offloading can be used when a server is performing heavy receive processing with less than 1. and improves overall network performance. also referred to as the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite. routers experiencing congestion mark the IP packets as they forward them. However. Automatically tuning the receive window size allows the maximum amount of data to be transmitted between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Reducing the number of retransmitted TCP segments improves the overall performance of traffic that used the TCP protocol. and high-loss networking environments. CTCP attempts to maximize throughput on these types of connections by monitoring delay variations and losses. the exact number of connections is vendor specific. and improves overall network performance. CTCP more aggressively increases the Send window for connections with large Receive window sizes and large bandwidth-delay products. when the computer is performing a backup over the network. Optimizing the network to receive TCP data can substantially increase overall network utilization by applications. This feature automatically determines the value of the maximum receive window size for a connection based on the current conditions of the network. Aggressively increasing the TCP Send window size allows the maximum amount of data to be transmitted between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. especially on high latency connections. Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Protocol With the introduction of Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. This feature works with the Compound TCP feature on the sender side. rather than relying on the receipt of the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) error messages. For example. Microsoft included a new version of the TCP/IP protocol suite. CTCP also ensures that its behavior does not negatively impact other TCP connections. This feature senses when large TCP segments retransmit and automatically adjusts the Path Maximum Transmission Unit (PMTU) for the connection. TCP peers receiving marked IP packets lower their transmission rate to ease congestion . Hyper-V in Windows Storage Server also supports Second-Level Address Translation (SLAT) and CPU Core Parking.  Improving black hole router detection. significantly reducing hypervisor processor time and saving about 1MB of memory per virtual machine.  Aggressively increasing the TCP Send windows size by using Compound TCP (CTCP). The Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite includes a new set of performance enhancements to increase throughput in high-bandwidth.

Figure 14. all processors have available capacity and none are a bottleneck for incoming network traffic. see Receive-Side Scaling Enhancements in Windows Server 2008. NDIS 5. Figure 14 illustrates how the architecture of NDIS 6. For more information about the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite in Windows Server 2008. Reducing IP packet resending improves the overall performance of traffic that uses the TCP protocol. . parallel interrupts. Improvements in Network Adapter Performance RSS in NDIS 6. a secure hashing mechanism. and parallel DPCs. enables multiple DPCs on different processors for each instance of a network adapter miniport driver. NDIS 6.1 allows a single deferred procedure call (DPC) for each network adapter. RSS also supports dynamic load balancing.  Performance Enhancements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. using RSS.0.0 with RSS prevents bottlenecks for incoming network traffic. Note RSS support has also been released in the scalable networking pack for Windows Server 2003.  New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Incoming network traffic with RSS For more information about RSS.0 balances the network load from a network adapter across multiple processors. while preserving in-order delivery of messages on a per-stream basis.76 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper and prevent segment losses. see:  Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. Because all processors are able to process incoming network traffic.

and the subsequent completion processing of the I/O occurs on Processor 3. In this example. the interrupt from the disk is directed to Processor 2 because of the static assignment made when the disk was detected at boot time. Although the I/O operation is initiated on Processor 3. reduces the possibility of interrupting an application unrelated to the I/O operation. the I/O operation is initiated on Processor 3. NUMA I/O functionality improves the hardware cache hit ratios. A disk controller takes advantage of the NonUniform Memory Access (NUMA) I/O functionality in Windows Server 2008 and can use the information specified during the initiation of the I/O operation to select a processor that can most efficiently perform the necessary processing of the completed I/O. and the application will experience a high cache hit ratio when it accesses the data.77 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations Windows Server 2008 performs dynamic redirection of I/O interrupts and I/O completion processing to reduce overall processor utilization. Processor 2 subsequently interrupts Processor 3 to indicate that the I/O operation is complete (assuming that the application waiting for the I/O is executing on Processor 3). if the completion processing accesses data read from the disk (for example to perform virus detection. Furthermore. If the completion processing accesses the data read from the disk. that data will have to go from memory to Processor 2 over the node interconnect and then back over the node interconnect to Processor 3 when the application starts to access the data. and minimizes I/O completion processing time. . or decompression of the data). Figure 15 illustrates an example of the components that might be required for processing a statically directed I/O completion. Disk controller drivers can make use of new application programming interfaces (APIs) that allow Windows to specify the processor on which to efficiently perform completion processing for each I/O. the data will go from memory to Processor 3. The interrupt and subsequent completion processing of the I/O operation occurs on Processor 2. reduces the hardware interconnect activity. Multiprocessor I/O operation without NUMA optimization Figure 16 illustrates an example of the components that might be required for processing a dynamically directed I/O completion by using NUMA I/O. decryption. the interrupt from the disk is directed to Processor 3. when the request is initiated. In prior versions of Windows. the selection of processors to interrupt and perform completion processing was statically chosen when the device was detected (similar to a round-robin order across all processors). Figure 15.

These improvements are largely due to improvements in the SMB2 protocol. Figure 16.  Reviewing performance improvements in SMB Version 2. For NUMA architectures.  Better NUMA and non-NUMA processor architecture. the node interconnect and all unrelated processors are unaffected by the I/O completion. the selected completion processor for an I/O is ideally the same processor that initiated the I/O operation. Identify the performance and scalability improvements for file services workloads by:  Reviewing the performance and scalability improvements in the SMB2 protocol. Improving Performance and Scalability for File Services Workloads File services workloads in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of Windows Server. For non-NUMA architectures. the I/O processing is localized to a NUMA node or a specific processor within the node. Multiprocessor I/O operation with NUMA optimization The dynamic I/O completion redirection (NUMA I/O) improvements in Windows Server 2008 provide the following benefits:  Support for the Message Signaled Interrupt eXtension (MSI-X) that enables a PCI-X or PCI-Express device to use new APIs to specify a processor to complete processing of each specific I/O operation. In the current implementation. the I/O processing is performed on a specific processor. .  Download NUMA I/O Optimizations.1 in Windows Server 2008 R2. In scenarios where the system consists of only Processors 3 and 4 in a single node configuration.78 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In this example.  Improving network performance between head offices and branch offices using the BranchCache feature. For more information about NUMA support in Windows Server 2008. the fact that Processor 4 is unaffected by the I/O operation still results in performance benefits.  Reviewing SMB-based file services workload test results. see:  The "NUMA Support" section of the "Advances in Memory Management for Windows" white paper.

such as Microsoft LAN Manager and Windows for Workgroups.  Support for symbolic links.  Support for much larger buffer sizes when compared to SMB 1.  Support for durable handles that can withstand short interruptions in network availability. Figure 17 illustrates how SMB 1 processes multiple write operations between a client computer running Windows XP and a server computer running Windows Server 2003.  An increase in the restrictive constants within the protocol design to allow for scalability. . Review Improvements in the SMB2 Protocol Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 includes the latest version of SMB. SMB2. The SMB2 protocol provides a number of communication enhancements. For example. including greater performance when servers connect to file shares over high-latency links. which is optimized for greater performance over high-latency links. This reduces the number of packets sent between an SMB client and server. a common issue in the effective tuning of SMB 1. In SMB 1.79 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Improving network performance between client computers and Windows Storage Server for the folder redirection and offline files features. the new version of SMB that has been redesigned for today’s complex networking environments and next-generation file servers. each write request must wait for the write response from a previous write request. The SMB2 protocol features include:  Support for sending multiple SMB commands within the same packet. SMB 1—the technology behind Windows Server versions prior to Windows Server 2008—was originally designed for early Windows-based network operating systems. SMB in Windows Server 2008 and later versions supports SMB 1 as well as SMB2. Examples include an increase in the number of concurrent open file handles on the server and the number of file shares that a server can have. write request 2 must wait for the write response from write request 1. and better security through the use of mutual authentication and message signing. Windows includes an SMB client (the “Client for Microsoft Windows” component) and an SMB server (the “File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Windows” component).

In SMB2. especially on high-latency network connections. multiple write requests can be issued before receiving a write response. . is that remote file operations are much faster.80 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 17. Write operations in SMB 1 Figure 18 illustrates how SMB2 processes multiple write operations between a client computer running Windows Vista and a server computer running Windows Server 2008. The overall effect.

see the "Server Message Block 2.0" section of New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Write operations in SMB2 For more information about SMB2.81 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 18. .

The performance gains that are illustrated in these tests are a direct result of the performance and scalability features in Windows Server 2008. The server computers running Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003 are in New York while the client computers running Windows Vista and Windows XP are in London. Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network For this test. Environment for performing File Services role tests The following tests were performed for the File Servers role:  Running the Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) on a high-speed network. Windows Firewall imposes a minimal impact (approximately 5 percent) on network throughput. The test results for Windows Server 2003 do not include Windows Firewall.  Copying large files to a remote location over a WAN connection. Note The tests results reflect the performance of Windows Server 2008 with Windows Firewall enabled. the Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) was run against a server running Windows Server 2008. This test environment emulates two geographic locations (New York and London) separated by a WAN connection.82 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Review SMB-based File Services Workload Test Results The File Services server role is one of the most common server roles deployed.  Accessing files on a shared folder at a remote location over a WAN connection. . Figure 19. This tool simulates a home folders file workload on a set of client computers and computes the maximum number of users a server can support based on the response time of simulated scenarios as illustrated in Figure 20. Figure 19 illustrates the environment for tests performed over a WAN connection. The File Services server role implements SMB-based file services.

The number and speed of the drives has the largest influence on the number of users who can be supported. memory.200 1. and modifying Microsoft Office files.7% 5.00% Procesor utilization 70. Table 28. copying files. the tool will compute a throughput number corresponding to the average scenario per second that the server is able to sustain. and disk subsystem utilization details to help identify potential bottlenecks. Table 28 lists example performance characteristics for appliances with different system resources.00% 20.00% 80.00% 30.00% 0.5% 11. you can expand the processor and disk resources of the appliances to support tens of thousands of users on a single appliance.83 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 450 Number of Scenarios per Second 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 Number of users 100. The tool also provides the ability to collect performance counters such as processor. For a given number of users accessing data on a file server. Example Performance Characteristics of Appliances with Different System Resources Processor sockets Single socket Single socket Single socket Dual socket Disk configuration 4 SATA drives 10 SATA drives 10 SATA drives 24 SAS drives Raid level RAID 5 RAID 5 RAID 1+0 RAID 1+0 Users supported 600 1. File Services Role scalability test results The scenarios include common operations such as browsing a directory.700 5.000 Processor utilization 7.00% 10.00% 90. the appliances contained only a single or dual processor socket that is typical for these types of appliances at the time of writing.00% Average scenario throughput CPU utilization Figure 20.00% 60.00% 40.00% 50. In these examples. . memory.2% A significantly higher number of users can be supported by adding more drives. As reflected by these performance characteristics. and processors. network.6% 7.

 Opening a 2-MB Word document stored on a network shared folder in Word 2007. one 268-MB file was copied between the client computers and the server computers.84 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Copying Large Files to a Remote Location Over a WAN Connection For this test. the combination of Windows Vista SP1 and Windows Server 2008 provided dramatic performance improvements compared to the combination of Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP2. Figure 21. In the second scenario. a lower length of time indicates that the file copy process occurred faster. a lower length of time indicates that the file operation occurred faster. . two scenarios were performed (as illustrated in Figure 21) over a simulated WAN connection. Remote large file copy test results Accessing Files at a Remote Location Over a WAN Connection This test series provides an indication of how typical user applications perform when accessing files and folders on network shared folders on server computers running Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003. and Windows XP SP2 with Windows Server 2003 SP2. For this test. In the chart in Figure 21. In all these scenarios. In the first scenario. the combination of Windows Vista SP1 and Windows Server 2008 provided dramatic performance improvements compared to the combination of Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP2. the scenarios were performed (as illustrated in Figure 21) over a simulated WAN connection:  Opening a 47-KB Excel spreadsheet stored on a network shared folder in Excel 2007. 100 1-megabyte (MB) files were copied between the client computers and the server computers. For both scenarios. The test scenarios were performed for the combination of Windows Vista SP1 with Windows Server 2008.  Browsing a network shared folder that contains 50 files in Windows Explorer. In the chart in Figure 22.  Copying a 6-MB file to a network shared folder in Windows Explorer.

This improvement helps file copy operations performed remotely on network shared folders using the SMB protocol. The Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) can be used to help perform file server capacity and performance planning and troubleshooting for CIFS. This improvement helps performance when multiple files are opened in sequence or in parallel by the same client. SMB.  Improved opportunistic file locking method.1 in Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new version of SMB.1. . This increase in packet size significantly improves the performance for file copies and directory enumerations. For example. In SMB version 2. or SMB2 client requests.  Improved performance for file copy operations. Figure 23 and Figure 24 illustrate the SMB performance differences between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 on two servers with different system resources. SMB packet size was limited to 64 KB. a single packet can now contain thousands of directory entries.1. which includes the following improvements over previous versions of SMB:  Support for large protocol data unit (PDU) and maximum transmission unit (MTU).85 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 22. This improvement helps performance by sending larger SMB packets. such as files for Microsoft Office System applications. This method helps improve application performance when opening and closing files. SMB version 2. Remote file application test results Reviewing Performance Improvements in SMB Version 2. Previously. the SMB packet size can now increase up to 1 MB.

86 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 23. Performance results with first hardware configuration In the performance results comparison in Figure 23.  16 GB of memory.  24 hard disks configured in a RAID-10 array.  One Fibre Channel host bus adapter. Figure 24. Performance results with second hardware configuration . the server has the following system resources:  One processor.

and prior operating systems Windows Vista.  Two Fibre Channel host bus adapters.002) SMB2 (v2.002) SMB 2. the increased system resources allow Windows Server 2008 R2 to support almost twice as many users as the system resources in Figure 23.  96 hard disks configured in a RAID-10 array. SMB 1 is used for file services traffic. Typically branch offices are connected by wide area networks (WANs) that usually have slower data rates than your intranet. the server has the following system resources:  Two processors. Table 29 shows the version of SMB used between two computers running different combinations of operating systems.  72 GB memory. BranchCache Modes BranchCache supports the following operational modes:  Distributed Cache mode  Hosted Cache mode . Table 29. Windows Server 2003. and prior operating systems.1 For example.002) SMB 1 SMB2 (v2. such as the head office or regional data centers. if a computer running Windows XP is accessing a computer running Windows Server 2008 R2. Windows Server 2003. Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache One of the largest problems facing branch offices is how to improve the performance of accessing intranet resources in other locations. Versions of SMB Supported Between Different Windows Operating Systems Windows Vista. The type of content that is cached is content returned by SMB requests and HTTP requests. Reducing the network utilization on the WAN network segments provides available network bandwidth for applications and services. The BranchCache feature in Windows Storage Server and Windows 7 reduces the network utilization on WAN segments that connect branch offices by locally caching frequently used files on computers in the branch office. As illustrated in Figure 24.87 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In the performance results comparison in Figure 24.1 are realized only when both operating systems support SMB 2. SMB 2.1. Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008 Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SMB 1 Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008 SMB 1 Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SMB 1 SMB 1 SMB2 (v2.1 is only supported when both computers are running Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 R2. The performance improvements in SMB 2.

6. using fields. finds the requested content in its local cache. The client then adds this data to its local cache. 4. so if the computer containing the cached content is unavailable. Client 2 uses the BranchCache discovery protocol to search for the content. The server responds. such as SMB. This request can be transmitted over any of the BranchCache-enabled protocols. This request is not marked as BranchCache capable. These identifiers are transmitted by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. BranchCache Distributed Cache mode The following sequence reflects how the Distributed Cache mode caches content: 1. 3. a multicast protocol sent over UDP. protecting it with the BranchCache encryption scheme.88 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Distributed Cache Mode In Distributed Cache mode. Client 1 searches locally for a computer that has already downloaded and cached the content. the content must be retrieved over the WAN connection. as illustrated in Figure 25. Client 2 issues a request for the same content that Client 1 downloaded earlier. This search is conducted by using the BranchCache discovery protocol. and sends a response to Client 2. Client 2 verifies the data against the identifiers downloaded from the server in the head office. Client 1 receives this request. or BITS. HTTP. The disadvantage to this solution is that content is cached on client computers. which in turn uses HTTP. Client 2 requests the content from Client 1 by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol. Client 1 is the first computer in the branch to download this piece of content. so it does not receive any responses. 2. content is cached on the branch on client computers running Windows 7. or headers that are already part of the BranchCache-enabled protocol. Client 1 issues another request to the server in the head office by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. 5. Client 1 transmits the content to Client 2. Client 1 issues a request for a file on a BranchCache-enabled server in the head office. The client computer indicates to the server that it is BranchCache capable. Figure 25. Client 2 receives identifiers describing the content from the server in the head office. such as SMB. or Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS). messages. The server responds with the requested data. HTTP. which in turn uses WS-Discovery. . and transmits a set of identifiers that describe the chunks of content the client computer wants to download.

or headers that are already part of the BranchCache-enabled protocol. 4. The server responds. HTTP. A client computer can be configured to use only a single caching mode at one time. 3. as illustrated in Figure 26. which in turn uses HTTPS. Hosted Cache Mode In Hosted Cache mode. The server responds with the requested data. such as SMB. 2. using fields. messages. content is cached at the branch office on client computers running Windows Server 2008 R2. so the cached content is always available. Client 1 advertises the newly downloaded content to the Hosted Cache server running Windows Storage Server by using the BranchCache hosted cache protocol (MS-PCHC). Figure 26. which in turn uses HTTP. and transmits a set of identifiers that describe the chunks of content that the client computer wants to download. or BITS. These identifiers are transmitted by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. The advantage to this mode is that the server is always available. Client 1 requests the content from the hosted cache in the branch office by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). or BITS. such as SMB. The hosted cache response informs Client 1 that the target data is not available. BranchCache Hosted Cache mode The following sequence reflects how the Hosted Cache mode caches content: 1. . Client 1 issues another request to the server in the head office by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. Client 1 issues a request to a BranchCache-enabled server in the head office.89 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note Hosted Cache mode and Distributed Cache mode are mutually exclusive. HTTP. This request is not marked BranchCache capable. This request can be transmitted over any of the BranchCache-enabled protocols. The client computer indicates to the server that it is BranchCache capable. The unavailability of any client computer running Windows 7 does not affect the availability of the content cache.

which in turn uses HTTP. The Hosted Cache server connects to the client and downloads the recently advertised content by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). . which in turn uses HTTP. Client 2 verifies the data by using the identifiers downloaded from the server in the head office. Note Hosted Cache mode and Distributed Cache mode are mutually exclusive. You can improve the performance and scalability for iSCSI block I/O workloads by:  Identifying methods for improving iSCSI block I/O workload performance and scalability. If a client computer cannot locate content on the hosted cache server.  Offline files. Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files Windows 7 includes the following features that allow users to provide user state virtualization:  Folder redirection. The hosted cache responds with the data. All of the performance features listed in this section will also improve the performance for folder redirection and offline files.  Reviewing the results of I/O storage workload tests. Users are able to modify local copies of files in the event they are disconnected from the network. Client 2 issues a request for the same content that Client 1 downloaded earlier. Client 2 receives identifiers describing the content from the server in the head office. Improving Performance and Scalability for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads File services workloads in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of Windows Server. You can also manage BranchCache by using the NetSH command. This feature allows users to store the user’s folders in a shared folder on Windows Storage Server. Identify Methods for Improving iSCSI Block I/O Workload Performance and Scalability You can improve the performance and scalability for iSCSI block I/O workloads by using the following methods:  Ensure the system resources of the appliance are sufficient. see Network Shell (Netsh) Commands for BranchCache. the client computer returns to the server in the head office and requests a download. 7. Client 2 requests the content from the hosted cache in the branch office by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). Windows Storage Server includes a Group Policy administrative template that you can use to administer the BranchCache configuration settings. BranchCache Management You can configure BranchCache behavior by using Group Policy. Folder redirection allows users to quickly recover from local failures of their computer. The typical system resources that are heavily utilized by iSCSI block I/O workloads include memory. This feature allows users to locally cache files stored on a shared folder on Windows Storage Server. For more information about configuring BranchCache by using the NetSH command. Both of these features require access to shared network folders on Windows Storage Server. 6.90 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 5. A client computer can be configured to use only a single caching mode at one time.

After ensuring the number of disks is sufficient for capacity. or SMB workloads. When encountering network utilization problems.exe command line tool.91 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper     disk. also ensure they are sufficient for I/O throughput. the Windows Storage Server solution is optimized to support Exchange Server connecting to disk LUNs on Windows Storage Server. When encountering network utilization problems. Although a given number of disks may have adequate storage capacity. segregate each type of workload to a separate physical network segment to reduce network contention.exe. the number may not provide sufficient I/O throughput. Different types of workloads on the same physical network can cause overutilization and performance problems. which causes performance degradation. Isolate different types of workloads using separate physical network segments. Isolate different types of workloads using dedicated physical arrays. . Always size disks for performance in addition to capacity. Sector alignment allows Windows Storage Server to create partitions that align with the underlying physical disk. Ensure that the appliance has sufficient resources to provide adequate performance and scaling. You can configure sector alignment for physical disks using the Diskpart. NFS workloads. Configure sector alignment for iSCSI Target volumes and . Dedicate a physical array for each conflicting workload. Different types of workloads on the same physical array can degrade performance for the workloads. Different types of workloads on the same physical network can cause overutilization and performance problems. such as sequential I/O workloads. segregate each type of workload to a separate physical network segment to reduce network contention. In this example.  Isolate different types of workloads using separate physical network segments. Note Consult your storage vendor to determine the proper values to use with the Diskpart. Sector alignment helps prevent an I/O operation from spanning two tracks. and network. random I/O workloads. Figure 27 illustrates a Windows Storage Server solution that has been optimized to provide improved performance and scalability.vhd files.

and file services access using SMB or NFS. Separate iSCSI targets that corresponds to the iSCSI sequential I/O and iSCSI random I/O. Separate arrays dedicated to different iSCSI I/O traffic as the Exchange storage group data is random I/O. iSCSI random I/O. .92 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 27. A Windows Storage Server solution optimized for performance For the sample scenario in Figure 27. including iSCSI sequential I/O. Separate network adapters in the Exchange server to support the separate network segments. An optimized number of disks for disk I/O bandwidth capacity. the following optimizations were chosen:       Sufficient system resources of the Windows Storage Server appliance for the given workloads. while the Exchange storage group logs are sequential I/O. Separate network segments for workload types.

General disk I/O operation test results .93 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Sector-aligned disk arrays to help prevent I/O operations from spanning multiple tracks. regardless of the server role running on the server computer. Windows Server 2008 can perform more than 20 percent more disk I/O operations per second than Windows Server 2003. illustrates the number of disk I/O operations per second performed by Windows Server 2008 and Window Server 2003 running on identical hardware. The test result. For this test. the server computer had 16 dual-core processors for a total of 32 processor cores. Figure 28. Review I/O Storage Test Results The results of this test provide an indication of the improvements in disk I/O operations. shown in the chart in Figure 28.

you can create caching rules.0 provides a powerful. The results were obtained by closely monitoring the performance over a 72-hour period for both test cases.0. . For more information about how to configure compression.94 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Performance and Scalability for Web Services Workloads Web services workloads running on Internet Information Services (IIS) 7. edit existing caching rules. and IIS 7. You can improve the performance and scalability for Web services workloads by:  Identifying methods for improving Web services workload performance and scalability.0 in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of IIS and Windows Server. HTTP compression lets you make more efficient use of bandwidth and enhances the performance of sites and applications.  Output Caching. see Configuring Output Caching in IIS 7.microsoft.microsoft. The chart in Figure 29 illustrates the performance gain by running IIS 7.0 running on Windows Server 2008.  Reviewing Web services workload test results.0 and Windows Server 2008 on the same computer resources.NET with the static output-caching capabilities that were present in IIS 6.0 and Windows Server 2003.0 on Window Server 2003. Output caching allows you to manage output caching rules and to control the caching of served content. see Configuring HTTP Compression in IIS 7. In IIS Manager.com running IIS 6. and configure output cache settings. This improvement in performance results in www.0 and Windows Server 2008 can support more than 10 percent higher throughput than IIS 6. Identify Methods for Improving Web Services Workload Performance and Scalability IIS 7.com processing more than an additional 100 million requests per day at the same processor utilization. Performance includes the following features:  Compression. IIS 7. unified facility for output caching by integrating the dynamic output-caching capabilities of ASP. IIS also lets you use bandwidth more effectively and efficiently by using common compression mechanisms such as Gzip and Deflate. Review Web Services Workload Test Results These results were obtained by measuring the performance of www. For more information about configuring output caching. For more information about improving Web services workload performance and scalability. These improvements are largely due to improvements in data compression of content and caching of content. see Optimize IIS Performance (IIS 7). You can configure HTTP compression for both static and dynamic sites.

The maximum load and performance level of a print server greatly depends on key configuration decisions.  The number and type of printers served by the print server and the types of printer drivers each printer uses. Some of the factors that influence print server performance and capacity include:  The number of print server clients. For more information about improving the performance and scalability of print services workloads.95 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 29.  The operating system version or versions on each client machine.  The number. see the Windows Print Server Scalability and Sizing Technical Overview. .  The types of print jobs sent to the print server. This section of the white paper provides information to help you size a server to meet an organization's needs by identifying and investigating primary issues and configuration details to maximize print server performance. size. and frequency of print jobs. Web Services (IIS) Role test results Improving Performance and Scalability for Print Workloads Print server scalability plays a key role in the deployment of Windows Storage Server print servers.

 Creating application consolidation solutions.  Creating solutions for heterogeneous environments. industry standard hardware that can be readily expanded. review the following:  Overview of NAS configurations. some Microsoft partners provide additional storage in external enclosures. Overview of Windows Storage Server Configurations Window Storage Server provides a wide range of storage solutions for all size organizations.96 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server Deployment Scenarios You can use Windows Storage Server to provide a wide range of storage solutions.  Creating unified storage solutions.  Creating highly-available solutions. is based on a single Windows Storage Server appliance. However.  It can create a variety of disk configurations. The typical characteristics of the appliance are as follows:  The appliance has the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network. such as Just a Bunch of Disks (JBOD Disks) or RAID configurations (RAID 5 or RAID 1+0). .  The solution is based on low cost." in this white paper.  The processors and storage reside in a single appliance enclosure.  Creating small. To select the appropriate deployment scenario for you.  NAS gateway.  Creating solutions for storage consolidation.to medium-sized business solutions. illustrated in Figure 30.  It can support 4 to 12 disks in the single enclosure using RAID interfaces.  Creating virtualization solutions. Windows Storage Server provides the following basic configurations:  Stand-alone network attached storage (NAS). Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration The stand-alone NAS configuration. Regardless of the solution complexity.  Highly-available NAS.  Creating branch office solutions.  Creating iSCSI boot solutions.

 New storage is included as part of the solution (existing storage is not used in the solution).  The appliances are configured as nodes in a Windows failover cluster to provide higher availability. Note The failover cluster in Figure 31 can be quickly and easily configured using the Initial Configuration Tasks form in Windows Storage Server. Windows Storage Server stand-alone NAS configuration Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration The highly-available NAS configuration. .  Storage is separate from the appliance enclosure. is based on two or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide some degree of fault tolerance.97 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 30. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network.  Additional appliances can be added to the solution to provide improved scalability. illustrated in Figure 31." in this white paper. and it is shared between two or more appliances.  Multipath I/O connections exist between the appliances.

." in this white paper.98 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 31. is based on one or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide connectivity to existing storage devices. Windows Storage Server highly-available NAS configuration Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration The NAS gateway configuration. in Figure 32. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network.  They connect to existing storage that supports SAN block I/O protocols.

and NFS file access to storage.99 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper   They provide an inexpensive iSCSI target. They provide highly-available configurations based on solution availability requirements. Windows Storage Server NAS gateway configuration . SMB file access. Figure 32.

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Using Windows Storage Server in iSCSI Block I/O Configuration
The iSCSI block I/O configuration, in Figure 32, is based on one or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide iSCSI access to storage resources. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network," in this white paper.  They can be used with any combination of the following storage configurations:  Located within the appliance.  Located within an enclosure external to the appliance.  Existing storage subsystem that supports SAN block I/O protocols.  They provide highly-available configurations based on solution availability requirements.  They provide an inexpensive iSCSI target access to storage.  They provide iSCSI boot support for diskless computers.  They integrate with DHCP and TFTP servers to provide iSCSI boot support for diskless computers.

Figure 33. Windows Storage Server iSCSI Block I/O configuration

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Creating Branch Office Solutions
In a branch office solution, an organization has a number geographically distributed branch office locations that are connected to one or more centralized head offices. Table 30 lists the types of data to manage in the branch office solution, as illustrated in Figure 34, and a description of the type of data. Table 30. Types of Data to Manage in the Branch Office Solution Type of data User folders Description Contains user home directories and user shares within the branch office in addition to the well-known Windows folders, such as Documents, Videos, Pictures, and Music. The well-known Windows folders are typically stored on the local computer, but can be stored on network shared folders using the Folder Direction feature. The Folder Redirection feature allows user folders to be stored on appliances in the branch offices and to be replicated to appliances in the head office for backup and centralized management using DFS Replication. The user folders are accessed within the branch office, but are archived in the head office. Contains content that is published from the head offices to the branch offices as read-only content. The content is a set of data that is relevant to the branch office, regardless of the region where the branch office is located, for example:  Templates, such as Word or Excel templates.  Source for software distribution files, such as files from 2007 Microsoft Office System or Windows 7. Contains content used in collaborative efforts between branch offices. The collaboration content is stored on the Windows Storage Server appliances in the head office. Users in the branch offices access the collaboration content over the WAN connections. The collaboration content can be stored in network shared folders or in Windows SharePoint Service document libraries.

Published content

Collaboration content

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Figure 34. Branch office solution for Windows Storage Server

 Centralized management of the branch office. such as Linux or the Mac OS. In some instances there may be computers running other operating systems. Table 31. The solution must minimize the utilization of the WAN connection as much as possible. Table 31 lists the Windows Storage Server and Windows client operating system features used in the branch office solution and provides a brief description of the role each plays in the solution. Due to cost constraints and lack of local IT personnel. Provides local caching of the collaboration content stored on the appliances in the head office. see the section "Review Improvements in the SMB Protocol. For more information. This helps protect the user profile folders in the branch office in the event of a catastrophic disaster in the branch office location that results in the total failure of the appliance. Mobile users need to access their user folders when they are not connected to the internal network in the branch office. SMB2 helps minimize WAN network utilization because of the efficiencies provided by SMB2. Features Used In Branch Office Solutions Feature File services using SMB2 Description Provides file services for computers running Windows operating systems." in this white paper. In addition. which allows the appliance to provide local caching of the collaboration content accessed using the SMB and HTTP protocols." earlier in this white paper. while the branch offices have minimal or no local IT personnel. Provides file services for computers running NFS clients. such back up and data protection. Also. Most of the configuration and all of the support is provided by the IT personnel in the head office. For more information about this type of appliance. depending on the availability requirements of the branch offices.  Users must have access to their user folders regardless of connectivity to the branch office appliance. failover clusters can be an optional part of this solution. The appliance in the branch office is configured for BranchCache hosted caching mode.  Stand-alone NAS appliances are used. The available network speed of the WAN connections between the head offices and the branch offices is a limited resource in terms of both available bandwidth and cost. Most of the computers in the branch office are running Windows operating systems. All user profile folders in the branch offices need to be copied to the head offices for centralized management. BranchCache dramatically reduces the network File services using NFS BranchCache in hosted caching mode . Centralized management of the appliances in the branch office is essential and remote administration is required.  Computers are running mostly Windows operating systems.  Minimizing the utilization of the WAN connections is essential. including the computers running Linux or Mac OS. all users need to access their user folders regardless of any scheduled maintenance of the appliance or appliance failure. IT personnel in the head office must be able to manage the configuration settings of the devices and users in the branch offices. see the previous section "Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-alone NAS Configuration. The branch offices typically do not have local IT personnel and require assistance from the IT personnel in the head office.103 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The assumptions in this scenario are:  The data centers have local IT personnel.  Consolidating of data in head office to provide centralized management.

Any updates to the collaboration content are automatically saved on the appliances in the head office. For more information. Allows users to recover files by themselves without the assistance of IT professionals. which dramatically reduces the network bandwidth utilization. For more information. You can administer the Folder Redirection feature using Group Policy. This is primarily for files that are for public use and are typically read-only at the branch office. For more information. DFS Replication uses RDC to transmit only the changes to a file. The Folder Redirection feature allows the user folders to be available from any computer on the network.104 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description utilization for accessing these files. Read-only DFS Replicated Folders Shadow Copies of Shared Folders Folder Redirection . Helps reduce the effort spent by IT personnel in data centers for recovery of files. The files and folders are set to read-only access by DFS Replication. including Windows 7. see the section "Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data. For more information." earlier in this white paper. The Folder Redirection feature is available in all current Windows client operating systems." earlier in this white paper. Windows Vista. see the section. which:  Reduces WAN network utilization by providing local access to the files. "Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache. see:  Folder Redirection Overview.  Provides improved file access for users in the branch office because the files are accessed locally instead of over the WAN connection. For more information. see the section. and Windows XP. Uses DFS Replication to provide replication of files and folder structure from the head office to the branch offices. This allows the head office to avoid doing backups over the WAN link. Computers running Windows client operating systems are using the Folder Redirection feature to redirect the user folders to network shared folders on the appliance in the branch office." earlier in this white paper. "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. which provides data consolidation in the head office so that all backups are performed in the head office." earlier in this white paper. DFS Replication Provides replication of files and folder structure from the branch offices to the head office. see the section. The user folders are copied to the head office for backup and centralized management functions. "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data.

Computers running Windows can print to the printers in the branch office using the print services workloads provided by Windows Storage Server. The Offline Files feature is available in all current Windows client operating systems. When the appliance is restored to service. see the section "Providing Access to Print Services Workloads.  Configuring Offline Files. The read-only domain controller provides enhanced security by preventing unauthorized or inadvertent updates to AD DS.  In the event the appliance is taken offline for maintenance or of an appliance failure.105 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description  Folder redirection overview for GPMC.  The “Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files” section in this white paper. any new or modified files are automatically synchronized with the network shared folders on the appliance. The Offline Files feature provides access to files:  When users are not connected to the branch office network. including Windows 7. The Offline Files feature allows users to modify local copies of their files while disconnected from the network. Users can continue to work on copies of the files on their local computers. any new or modified files are automatically synchronized with the network shared folders on the appliance. Authentication is performed using an AD DS read-only domain controller on the local appliance. When users reconnect to the network. Windows Vista. and Windows XP.  Configuring Group Policy for Offline Files.  Configuring Folder Redirection.  Working with network files when you are offline. Computers running Linux or Mac OS can print to the printers in the branch office using the print services workloads provided by Windows Storage Server. For more information. You can administer the Offline Files feature using Group Policy." earlier in the white paper. The Offline Files feature allows users to always have access to files from network shared folder by synchronizing the contents of the network shared folder to the Offline Files cache on the user’s computer. Mobile users may want to access their files while away from the office." earlier in the white paper. The local read-only domain controller also Offline Files Print Server LPD Print Services Read-only domain controller . see:  Understanding offline files. see the section "Providing Access to Print Services Workloads. For more information. For more information.  The “Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files” section in this white paper.

 Use Storage Reports to profile storage usage and trends within the branch.  Prevent storage of certain file types by using the File Screening feature. For more information. see File Server Resource Manager. The local DNS Server reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because DNS queries are resolved locally. control.106 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because authentication is performed locally. Note All of these features operate transparently to users in the branch office. DNS Server Computers in the branch office can resolve DNS names using the DNS Server running on the local appliance. You can use File Server Resource Manager to:  Limit the amount of disk space used by using the Quota Management feature. Most of the features and configuration settings available in all Windows products can be configured by using Group Policy. and manage the quantity and type of data stored on Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Group Policy allows you to centrally configure the Windows Storage Server appliances and Windowsbased computers in the branch office. Computers in the branch office that are configured using DHCP can be configured using the DHCP Server running on the local appliance. For more information. and they are centrally configured by the IT personnel in the head office using Group Policy. . The local DHCP Server reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because DHCP configuration is performed locally. see Group Policy. File Server Resource Manager allows you to understand. DHCP Server File Server Resource Manager Group Policy Table 32 lists how to manage each type of data is accessed by users.

Remote Differential Compression in DFS Replication replicates only the changes to the user profile folders. DFS Replication replicates the published content stored on the head office appliances to the branch office appliances. depending on the availability of the branch office appliance. Folder Redirection. After the user profile folders are stored on the branch office appliance. DFS Namespace always preferentially directs client computers to access a local replica copy of the published content within the local site (lower cost than other sites). The head office and each of the branch offices is a separate Active Directory site. any changes in the user profile folders are replicated to the head office using DFS Replication. which in this scenario is the head office.107 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 32. In addition. This feature allows for users to transparently access the published content on the appliances in the branch office or in the head office. The replica copies of the published content in the branch offices are maintained read-only by DFS Replication so that users in the branch office have read-only access to the replica content.  Published content   . the Folder Redirection feature helps in fast recovery of computers because the user profile folders are not stored on the local computer. Read-only DFS Replicated Folders. When the branch office replica copy becomes available again. If the branch office replica copy is unavailable. on the branch office appliance. which minimizes the bandwidth utilization on the connection between the branch offices and the head office. which are typically stored locally on the user’s computer. This feature determines which replica copy to access based on the availability of the copy and the location of the copy using Active Directory sites. Once these files are synchronized with the branch office appliances. This feature allows users to access their user profile folders when not connected to the appliance. DFS Namespace will automatically direct users to use the replica copy in the branch office. Any new files or changes made to the cached copy of the files are automatically synchronized when the connection to the appliance is restored. then DFS Namespace directs the client computers to access the replica copy in the Active Directory site with the next lowest cost. This feature stores the user profile folders. DFS Namespace. DFS Replication replicates the user profile folders to the head office so that they can be centrally backed up and managed by the IT personnel. Managing Types of Data in the Branch Office Solution Type of data User folders Managed using  Offline Files.

108 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Type of data Collaboration content Managed using  Network shared folders.  For the collaboration content in Table 32. Because multiple users need to modify the content. This feature allows users to access the content from the head office appliances using the HTTP or HTTPS protocol. This feature allows users to access the content from the head office appliances.  Any updates to the content from users in the branch offices. This is because DFS Replication in Windows Storage Server is appropriate when only one copy of the content is centrally modified and all replica copies are read-only. network shared folders and SharePoint Services with the BranchCache feature provide the appropriate solution. The BranchCache feature dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch offices when users access Web content that has already been locally cached on the appliance in the branch office. Windows SharePoint Services. and check out capabilities. check in. The BranchCache feature dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch office when users access content stored on the network shared folders that has already been locally cached on the appliance in the branch office. network shared folders and Windows SharePoint services are used instead DFS Replication. The SMB2 protocol dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch offices for:  The initial local caching of the content using BranchCache. This feature also supports version control. .

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Creating Highly-Available Solutions
In a highly-available solution, the workloads provided by Windows Storage Server must provide improved fault tolerance. Figure 35 illustrates how to create highly-available solutions using Windows Storage Server and Windows Server operating systems using Windows failover clusters and multipath I/O.

Figure 35. Highly-available solution using Windows Storage Server The key elements of the highly-available solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  The application servers are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an application server failure.

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The Windows Storage Server appliances act as iSCSI targets by running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  The application servers are using the multipath I/O feature to provide redundant connections to the clustered appliances.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the clustered appliances to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. For more information about Windows failover clustering for iSCSI targets, see the following sections earlier in this white paper:  "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration." For more information about Multipath I/O for iSCSI initiators in Windows Server operating system, see the following sections earlier in this white paper:  "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration."

Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation
In the storage consolidation solution, all the myriad of devices providing SMB file services, NFS file services, and iSCSI block I/O are consolidated into a few, highlyavailable Windows Storage Server appliances. Typically this solution is used in medium to large organizations that want to reduce the number and types of devices in the organization. This consolidation effort can help reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. Figure 36 illustrates an IT environment prior to implementing the storage consolidation solution. There are a number of different computers providing file services and applications. Each computer has local storage that is used to support the services that each provides. This configuration provides inefficient storage management and usage. For example, one Exchange server may have insufficient available disk space while a file server may have many more times the available disk space than is required.

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Figure 36. IT environment prior to implementing the storage consolidation solution

Figure 37 illustrates the same IT environment after implementing the storage consolidation solution. The number of computers to be supported has been dramatically decreased, which reduces ongoing operations effort and complexity. Also, the overall availability of workloads has been improved. Because storage is centralized, the effort for ongoing storage management is dramatically reduced. And, because all storage resources are pooled, storage can be easily allocated to the appropriate computer.

IT environment after implementing the storage consolidation solution .112 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 37.

 Collaboration using Windows SharePoint Services.  The appliances may be configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  The Windows Storage Server appliances provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. the organization needs to provide multiple workloads on Windows Storage Server appliances.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management. Creating Solutions for Heterogeneous Environments In solutions for heterogeneous environments. as described in the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration.  Highly-automated management tools.to medium-sized business solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  The Windows Storage Server appliances are:  Acting as iSCSI targets and are running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. and Internet printing.  Access to Web-based content using IIS 7. such as providing iSCSI LUNs for SQL Server or Exchange Server." earlier in this white paper.0.  Providing SMB file services. The key elements of the small. . help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management.  Centralized storage for application servers using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  NFS file services for NFS clients.113 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The key elements of the storage consolidation solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  Windows print services. such as Group Policy.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  Providing NFS file services. depending on the availability requirements of the organization.  Typically configured as a stand-alone NAS. LPR print services. Creating Small to Medium Business Solutions In small. the organization needs to support a variety of operating systems.  The appliances provide centralized storage management. The key elements of the solutions for heterogeneous environments include:  Windows Storage Server appliances that provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support.to medium-sized business solutions.

.  Typically the application servers are configured in clustered configurations to improve availability. For more information about supported iSCSI initiators. AD LDS can be used to provide identity mapping for NFS file services in environments where an Active Directory infrastructure does not already exist. There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric. SQL Server. Centralized storage for all operating systems that have supported iSCSI initiators using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. LPR print services for other operating systems. This consolidation effort can help reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. The key elements of the application consolidation solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28. This solution is very similar to the storage consolidation solution described in the section "Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation" and as illustrated in Figure 36 and Figure 37. Windows print services for Windows operating systems. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management. highly-available Windows Storage Server appliances. Access to Web-based content using IIS 7. The appliances provide centralized storage management. such as Group Policy.  The Windows Storage Server appliances act as iSCSI targets and are running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. and other application servers that have a significant dependency on storage. see AD LDS Identity Mapping for Services for NFS. see the section "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators" earlier in this white paper. Creating Application Consolidation Solutions In the application consolidation solution. For more information. all the local or shared storage for the application servers in the IT environment are consolidated into a few. The types of application servers that are consolidated include those running Exchange Server. such as described in the section "Creating Highly-Available Solutions" earlier in this white paper.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric. depending on the availability requirements of the organization.0. Highly-automated management tools.114 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper             NFS file services for NFS clients. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management. earlier in this white paper.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. The appliances may be configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. Typically this solution is used in medium to large organizations that want to increase the efficiency of storage allocation and management for application servers. Collaboration using Windows SharePoint Services.

file and iSCSI block I/O storage services in the IT environment are consolidated into a few. see the section "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators" earlier in this white paper.  Highly-automated management tools. After implementing this scenario. iSCSI block I/O storage. This centralization of storage management helps reduce the inefficiency of storage allocation and management and helps reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. NFS-base file services. The key elements of the solutions for heterogeneous environments include:  Windows Storage Server appliances that provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support. For more information.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric and provide fault tolerant network connectivity. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management. see AD LDS Identity Mapping for Services for NFS. see the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration" earlier in this white paper. such as Group Policy.  NFS file services for NFS clients. all of the storage resources in the organization are managed using Windows Storage Server. For more information about NAS gateway configurations. and other storage connections (such as Fibre Channel or SAS).  NAS gateway services for existing storage solutions that do not provide SMBbased file services. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management. the existing IT environment has separate devices provide SMB-based file services.  The appliances are typically configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  AD LDS can be used to provide identity mapping for NFS file services in environments where an Active Directory infrastructure does not already exist.  The appliances provide centralized storage management. This solution is very similar to the storage consolidation solution described in the section "Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation" and as illustrated in Figure 36 and Figure 37.  Centralized storage for all operating systems that have supported iSCSI initiators using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. NFS-based file services. or iSCSI connectivity. depending on the availability requirements of the organization. . earlier in this white paper. highly-available Windows Storage Server appliances. For more information about the supported iSCSI initiators. In this scenario.115 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating Unified Storage Solutions In the unified storage consolidation solution.

In Hyper-V. Windows Storage Server in virtualization solutions Table 33 lists the different methods that virtual machines can use to connect to iSCSI LUNs .  Running virtual machines on Windows Storage Server.116 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating Virtualization Solutions You can create virtualized solutions using Windows Storage Server by:  Connecting virtual machines to iSCSI LUNs managed by Windows Storage Server. Windows Storage Server runs the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target to provide iSCSI LUNs for use by virtual machines performing the Hyper-V server role in Windows Server 2008. the physical computer is referred to as the parent partition. Connecting Virtual Machines to iSCSI LUNs Virtual machines running on Hyper-V can access iSCSI LUNs using a number of different methods. as illustrated in Figure 38. Figure 38. Each virtual machine is referred to as a child partition. In the virtualization solution.

A . However.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine.  Supports Live Migration scenarios using Cluster Shared Volumes. The iSCSI LUN is attached to the child partition and the virtual machine directly accesses the partition. regardless if the operating system supports an iSCSI initiator. This method:  Allows only one virtual machine to use the iSCSI LUN. As illustrated in Figure 38. regardless if the operating system supports an iSCSI initiator. the parent partition connects to LUN-B and Virtual Machine B directly connects to the partition. the parent partition is also aware of the child partition using the LUN. This method:  Allows only one virtual machine to use the iSCSI LUN. Pass-through parent partition disk Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN . As illustrated in Figure 38. the parent partition formats LUN-C as E: and the . Methods that Virtual Machines Can Use to Connect to iSCSI LUNs Method VHD created on parent partition volume Description The iSCSI LUN is attached to the parent partition and is formatted as an NTFS volume and assigned a drive letter in the parent partition.  Does not natively support boot from the iSCSI LUN and requires products available from Microsoft partners to support iSCSI boot for virtual machines. see Hyper-V: Using Live Migration with Cluster Shared Volumes in Windows Server 2008 R2.  Allows the virtual machine to boot from the iSCSI LUN. However the parent partition is unaware of the child partition using the LUN because the child partition is directly accessing the LUN.  Allows the virtual machine to boot from the iSCSI LUN.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine.vhd file for Virtual Machine C is created on the E: volume.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine that have a supported iSCSI initiator.vhd files on the same iSCSI LUN. The iSCSI LUN is attached to the parent partition and the virtual machine directly accesses the partition. For more information. This method:  Allows multiple virtual machines to store . the child partition connects to LUN-A.117 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 33. As illustrated in Figure 38.vhd file is created on the volume that is accessed by the virtual machine.

 Two virtual machines on Windows Storage Server Enterprise Edition.bin files. iSCSI LUNs that are connected using the Pass-through parent partition disk or the Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN methods must be backed up separately in addition to performing a complete backup of the parent partition. You can run up to two virtual machines on Windows Storage Server depending on the Windows Storage Server edition. You can run:  One virtual machine on Windows Storage Server Standard Edition. This allows you to create a NFS file access solution that runs on one appliance. such as the . Running Virtual Machines on Windows Storage Server Windows Storage Server can also run the Hyper-V server role. The recommended method is the VHD created on parent partition method for the following reasons:  Backups are complex using the Pass-through parent partition disk or the Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN methods. This reduces the complexity in providing your solution by reducing the number of physical appliances to manage and minimizes the power consumption for your solution (with the appropriate licensing). Creating a separate iSCSI target for each LUN will improve performance because each iSCSI target has its own I/O submission queue.118 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note Performing a complete backup of the parent partition will back up iSCSI LUNs that are connected using the VHD created on parent partition method. you could install an instance of Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) in a virtual machine that can be used for NFS account mapping. It is also recommended that you create a separate iSCSI target for each LUN that you connect to the parent partition to improve performance.  The associated virtual machine files. This feature allows you to provide other services in the virtual machines running on Windows Storage Server. . For example. are stored on the same LUN where the .vhd files reside using this method.  There is minimal performance difference between the VHD created on parent partition and the Pass-through parent partition disk methods.

Figure 39. In this solution.  Thin clients in libraries or schools.119 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server supports iSCSI boot for solutions that include diskless physical computers or virtual machines. There are many solutions that can take advantage of iSCSI boot. including those that provide iSCSI boot services for:  Web blades configured to support the same application in a web farm. the nodes in the cluster do not require a local hard disk drive to serve as a system disk. Windows Storage Server in Windows HPC iSCSI Boot Deployment By using iSCSI and Windows Storage Server. Figure 39 illustrates how iSCSI boot can support a Windows HPC Server cluster solution. For more information about how to support iSCSI boot using Windows Storage Server.  Interactive kiosks in retail stores. Windows Storage Server centralizes the storage for the HPC cluster. Instead. the nodes can use the storage . see the “Supporting iSCSI Boot” section earlier in this white paper.  Computer nodes in Windows High-Performance Computing (HPC) Server clusters.

 Windows Storage Server blog. More Information For more information. Each cluster node boots from a differencing virtual disk that is based on the same fixed virtual disk. such as Linux or Mac OS. The high-availability features in Windows Storage Server help create mission-critical solutions that require maximum uptime. Branch offices can be easily managed from central head offices using these management features. DFS Namespace. The SMB2 protocol. Conclusion Windows Storage Server provides storage solutions for all types and sizes of organizations. Windows Storage Server appliances can provide storage solutions that are flexible. The NFS file services.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Technical Library  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. you can:  Deploy Windows HPC Server to 256 cluster nodes in approximately 34 minutes.  Subsequently boot the 256 cluster nodes in less than 9 minutes. such as Group Policy.3 Technical Library . the NAS gateway capabilities extend the storage services provided by existing storage solutions. availability. industry-standard hardware to appliances or they can be scaled out by adding additional appliances.120 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper resources on Windows Storage Server to boot Windows HPC Server over the network. This allows small. and DFS Replication features in Windows Storage Server enhance performance. and security products (such as Microsoft Forefront products). Windows Storage Server can run file services. IT pros can quickly plan. deploy. disk usage quotas. This allows for fast deployment and recovery of the nodes. operations and management products (such as the System Center family of products). and scalability for Windows operating systems. instead of dedicated or single function appliances. see the following resources:  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 home page. Web services.to medium-sized organizations and branch offices to take advantage of a multifunction appliance. and iSCSI block I/O services on a single appliance. Solutions can be scaled up by adding costeffective. centralized management features. and iSCSI target services features in Windows Storage Server help protect investments in existing networks with other operating systems. and operate Window Storage Server solutions in their organization. A variety of Windows Storage Server appliances are available from Microsoft partners that can support entry level to enterprise level workloads. Tight integration with other Microsoft products and technologies also helps IT pros use existing infrastructure services (such as AD DS). and the creation of shared network storage resources. Because Windows Storage Server is an optimized version of Windows Server 2008 R2. including filtering of content. and more cost effective than other dedicated appliances or storage solutions. Highly-efficient. Using this solution. Nodes that use the storage resources on the storage array to boot over iSCSI are called iSCSI boot nodes. help reduce the ongoing operations and management of storage solutions. Also. print services. easier to maintain. LPR print services. All aspects of storage management can be centrally managed.

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