Windows Storage Server 2008 R2

Architecture and Deployment White Paper
Version 1.0

Published: February 2011

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Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................ 1 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Overview .................................................... 3 Comparing Windows Server Operating System Storage Offerings .................. 3 Comparing Windows Storage Server with Windows Server ..................... 3 Identifying Windows Storage Server Features ....................................... 4 What’s New in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 .................................. 5 Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2 ................................................................................................ 8 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Editions ................................................10 Identifying Storage Challenges ................................................................12 Identify Scalability Storage Challenges ................................................12 Identify Availability Storage Challenges ...............................................13 Identify Security Storage Challenges ..................................................14 Identify Manageability Storage Challenges ..........................................14 Identify Data Recovery Storage Challenges .........................................14 Identifying Windows Storage Server Solution Benefits ................................14 Identifying Scalability Benefits ...........................................................15 Identifying Availability Benefits ..........................................................15 Identifying Security Benefits ..............................................................16 Identifying Manageability Benefits ......................................................16 Identifying Data Recovery Benefits .....................................................18 Exploring Windows Storage Server Features and Capabilities ............................19 Providing Access to File Services Workloads ..............................................20 Supporting File Services Workloads Using CIFS, SMB, or SMB2 ..............20 Supporting File Services Workloads Using NFS .....................................21 Supporting File Services Workloads Using WebDAV ..............................22 Supporting File Services Workloads Using Windows SharePoint Services ..........................................................................................23 Providing Access to iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ..........................................23 Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target ...............................................................................24 Supporting iSCSI Boot ......................................................................27 Providing Access to Web Services Workloads .............................................30 Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads ..............................................31 Providing Access to Print Services Workloads ............................................31 Providing Reduction in Power Consumption ...............................................33 Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers ...............................33 Processor Power Management ............................................................33 Storage Power Management ..............................................................34 Additional Power Saving Features .......................................................35 Performing Highly Automated Installations ................................................35 Managing Windows Storage Server ................................................................36 Management Tools for All Workloads ........................................................36 Managing Power Consumption for All Workloads ........................................37

..................................................................58 Securing Windows Storage Server Workloads .....................................................................................................................................................................................................65 Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ...............................73 ..................................47 Managing Print Services Workloads ..............................................................................................45 Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell ...............64 Improving Availability of Windows Storage Server Workloads........................................62 Securing Web Services Workloads.................................................................................57 Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect Data ....57 Using the Appcmd.......................45 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ...........................59 Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads ............................51 Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data...................65 Improving Availability of File Services Workloads ....................................................ii Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Remote Manageability of Power Policy.....61 Securing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads .....38 Managing File Services Using File Server Resource Manager .................................................................38 Managing File Services Workloads .................................................................54 Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service ..56 Using DFS Replication to Protect Data ..................................................52 Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data ..44 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ...........54 Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap ...................38 Managing File Services Using Share and Storage Management .........................................................................................................56 Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data .....................................................................41 Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication ......................55 Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization ........37 In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting ....................63 Securing Print Services Workloads ............72 Improving Availability of Print Services Workloads ...........................70 Improving Availability of Web Services Workloads ........59 Securing File Services Workloads ..............................................................49 Protecting Windows Storage Server Workload Data ................................41 Managing Single Instance Storage ..........................................................46 Managing Web Services Workloads ...........................................................exe Tool to Backup IIS Configuration ....................43 Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ......53 Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data ..........................................................................................exe Tool to Backup Printer Information .................................................................................56 Using Automated System Recovery to Protect Data .......................................55 Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization ......................................51 Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data ...................................................67 Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Targets ....58 Using the PrintBRM..................................................................................................................68 Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Initiators .

......................................... 116 Connecting Virtual Machines to iSCSI LUNs................................................................ 113 Creating Application Consolidation Solutions ................77 Improving Performance and Scalability for File Services Workloads ..................................................................................................................................................................................94 Review Web Services Workload Test Results ................................78 Review Improvements in the SMB2 Protocol ... 119 Conclusion ......................................................................................................... 118 Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions ........ 115 Creating Virtualization Solutions .........................................................................................................85 Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache .............74 Improving Performance and Scalability for All Workloads . 120 ......................94 Improving Performance and Scalability for Print Workloads ...97 Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration ................79 Review SMB-based File Services Workload Test Results........................................................98 Using Windows Storage Server in iSCSI Block I/O Configuration ......................................................96 Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration .................................. 113 Creating Solutions for Heterogeneous Environments ...................90 Improving Performance and Scalability for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads .............87 Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files .82 Reviewing Performance Improvements in SMB Version 2.......................................... 114 Creating Unified Storage Solutions ............................................. 109 Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation ..................1 in Windows Server 2008 R2 ...................................................................................................... 100 Creating Branch Office Solutions ...................................76 Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations ......................................................................................................................................................93 Improving Performance and Scalability for Web Services Workloads .....................................74 Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity ....................90 Identify Methods for Improving iSCSI Block I/O Workload Performance and Scalability ...................96 Overview of Windows Storage Server Configurations .................... 116 Running Virtual Machines on Windows Storage Server ............................................................75 Improvements in Network Adapter Performance..........................90 Review I/O Storage Test Results ......................iii Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Performance and Scalability for Windows Storage Server Solutions ..........74 Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Protocol .. 120 More Information ................................................................... 110 Creating Small to Medium Business Solutions .................................95 Windows Storage Server Deployment Scenarios ...................................96 Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration ...94 Identify Methods for Improving Web Services Workload Performance and Scalability .............. 101 Creating Highly-Available Solutions .............................................

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Provides access to files managed by the appliance for computers using file access protocols. iSCSI block input/output (I/O). Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 is built on Windows Server 2008 to create efficient and effective storage solutions. which supports check-in and check-out features.Introduction Windows® Storage Server 2008 R2 is the latest in the Windows Storage Server family of products and is based on the technologies and features found in Windows Server® 2008 R2. Windows Storage Server is only available through Microsoft Partners. and highly-available storage solutions. The following table lists some of the problems and pain points that organizations have with network attached storage appliances. Windows Storage Server provides solutions that complement the file services provided by Windows Server. Line Printer Daemon (LPD) services. Windows Storage Server refers to Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. or FTP. including file services. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS). track tasks. which are connected using the Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) standard. The most common feature is to store files in document libraries. SMB2 provides a superset of the features found in CIFS and provides improved performance and reliability over previous versions of SMB. and print services workloads. depending on the Windows Storage Server edition.  Print services. Note This white paper focuses on all Windows Storage Server editions except for Windows® Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials. and how to create secure.  Web services. and share ideas and information. WebDAV. Windows Storage Server provides a unified solution for the following workloads:  Files services.  iSCSI Block storage services. or Internet printing services. Provides remote network attached storage that appears as a disk logical unit number (LUN) to other computers. This white paper describes the features and technologies in Windows Storage Server. deploy. purchasing Windows Storage Server bundled with partner appliances can be more cost effective than purchasing Windows Server and a server computer separately. Microsoft OEM partners offer specialized hardware and additional software components to create network attached storage appliances. Provides access to Web-based content and services.  Virtualization services. Windows Storage Server extends the file services in Windows Server by providing addition storage features not found in Windows Server. Provides the ability to run up to two virtual machines on an appliance. Web services. use email efficiently and effectively.0. which can be accessed using HTTP. . and file history. NFS version 3.  Windows® SharePoint® Services. Provides the ability to share documents. In addition to providing extended features. unless otherwise specified.0. extensible. These services also provide high-performance access to remote disk LUNs using the iSCSI industry standard and can act as an iSCSI initiator or an iSCSI target. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials provides entrylevel solutions intended for use in organizations with 24 or less computers. For more information about Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials. version control. Provides access to printers using Microsoft print services. Provides access to files using the Server Message Block (SMB) version 2. such as Common Internet File System (CIFS) or Network File System (NFS). and operate storage solutions. Note In this white paper. and how Windows Storage Server appliances address them. This white paper is intended for IT professionals who design. Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV). scalable. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) protocols. see Windows Storage Server 2008 R2.

Ongoing operations and maintenance is labor intensive. and the server software supports extensibility using any application programming interfaces (APIs) supported by Windows Server 2008. Supports a wide variety of security products and technologies. and Network Load Balancing for improved availability and fault tolerance in addition to the hardware fault tolerance features provided by Microsoft OEM partners. Share permissions. to provide optimal security. Supports industry standard protocols and services that provide interoperability in heterogeneous environments. and Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager. Network Attached Storage Appliance Problems and Pain Points Problem or pain point Windows Storage Server solution Dedicated or limited function Provides servicing of multiple workloads on highly appliance. NTFS permissions. including BitLocker® Drive Encryption. Integrates with Active Directory® Doman Services (AD DS) and Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services. Limited protection of information stored on the appliance. availability. Management of workloads. Limited provisions for failover or fault tolerant configurations. Provides Windows Server Backup as part of Windows Storage Server. . Minimal or no integration with existing authentication and authorization system. Takes advantage of the breadth and depth of the software and hardware products provided by other vendors that are provided for Windows Server 2008. Many on-going operations and management tasks can also be automated using System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager. performance. Implements nonstandard or proprietary protocols or services. Limited customization and extensibility. and manageability. extensible Microsoft OEM vendor hardware platforms. Many of the management consoles can be customized to include Microsoft OEM partner branding. Designed to work "better together" with Windows operating systems. such as System Center Data Protection Manager. Loosely integrated with clients that consume the services. and Microsoft® Forefront®. Limited breadth of vendor support. and from Microsoft partners. scalability. Distributed File System (DFS). Uses familiar Windows Server management consoles. Windows Software Update Services (WSUS). including Windows Vista® and Windows® 7.2 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 1. and supports other disaster recovery products from Microsoft. Lack of comprehensive software update management. Provides a set of software update management technologies and products for any sized organization. including Windows Update. Supports Windows Server Failover Clusters. Limited disaster recovery.

 Identifying Storage challenges. This overview of Windows Storage Server includes the following topics:  Comparing Windows Server operating system storage offerings. .3 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Overview Windows Storage Server is optimized for file workloads and includes additional technologies. and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  Automation of administration tasks using Windows PowerShell™.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 editions.  Identifying the features that are new to Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. each of these Windows operating systems has different storage capabilities and features. because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server.  Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2. Network Access Protection.  Tightly integrated with Windows infrastructure services. Deduplication of files is a specific form of compression provided by the SIS feature that combines redundant files into a single instance of the file. to provide a unified storage solution. Windows Storage Server is a member of the Windows Sever operating system family that is built on Windows Server. For a more detailed description of the differences between these operating systems.  Efficient management of shared resources using familiar Windows management consoles and command-line utilities. DFS-R. full screen remote desktop control of storage server administration using Web RDP. scalable. and then replaces the files with reparse points (links) to the single instance.  Identifying the features that are unique to Windows Storage Server. However. and easy to manage. As a general purpose operating system. including:  A common application programming interface. it shares all the benefits of Window Server. Windows Server® operating systems have been providing storage solutions since their introduction. secure.  Identifying Windows Storage Server solution benefits. such as deduplication of files using the Single Instance Storage (SIS) feature. and support for web applications running Internet Information Services (IIS). or Direct Access. but is optimized for storage solutions. Comparing Windows Server Operating System Storage Offerings Each current Windows® operating system provides some level of storage services. Comparing Windows Storage Server with Windows Server Windows Server operating systems are a family of general purpose operating systems that provide a platform for running IT services and applications that are highly-available. DFS-N. These optimizations provide enhanced features and performance not found in the general purpose Windows Server operating systems. This comparison of Windows Server operating system storage offerings includes:  Comparing Windows Storage Server with Window Server. However. DHCP Server. Windows Server includes Microsoft file and print services. such as Active Directory® Domain Services. see the “Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2” section in this white paper.

such as database services or messaging services. Potentially lowers deployment cost than Windows Server when new hardware is required. Identifying Windows Storage Server Features Windows Storage Server includes the following features that are not included in Windows Server:  Deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage (SIS) v2 as described in the section “Managing Single Instance Storage” in this white paper. Windows Server many have distinct advantages over Windows Storage Server.3 as described in the section “Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target” in this white paper. Runs applications on the same computer. In other instances. such as Initial Configuration Tasks window. such as file services and domain controller on the same computer.  The ability to extend the Windows user experience for commonly used management tools. Reasons to Select Windows Storage Server or Windows Server Solution Windows Storage Server Why select this solution      Windows Server      Provides iSCSI block I/O storage for application storage scenarios. . Table 2.  Full-screen remote desktop management using Windows Internet Explorer® or any web browser that supports Java using the WebRDP feature as described in the “Management Tools for All Workloads” section in this white paper. Provides file deduplicaton using SIS.4 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper There are many instances in which Windows Storage Server provides a more costeffective and efficient storage solution than Windows Server. Provides multiple roles on the same computer. Runs more than two virtual machines in a Microsoft Hyper-V™ environment. Provides additional installation and configuration options. Consolidate file services and iSCSI block I/O on one appliance Provides file services for an existing SAN solution by acting as a SAN gateway. Installs on existing computers.  The ability to function as an iSCSI target using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. as described in the “Step 2: Customize the end user installation experience for the usage scenario” section in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 OEM Deployment Guide. Table 2 lists the reasons for selecting Windows Storage Server or Windows Server as your storage solution.

see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication”  “Using DFS Replication to Protect Data”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Scales to support up to 60. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Supporting Files Services Workloads Using NFS”  “Securing Files Services Workloads” Improved performance for iSCSI block I/O workloads and support for differencing VHDs used in iSCSI boot solutions. For more information. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Provides locally cached copies of files to reduce network utilization between locations. NFS client user identities use automatically generated Windows SIDs to access NFS shares. For more information.3 . For more information. Provides read-only access to replica copies of data. iSCSI Software Target 3. Table 3. which minimizes administrative effort. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Review Improvements in the SMB Protocol”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Reduced administrative effort for providing and monitoring access to NFS shares. For more information. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target”  “Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions” DFS namespace (DFS-N) improvements Branch cache hosted cache mode SMB2 file access improvements Unmapped UNIX User Access (UUUA) for NFS file services. Supports replication to and from failover clusters.000 domain-based namespaces and improvements in fault tolerances. For more information.5 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper What’s New in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Table 3 lists the new or improved features in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 that did not exist in previous versions of Windows Storage Server. For more information. New or Improved Features in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Feature DFS replication (DFS-R) Description Supports up to 16 simultaneous replication streams. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using Branch Cache”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Dramatic reduction in network utilization for accessing files.

see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell”  “Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell” IT pros can remotely perform full-screen remote desktop management using Internet Explorer or any web browser that supports Java. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Providing Reduction in Power Consumption”  “Management Tools for All Workloads” Overall performance enhancements due to operating system optimization. Automation of repetitive administrative tasks using Windows PowerShell Remote management using WebRDP Client. see “Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads” section in this white paper.6 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Simplified deployment for two node clusters Description Reduced administrative effort for installing and configuring a failover cluster using two appliances using the Initial Configuration Tasks window. For more information. For more information. the Cluster Name and Domain Join Wizard and the Cluster Validation and Setup Wizard. In addition. Performance and manageability for FTP services have been improved. Dramatic reduction in power consumption due to improvements in system resource power management. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity”  “Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using Branch Cache” Performance for I/O operations has been dramatically improved. the power management features can be configured using Group Policy settings. see the “Management Tools for All Workloads” section in this white paper. For more information. 64-bit processor support. see the “Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations” section in this white paper. Power consumption and power management Performance and memory capacity I/O performance FTP services . For more information. For more information. and increased memory capacity. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Improving Availability of File Services Workloads”  “Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads” Windows PowerShell providers are included for Single Instance Storage and iSCSI block I/O workloads. such as processor power consumption. For more information.

Provides snapshots of volumes virtual hard disks (VHDs). For more information. Windows PowerShell Windows PowerShell support has been improved for helping to automate storage management tasks. see “Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure” in this white paper. see the “Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data” section in this white paper. which allows files to be managed based on their classification. supports concurrent restores. LUN resynchronization Volume Shadow Copy Service improvements . LUN resynchronization can be used to provide faster recovery in some disaster recovery scenarios. which facilitates fully settings automated installations.7 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description Windows File Classification Management of files has been improved though the infrastructure Windows File Classification Infrastructure. Windows Server Backup Windows Server Backup provides improved features for performing backup and recovery scenarios. For more information. The classification of files is defined by IT administrators. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell”  “Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell” Unattended installation and Storage settings can be configured at installation time configuration of storage using the unattended installation. see “Performing Highly Automated Installations” in this white paper. see the “Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data”” section in this white paper. and reduced effort for developing a backup extension. For more information. For more information. For more information. see “Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data” section in this white paper. For more information.

                                 BITS Server Extensions Desktop Experience DFS Namespace DFS Replication DHCP Server Failover Clustering Note Failover clustering is available only in the Enterprise edition of Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) Full Text Search Group Policy Management Console Integration with Windows Server ecosystems (including backup software.8 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2 The following lists features and technologies common to both Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2:  Administration Tools  Microsoft .0  BitLocker Drive Encryption Note BitLocker Drive Encryption does not work with failover clusters.NET 3.) Internet Printing Client LPR Port Monitor Microsoft file services based on SMB2 Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ) Multipath I/O Network File System (NFS) Peer Name Resolution Protocol Remote Assistance Remove Desktop Connection Remote Differential Compression Remote Server Admin Tools RPC Over HTTP Proxy Simple TCP/IP Services SNMP Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications (SUA) Telnet Server TFTP Client Windows Biometric Framework Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Windows Network Load Balancing Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) Windows PowerShell Windows Process Activation Server . and antivirus software.

Table 4 lists the feature and technology differences between the two products. there are some differences between the two products. Supports deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage (SIS).  Windows Server Migration Tools  WS-Management  Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) Although Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 is based on the features and technologies in Windows Server 2008 R2. Supports customized branding of user interface. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Differences Feature or technology Availability to organizations. Supports full screen remote desktop management using Web RDP. Optimized for file services workloads.3. Windows Server 2008 R2 Retail channels Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Microsoft OEM partners     Optionally performed by Microsoft OEM partners . Supports acting as an iSCSI target using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. Table 4.9 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Windows Server Backup Note Windows Server Backup does not work with failover clusters and does not support volumes larger than 2 terabytes.

Hardware RAID supported. Type of disk adapters supported. print services. DFS replication. iSCSI block I/O services. File Services Resource Manager. Table 5 lists the capabilities of Windows Storage Server. iSCSI block I/O services. Table 5. which provides key functionality to support any sized business and IT storage challenge. Maximum amount of memory.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Enterprise. Maximum number of processor sockets. Enterprise provides support for an unlimited number of users with maximum faulttolerance and scalability provided in a Windows Storage Server product. deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage. NFS. Standard provides support for an unlimited number of users who require access to file services using Microsoft file services or NFS. and Web services workloads. Workgroup provides support for less than 25 users who require access to file services using Microsoft file services or NFS.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Standard. is available in the following editions:  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Workgroup. BitLocker Drive Encryption    Workgroup 64-bit 4 32 GB 2 6 Any  Workgroup 25     Standard 64-bit 4 32 GB Unlimited Any Any  Standard Unlimited     Enterprise 64-bit 8 2 terabyte Unlimited Any Any  Enterprise Unlimited        . BranchCache in hosted cache mode. File Classification Infrastructure. Workgroup is an entry-level technology foundation also targeted at small business owners and IT generalists supporting small businesses. Capabilities Maximum number of simultaneous users supported. Use the information in Table 5 to identify which Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 edition is best suited for your organization. and Web services workloads.10 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Editions Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Deduplication of files using SIS. Number of disks supported. Comparison of Windows Storage Editions Maximum system resources support Capabilities Supported processor architecture. print services. Enterprise is an advanced platform that provides more cost-effective and reliable support for mission-critical workloads. Maximum number of network adapters. and the support level for the capabilities in each edition of the product.

OEM customization of user interface and experience. Fax services. . Windows Server Backup.      Any    1 Any             2 Any           For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target specifications. "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Specifications" later in this white paper. Workgroup Optional Standard Optional Enterprise Optional Failover clusters. Multipath I/O. see the section. Domain membership. Windows Search services. Hyper-V guest support. Note Some Microsoft partners include the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by default.11 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Capabilities Microsoft iSCSI Target Software. Number of printers supported for Print Services workloads. DHCP Server services. Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services. AD DS read-only domain controller. Domain name system (DNS). Windows Management Instrumentation.

making it difficult for users to know what resources exist. unauthorized access.  Identify security challenges in storage solutions.  Identify availability challenges in storage solutions. or branch offices using highly-automated. the simplest solutions to increase storage capacity are: add more hard drives. Data must remain free from corruption. and where to find them. upgrade to higher capacity disks. Table 6. When an administrator finds that these hard disk drives are getting too full. Many organizations must adhere to data retention regulatory requirements to not keep data older than a defined age. This is an especially troublesome problem with data stored on desktops — without file sharing enabled on these computers. Data must be easy to manage and maintain for local users. Business requirements determine the challenges that an organization must solve to provide a comprehensive storage solution. regardless of the size of their organization. However. Table 6 lists the categories of storage challenges that most organizations experience. policy-driven processes and procedures.  Identify data recovery challenges in storage solutions. data is increasingly dispersed throughout a company. Scalability storage challenges include:  Decentralized of data. Data must be recoverable in the event of a disaster. Even when sharing is enabled.  Compatibility with storage networking solutions. Finding the appropriate solution requires careful optimization of an enterprise-wide storage plan. there is no effective mechanism to determine exactly where information is stored or which version of a document is the most up-todate. compromise. Identify Scalability Storage Challenges Internal or external hard disks are the most common way to store data on desktops. Data must be accessible by users on an on-demand basis for a high percentage of the time. or purchase additional computers that each have more hard disks. remote users. Decentralization of Data As the number of systems increase.  Underutilization of storage resources. it can be difficult to make the data accessible to others. Security Manageability Data recovery Identify storage solution challenges by performing the following steps:  Identify scalability challenges in storage solutions. and it should be protected from any single point of failure.  Identify manageability challenges in storage solutions. and servers. in a decentralized structure an administrator can .12 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Storage Challenges IT pros face most of the same storage challenges. Storage Challenge Categories Category Scalability Availability Description Data must be accessible in a timely manner based on the response times defined in your Service Level Agreements (SLAs). workstations. and inadvertent user error.

mechanisms need to be put in place to ensure data availability so that user productivity is not negatively affected. Storage solutions must be able to integrate with. while others have excess capacity but no means to effectively share those resources. motherboards and power supplies — can result in a temporary or permanent loss of data. such as network attached storage (NAS) and storage area networks (SANs). processors. Adding more servers does not eliminate the problem of inefficient utilization of storage space between servers. Hard disks using the same RAID controller can be combined to provide a fault tolerance disk configuration using RAID subsystems. and is one way to ensure highly available data. Anticipating growth and implementing storage solutions that scale with growth remains a problem. Hard Disk Redundancy Hard disk redundancy can be achieved using RAID types such as RAID 10. Some computers inevitably exceed their storage capacity. 24x7. But. RAID 5. cabling. they also scale well with more advanced storage solutions. because the data can be readily shared across the network. and ensuring that the data is protected well enough to meet requirements. Storage remains local to each server. Unfortunately. The availability storage challenges include:  Hard disk redundancy. Identify Availability Storage Challenges Businesses rely on making their services and information available for access. or RAID 6. Migrating a company’s critical data to a centralized server can help the situation. and those resources must be provisioned before disk capacity is exceeded. Failure in any of a number of hardware components — storage devices. These parity-based approaches can provide protection from a disk failure through the maintenance of checksum information. As data is centralized. storage interconnects. network interconnects. other storage mediums with the end result being consolidated management flow for administrators and a consistent experience for users. year-round. You can also create more sophisticated. users still have the problem of not being able to find the data that they need — or in some cases even knowing that it exists. and offer services for. thus space may be available on one server.  Server redundancy. Underutilization of Storage Resources Storage that is directly attached to a server is made available to other computers on the network through the operating system’s sharing capabilities.13 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper face many hurdles when building and applying a consistent policy to the type and age of data that is stored. as more servers are added to increase storage capacity (and to provide redundancy in the event of hardware failure). Effective storage planning requires accurate predictions of which users and applications will require more storage capacity. . but capacity exceeded on another. Compatibility with Storage Networking Solutions The best storage solutions not only meet today’s storage needs. organizations can experience bandwidth bottlenecks as users in remote locations attempt to access data in a central location via potentially slow. Fault tolerance can be achieved through redundancy of hardware components. parity-based configurations that spread multiple data over multiple drives. high latency WAN links. directly attached storage tends to scale poorly over the long term. In this case.

even if a server goes down. users are rarely effective in performing regular backups. Identify Manageability Storage Challenges System administration can become enormously complex. extranets. these solutions provide only partial protection. Unfortunately. UNIX. such as My Documents to a network location while keeping a cached version of the data on the user’s local machine. Administrators are responsible for managing file. but also from data corruption. or the Internet. and database servers. Finally. Most of these advantages are available because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server 2008 R2. applications remain online. demand is increasing to share data among users whether they are running Windows. and disasters. remote users must be able to access the data through remote access connections. Identify Data Recovery Storage Challenges System administrators must protect data not only from hardware failure.14 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Server Redundancy Failover clustering allows two or more computer systems to perform and be managed as a single system. and for clustering those servers to ensure effective performance and high availability. system administrators strongly advocate storing critical documents and data on a server. or another operating system. The benefits to creating storage solutions using Windows Storage Server include:  Scalability  Availability  Security  Manageability  Data recovery . Users are redirected to another computer without any loss of services. user error. web. In addition. However. Security in depth is required in terms of multi-level and multi-factor security in instances where the data is highly confidential. This redirection can also ensure data availability even when the computer is not connected to the network. The most common means of protecting data from these problems is through tape backups and restores. although many organizations require multiple platforms to support various applications. Hard disks must be backed up by the individual user. Technologies such as folder redirection combined with Offline Files can help users store data on servers by redirecting key folders. and for that reason. IT pros have to help ensure the strongest possible security while allowing users the access they require to data. Identify Security Storage Challenges Preventing unauthorized access to confidential data requires tight integration between file services and identity management systems. Access to the data must be secured for users on the organization’s intranet. where it can be properly backed up. Identifying Windows Storage Server Solution Benefits Network attached storage appliances running Windows Storage Server have a number of advantages compared to other network attached storage appliances. With Failover Clustering. application. especially in midsize and large organizations.

With the release of Windows Server 2008 R2.15 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Scalability Benefits The following are the scalability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Increasing the Effectiveness of File Sharing. resulting in less bandwidth used for replication and. If a primary component fails. faster synchronization. The Distributed File System Replication (DFSR) service controls replication and synchronization of data using Remote Differential Compression (RDC) that only replicates modifications to a file. the secondary component takes over in a process that is seamless to the application running on the server. . partition units can be added or replaced without restarting the operating system. Single Instance Storage actively compares and eliminates identical files on selected volumes. line of business. Windows Storage Server includes support for fault tolerate memory synchronization. protection and recovery by Single Instance Store-aware backup solutions can significantly reduce backup windows and recovery times.  Improved fault tolerance between servers and storage. and hot-replace of processors and memory on x64-based and Itanium-based systems which support DHP. The Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server helps optimize storage capacity using built-in file deduplication. Failover clustering can help you build redundancy into your network and eliminate single points of failure. offering the ability to contain and recover from several types of multi-bit ECC errors in memory and cache without operating system or application interruption. and custom applications that sometimes require highly reliable. When multiple paths exist between servers and storage. and I/O host bridges. WHEA has been enhanced to support Machine Check Architecture (MCA) error recovery. ensuring access to the nearest available copy of the data at the lowest cost.  Reduces storage requirements.  Dynamic hardware partitioning. Windows Storage Server supports hot-add of processors. Once enabled. scalable servers. DFS has been enhanced to remove the 5.000-link target limit that previously existed.  Windows Hardware Error Architecture (WHEA). DFS also offers closest site selection.  Processor scaling. Windows Storage Server can failover to an alternate path if the primary path fails. Identifying Availability Benefits The following are the availability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Failover clustering.  Fault tolerant hardware. You can select the failover priority by configuring the load-balancing policies for your storage solution. Distributed File System (DFS) simplifies the user’s process of locating and accessing files distributed across an organization. and this capability has been maintained in Windows Server 2008 R2. On a dynamically partitionable server. including fans and power supplies and processors and RAM that runs in lockstep together. This data can be made highly available in a transparent manner using the Distributed File System Namespace. In addition. Windows Server® 2003 introduced the ability to accommodate multiple DFS root directories on each server. and to provide support for Access Based Enumeration (ABE) on DFS Namespaces. DFS only displays items in the namespace and folders that the user has access to. Duplicate files are transparently replaced with file system links to the single copy retained in the SIS Common Store — saving significant capacity. therefore. Fault-tolerant servers contain redundant hardware. Those modifications are compressed during transmission. Windows Storage Server can scale up to 256 logical processors to meet the demands of business-critical servers supporting large databases. memory. It is no longer necessary to add an additional server for each additional DFS root directory.

You can easily extend the features and services provided by Windows Storage Server using the large number of products and services provided by Microsoft partners or by developing your own solution. In the event of a subsequent configuration failure. Much of this existing knowledge is integrated in the product or available online. This helps protect your existing investment while developing custom processes and procedures. . In addition. multi-vendor storage device management required a system administrator to manage each device independently and to use a different vendor-supplied interface to do so — all of which adds another layer of complexity to the system administrator’s job. This familiarity dramatically can help reduce your learning curve so that you can quickly and efficiently plan. Identifying Manageability Benefits The following are the manageability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Reduces time to realize efficient management. you can manage and operate Windows Storage Server using other products.  Easily extends storage solutions. The broad range of well documented APIs and scripting languages can help you customize Windows Storage Server to meet your organization's requirements. In addition. Windows Storage Server integrates easily with existing Windows IT infrastructure services. You can manage and operate Windows Storage Server using the same IT processes and procedures that are currently used to manage Windows Server 2008 R2. An error in the configuration of the storage subsystem can negatively affect storage availability.16 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Improved recovery from configuration errors.  Resolves support issues faster. Comprehensive Microsoft support for Windows Server products and the extensive community of partners and peers help you resolve storage-related issues with less effort. Windows Server 2008 R2 contains a number of management interfaces for SAN hardware. can be used to access resources shared by Windows Storage Server. build. deploy. Because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server 2008 R2. and federated domains using Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS). Forefront Identity Manager (FIM) 2010 also can be used to synchronize identities from other identity systems. Identifying Security Benefits The following are the security benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Secures digital assets. In past versions of Windows Server. For example.  Integrates with existing identity management systems. many of the Microsoft management products. and operate storage solutions. Identities from AD DS. Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS). such as AD DS.  Seamlessly integrates with your existing Windows IT infrastructure. the iSCSI configuration). such as System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager 2007. NTFS permissions. more precisely. and with less effort. In addition. such as System Center Operations Manager. you can take advantage of your expertise with Windows Server. Windows Storage Server allows you to take configuration snapshots of the storage subsystem (for example.  Manages multi-vendor storage more effectively. You can use the same extensive security products and technologies found in Windows Server 2008 to secure Windows Storage Server. and IPsec. such as BitLocker Drive Encryption. include knowledge from the product groups at Microsoft to help provide you with accurate and relevant information to resolve support issues.  Manages and operates your storage solution using your existing processes and procedures. you can quickly restore the configuration to a previous version. You can also use Microsoft and partner products to further strengthen the security of your storage solutions. This level of integration also helps minimize any infrastructure remediation that may be required to deploy and operate your storage solution. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. such as Microsoft Forefront. the Storage Manager for SANs.

17 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper       Migrates from other storage solutions to Windows Storage Server. which in turn helps lower total cost of ownership (TCO) especially in complex multivendor storage environments. such as Microsoft® Exchange Server 2010 running on a Windows Server operating system. Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 make it easier to manage and maintain disks. You can also centrally manage many of the Windows Storage Server configuration settings using Group Policy. and print services workloads using the well-known management consoles and utilities in Windows Storage Server. For example. Reduces administration effort for storage solutions. remote desktop. web. In addition. Takes advantage of existing network infrastructure for SAN storage.  Fibre Channel and iSCSI SANs handling has been improved. Provides unified solution to storage management and operations. You can manage file services. You can migrate workloads from existing Windows Server operating systems to Windows Storage Server using highly-automated migration tools. You can automate repetitive administrative tasks using Windows PowerShell scripts in Windows Storage Server. The Windows Storage Server 2008 operating system is a multi-purpose server designed to handle a diverse set of server roles. many Microsoft partners produce products to help in migrating workloads to Windows Server products. such as System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager. built on Windows Server 2008 R2 operating system technologies. storing Exchange Server and virtual server data and directory services. Disk LUNs can be remotely mounted by application servers. iSCSI block I/O services. using the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator or application servers running other operating systems. instead of using a different set of management tools for each workload. SAN technology based on IP also removes the physical limitations of moving data associated with Fibre Channel. iSCSI technology helps bring the advantages of storage area networking (SAN) to midsize and small businesses that otherwise could not afford the extra cost and management of running a separate Fibre Channel network. such as the File Server Migration Tools. Windows support for iSCSI technology allows users to connect computers to consolidated storage devices using existing Ethernet technologies. rather than having to install a separate Fibre Channel network. including file and print. Web services. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target component in Windows Storage Server allows you to create iSCSI disk LUNs. . In addition. using available iSCSI initiators. you can draw on the large number of existing scripts developed by the partner and peer communities to further reduce the time required to achieve automation. such as Linux. The integrated storage services available in Windows Server and Windows Storage Server 2008 have been enhanced in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Provides centralized storage for applications. These tools help protect the integrity of your existing data while ensuring the current user permissions and security configuration is transferred to Windows Storage Server. For example.  SAN Host Bus Adapter (HBA) interoperability has been simplified with the SAN MMC management snap-in. you can use other Microsoft products to further automate the administration of Windows Storage Server. The Windows Storage Server 2008 platform now provides better support for SANs. Windows Storage Server 2008 is a network-attached storage (NAS) operating system. and new features have been added aimed at helping businesses control storage management costs and increase availability of data. Robust storage solutions. You can use the same set of tools and process to manage all the workloads supported by Windows Storage Server. Enhancements include:  Administrators can now control volume mounting to protect volumes from unintentional access.

In the case of catastrophic system failures — cases in which all operating system information is lost and the server is effectively stripped down to bare metal — Automated System Recovery makes possible rapid restore of the system’s original state. . separate from the originating server. thus making unnecessary the disruptive practice of shutting down applications during backup to prevent data consistency issues.  Manages backups and restores more effectively.18 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Minimizes storage solution adoption risk. because only the changes to the data are saved. Windows Storage Server can failover to an alternate path if the primary path fails. The Windows Recovery Environment in Windows Storage Server is a partial version of the operating system and a set of tools that you can use to perform operating system or full server recoveries. Moreover. As organizations produce more information. The accidental deletion or overwriting of files has long been the bane of system administrators charged with the time-intensive and costly task of locating and restoring single files from tape. Your IT organization and users are less likely to experience difficulties in using and operating Windows Storage Server because they are already familiar with Windows Server. VSS allows administrators to schedule regular copies of data stored on disk. You can select the failover priority by configuring the load-balancing policies for your storage solution  Windows Recovery Environment. These can be responsible for flushing buffers and getting data on a disk in a consistent state that is suitable to back up. Making data highly available throughout an organization requires data redundancy. Microsoft Solution Accelerators. which can centrally store the snapshot information. and ongoing operations of Windows Storage Server succeed. shadow copies take up little disk space. backing up data becomes an increasingly time intensive and potentially disruptive operation. When multiple paths exist between servers and storage. you can minimize the risk of adoption for your new storage solution. You can use many of the existing tools. Identifying Data Recovery Benefits The following are the data recovery benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Easier data recovery. The VSS process ensures data integrity though the utilization of VSS writers. open file backups are enabled. and best practice guidance to help make certain that the planning. thus adding availability to the data. With VSS. enabling companies to make copies of necessary data.  Windows Server backup tools. This capability can be extended with technologies like System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM). deployment. The Shadow Copy for Shared Folders feature of the new Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) enables users to easily restore their own deleted files without IT intervention. Because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server.

Workloads supported by Window Storage Server . Figure 1. unlike dedicated or single function network attached storage appliances. These features and capabilities allow Windows Storage Server to act as a unified platform to manage various workloads. as illustrated in Figure 1.19 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Exploring Windows Storage Server Features and Capabilities Windows Storage Server includes a rich set of features and capabilities to help service multiple workloads.

. see the "Review Improvements in File Services" section later in this white paper. which is highly-optimized for use with Windows 7. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous file services workloads using the following protocols or features:  CIFS. Select this protocol to support homogeneous or heterogeneous environments that contain:  Windows-based computers that use Client for Microsoft Networks to access file services workloads using the SMB protocol. as illustrated in Figure 1. or production environments.  Providing access to print services workloads. or SMB2 The SMB2 protocol in Windows Storage Server provides access to files and folders for client computers using the SMB or CIFS protocols. The File Services server role in Windows Storage Server supports both SMB2.20 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper These features and capabilities help you provide access to:  File services workloads. SMB. SMB. and the prior versions of SMB for previous Windows operating systems. Some network access storage appliances that are not running Windows Storage Server implement generic CIFS-based file services that implement only older versions of SMB and lack the performance advantages and improved reliability of SMB2. including the following workloads:  Hyper-V  Microsoft SQL Server®  Microsoft Exchange Server  iSCSI boot  Providing access to Web services workloads.  Computers running other operating systems that access file services workloads using the CIFS protocol.  Providing access to FTP services workloads. Windows-based client computers use the SMB protocol while other operating systems typically use the CIFS protocol. or SMB2  NFS  WebDAV  Windows SharePoint® Services Supporting File Services Workloads Using CIFS.  Web services workloads.  Providing access to iSCSI block I/O workloads in development. For more information about the improvements available in SMB2. Providing Access to File Services Workloads File services workloads allow computers to access files and folders stored on network access storage appliances.  Print services workloads This section includes the following topics:  Providing access to file services workloads. Windows Storage Server can support file services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments with a variety of operating systems.  iSCSI block I/O workloads. test.

21 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Supporting File Services Workloads Using NFS Windows Storage Server supports access to file services workloads using the NFS protocol version 3. This method allows users to access shared resources using automatically generated Windows Security Identifiers (SIDs) based on the UNIX UID and GID. For computers running Windows.  Client for NFS. and a number of command-line tools for managing it. This component allows a computer running Windows Storage Server and Client for NFS to access NFS mount points on NFS servers. This component allows a computer running Windows Storage Server and Server for NFS to service NFS client computer requests. see Services for NFS Step-by-Step Guide for Windows Server 2008. This method allows all unmapped users to access shared resources using a common anonymous account is configurable. the NFS client allows access to the NFS exported folder using a universal naming convention (UNC) path or by mapping the NFS exported folder to a drive letter.2  Hewlett Packard HP-UX version 11i The Server for NFS component allows you to share a folder as a NFS exported folder (also known as a NFS shared folder). Note The Server for NFS component supports NFS version 2. Select this protocol to support heterogeneous environments that contain computers running an NFS client that access file services workloads using the NFS protocol. Server for NFS can support unmapped user access using:  Unmapped UNIX User Access. UNIX Version Support The Services for NFS supports the following versions of UNIX:  Sun Microsystems Solaris version 9  Red Hat Linux version 9  IBM AIX version 5L 5. and later Windows Server operating systems. This component includes the Services for NFS snap-in.0 with the Services for Network File System role service. the Identity Management for UNIX Active Directory schema extension includes the UNIX user identifier (UID) and group identifier (GID) fields. NFS Authentication The Server for NFS component can use Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) for mapped identity management.  Anonymous access. The NFS protocol allows any NFS client computer to access files and folders managed by Windows Storage Server using version 2 and version 3 of the NFS protocol. download NFS Account Mapping in Windows Server 2008 R2. In addition. This enables Server for NFS and Client for NFS to look up Windows-to-UNIX user account mappings directly from AD DS or AD LDS.0 and version 3. The Server for NFS component is required to support file services workloads using NFS. A computer running an NFS client can mount the NFS exported folder into the local file system of the operating system running on the computer.0. Windows Server 2008. For more information about installing and configuring the Services for Network File System role service. . In Windows Storage Server. For more information about enabling identity (account) mapping for Services for NFS. The Services for Network File System role service includes the following components:  Server for NFS.

Depending on the operating system. Windows computers preserve the case. the new WebDAV extension module integrates with the Internet Information Services Manager console to provide ease of administration. In the case of Windows computers.) character are hidden. the administrator creates a file that defines how these characters are to be mapped. file names can be case sensitive. but are not case sensitive.0 has a new administration interface and configuration store. In contrast. allowing you to specify custom WebDAV security settings on a per-URL basis.0.  Special characters. Administrators can specify how characters in directory and file names will be converted when files are shared between Server for NFS and client computers.) character. and includes the following improvements:  Integration with IIS 7.and file-access requests to directories and files in its shared directories.5 is the latest version of WebDAV for Windows Storage Server. The differences between Windows and non-Windows filenames include the following:  Case sensitivity.5 of the WebDAV extension module for Internet Information Services (IIS) 7. see Configure Case Sensitivity for File and Folder Names.  Hidden files. By default. it preserves the case of the names of directories and files when creating files on behalf of NFS client computers. By default. and then specifies where Server for NFS can find the file containing the character map. Non-Windows file systems simply do not list files whose names begin with a period (. WebDAV 7. Supporting File Services Workloads Using WebDAV The WebDAV protocol is a set of extensions to the HTTP protocol that enables file management over any IP network. Client computers running a WebDAV redirector can access file services workloads using the WebDAV protocol. a file stored on NTFS cannot contain the colon (:) character because that character separates the drive letter from the rest of the path in a fully qualified path name.  Per-site Configuration. or be hidden from users.5 can be enabled at the site level. so colon characters are valid in non-Windows file names.0 per-URL authorization rules.  Per-URL Security Settings. Non-Windows file systems do not use letters to identify drives.22 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Non-Windows and Windows File Names Many of the conventions used for naming files and directories on non-Windows systems differ from those used by Windows. The new WebDAV extension module is tightly integrated with this new design.5 supports per-URL authoring rules. which provides support for homogeneous and heterogeneous environments.0. These authoring rules are separate from the IIS 7. see Nfsadmin.5 for IIS 7. Also. To accomplish this. Server for NFS does not create files with names beginning with a period as hidden files in the Windows file system. For example. For more information. Administrators can configure Server for NFS to ignore case sensitivity when returning directory and file names. files are hidden by setting a special attribute for the file. This setting can be turned off by administrators to ensure that files whose names begin with a period (. Files can be hidden on both non-Windows and Windows computers. thereby . WebDAV 7. The WebDAV extension module is available as a separate download at WebDAV 7. Windows Storage Server includes version 7. Server for NFS is case-sensitive when matching directory. All current Windows operating systems include a WebDAV redirector. IIS 7.0 (x64). Most UNIX-like non-Windows file systems are case-sensitive when handling directory and file names. Every file system reserves characters for use in path and command syntax. contain special characters. WebDAV 7. Other operating systems also include a WebDAV redirector. Previous versions of WebDAV only allowed you to enable WebDAV at the server level. For more information.

In addition. Select this protocol to support heterogeneous environments that contain computers running WebDAV redirectors that need to access the file services workloads using the HTTP or HTTPS protocol. Supporting File Services Workloads Using Windows SharePoint Services Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3. support opening and saving files to document libraries directly within the application. see WebDAV for IIS 7.0 support on Windows Storage Server." later in this white paper. but the feature specific to file services is the document library feature. such as Microsoft Word 2007 or Excel® 2007. Windows Storage Server can be an iSCSI. Windows SharePoint Services include a number of collaboration features. see Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3.0. Providing Access to iSCSI Block I/O Workloads iSCSI block I/O workloads are another type of workload provided by most network access storage appliances. Document libraries include the ability to check in and check out files to help maintain version control. Serial Attached SCSI (SAS). As an iSCSI target. which allows you to easily restore a previous version of a file and track version history. . Client computers can access the document libraries using either protocol. or Fibre Channel initiator based on the type of storage being accessed. As an iSCSI initiator. Computers running Windows can also access the document libraries through Windows Explorer. and a separate set of security settings for WebDAV requests. see the section "Using Windows Storage Server as a NAS Gateway in Solutions. you can configure document libraries to retain a specified number of versions for each file in the document library. For more information about providing Windows SharePoint Services 3. Windows Storage Server is used to support iSCSI block IO workloads for applications. Also.0. Note When Windows Storage Server is deployed in a NAS gateway scenario. such as SQL Server® 2008 or Exchange Server 2010. For more information about providing WebDAV support on Windows Storage Server. iSCSI block I/O workloads include both a server component (iSCSI target) and a client component (iSCSI initiator).23 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper allowing one set of security settings for normal HTTP requests. such as a SAN. as illustrated in Figure 2. Windows Storage Server is used to connect to external iSCSI targets.0 allows users to collaborate with each other using either HTTP or HTTPS. For more information. Microsoft Office System client applications.

Standard. see Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Specifications Table 7 lists the specifications for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. These specifications are applicable to all Windows Storage Server editions that include Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. This allows a large number of configuration options for iSCSI block I/O workload solutions. .3.3 is the latest version of the iSCSI target software and is an optional component in Window Storage Server Workgroup.24 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 2.3. iSCSI block I/O workloads supported by Windows Storage Server Windows Storage Server supports iSCSI block I/O workloads using the iSCSI standard. Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. and Enterprise editions. Windows Storage Server can function as an iSCSI target (the server component) or an iSCSI initiator (the client component).3. For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Note Some Microsoft partners include the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by default.3 in Windows Storage Server.3 available for Windows Storage Server provides iSCSI target functionality.

Table 8 lists the support for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with single or multipath I/O connections when connecting to nonclustered or clustered configurations. Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Version 3. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator includes a multipath I/O Device Specific Module (DSM) for the Microsoft Multipath I/O (MPIO) in Windows Server. IPv4.25 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 7. TCP offload. Maximum number of iSCSI initiator sessions that can connect to the same iSCSI target instance. Maximum number of virtual disks per appliance. see the section "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads. Jumbo frames. IPsec. Maximum number of snapshots per virtual disk. iSCSI offload. Value 64 128 128 512 32 (or 4 per cluster node) 64 16 64 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Windows Storage Server includes support for single path and multipath I/O connections to nonclustered and clustered configurations. . Maximum number of iSCSI initiators per appliance. Maximum number of virtual disk per iSCSI target instance. Support for Single or Multipath IO Connections for Non-Clustered or Clustered Configurations Specification Windows Server 2008 (multipath I/O connection) Windows Server 2008 (single path I/O connection) Windows Server 2008 (multipath I/O connection) Windows Server 2003 (single path I/O connection) Nonclustered Supported Supported Supported Supported Clustered Supported Limited * Limited * Limited* * There is limited support for iSCSI initiators or iSCSI targets in clustered configurations of Windows Server 2003 when connected to the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target." later in this white paper. Table 8. Maximum number of virtual disks or snapshots that can be locally mounted by the appliance. Multipath I/O connections allow for improved fault-tolerance and performance for iSCSI block I/O workloads. For more information about multipath I/O. Maximum number of iSCSI initiators that can connect to the same iSCSI target instance. Failures on the iSCSI network path may result in delayed failover and recovery times. we recommend to use Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 in clustered configurations when connecting to the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. IPv6.3 Specifications Specification Maximum number of iSCSI target instances per appliance. For these reasons. Failures for non-network related issues have been tested with acceptable recovery times.

Customers using a different iSCSI target should refer to the storage array vendor for supported configurations.3.00.3 supports the following iSCSI initiators:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator 2.01. VDS provides an end-to-end solution for managing storage hardware and disks. . and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider.3 support the following operating systems:  Windows Server 2008 R2.  32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Server® 2003 SP2. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Install this hardware provider on the computer running the iSCSI initiator and the computer that is to perform backups.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server 2008 SP1 and SP2.  Red Hat Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 5.  32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2008 SP1.  64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server 2008.  64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for VSS and VDS Providers Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.x.26 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note The limitation for iSCSI initiators or iSCSI targets in clustered configurations of Windows Server 2003 is specific to Microsoft iSCSI Software Target usage. firmware 3.  Qlogic initiator QLE4062C-SP. VSS is a set of APIs that implement a framework to allow volume backups to be performed while applications on a system continue to write to the volumes. iSCSI snapshots are created using VSS and a storage array with a hardware provider designed for use with VSS. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3.3 supports only version 3.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows 7.24.  Virtual Disk Service (VDS).3 includes a hardware provider for:  Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS).3. Install the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider on each iSCSI initiator computer running a storage management application (such as the Microsoft Storage Manager for SANs) that uses the hardware provider to manage storage The most recent version of these hardware provider APIs is Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server 2008 R2.3 and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3.  SUSE Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 10. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider is required to manage virtual disks on a storage subsystem.x.3 of the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. and for creating volumes on those disks.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Vista.08 in Windows Server 2003. The backup software must support transporting snapshots.3 and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3.07 and 2. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider is required to create transportable snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks and application-consistent snapshots from iSCSI initiators. Note Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Prior versions of the hardware providers are not supported by Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. VDS is a set of APIs that provides a single interface for managing disks.

all the necessary preboot phase components are in firmware on the adapter. The BIOS function used to access disk boot functions. These functions are redirected to the virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server. This phase of the process is performed by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. .  UNDI. iSCSI boot support is provided on diskless computers using one of the following methods:  Network adapters that support iSCSI boot capability. see iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT). firmware on the host bus adapter. and Windows® 7. This phase of the process is used to initiate the Window iSCSI boot process. The components in this phase include:  Int 13. Windows Vista.  32-bit version of Windows Storage Server 2008. Table 9 lists the components in an iSCSI boot solution using Windows Storage Server and provides a brief description of the purpose for each component. or network boot program.  iBFT.  iSCSI host bus adapters that support iSCSI boot capability. Independent Hardware Vendors implementing iSCSI boot support in their firmware need to use the table headers defined in this specification to enable the passing of boot critical parameters to the Windows operating system.3.  Network boot program software that provides iSCSI boot capability. depending on the method used for the diskless computer. these components are provided by the partner providing the program. as illustrated in Figure 3. is divided into the following phases:  Pre-boot.3:  Any Windows client operating system. and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3. For more information. Figure 3. iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT) is a block of information containing parameters needed to boot Windows Server 2003 and later versions of Windows using the iSCSI protocol and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. This phase is performed by the firmware on the network adapter.  Windows. The iSCSI boot process for Windows operating systems. The Windows Boot Manager is configured to boot using LUNs that are accessible through the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. Supporting iSCSI Boot iSCSI boot allows diskless computers (computers without local disk) to boot over the network.27 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The following operating systems are not supported by Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3. including Windows® XP. iSCSI boot process for Windows operating systems For iSCSI boot-enabled network adapters and host bus adapters. For network boot programs. Universal Network Device Interface (UNDI) is an application programming interface (API) for network interface cards (NIC) used by the Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) protocol.

the DHCP is practical requirement for any scalable requirement. This allows for fast deployment and recovery of diskless computers. Differencing virtual disks can be used for multiple computers based on the same fixed virtual disk. Provides IP configuration for iSCSI boot using network adapters using DHCP reservation that is configured for BOOTP support.vhd files) stored on Windows Storage Server using a network boot program that provides iSCSI boot capability. The diskless computer requires an iSCSI connection to Windows Storage Server.28 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 9. Virtual disk files (.  iSCSI host bus adapter. Components in an iSCSI Boot Solution Using Windows Storage Server Component Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Description Provides iSCSI block I/O access to virtual disks stored on Windows Storage Server. Note The DHCP server is optional if the network adapter supports IP and iSCSI boot configuration or if you are using an iSCSI host bus adapter. . However. Virtual disk iSCSI connection in diskless computer DHCP server Trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP) server Provides download of boot image to target computer when the virtual disk cannot be directly accessed using the iSCSI connection in the diskless computer. which can be any one of the following:  Network adapter that supports iSCSI boot.  iSCSI boot software. The iSCSI boot process and Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator can access these virtual disks during the boot process. Figure 4 illustrates how diskless computers can boot from virtual disk files (.vhd files) stored on Windows Storage Server. The TFTP server is not required for network adapters that support iSCSI boot or an iSCSI host bus adapter. Note The TFTP server is required only if you are using iSCSI boot software that requires a TFTP server.

The diskless client computer requests IP configuration from the DHCP Server. 4. The DHCP Server sends IP configuration information to the diskless client. 5.29 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 4. The diskless client computer requests a Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) boot image from the TFPT Server. iSCSI boot process from Windows Storage Server DHCP and TFTP services can be provided by Windows Storage Server or Windows Server. 2. The diskless computer establishes a connection with Windows Storage Server and connects to a virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server. 3. . The TFTP Server provides a PXE boot image to the diskless computer. the diskless computer can boot from a virtual disks stored on Windows Storage Server using the following steps for a network boot program: 1. As illustrated in Figure 4.

you can create clean-install system boot operating system virtual disk as a parent. Windows Storage Server supports Web services workloads. A differencing virtual disk is a virtual disk type that is based on a fixed or expandable virtual disk. 8.  The “Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions” section later in this white paper. Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. You can use separate virtual disks for each diskless computer or you can use differencing virtual disks.30 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 6. 7. Providing Access to Web Services Workloads Unlike most network access storage appliances. . the operating system on the parent virtual disk stays in its original state for quick recovery or for quickly creating more boot images based on additional differencing virtual disks.3 supports iSCSI boot for the following iSCSI initiators:  Any Windows operating system running Microsoft iSCSI Initiator version 2. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous Web services workloads using the protocols listed in Table 10.07 or 2.08  Red Hat Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 5. and create a differencing virtual disk as the current virtual disk for the diskless computer. For example.x  SUSE Enterprise Linux version 10. Using this method. Windows Storage Server can support Web services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments that include a variety of operating system.  About VHD.B that is stored on Windows Storage Server. The Windows operating system starts. The diskless computer boots from Differencing Virtual Disk . All subsequent disk I/O is performed using iSCSI I/O to the virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server. which is the iSCSI LUN specified in the configuration for the computer. Any subsequent writes to the differencing disk are written to the differencing virtual disk and the parent virtual disk is not modified. see:  Microsoft iSCSI Boot Step-by-Step Guide.x  PCI-E network iSCSI Initiator adapter  Broadcom network adapter  qLogic iSCSI host bus adapter  Netboot software For more information about iSCSI boot in Windows operating systems. Web services workloads allow users to access Web-based content stored on Windows Storage Server appliances.

which can be essential in some heterogeneous environments.  Reduced effort for support and troubleshooting FTP–related issues. Provides a simplified file transfer.  The foundation for the WebDAV protocol used in accessing file services workloads. This allows you to provide FTP and Web content from the same website simply by binding an FTP site to a website. upload or download.5 administration interface and configuration store. Providing Access to Print Services Workloads Another advantage to using Windows Storage Server appliances is the ability to support print services workloads. download only.  The foundation for Web-based remote administration using Terminal Services Web Access. With the new FTP server.  Extended IP addressing features provided by IPv6. using the same folders that can be accessed using any of the file services workloads protocols. a UNC path. but includes additional security protection of using secure sockets layer (SSL) encryption between clients and Windows Storage Server. virtual host name for an FTP site.  Improved integration with web-based applications and services. FTP sub statuses. This allows you to create multiple FTP sites that use the same IP address. a mapped drive. you can specify a. an additional detail field in FTP logs.  Provides support for the Internet Printing role service.31 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 10. which can be essential in some heterogeneous environments. unique tracking for FTP sessions. HTTPS FTP Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 includes FTP services that offer the following improvements:  Reduced administrative effort for FTP server services. but are differentiated by using unique virtual host names. and more. The new FTP server is fully integrated with the IIS 7. The new FTP server includes support for:  Improved security by supporting FTP over secure sockets layer (SSL). for the same files and folders accessed using any of the file services workloads protocols. This allows administrators to perform common administrative tasks within one common administration console. Print services workloads allow users to access printers managed by Windows Storage Server appliances.  Simplified file transfer. Improved logging that now supports all FTP-related traffic. Provides the same level of support as HTTP. Protocols Supported for Web Services Workloads Protocol HTTP Support description Provides:  Access to traditional Web-based content accessed through Web browsers.  Support of extended character sets by including UTF8 support.  Extended support for Internet standards. File transfer can be performed using Windows® Internet Explorer®. or from a command line. Windows Storage Server can support .

Line Printer Daemon (LPD) Service Internet Printing For more information about:  The Print Services server role. an inbound firewall exception for TCP port 515 is created. The LDP Service is an optional Print Services role service. the Print Services and Web Server roles must also be installed. or as an MMC snap-in. When the LPD Service is installed. select only this role service. typically used in heterogeneous environments. the installation of the service does require a restart of the Print Spooler service. Print Server Role Services Supported for Print Services Workloads Role Service Print Server Support description Provides support for Windows-based computers running Client for Microsoft Networks. the Print Services Tools Remote Server Administration Tool feature is also installed. which is done automatically during installation. Internet Printing provides access to shared printers using the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) that is encapsulated in HTTP. Table 11. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous print services workloads using the Print Server role services listed in Table 11. Provides support for computers that run an Internet Printing client. Although the installation of the Print Server role service does not require a system restart. Administrative Tools. see Print and Document Services. The Print Server role service is a mandatory role service for the Print Services role.dll. Select the Printer Server role services when clients must print to printers using the only HTTP protocol.32 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper print services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments that include a variety of operating system. see Print Management. Select this Print Server role service to support any print services workloads in Windows Storage Server. the TCP/IP Print Server service is also stopped — and you must restart it manually. .  Printer management in Windows Storage Server. the removal of the role service does. The Print Management Console (PMC) is then accessible from Server Manager. There is no configuration necessary for the LPD service. Provides support for computers that run Line Printer Remote (LPR). If the Print Spooler service is stopped or restarted after the LPD Service is installed. In order to install the Internet Printing role service. If you are supporting only Windows-based computers that are printing with your homogeneous environment. However. The LPD Service installs and starts the TCP/IP Print Server (LPDSVC) service which is implemented in lpdsvc. typically used in heterogeneous environments or to print over the Internet. When the Print Server role is installed. Select this Print Server role service to support LPR clients in heterogeneous environments.

Figure 5shows the results. or less power. reducing your power consumption also allows you to support more physical computers while using the same amount of power. from idle up to 100 percent utilization. and budget power usage across the system. Therefore. Figure 5. than before. To quantify the power savings. many data centers are constrained by the number of computers they can support in their data center by the actual power available to the data center. average utilization for many servers is 5 to 15 percent. Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers Windows Storage Server helps improve the power efficiency of individual servers through a variety of incremental improvements. Power savings with Windows Storage Server Processor Power Management The PPM engine in Windows Storage Server has been rewritten and improved. Microsoft measured power consumption of Windows Storage Server 2003 and Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 using a representative online transaction processing (OLTP) workload. Window Storage Server includes the following improvements to reduce power consumption:  Reduced power usage of individual servers by including:  A new PPM engine. Measuring power usage only when hardware is fully utilized does not reflect real-world usage.  Storage power management.33 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Providing Reduction in Power Consumption With the proliferation of physical computers in data centers. which demonstrate that many servers that operate within a range of utilization levels will benefit from the improved power efficiency of Windows Server 2008 R2. manage.  The ability to measure.  Additional incremental power saving features. It now provides the ability to fine-tune the processor’s speed and power consumption to match . power consumption is of paramount importance. Throughput was gradually throttled up across the utilization range of the systems. In addition to the cost-saving associated with reducing power consumption.

which means less communication with the drive and less power consumption. Windows Storage Server greatly improves access to storage on SANs. which has a higher storage-capacity-topower-consumption ratio than a typical server.34 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper current demands. This means that commands are not repeatedly sent to check for media changes. This feature helps reduce power usage for managing the communication bus link between the hard disk and the chipset. Windows Server Storage also supports the ability to boot from a SAN. Keeping the unutilized cores in an idle state reduces system power consumption. Core parking is a feature that enables Windows Storage Server to reduce multi-core processor power consumption by consolidating processing onto fewer processor cores and suspending the inactive cores. Windows Storage Server provides asynchronous notification of drive media changes. and their workloads then shifted to alternate cores. which eliminates the need for local hard disks (local storage) in the individual server computers and decreases power consumption as a result. This feature is integrated with the power management framework to use the new power states (partial and active). and also adds the following enhancements:  ATA Slumber feature. Storage Power Management Another strategy for reducing power used by individual servers is to centralize their storage by using a Storage Area Network (SAN). the system activates the idle processor cores to handle the increased processing requirements.  Support for “remove on delete”.  Optimized link power management for SATA disks. The workloads of cores that are not fully utilized can be suspended. as shown in Figure 6. New parameters for PPM — which administrators can configure — further improve power efficiency. When additional processing power is required. thus saving power.  Asynchronous notification of media change for optical devices. Windows Storage Server includes support for storage devices that work with solid state drives that can power down unused RAM when a file system deletes files. The workloads of every logical core in a server are tracked relative to all the others. A SAN also makes more efficient use of the available disk space. . because any server can have access to the available storage on the SAN.

creating LUNs. The benefit of this automation is that the storage configuration requires minimal or no configuration by IT pros.xml file to run Windows PowerShell scripts or any command-line program that can used to perform storage configuration tasks. thus saving power. You can take advantage of most of these technologies in virtualization scenarios to maximize the power efficiency of your virtualized environments.xml file.35 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 6. or formatting partitions. One processor handles the periodic system timer tick. OEMs can configure the FirstLogonCommand attribute in the Unattend. with C3 set as the deepest-sleep state and C0 as the operating state) by not activating the CPU unnecessarily. . This feature extends processor idle or deep C-states (processor sleep states within the ACPI specification. However. creating partitions. as well as your physical systems.) The amount of background work that is performed by the operating system has also been reduced in Windows Storage Server. This also allows processors to better utilize the deep C-states. other processors are signaled only as necessary. such as creating a RAID set. non-timer interrupts will still activate sleeping processors. Performing Highly Automated Installations You can automate the storage subsystem configuration settings in Windows Storage Server by customizing the Windows Storage Server Unattend. Servers without local storage that each consume less power Additional Power Saving Features Windows Storage Server includes Intelligent Timer Tick Distribution (or Tick Skipping). in which the processor consumes very little energy but requires time to return to an operational state.

and technologies for managing all workloads:  Initial Configuration Tasks window. You make the initial connection to Windows Storage Server using Internet Explorer and the Terminal Services Web Access Web site.  Remote Desktop Services Web Connection.  Management of Print services workloads. and customize the appliance by adding server roles and features. Group Policy provides an infrastructure for centralized configuration management of Windows Storage Server. Description of Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows 7. This feature requires only Internet Explorer to be installed on the computer used to manage Windows Storage Server. and the feature uses the remote desktop protocol (RDP) to communicate with Windows Storage Server. features.  Server Manager. Then you connect to Windows Storage Server using the Microsoft ActiveX® control included in Remote Desktop Client version 6. see Group Policy. For more information. identifying problems with server role configuration. see Windows Server Initial Configuration Tasks. This feature requires the Remote Desktop Client to be installed on the computer used to manage Windows Storage Server. and managing all roles installed on the server. Management Tools for All Workloads Windows Storage Server supports the following tools. some configuration is required to identify the appliance to other computing resources on your network.1 and later versions.  Management of file services workloads. After installing Windows Storage Server.  Remote Desktop Services Connection. and before deploying the new appliance in your enterprise.  Management of power consumption for all workloads. You can use Group Policy on any Windows Storage Server appliance that is a member of an Active Directory domain. For more information about the Initial Configuration Tasks window.  Management of Web services workloads. Server Manager in Windows Storage Server provides a single source for managing a server's identity and system information.  Management of iSCSI block I/O workloads. enable administrators to perform tasks on the appliance. You can remotely manage Windows Storage Server using the Remote Desktop Connection feature. You can run RSAT on 32-bit or 64-bit Windows operating systems. You can complete these tasks by using commands in the Initial Configuration Tasks window. see Server Manager. and you also can use it to manage 32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server. For more information about Server Manager.  Microsoft Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT). For more information. For more information about RSAT. For more information. displaying server status. secure the appliance. see Terminal Services in Windows Server 2008. RSAT allows you to remotely manage roles and features in Windows Storage Server from a computer running Windows Vista SP1 or a later Windows operating system. and the applications and services running on Windows Storage Server. see Terminal Services Web Access (TS Web Access). see Description of Windows Server 2008 Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows Vista Service Pack 1. and Remote Server Administration Tools Pack.  Group Policy. which opens immediately after the operating system installation is complete. .36 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing Windows Storage Server You can manage Windows Storage Server using the management features in each of the following areas:  Management tools for all workloads.

Managing Power Consumption for All Workloads Windows Storage Server also helps you better measure and manage power consumption. through Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI).NET Framework and is designed to help you automate the administration of Windows Storage Server. A vast library of existing Windows PowerShell scripts reduces the effort and learning curve for using Windows PowerShell to automate administrative tasks. For more information. You can run command-line programs. there are new features in Group Policy for Windows Storage Server. both locally and remotely across the enterprise. manage. providing a powerful and convenient way to capture and report information about power consumption. For centralized power policy management. Windows Storage Server supports the configuration of power policy. IT workers responsible for power management can control power policies and receive power condition events. or management tools in a manner that is compliant with the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) management profiles. scripts. see Windows PowerShell. In conjunction with server OEMs. only hardware platform support. and the applications and services that run on Windows Storage Server. including an improved user interface. You can perform disk management for any of the workloads using VDSenabled management tools. For more information. Windows Storage Server provides a new power namespace.37 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper    Windows PowerShell. Windows PowerShell is a task-based command-line shell and scripting language designed especially for system administration. Telnet. You can use any Telnet client to create a remote command console session on a Windows Storage Server appliance. Microsoft is pursuing an ACPI standards-based approach to the features that provide these capabilities. which enables code and scripts to query power data on compliant systems. and scripts in the remote command console session. and budget energy usage for individual servers and across the entire server environment. Windows PowerShell is built on the Microsoft . . just as if you were locally logged on to the host and using a local command prompt. providing them with the data they need to make informed and timely power management decisions. Diskraid command-line tool. see Telnet. VDS. and in turn making power consumption data an actionable metric. ensuring interoperability across the entire IT environment. root\cimv2\power. You can manage storage with VDS hardware providers using VDS-enabled management tools. Microsoft storage partners develop VDS hardware providers that allow management of their storage solutions. which provide the ability to manage Group Policy from the Windows PowerShell command line and to run Windows PowerShell scripts during logon and startup. both locally and remotely. exposes the data that is gathered to users. the infrastructure for management data and operations on Windows-based operating systems. Storage Manager for SANs snap-in. and Windows PowerShell™ cmdlets for Group Policy. Remote Manageability of Power Policy Key in Windows Storage Server is the greatly enhanced ability to measure. This is useful for IT administrators who use WMI queries in scripts to monitor and administer their infrastructure. WMI. additional policy settings. Power metering and budgeting in Windows Storage Server require no additional drivers or hardware changes. or the Share and Storage Management console. such as the Diskpart command-line tool.

prevent users from saving specific file types to the server. on datacenter components as small as a single server). An administrator can use the performance monitor on a server to view the moment-bymoment power consumption. Managing Disk Usage Quotas. Another set of metrics can be used for virtualization and consolidation. or in a more likely scenario. . The WMI namespace additions for power meters and supplies mean that the user mode power service can provide data to the WMI namespace. Fewer physical machines can lead to reduced costs through lower hardware and energy costs and through reduced management overhead. Microsoft recommends a collaborative model between the server platform and the operating system for power metering and budgeting (the process that lets administrators set power limits. You manage file services workloads running on Windows Storage Server by using:  File Server Resource Manager. the workloads of underutilized servers can be consolidated onto a smaller number of better-utilized physical machines using live migration (the ability to move virtual machines between servers with virtually no downtime) with Hyper-V. and generate comprehensive storage reports. the folder structure to store the files. An administrator can set power budgets for the servers and the system. and this means power data can be queried by Microsoft System Center and other management tools to budget and monitor power usage across the entire IT environment. and Storage Reports With the File Server Resource Manager snap-in. Now that power consumption is measurable. you can perform three tasks to manage storage resources on local or remote servers:  Quota management. Managing File Services Workloads Managing file services workloads includes managing disk volumes.38 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting The new power features introduce new opportunities for managing power consumption. Unauthorized File Types. The server platform reports information in-band to the Windows Storage Server through the use of ACPI. and can configure the system so that it automatically takes action when the budget is exceeded. or caps.  Single Instance Storage management tools. and the files themselves. Managing File Services Using File Server Resource Manager File Server Resource Manager is a suite of tools in Windows Storage Server that enables you to place storage limits on volumes and folders. it also aids in the planning and implementation of future changes to the storage infrastructure. Set soft or hard space limits on a volume or folder tree. You can create and apply quota templates with standard quota properties. it becomes an actionable metric for IT staff when appropriate hardware support is available.  Share and Storage Management. Based on the information gathered. the IT administrator can write a script or use Microsoft® System Center to centrally collect and monitor power consumption data across the datacenter.  DFS management tools. File Server Resource Manager not only helps you efficiently control and monitor existing storage resources from a central location.

 Are no longer essential to automatically remove the files from servers. or date of the file. file screening activity. and other common IT operations tasks. the user storing the files is the only individual who has any knowledge of the information stored in the files and other characteristics about the files.  Storage reports management. You need to be able to centrally categorize these files and then perform IT file operations based on the classification of the files. and mitigate risks.  Require different backup schedules to back up the files accordingly.  Contain sensitive information to encrypt those files. Even with this knowledge. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to establish policies for classifying files and then performing common administrative tasks based on the classification.  Perform file management tasks based on the file classification that you define.  Notify content owners when a file management task is going to be performed on their content. Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure Managing data stored on file services is usually challenging because of the sheer number of files being stored on network shared folders.  Generate reports about the types of information stored in the files in your intranet. You can create and apply screening templates with standard file exclusions. Define filtering rules that monitor or block attempts by users to save certain file types on a volume or folder tree. see File Server Resource Manager.39 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  File screening management. such as sensitivity or criticality of the information in them. and patterns of storage use. size. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure in Windows Storage Server provides insight into your data to help you manage your data more effectively. data archival schedule.  Are not accessed frequently to move the files to slower. Policy-based Classification of Files One of the key advantages to the Windows File Classification Infrastructure is the ability to centrally manage the classification of the files by establishing classification policies .  Create or purchase custom file management solutions based on the Windows File Classification Infrastructure. more affordable storage solutions. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to:  Centrally define policy-based classification of the files stored in your intranet. or through a command-line interface. The File Classification Infrastructure feature is also managed with the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. You can also apply quota and file screening policies when you provision a shared folder. Because users store files on a network shared with little or no restrictions. Generate built-in reports to track quota usage. rather than on only simple information such as the location. reduce costs. you cannot rely on the user to properly determine the proper classification of information.  Require different backup solutions based on the sensitivity of the information in the files. For more information. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to identify files that:  Contain sensitive information on servers with lower security to move the files to servers with higher security. but is covered separately in the “Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure” section in this white paper.

or add the value to properties that support multiple values. the content owners can be notified in advance and given the opportunity to prevent the files from being archived or deleted. Without classification of the files. You can automatically delete data by using policies based on data age or classification properties to free valuable storage space and intelligently reduce storage demand growth. and string values. when files become old enough to be automatically expired. This centralized approach allows you to classify user files without requiring their intervention. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to:  Define classification properties and values. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to generate reports in multiple formats that can provide statistical information about the files stored on each file server. Property types can include Boolean. Execute custom commands based on age. And the extensible nature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to integrate with existing messaging systems or information portals. Reporting on Information Stored in Files Most IT organizations have no easy method of providing information about the types of files that are stored and managed. which can be assigned to files on a per-server basis by running classification rules. For example. Improved Development of File Management Tasks You can extend the file management features of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure by creating your own custom file management solution or purchasing a file management solution from an independent software vendor. date.  Create. including:  Grooming of data. IT administrators are able to automatically move data based on policies for either centralizing the location of sensitive data or for moving data to a less expensive storage resource. File Management Tasks The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to perform file management tasks based on the classifications that you define using the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. You can use the reporting infrastructure to generate information that can be used by another application (such as a comma separated variable format text file that could be imported into Microsoft® Excel®). For example. there is minimal information that can be used to help identify the usage of the files. The architecture of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows the use of any supported development . numbered. and run classification rules. You can choose to overwrite existing classification values. optionally re-evaluate files that are already classified. update.  Custom Tasks. Each rule assigns a single predefined property and value to files within a specified directory. ordered lists. You can also select the method for notification based on the type of file management task being performed.  When running a classification rule.40 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper using the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. the sensitivity of the files. File Owner Notification of File Management Tasks Another feature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure that reduces your administrative effort is the ability to send notifications to content owners when an automated file management task runs. based on installed classification plug-ins. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to automate any file management task by using the file classifications you establish for your organization. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to help you perform common file management tasks. and other relevant information about the files. location or other classification categories.

security.41 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper environments for Windows Storage Server including Windows PowerShell and Microsoft Visual Basic® Scripting Edition (VBScript). and offline access to files in the shared resource. This structure . You can manage storage on disks available on your server. and create file screens to limit the type of files that can be stored in it.  Format a volume.  Stop the sharing of a folder or volume. Each vendor supplies the VDS Hardware Provider. DFS Namespaces lets you group shared folders located on different servers into one or more logically structured namespaces.  If File Server Resource Manager is installed. For example. Each namespace appears to users as a single shared folder with a series of subfolders. defragmentation. offline availability and indexing. which can be installed and configured for use in Windows Storage Server. you could write Windows PowerShell scripts to manage files based on the classifications you define for your organization.  Access disk tools for error checking. You can perform the following tasks using this tool:  Extend the size of a volume. You can perform the following tasks using this tool:  Specify the folder or volume that you want to share or create a new folder to share.  Manage the share access permissions. The technologies in DFS include the following:  DFS Namespaces. This architecture allows you to select the level of programming sophistication required to automate your file management tasks. Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication The Distributed File System (DFS) technologies offer wide area network (WAN)-friendly replication as well as simplified.  Change volume properties like compression. Managing File Services Using Share and Storage Management Share and Storage Management in Windows Storage Server provides a centralized location for you to perform:  Shared resource management.  Delete a volume.  Specify the network sharing protocol used to access the shared resource. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider.  Multi-vendor storage management. see Overview of Share and Storage Management.  Manage NFS-based access permissions for the shared resource.  Manage the local NTFS permissions for the folder or volume you will be sharing. or on storage subsystems that have a VDS Hardware Provider using Share and Storage Management. apply storage quotas to the new shared resource. highly-available access to geographically dispersed files. You can configure shared folders for SMB or NFS protocols and DFS settings using Share and Storage Management.  See which users are currently accessing a folder or a file and disconnect a user if necessary. user limits.  Publish the shared resource to a DFS namespace. and backup. For more information about Share and Storage Management.

you can use read-only DFS Replication to publish data from a head office to branch offices where users in the branch office should not change the data.  Read-only DFS Replication.  DFS Replication. DFS Replication is an efficient. This can greatly reduce the amount of traffic transferred over limited-bandwidth networks.exe  DfsrDiag. see Distributed File System. and re-arrangements of data in files.exe  DfsCmd. and the data is not replicated back to the head office. Read-only DFS Replication is a secure method for replicating data where read-only access is required to the data.  Using DFS to replicate file services workloads for disaster recovery scenarios. see Replication. see DFS Management.exe You also can use DFS to replicate files and folders in geographically dispersed environments so that users have a local copy of the files and folders.  The following command line tools:  DfsUtil. RDC detects insertions. removals. you can replicate files and folders to another location using DFS for disaster recovery scenarios.  The DFS Management snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. instead of routing them over WAN connections.  For more information about DFS Replication.exe  DfsrAdmin. see the section "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. when available.exe  DfsDiag. For example. DFS Replication uses a new compression algorithm known as remote differential compression (RDC). In addition. as well as AD DS SYSVOL folder replication in domains that use the Windows Server 2008 domain functional level. RDC is a "diff-over-the wire" client-server protocol that can be used to efficiently update files over a limited-bandwidth network.  Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication. such as in Branch office locations. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Securing File Services Workloads”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” You can manage DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication using the:  The DFS Management snap-in hosted by Server Manager." later in this white paper. For more information. For more information about:  DFS. enabling DFS Replication to replicate only the changed file blocks when files are updated.42 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper increases availability and automatically connects users to shared folders in the same AD DS site. . multiple-master replication engine that you can use to keep folders synchronized between servers across limited bandwidth network connections. which replaces the File Replication Service (FRS) as the replication engine for DFS Namespaces.

The Single Instance Storage Filter is a file system filter service that redirects reads to the common store and performs the replacement of file pointers when users start changing a duplicate file. which is a hidden folder located in the root directory of the volume. Failover cluster support. Supports remote drives. Identifying Single Instance Storage Specifications Table 12 lists the specifications for the Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server. For more information about:  The Single Instance Storage feature. Ability to undo single instancing of files. Single Instance Storage Feature Specifications in Windows Storage Server Specification Maximum number of volumes per appliance.  Managing Single Instance Storage using Sisadmin. WMI support. The Single Instance Storage Filter runs in kernel mode.  Single Instance Storage Filter. but the primary administration tool for this feature is Sisadmin.exe. You can also automate the administration of Single Instance Storage using Windows PowerShell scripting or any other scripting language that supports WMI. The Groveler service runs in user-mode. Support backup of single instance of file using Single Instance Storage APIs in sisbkup. Support files with extended attributes. see Single Instance Storage.exe. Table 12. The Groveler service scans the hard-disk volumes on a server for duplicate copies of files. Value 128 Yes Yes Yes 32 KB Yes Yes No No No No Yes . see Managing SIS Using SisAdmin. Identifying Single Instance Storage Management Tools You can enable or disable Single Instance Storage on a volume through the Share and Storage Management console. Single Instance Storage does this by replacing duplicate files with logical links that point to a single copy of the file in the SIS Common Store. Supports replication of files using DFS Replication. The Groveler discovers duplicate files and initiates the deduplication of files.dll.exe.43 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing Single Instance Storage The Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server reduces the amount of space used to store data on a volume. Supports system drives. Identifying Single Instance Storage Architecture Single Instance Storage consists of the following components that together maintain a database of file signatures:  Groveler service. Minimum file size supported. Requires volumes to be formatted as NTFS. Supports boot drives.

see Single Instance Storage Cmdlets in Windows PowerShell. Windows PowerShell Cmdlets for Managing Single Instance storage Category SIS linked files SIS disk volumes Cmdlet and description         Get-SisLinkFile. Returns a list of all the linked files and the corresponding filename in the SIS Common Store. Table 13. Set-SisVolume. and connections to storage arrays. which is included in Windows Storage Server.  Number of files in the SIS Common Store. Table 14 lists the Windows PowerShell cmdlets included in the SingleInstanceStorage module and provides a brief description of each cmdlet. Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The types of management tasks for disk block I/O workload include managing iSCSI targets.44 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Typical Reduction in Storage Usage Using Single Instance Storage The extent to which the Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server can help reduce storage usage depends on the number of duplicate files stored on the appliance. In this scenario. Displays a SIS summary report for each volume. In this scenario. Installs SIS on a volume. Disables SIS on a volume. This will cause all linked files to revert to the original file stored in the SIS common store. Lists all the volumes that have SIS installed enabled. build and release provides the largest reduction of storage usage. IT organizations typically realize storage savings of more than 50 percent. Files stored in user home folders provide the most typical scenario where the larger reduction of storage usage is realized. Get-SisVolumeReport. Enable-SisVolume.  Percentage of the volume saved. Get-SisVolume. Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell You can manage the Single Instance Storage feature using the SingleInstanceStorage module. including the:  Spaced saved. virtual disks. IT organizations typically realize storage savings that average from 10 percent to 30 percent. Uninstalls SIS from a volume. Uninstall-SisVolume. For files in a software development environment.  Number of linked files. For more information about managing the Single Instance Storage feature using Windows PowerShell. Disable-SisVolume. Install-SisVolume. You can manage iSCSI block I/O workloads running on Windows Storage Server for the following components:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator . Enables SIS on a volume. Configures SIS after it has been installed on a volume.

You manage iSCSI targets using the iSCSI Targets node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. and the most current version of the . For more information about using virtual disk snapshots for backup and in disaster recovery scenarios. Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Snap-in Typical tasks that you use the Microsoft iSCSI Target snap-in to perform include managing:  iSCSI targets.  Virtual disk snapshots. see the section "Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect iSCSI Block I/O Workload Data.45 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target feature allows Windows Storage Server appliances to act as an iSCSI target. but a virtual disk can only be managed by one iSCSI target. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. there is a potential for conflict between the computers running the iSCSI initiators. Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Using Share and Storage Management Console You can manage storage on the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using Share and Storage Management. see:  Configuring the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. you assign just one iSCSI initiator to each iSCSI target. For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider. You manage virtual disks using the iSCSI Targets node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. You manage virtual disks using the Snapshots node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. All current Windows operating systems support the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. An iSCSI target can manage multiple virtual disks." later in this white paper. For more information about managing Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI block I/O workloads. Virtual disk snapshots are point-in-time copies of virtual disks that you can use to back up active virtual disks for disaster recover scenarios or to restore a LUN to a previous state.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. iSCSI targets are the logical endpoint to which an iSCSI initiator connects. Typically. through an Ethernet network adapter.  Virtual disks. Virtual disks are the LUNs that the computer running an iSCSI initiator uses. see Overview of Share and Storage Management. such as Share and Storage Management. You can manage this feature by using the:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. If you assign multiple iSCSI initiators to the same iSCSI target. The most typical reason for assigning multiple iSCSI initiators to the same iSCSI target is for shared storage in failover clusters. For more information about Share and Storage Management.3 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator enables you to connect Windows operating systems to an external iSCSI-based storage array. see the previous section.  Share and Storage Management console. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target includes the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider that allows LUNs on Windows Storage Server to be managed by any application that uses VDS. "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for VSS and VDS Providers" in this white paper.

Table 14 lists the Windows PowerShell cmdlets included in the MicrosoftIscsiTarget module and provides a brief description of each cmdlet. Get-IscsiVirtualDisk.3 using the MicrosoftIscsiTarget module. Obtains the iSCSI targets and their associated properties from the local server or specified computer. You can manage the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator by using the:  Graphical user interface in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator.46 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator is version 2. Get-IscsiServerTarget. Set-IscsiServerTarget. Modifies settings for the iSCSi target and returns the corresponding iSCSI target object if the PassThru parameter is specified. Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell You can manage the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. The VHD file is not deleted. Windows PowerShell Cmdlets for Managing Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Version 3. Obtains the iSCSI virtual disks and their associated properties. Remove-IscsiVirtualDisk. Remove-IscsiServerTarget.exe tool from a command line. Once a virtual disk has been assigned to a target. the iSCSI target can be assigned to an iSCSI initiator. Set-IscsiVirtualDisk. such as those described in the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration. Modifies the settings for the virtual disk and returns the corresponding iSCSI virtual disk object if the PassThru parameter is specified." later in the white paper.    Virtual disk management     . Table 14. Afterwards.  iSCSI Control Panel configuration utility (iSCSICPL. Creates a new iSCSI virtual hard disk (VHD) object with the specified file path and size. Deletes an iSCSI target object.  iSCSICLI.3 Category iSCSI target management Cmdlet and description  New-IscsiServerTarget Creates a new iSCSI target object with the specified name. see the Microsoft iSCSI Initiator Step-by-Step Guide. For more information about managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator.exe). which is included in Windows Storage Server. Deletes the iSCSI virtual disk object. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Storage Server allows the server software to connect to other external iSCSIbased storage arrays. an iSCSI initiator can access the virtual disk after the initiator connects to the target. New-IscsiVirtualDisk. An iSCSI initiator cannot access the VHD or LUN after the target is deleted. and then a virtual disk can be associated with the target. the virtual disk can be assigned to an iSCSI target. Afterwards.08.

Assigns a virtual disk to an iSCSI target. Use IIS 6. Removes the assignment between a virtual disk and iSCSI target. you can combine commands to return more complex data about objects on your web server or to perform tasks that are more complex. see PowerShell cmdlets for the Microsoft iSCSI Target 3. Once a virtual disk has been assigned to a target. which lets you:  Manage IIS and ASP. see IIS Manager (IIS 7). an iSCSI initiator can access the virtual disk after the initiator connects to the target. Tools for Managing Web Services Workloads in Windows Storage Server Tool Internet Information Services Manager snap-in Description You can manage IIS 7 using the Internet Information Services Manager snap-in.0.exe to configure and query objects on your web server.47 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Category LUN management Cmdlet and description  Add-VirtualDiskTargetMapping.0 tools to manage FTP sites. and for managing Web services workloads. For more information. reducing the complexity of learning syntax.  Connect to a web server.NET in one tool. you can complete complex tasks like stopping all sites with pending requests that have been running longer than sixty seconds.exe.exe You can manage IIS 7 using the command-line tool Appcmd. .  View health and diagnostic information that includes the ability to view currently running requests in real time.  Configure user and role authorization for sites and applications. All the virtual disks assigned to the same iSCSI target will be accessible by the connected iSCSI initiator. For example. Appcmd.  For more information about managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.  Delegate site and application configuration to nonadministrators. In addition. For more information.Appcmd. Note You cannot use IIS Manager to manage FTP sites in IIS 7 on Windows Storage Server. Table 15.3 using Windows PowerShell. Remove-VirtualDiskTargetMapping. site. and to return output in text or you can use XML.0. The management tools available for managing IIS 7. are listed in Table 15. which provides consistent commands for common queries and configuration tasks. or application remotely by using HTTP. The virtual disk will be no longer accessible by an iSCSI initiator once the assignment is removed.exe.3. Managing Web Services Workloads Web services workloads in Windows Storage Server can be managed by any of the management methods available for IIS 7. see Appcmd.

allowing those apps to service HTTP requests directly.  Hostable Web Core. These enhancements include updates to:  Configuration Editor. contains classes and methods that enable you to script administration of websites.config file. Utilizing the extensible and modular architecture introduced with IIS 7. the new IIS 7. see Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) in IIS 7. In addition. support. Scripts using WMI Windows Storage Server includes the following features which help reduce administration.5 release that make it possible to manage obscure settings such as those used for FastCGI and ASP.5 supports the use of managed service accounts for application pool identities. and their associated objects and properties using any scripting language that supports WMI. The Windows PowerShell Provider for IIS is a Windows PowerShell snap-in that allows you to perform IIS administrative tasks. such as Windows PowerShell. By blocking specific HTTP requests. this feature lets the core IIS Web engine to be consumed or hosted by other applications. unless they have been locked to prevent changes. Configuration Editor exposes several configuration settings that are not exposed elsewhere in IIS Manager.1.NET module allows management of authorization and custom error settings. a collection of task-oriented cmdlets provide a simple way to manage websites. Available through a set of APIs. see Configuration Store (IIS 7). IIS 7.  IIS Manager UI extensions. The IIS 7 WMI provider namespace. This module includes the filtering features previously found in URLScan 3. web applications. The FastCGI module. Windows Storage Server allows domain-based service accounts to have passwords that are managed by AD DS.config file and can also be distributed among Web. Settings configured at one level are inherited automatically by lower levels. These new type of accounts reduce the recurrent administrative task of having to update passwords on processes running with these accounts. web applications and web servers. and manage IIS configuration and run-time data. By default.  Managed service accounts.  Enhancements to IIS Manager.48 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Tool Configuration store Description You can manage IIS 7 using the XML-based configuration store that is modeled after the ASP.5 integrates and enhances existing extensions and allows for further enhancements and customizations in the future. WebAdministration. For more information. the Request Filter module helps prevent potentially harmful requests from being processed by Web applications on the server. and troubleshooting effort:  Automation of common tasks through the PowerShell provider. IIS configuration is stored in the ApplicationHost.NET configuration.  Request Filtering. Developers are able to service HTTP requests directly in their applications by using the hostable Web core feature. New features have been added to IIS Manager for the 7. For more information. The Request Filtering user interface provides a graphical user interface for configuring the Request Filtering module.NET applications or adding and editing request filtering rules through a graphical user interface. for example. You can use WMI to build scripts for web administration.config files for sites. allows management of FastCGI settings while the ASP. applications.0. The hostable . and directories. Allows you to manage any configuration section available in the configuration system. the server administrator is the only user who has permission to view and edit the ApplicationHost.

optional role services.5.5 provides enhanced auditing of changes to IIS and application configuration. The new Configuration Logging feature in IIS 7. Server Manager also displays print-related events from Event Viewer and includes an instance of the Print Management snap-in. In IIS 7. This provides logging of both reads and writes. Table 16. see Server Manager and the Print Services Role.exe tool in a startup script (for percomputer connections) or in a logon script (for per-user connections). changes to path mappings. see the Print Management Step-by-Step Guide. Tools for Managing Print Services Workloads in Windows Storage Server Tool Server Manager Description Use Server Manager to install the Print Services server role. The Print Management snap-in provides current details about the status of printers and print servers on the network. It can also send email notifications or run scripts when a printer or print server needs attention. Failed Request Tracing for FastCGI. For more information. You can access the BPA through Server Manager and Windows PowerShell.5 Web server and reporting on potential configuration issues found. For more information. Print Management can also help you find printers that have an error condition by using filters.5 is a management tool that can help you reduce best practice violations by scanning an IIS 7. For more information. Enhanced auditing of changes to IIS 7. Use Print Management with Group Policy to automatically deploy printer connections to users or computers and install the appropriate printer drivers for computers running Windows Vista and later Windows operating systems. Print Management can display more data. The BPA for IIS 7.49 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper    Web core feature is useful for enabling basic Web server capabilities for custom applications or for debugging applications. see the Print Management Step-by-Step Guide.5 and application configuration. and features. For Windows operating systems prior to Windows Vista. which can administer the local server only. On printers that provide a web-based management interface. Use Print Management to install printer connections to a group of client computers simultaneously and to monitor print queues remotely. PHP developers can use the FastCGI module to include IIS trace calls in their applications. This reduces the effort required for debugging code during development and troubleshooting application errors after deployment by using IIS Failed Request Tracing. such as toner and paper levels. as well as logon attempts. file creations and more. Print Management snap-in Group Policy . Best Practices Analyzer (BPA). use the PushPrinterConnections. Managing Print Services Workloads The Print services workloads in Windows Storage Server that the Print Server role provides can be managed by using the tools listed in Table 16. which allows you to track the configuration changes made to your test and production environments.

and language monitors. printer ports. see Printer Management Using PowerShell. and then import them on another print server that is running a Windows operating system. For more information. Printbrm. Use Windows PowerShell to manage print services workloads.exe command-line tool Windows PowerShell . printer settings. see the Print Migration Tool.50 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Tool Printer Migration Wizard Description The Printer Migration Wizard allows you to export print queues. For more information about using Windows PowerShell to manage print services workloads. Provides the same features and functionality as the Printer Migration Wizard. This is an efficient way to consolidate multiple print servers or replace an older print server.

You can protect the data managed by Windows Storage Server using:  The Windows Server Backup feature. folders. and technologies. which will restore your complete system onto the new hard disk by using a full server backup and the Windows Recovery Environment. and reduce the risk of potential data loss.  The DFS Replication feature.exe tool to backup IIS configuration.  The PrintBRM. tools.  Perform backups of applications like SQL Server to protect application data using VSS functionality. You cannot perform backups to tape. helps protect the data managed by Windows Storage Server. or the system state.  Perform a system recovery in case of disasters like hard disk failures. which is available separately. . Note In addition to the products and technologies discussed in this section.  The Automated System Recovery feature. certain applications.  Does not implement a method of including media rotation strategies.  The Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature.  System Center Data Protection Manager. DVDs. and shared folders. Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data The Windows Server Backup feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 consists of a MMC snap-in and command-line tools that provide a solution for backup and recovery requirements.51 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protecting Windows Storage Server Workload Data One of the essential aspects to ongoing operations of Windows Storage Server workloads is the ability to protect the data that the server software manages. you can use most backup and disaster recovery products offered by Microsoft partners for Windows Server 2008 to protect data managed by Windows Storage Server.  The Appcmd. and the system state. support of tape storage drivers is still included in Windows Storage Server.  The Volume Shadow Copy Service feature.  Cannot back up shared storage in a failover cluster if the storage is moved between active nodes. However. Table 17 lists the features and limitations of this feature.  Does not include the ability to e-mail or provide notification of the backup status report. Limitations Windows Server Backup has the following limitations:  Supports backing up only to external and internal disks.  Does not support a centralized monitoring ability for enterprise environments.  Can only back up volumes 2 terabyte or less in size. Table 17. files. Features and Limitations of Windows Server Backup Features Use Windows Server Backup to:  Back up a full server (all volumes). Using proper backup and disaster recovery processes.  Recover volumes.  The LUN resynchronization capabilities. selected volumes.exe tool to backup printer information.

see the section "Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data. If your backup and recovery requirements are affected by any of the limitations listed above. Accessing previous versions of files. You can use previous versions when you want to check what has changed between the versions of a file. You cannot enable this feature for specific shared folders and files on a volume. you can open a previous version and copy it to a safe location." later in this white paper. The Shadow Copies for Shared Folders features uses the Volume Shadow Copy Service to create the file copies.M. Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data The Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature in Windows Storage Server is a feature in Windows Server that transparently maintains previous versions of files on selected volumes by using shadow copies. Shadow copies are read-only and as such you cannot edit the contents of a shadow copy. If you accidentally overwrite a file.52 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Features Limitations  Only supports backup of entire volumes (cannot be used to backup individual files and folders. or shadow copies. For more information. you can recover a previous version of the file. Monday through Friday. the oldest shadow copy will be deleted and cannot be retrieved). Shadow Copies of Shared Folders is enabled for an entire volume. is useful because you can:  Recover files that were accidentally deleted.  Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. This feature allows a user to restore selective files or folders from previous versions without IT assistance. see:  Shadow Copies for Shared Folders Technical Reference. For more information. With Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. It works by taking snapshots of an entire volume at particular points in time.   The default storage area is on the same volume and its size requires 10 percent of the available space. There is a limit of 64 shadow copies per volume (when this limit is reached. and 12:00 P. contact the appropriate Microsoft partner. you can view shared files and folders as they existed at points of time in the past.M.)  Compare versions of a file while working. Note For more information about the Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature. If you accidentally delete a file. consider using:  System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. Note This default task can be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. The default configuration for this feature is as follows:  A default task is scheduled to create shadow copies at 7:00 A.  Recover from accidentally overwriting a file. .  Only supports backup of local volumes (cannot be used to backup network shared folders). (The number of versions depends on how many snapshots you have created.  Backup and recovery solutions from Microsoft partners.

53 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data The Volume Shadow Copy Service feature in Windows Storage Server provides the ability to take point-in-time snapshots of files and is the foundation for other applications or features. The volume that contains the data to be shadow copied. or a system service like Active Directory. An application that requests that a volume shadow copy be taken. Examples include the system provider included with the Windows Storage Server operating system. Figure 7 illustrates the architecture of the Volume Copy Shadow Service in Windows Storage Server. For example. Shadow Copy of Shared Folders feature. this is a database application like SQL Server or Exchange Server." and "Virtual Disk Snapshots" in this white paper. System Center Data Protection Manager. the Windows Server Backup feature. or the Diskshadow command-line tool. Typically. such as those in the sections about "Windows Server Backup. A component that creates and maintains the shadow copies. The volume that holds the shadow copy storage files for the system copy-on-write software provider." "Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. A component of an application that stores persistent information on one or more volumes that participate in shadow copy synchronization. Figure 7. Components in the Volume Shadow Copy Architecture Component Volume Shadow Copy Service Requestor Description A service that coordinates various components to create consistent shadow copies of one or more volumes. This architecture allows the point-in-time snapshots of files stored in Windows Storage Server. Writer Provider Source volume Storage volume . and the hardware providers included with storage arrays. Volume Shadow Copy Service Architecture Table 18 lists the components in the Volume Shadow Copy Service architecture and how the components relate to each other. Table 18.

see the "Hardware Providers" section of Virtual Disks and Snapshots. LUN resynchronization is a method for quickly restoring volumes that takes advantage of the capabilities of storage arrays. of the virtual hard disks managed by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Traditional volume shadow copy service Recovers only a volume.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. LUN resynchronization creates hardware-based shadow copies that allow you to recover a volume from an existing shadow copy of the volume. such as SANs. The Volume Shadow Copy Services uses the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider to create these snapshots.54 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper As described in Table 18 and illustrated in Figure 7. Performed by storage array hardware. LUN resynchronization uses the same application programming interfaces (APIs) that are used by the Volume Shadow Copy Service. or development environments.exe command-line tool to manage Volume Shadow Copy Services for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Typically takes less time than restoring by using traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service. . This allows you to create shadow copies of entire LUNs. Table 19. and then restore from those shadow copies. Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data Windows Server 2008 R2 includes support for LUN resynchronization (also known as LUN resynch or LUN revert). You can also use LUN resynchronization to help quickly create duplicates of productions LUNs for use in a storage environment for backup or in test. which may contain multiple volumes. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service LUN resynchronization Recovers entire LUN. see Volume Shadow Copy Service Technical Reference. Note You can use DiskShadow. or copies. For more information about the:  Volume Shadow Copy Service. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service Window Server 2008 R2 LUN resynchronization support is an extension of the features provided by the Volume Shadow Copy Service in Windows Server 2008 R2. the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider is required to create point-in-time snapshots. Table 19 lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and current features in Volume Shadow Copy Service. using the inherent snapshot or copying features in the storage array. Performed by server computer. Typically takes more time than restoring by using LUN resynchronization.

LUN swap Source (shadow copy) LUN becomes the active LUN and is modified. Source LUN can be used for recovery again. This allows the server to continue processing other workloads with the same performance while the LUN resynchronization process completes. Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization The benefits of LUN resynchronization include the following:  Perform recovery of volumes with minimal disruption of service. Destination LUN does not have to exist or can be unusable. less expensive storage.  Compatibility with future improvements. future versions of Windows Server will also provide support for LUN resynchronization. the server hardware resources are only minimally affected. supported APIs in Windows Server 2008 R2. users can continue to access data on the volume while the synchronization is being performed. After the recovery of a volume using LUN resynchronization is initiated. Source LUN can exist on slower. The destination LUN is the target LUN that will be synchronized or swapped with the source LUN. Contains only the information on the source LUN. Because LUN resynchronization uses published. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap LUN resynchronization Source (shadow copy) LUN remains unmodified after the resynchronization completes. a shadow copy version of a LUN is exchanged with the active LUN. and any information written during the resynchronization.55 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap LUN swap is a fast volume recovery scenario supported since the release of Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1). The APIs used to perform LUN resynchronization are the same APIs that perform a traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service recovery. Must create another shadow copy to perform recovery.  Integration with existing volume recovery methods. Although there may be a reduction in performance. Destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN. Because the hardware storage array is performing the resynchronization. Requires that the destination LUN exists and is usable.  Reduce the workload while recovering volumes. The source LUN is the shadow copy of the LUN that contains the data you wish to use. users and applications are still able to access their data. . This helps ensure that you can use the same tools and processes for a traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service recovery. Source LUN must have the same performance as the production LUN. Table 20 lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and a LUN swap. Table 20. In a LUN swap.

56 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization Before you can perform a full volume recovery using LUN synchronization. You can make full or differential shadow copies of the LUN. because that information is not copied during the backup process. see the section "Creating Branch Office Solutions" later in this white paper. Using Automated System Recovery to Protect Data While backing up data to tape protects mission critical data from catastrophic events. Restoring the base operating system plus the backup application (the minimum required to restore backed up applications and data) is a time intensive process. The source and destination LUNs are identified. plus any data that was written to the destination LUN during the LUN resynchronization process. 2. A critically damaged hard drive will lose all critical registry information. You can use DFS Replication to create replica copies of data in a centralized location and then back up the replica copies. The LUN resynchronization is initiated between the source (shadow copy) and the destination LUNs. system files. such as fire or electrical surges. volume requests are directed to the destination LUN. you need to have a hardware shadow copy (snapshot) of the LUN. Note At the end of the LUN resynchronization process. 4. a system administrator prepares for such a disaster by saving to physical media a complete backup set of information about the how the server was configured. You can find more information about how these steps are performed by viewing the Volume Shadow Copy Service APIs on MSDN®. The following includes the sequence of events that occur when performing a full volume restore using LUN synchronization: 1. and in the Windows Software Development Kit (SDK) for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. users can access the volume using the following methods:  For read operations.  For write operations. it does nothing to protect system software stored on the hard drive. you can use this method in branch office scenarios to create replica copies of data in the branch offices in the head office and then back up the data in the head office. The LUN resynchronization completes and all user requests are now performed from the destination LUN. and disk partition information. 5. In the event of system failure. including any volume information. this backup set is used with the ASR restore CD (which contains the necessary software and drivers to allow the restore) to rapidly restore all system setup information. ASR is tightly integrated with VSS. Using DFS Replication to Protect Data DFS Replication can be used as part of a centralized backup solution. volume requests are directed to the source LUN. nothing remains but the bare metal. For example. 3. the source LUN is unmodified and the destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN. . The LUN resynchronization continues by performing a block-level copy from the source (shadow copy) LUN to the destination LUN. During the LUN resynchronization. With the Automated System Recovery (ASR) technology in Windows Storage Server. For more information about DFS Replication in branch office scenarios for data protection.

Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 is designed to provide and restore Windows Server applications. This change removes a previous problem in which dynamic disks were always recreated even if a restoration was not necessary. or data corruption resulting from a malicious program. Focused on the primary Microsoft server workloads. A snapshot is a point-in-time. which recreates all critical volumes and restores the required data. Combined with Windows Server technology. Data Protection Manager 2007 protects core Windows Server workloads by continuously capturing data changes with application-aware byte-level agents. Windows 2008 also provides the Recovery Console that utilizes the Windows Recovery Environment (Windows RE).  Snapshots are useful for fast system recovery of files and volumes. Data Protection Manager 2007 enables IT administrators and users to easily recover data in minutes from easily accessible disk instead of locating and restoring from less-reliable tapes. SharePoint® Portal Server. a version of Windows PE that contains numerous troubleshooting and system resolution utilities. Data Protection Manager 2007 includes the following benefits:  Continuous data protection for Windows application and file services workloads. and one-click lossless application recovery.57 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper ASR provides a VSS Writer for the preparation of an ASR set. and Windows Server operating systems. They offer the following advantages:  Snapshots can be scheduled to be created automatically. . Data Protection Manager 2007 was specifically designed to protect and recover files services for SQL Server. Data Protection Manager 2007 combines the best aspects of CDP real-time protection with traditional tape backup/restore to provide a comprehensive disk-to-disk-to-tape data recovery solution. Data Protection Manager 2007 provides technically advanced and comprehensive data protection for organizations ranging in size from small business environments to enterprise environments. you can schedule and create snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks. read-only copy of an iSCSI virtual disk.  Advanced technology for enterprises of all sizes. Exchange Server. They can be extended to provide extra capacity on demand.  Rapid and reliable recovery. providing an easy-to-manage and robust disk/tape back-end platform. Finally. see System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. in addition to supporting dynamic disks. ASR has been enhanced to support EFI system partitions. overwritten data. These virtual disks offer flexible and effective storage. which are files in the fixed virtual hard disk (VHD) format. in case of accidental data deletion by a user.  Snapshots are space-efficient because they are differential copies. During a restore operation the ASR VSS writer is executed within the Windows PE environment. Microsoft Virtual Server. Snapshots are useful for backups. For more information about System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. Data Protection Manager 2007 blends the best aspects of continuous data protection (CDP) to disk storage with traditional tape backup. minimize the time required to create disks. In addition. enable efficient storage utilization. To facilitate backup and recovery operations. and minimize the down time that is typically required to install new disks. Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect Data The disks you create by using the iSCSI Software Target are iSCSI virtual disks.

or archival media and then later used to restore the data in the event of a failure. servers.0 using this tool.58 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper   Snapshots can be mounted locally or exported to facilitate backup and recovery operations. Using the Appcmd. For example. Uses for Virtual Disk Snapshots Scenario Provide disaster recovery Create a restore point Use of the virtual disk snapshots The snapshots can be saved to other appliances. To perform backups of the virtual disks. Snapshots do not require that you close files or stop programs when you create them. The PrintBRM. see Virtual Disks and Snapshots. Virtual disk snapshots require the Volume Shadow Copy Service and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider. the snapshot must be created from the iSCSI initiator computer by using the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider and other backup software that works with the Volume Shadow Copy Service. see How to backup/restore IIS7 configuration. see Migrate Print Servers.exe tool in Windows Storage Server. Table 21. The snapshot can be used to provide the ability to rollback services to a previous version. You can back up the configuration files for IIS 7.  The Volume Shadow Copy Service. so application servers can continue servicing clients without disruption. Note Snapshots that are created on the iSCSI target server are crash consistent.exe Tool to Backup Printer Information You can protect data managed by Print services workloads using the PrintBRM. Using the PrintBRM." in this white paper. To create an application-consistent snapshot.exe tool in Windows Storage Server. . For more information. Table 21 lists scenarios for using virtual disk snapshots. For more information about:  Virtual disks and virtual disk snapshots.exe tool. you could create snapshots prior to performing an upgrade to provide the ability to roll back the environment should the upgrade fail.exe Tool to Backup IIS Configuration You can protect data managed by Web services workloads using the Appcmd. For more information about the Appcmd. Most modern file systems can recover from this state. see the previous section "Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data. you need to use backup software that works with Volume Shadow Copy Service from a Microsoft partner.exe tool allows you to export printer information on a periodic basis as a way of backing up a print server.

Table 22 lists the features or technologies that you can use to secure Windows Storage Server. regardless of the workloads running on Windows Storage Server. Table 22. Secure Windows Storage Server workloads by securing:  Windows Storage Server for all workloads  File services workloads  Disk block I/O workloads  Web services workloads  Print services workloads Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads Before securing specific workloads. These security measures can be implemented. For more information. Security Features or Technologies for All Workloads Feature or technology BitLocker Drive Encryption Description BitLocker Drive Encryption. In addition. For more information. stolen. Windows Storage Server includes all of the security features and technologies found in Windows Server. help prevent unauthorized local and network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. and is used for accessing all workloads. NTFS permissions NTFS permissions. passwords. Services (AD DS) accounts. This is especially important for Branch Office scenarios where the physical security may not be as strong as in a data center. This encryption helps protect the data by preventing unauthorized users from breaking Windows file and system protection on lost. see Active Directory Domain Services Overview.59 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Securing Windows Storage Server Workloads Windows Storage Server includes a number of features and technologies to help you secure your workloads. encrypts data stored on hard disks. included in Windows Storage Server. see the section "NTFS Permissions" in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. access to files and folders are defined by the combination of NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions. . see BitLocker Drive Encryption. or inappropriately decommissioned appliances. Active Directory Domain AD DS provides centralized management of credentials. NTFS permissions work with share folder permissions to help prevent unauthorized network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. you can further secure your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. For more information. included in Windows Storage Server. secure the Windows Storage Server operating system. Note For remote or network users.

Microsoft Forefront products. For more information. and replay protection. included in Windows Storage Server.  Remote connectivity to Windows Storage Server using Forefront Unified Access Gateway 2010. see Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. and access. only help prevent unauthorized network access to the files and folders stored on Windows Storage Server. These shared folder permissions affect users accessing the files and folders using the SMB protocol. access to files and folders are defined by the combination of NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions. For more information. you can help protect:  Windows Storage Server and other Windows-based computers or appliances that communicate with the appliance using Forefront Client Security. You can centrally manage IPsec using Group Policy. Windows operating systems. data origin authentication. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. IPsec. included in Windows Storage Server. IPsec Microsoft Forefront . Windows Firewall with Advanced Security is integrated with Network Awareness so that it can apply security settings appropriate to the types of networks to which the computer is connected. Shared folder permissions work with NTFS permissions to help prevent unauthorized network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. see the section "SMB Permissions" in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. available separately. Note For remote or network users. included in Windows Storage Server. Windows Firewall is also integrated with Internet Protocol Security (IPsec). IPsec supports network-level peer authentication. data integrity.60 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature or technology Shared folder permissions Description Shared folder permission. provide protection. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. so that the IPsec configuration settings are integrated into the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in. which dramatically reduces the ongoing administrative and operations effort.  Communication with other computers or appliances over the Internet using Forefront Threat Management Gateway 2010. Specifically. and management solutions that are integrated with Microsoft user identity management. data confidentiality (encryption). For more information. and other Microsoft products. helps reduce the attack surface by blocking unauthorized network traffic flowing into or out of the appliance. allows you to protect the communications between Windows Storage Server and other Windows operating systems.

you can use the following resources to help secure Windows Storage Server:  Microsoft Security. and monitor security baselines of Windows operating systems.  Security Solution Accelerators. Table 23. This is the home page for all Microsoft security products and technologies for all operating systems and products. the Security Compliance Management Toolkit Series provides an end-to-end solution to help plan. This collection of tools and guidance are free. Securing File Services Workloads File services workloads are secured based on the protocol that provides access to the file services workloads. NFS-based access control for a shared resource is determined based on network names and groups. see "NTFS Permissions" and "SMB Permissions" sections in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. For more information. authoritative resources to help you to proactively plan. use NFSAdmin. see the “Creating Branch Office Solutions” section in this white paper.61 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature or technology Microsoft partner products Description There are a large number of security related products and technologies that are available from Microsoft partners. see the "NFS Permissions" section in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. You can manage the NFS share permissions using the Share and Storage Management snap-in. To use NFS permissions. integrate. and operate your security infrastructure. you must first install the Services for Network File System (NFS) role service using Server Manager. Use read-only DFS Replication to provide read-only copies of file and folders to servers where only read-  NFS   . For more information. Use read-only DFS Replication to provide read-only copies of file and folders to servers where only readonly access is allowed. After installing Services for NFS. For more information. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. deploy.exe to create client groups and to add client computers to those groups before configuring NFS share permissions." earlier in this white paper. In addition to features and technologies listed in Table 22. Typically. File Services Protocols and How to Secure the Protocols Protocol SMB How to secure this protocol  Use NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions to secure SMB-based access to shared resources. Specifically. any security product that is compatible with Windows Server 2008 R2 is also compatible with Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Table 23 lists the file services protocols and how to secure the protocol.

Securing Communication for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Protocol Require authentication How to secure Require all iSCSI initiators to authenticate with the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using one of the following methods:  One-way CHAP authentication. or you must deploy one. Table 24. For more information. Require authentication for all users that access the appliance using WebDAV. see Authentication and Security Using WebDAV. For more information.62 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protocol How to secure this protocol only access is allowed. see the “Creating Branch Office Solutions” section in this white paper.  IPsec authentication. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator.  RADIUS authentication.  Encrypt all WebDAV communication with the appliance using secure socket layer (SSL). you must have a RADIUS server running on your network. Table 24 lists the methods of securing the communication for the iSCSI block I/O workloads. For more information. For more information. Transactions between the iSCSI initiator and the RADIUS server are also authenticated through the use of a shared secret.  Mutual CHAP authentication. With this level of security. All initiators that want to access that target need to use the same secret to start a logon session with the target. WebDAV  Windows SharePoint Services   Securing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Disk block I/O workloads are secured by configuring the appropriate security between the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and the iSCSI initiators. For more information. see Plan authentication settings for Web applications (Windows SharePoint Services). see Plan authentication settings for Web applications (Windows SharePoint Services). With this level of security. A separate secret is set for each target and for each initiator. see Authentication and Security Using WebDAV. only the iSCSI target authenticates the initiator. the iSCSI target and the initiator authenticate each other. With this level of security. The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) secret is set just for the target. The IPsec protocol enforces . Encrypt all Windows SharePoint communication with the appliance using SSL. To use this level of security. the iSCSI initiator is authenticated by a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server. Require authentication for all users that Windows SharePoint Server on the appliance.

63 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protocol How to secure authentication at the IP packet layer. Table 25 lists the Web services protocols and how to secure the protocol. Table 25. . FTP    Note IIS 7. Note At a minimum.5 builds on the application pool isolation that was available with IIS 7. Isolate iSCSI network segments Securing Web Services Workloads Web services workloads are secured based on the protocol that provides access to the Web services workloads. For more information. HTTP is an insecure protocol and sends all traffic in clear text. less-privileged identity. Ensure that all HTTPS connections require authentication as necessary. Isolate the network segments used for communication between the iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by using separate physical network segments or by using virtual local area networks (VLANs). Web Services Protocols and How to Secure the Protocols Protocol HTTP How to secure this protocol    Use the HTTPS protocol instead to provide encryption of all communication between the appliance and the clients. Allow connectivity to the appliance only from computers on your internal network.0 that increased security and reliability. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. Note HTTPS   HTTPS is a secure protocol and does not need further protection for confidentiality. FTP is an insecure protocol and sends all traffic in clear text. Use IPsec to protect communication between the appliance and FTP clients. This helps harden the security of applications and services running on IIS 7. Encrypt all communication Protect communication between the iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using IPsec encryption. Ensure that all HTTP connections require authentication as necessary.5.5 application pool now runs with a unique. Ensure that all FTP connections require authentication. every IIS 7." earlier in this white paper. For more information. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. Allow connectivity to the appliance only from computers on your internal network. see iSCSI Security. use one-way CHAP authentication between iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.

Print Server Role Services and How to Secure the Role Service Role service Print Server How to secure this protocol Use printer permissions to control access to the appliance running the Print Server role services using the Print Management snapin. Use the HTTPS protocol instead when connecting to the URL for the printer. Table 26 lists the Print Server role services and how to secure the role service. LPD Service Internet Printing . For more information. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. see Internet Printing and Resulting Internet Communication in Windows Server 2008. For more information.64 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Securing Print Services Workloads Print services workloads are secured based on the Print Server role service that provides access to the file services workloads. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. The communication between the LPD Service and LPR clients is unsecured. For more information. There is no authentication available or security permissions available. Table 26. see Assigning Delegated Print Administrator and Printer Permission Settings in Windows Server 2008 R2." earlier in this white paper. Protect all communication between the Internet Printing clients and the appliance using SSL. use IPsec to protect the communication between the LPD Service and LPR clients. If required.

You can use DFS Replication to create replica copies of shared network folders. For more information about failover clusters for file services workloads. as illustrated in Figure 8. complexity. can be used to improve the availability of SMB-based file services workloads. Table 27 lists the methods for improving the availability for file services workload and which protocols can use that method.65 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Availability of Windows Storage Server Workloads High levels of availability are essential for mission-critical applications and services. Windows Storage Server includes all of the high availability features and technologies found in Windows Server. and effort required to create a two node cluster. Methods for Improving File Services Workload Availability Method SMB NFS WebDAV Windows SharePoint Services Failover clusters. you can improve DFS Replication availability by running on failover clusters in Windows Storage Server. Failover clusters in Windows Storage Server. In addition.      . Then you can use DFS Namespace to provide automatic failover to replica copies of content when a local copy of the content is unavailable. DFS. Windows Storage Server provides an easy to install and configure user interface for creating a two node failover cluster. Improve the availability of Windows Storage Server workloads by:  Improving File services workload availability  Improving iSCSI block I/O workload availability  Improving Web services workload availability  Improving Print services workloads availability Improving Availability of File Services Workloads The availability of file services workloads in Windows Storage Server can be improved based on the protocol used to access the file services. you can further improve the availability of your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. Table 27. This user interface reduces the learning curve. see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node File Server Failover Cluster. In addition. The method supports read and write access to the files.

see Network Load Balancing. Figure 8 illustrates a typically two-node failover cluster for file services workloads. The Network Load Balancing (NLB) feature in Windows Storage Server can be used to provide fault tolerance for file services workloads. . or Fibre Channel connected storage. see Distributed File System. The shared storage in Figure 8 can be iSCSI. For more information about using NLB to improve availability for file services workloads. PCI RAID controllers are not supported for shared storage.   The most common method of improving the availability for file services workloads is by using failover clusters. Note The cluster storage illustrated in Figure 8 could be provided by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server.66 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Method SMB NFS WebDAV Windows SharePoint Services For more information. SAS. Network Load Balancing.

cables. For more information. A failover cluster is a group of independent computers that work together to increase the availability of applications and services.  Multipath I/O. see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and the Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node File Server Failover Cluster. and switches — to create logical paths between the iSCSI initiator and the appliance . The most common failover cluster used for iSCSI block I/O workloads is a file server failover cluster. Multipath I/O uses physical path components — adapters. Typical two-node failover cluster for file services workloads Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads You can improve the availability iSCSI block I/O workloads by using a combination of the following features in Windows Server products:  Failover clustering.67 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 8. You can use failover clusters to improve the availability for the iSCSI initiator running a Windows Server operating system or the iSCSI target running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.

In the event that one or more of these components fails.68 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Redundancy for iSCSI initiators on other operating systems or hardware iSCSI initiators is provided by network adapter teaming from the network adapter vendor. As illustrated in Figure 9. Note Multipath connections for Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiators is provided by the MPIO feature in Windows Server. Redundancy for file services and print services is also provided by network adapter teaming support from the network adapter vendor. Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Targets The highest priority in improving the availability of iSCSI block I/O workloads is to improve the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. . For more information. causing the path to fail. see Multipath I/O Overview. you can use failover clusters to improve the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server. This section also discusses the following combinations of failover clustering and multipath I/O features:  Creating highly-available iSCSI targets with single or multipath connections. Each iSCSI network interface card should be connected by using redundant switch infrastructures to provide continued access to storage in the event of a failure in a storage fabric component.  Creating highly-available iSCSI initiators with single or multipath connections. there is no fault tolerance depicted in the connection between the iSCSI initiator and the clustered iSCSI targets (the storage fabric). multipathing logic uses an alternate path for I/O so that applications running on the iSCSI initiator can still access their data. The configuration in Figure 9 helps prevent loss of iSCSI block I/O workloads in the event of a failure of one of the appliances. However.

69 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 9. . This redundancy in the physical connectivity helps eliminate any single point of failures due to the network infrastructure for the storage fabric used by iSCSI. The network infrastructure for the iSCSI communication between the iSCSI initiator and the clustered nodes running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target has been updated to include redundant network adapters. switches. such as a switch failure or a disconnected network cable. and network cables. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with a single path connection The configuration in Figure 10 illustrates combining multipath I/O with the failover cluster solution.

The configuration in Figure 11 helps prevent loss of iSCSI block I/O workloads in the event that one of the computers or appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator or Microsoft iSCSI Software Target fails. . Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with multipath connections Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Initiators After improving the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.70 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 10. you can use failover clusters to improve the availability of the computers or appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server operating systems. As illustrated in Figure 11. However. there is no fault tolerance depicted in the connection between the clustered iSCSI initiators and the clustered iSCSI targets (the storage fabric). you can improve the availability of the iSCSI initiators running Windows Server operating systems.

such as a switch failure or a disconnected network cable. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and iSCSI initiators with single path connections The configuration in Figure 12 illustrates combining multipath I/O with the failover cluster solution for the iSCSI initiators and iSCSI targets in Figure 11. and network cables. The network infrastructure for the iSCSI communication between the clustered nodes running the iSCSI initiators and the clustered nodes running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target has been updated to include redundant network adapters. switches. This redundancy in the physical connectivity helps eliminate any single point of failure due to the network infrastructure for the storage fabric used by iSCSI.71 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 11. .

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Figure 12. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and iSCSI initiators with multipath connections

Improving Availability of Web Services Workloads
The NLB feature in Windows Storage Server can be used to provide fault tolerance for Web services workloads. The assumption of this solution is that each of the appliances in the NLB cluster have identical content and are continuously synchronized (such as by DFS Replication). For more information about using NLB to improve availability for Web services workloads, see Network Load Balancing.
Note If the Web applications use a centralized SQL Server database for storing information, you can also use failover clustering to improve the availability of the database. For more information, see Getting Started with SQL Server 2008 Failover Clustering.

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Improving Availability of Print Services Workloads
Failover clusters in Windows Storage Server can be used to improve the availability of Print services workloads. Figure 13 illustrates a typically two-node failover cluster for Print services workloads.
Note The cluster storage illustrated in Figure 13 could be provided by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server.

Figure 13. Typical two-node failover cluster for Print services workloads This method helps prevent any print services outages due to the failure a node in the cluster. Print services outages for specific printers occur in the event of a printer failure. However, the print jobs for the printer continue to be queued until the printer failure is resolved and the printer is restored to normal operation. For more information about failover clusters for file services workloads, see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and the Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node Print Server Failover Cluster.

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Improving Performance and Scalability for Windows Storage Server Solutions
The ability to take full advantage of the system resources of Windows Storage Server based appliance is essential to creating successful solutions. Windows Storage Server includes all of the performance and scalability features and technologies found in Windows Server 2008. In addition, you can further improve the performance and scalability of your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. Improve the performance and scalability of Windows Storage Server workloads by improving performance and scalability for:  All workloads.  File services workloads.  iSCSI block I/O workloads.  Web services workloads.  Print services workloads.

Improving Performance and Scalability for All Workloads
Windows Storage Server includes a number of technologies and features that will improve the performance and scalability for all workloads. These performance and scalability improvements are inherent in Windows Storage Server. Improve the performance and scalability for all workloads by taking advantage of the:  Improvements in processor and memory capacity.  Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol.  Improvements in network adapter performance.  Reduction in processor utilization for I/O operations.

Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity
The improvements in computer design have resulted in modern server computers that support an ever increasing number of processors and increased memory capacity. Current server computers are only shipping with 64-bit processors, multiple processors, and higher memory capacity than ever before. These improvements allow you to create application platforms that are able to support larger workloads, reduce rack space in your data center, reduce power consumption, provide improved reliability, and reduce your overall administrative effort.

Improved Physical Processor and Memory Resources
32-bit processors impose system resource limitations that restrict your ability to handle increased workloads without investing in additional server computers. 64-bit processors allow you to support larger workloads, while minimizing the number of physical computers in your data center. Also, server consolidation by using virtualization requires 64-bit processors to provide the processing and memory resources to support higher ratios of server consolidation. To support the increased processor performance and memory capacity provided by 64bit processors, Windows Storage Server is only available for 64-bit processor architectures. Windows Storage Server supports up to 256 logical processor cores for a single operating system instance.

 Reducing IP packet resending due to router congestion. or scale workloads to greater extremes to match changing demand. also referred to as the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite. This increased processor support makes it possible to run even more demanding workloads on a single computer. routers experiencing congestion mark the IP packets as they forward them. rather than relying on the receipt of the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) error messages. This feature automatically determines the value of the maximum receive window size for a connection based on the current conditions of the network. the exact number of connections is vendor specific. SLAT uses special processor functionality available in recent Intel and AMD processors to carry out some virtual machine memory management functions. TCP/IP offloading can be used when a server is performing heavy receive processing with less than 1. and improves overall network performance. With Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) support on both TCP peers and in the routing infrastructure.  Improving black hole router detection. The Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite includes a new set of performance enhancements to increase throughput in high-bandwidth. and high-loss networking environments. Hyper-V in Windows Storage Server also supports Second-Level Address Translation (SLAT) and CPU Core Parking. Microsoft included a new version of the TCP/IP protocol suite. However. CTCP attempts to maximize throughput on these types of connections by monitoring delay variations and losses. CTCP also ensures that its behavior does not negatively impact other TCP connections. when the computer is performing a backup over the network. This feature works with the Compound TCP feature on the sender side.  Aggressively increasing the TCP Send windows size by using Compound TCP (CTCP). Optimizing the network to receive TCP data can substantially increase overall network utilization by applications. Reducing the number of retransmitted TCP segments improves the overall performance of traffic that used the TCP protocol. TCP peers receiving marked IP packets lower their transmission rate to ease congestion .75 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Increased Logical Processor Support Hyper-V in Windows Storage Server can support up to 64 logical processors. high-latency. CPU Core Parking enables power savings by scheduling virtual machine execution on only some processor cores and placing the remaining processor cores in a sleep state. Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Protocol With the introduction of Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. Aggressively increasing the TCP Send window size allows the maximum amount of data to be transmitted between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. especially on high latency connections.  Automating the tuning of the maximum receive window size. Automatically tuning the receive window size allows the maximum amount of data to be transmitted between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Offloading some of the TCP/IP protocol processing to a network adapter reduces the processor utilization associated with handling TCP/IP connections. This feature senses when large TCP segments retransmit and automatically adjusts the Path Maximum Transmission Unit (PMTU) for the connection. CTCP more aggressively increases the Send window for connections with large Receive window sizes and large bandwidth-delay products.500 persistent active connections. significantly reducing hypervisor processor time and saving about 1MB of memory per virtual machine. The performance and scalability features in the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite include:  Offloading TCP/IP protocol processing to specialized network adapter hardware. For example. and improves overall network performance.

Reducing IP packet resending improves the overall performance of traffic that uses the TCP protocol. NDIS 6. and parallel DPCs.0 balances the network load from a network adapter across multiple processors. RSS also supports dynamic load balancing. NDIS 5.76 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper and prevent segment losses. .  Performance Enhancements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. enables multiple DPCs on different processors for each instance of a network adapter miniport driver.0 with RSS prevents bottlenecks for incoming network traffic.  New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. all processors have available capacity and none are a bottleneck for incoming network traffic. see Receive-Side Scaling Enhancements in Windows Server 2008. Incoming network traffic with RSS For more information about RSS. For more information about the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite in Windows Server 2008. Figure 14 illustrates how the architecture of NDIS 6.1 allows a single deferred procedure call (DPC) for each network adapter. Improvements in Network Adapter Performance RSS in NDIS 6. see:  Next Generation TCP/IP Stack.0. Note RSS support has also been released in the scalable networking pack for Windows Server 2003. Figure 14. a secure hashing mechanism. parallel interrupts. using RSS. Because all processors are able to process incoming network traffic. while preserving in-order delivery of messages on a per-stream basis.

In this example. Disk controller drivers can make use of new application programming interfaces (APIs) that allow Windows to specify the processor on which to efficiently perform completion processing for each I/O. Figure 15. the data will go from memory to Processor 3. reduces the possibility of interrupting an application unrelated to the I/O operation. . if the completion processing accesses data read from the disk (for example to perform virus detection. If the completion processing accesses the data read from the disk. the selection of processors to interrupt and perform completion processing was statically chosen when the device was detected (similar to a round-robin order across all processors). Furthermore. The interrupt and subsequent completion processing of the I/O operation occurs on Processor 2. NUMA I/O functionality improves the hardware cache hit ratios. Processor 2 subsequently interrupts Processor 3 to indicate that the I/O operation is complete (assuming that the application waiting for the I/O is executing on Processor 3). that data will have to go from memory to Processor 2 over the node interconnect and then back over the node interconnect to Processor 3 when the application starts to access the data. the interrupt from the disk is directed to Processor 3.77 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations Windows Server 2008 performs dynamic redirection of I/O interrupts and I/O completion processing to reduce overall processor utilization. the interrupt from the disk is directed to Processor 2 because of the static assignment made when the disk was detected at boot time. and the subsequent completion processing of the I/O occurs on Processor 3. decryption. reduces the hardware interconnect activity. or decompression of the data). Figure 15 illustrates an example of the components that might be required for processing a statically directed I/O completion. In prior versions of Windows. the I/O operation is initiated on Processor 3. and minimizes I/O completion processing time. A disk controller takes advantage of the NonUniform Memory Access (NUMA) I/O functionality in Windows Server 2008 and can use the information specified during the initiation of the I/O operation to select a processor that can most efficiently perform the necessary processing of the completed I/O. Although the I/O operation is initiated on Processor 3. and the application will experience a high cache hit ratio when it accesses the data. Multiprocessor I/O operation without NUMA optimization Figure 16 illustrates an example of the components that might be required for processing a dynamically directed I/O completion by using NUMA I/O. when the request is initiated.

In scenarios where the system consists of only Processors 3 and 4 in a single node configuration.78 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In this example. In the current implementation.  Improving network performance between head offices and branch offices using the BranchCache feature. These improvements are largely due to improvements in the SMB2 protocol.  Reviewing SMB-based file services workload test results. Figure 16. the fact that Processor 4 is unaffected by the I/O operation still results in performance benefits. the I/O processing is localized to a NUMA node or a specific processor within the node. . Multiprocessor I/O operation with NUMA optimization The dynamic I/O completion redirection (NUMA I/O) improvements in Windows Server 2008 provide the following benefits:  Support for the Message Signaled Interrupt eXtension (MSI-X) that enables a PCI-X or PCI-Express device to use new APIs to specify a processor to complete processing of each specific I/O operation. Identify the performance and scalability improvements for file services workloads by:  Reviewing the performance and scalability improvements in the SMB2 protocol. the selected completion processor for an I/O is ideally the same processor that initiated the I/O operation.  Download NUMA I/O Optimizations. the node interconnect and all unrelated processors are unaffected by the I/O completion. For more information about NUMA support in Windows Server 2008.  Better NUMA and non-NUMA processor architecture. Improving Performance and Scalability for File Services Workloads File services workloads in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of Windows Server.  Reviewing performance improvements in SMB Version 2.1 in Windows Server 2008 R2. For NUMA architectures. see:  The "NUMA Support" section of the "Advances in Memory Management for Windows" white paper. For non-NUMA architectures. the I/O processing is performed on a specific processor.

such as Microsoft LAN Manager and Windows for Workgroups.  Support for much larger buffer sizes when compared to SMB 1. Figure 17 illustrates how SMB 1 processes multiple write operations between a client computer running Windows XP and a server computer running Windows Server 2003. SMB2. Windows includes an SMB client (the “Client for Microsoft Windows” component) and an SMB server (the “File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Windows” component). Examples include an increase in the number of concurrent open file handles on the server and the number of file shares that a server can have.  Support for symbolic links. The SMB2 protocol features include:  Support for sending multiple SMB commands within the same packet. and better security through the use of mutual authentication and message signing. This reduces the number of packets sent between an SMB client and server. The SMB2 protocol provides a number of communication enhancements.  Support for durable handles that can withstand short interruptions in network availability. SMB 1—the technology behind Windows Server versions prior to Windows Server 2008—was originally designed for early Windows-based network operating systems. each write request must wait for the write response from a previous write request. SMB in Windows Server 2008 and later versions supports SMB 1 as well as SMB2.  An increase in the restrictive constants within the protocol design to allow for scalability. including greater performance when servers connect to file shares over high-latency links. For example. a common issue in the effective tuning of SMB 1. Review Improvements in the SMB2 Protocol Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 includes the latest version of SMB. In SMB 1. which is optimized for greater performance over high-latency links. write request 2 must wait for the write response from write request 1.79 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Improving network performance between client computers and Windows Storage Server for the folder redirection and offline files features. . the new version of SMB that has been redesigned for today’s complex networking environments and next-generation file servers.

. Write operations in SMB 1 Figure 18 illustrates how SMB2 processes multiple write operations between a client computer running Windows Vista and a server computer running Windows Server 2008.80 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 17. is that remote file operations are much faster. especially on high-latency network connections. multiple write requests can be issued before receiving a write response. The overall effect. In SMB2.

0" section of New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. . see the "Server Message Block 2.81 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 18. Write operations in SMB2 For more information about SMB2.

Figure 19 illustrates the environment for tests performed over a WAN connection. The performance gains that are illustrated in these tests are a direct result of the performance and scalability features in Windows Server 2008.  Copying large files to a remote location over a WAN connection. . Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network For this test. This tool simulates a home folders file workload on a set of client computers and computes the maximum number of users a server can support based on the response time of simulated scenarios as illustrated in Figure 20. The test results for Windows Server 2003 do not include Windows Firewall. Figure 19. This test environment emulates two geographic locations (New York and London) separated by a WAN connection.82 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Review SMB-based File Services Workload Test Results The File Services server role is one of the most common server roles deployed. the Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) was run against a server running Windows Server 2008. Environment for performing File Services role tests The following tests were performed for the File Servers role:  Running the Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) on a high-speed network. The File Services server role implements SMB-based file services.  Accessing files on a shared folder at a remote location over a WAN connection. Note The tests results reflect the performance of Windows Server 2008 with Windows Firewall enabled. The server computers running Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003 are in New York while the client computers running Windows Vista and Windows XP are in London. Windows Firewall imposes a minimal impact (approximately 5 percent) on network throughput.

Example Performance Characteristics of Appliances with Different System Resources Processor sockets Single socket Single socket Single socket Dual socket Disk configuration 4 SATA drives 10 SATA drives 10 SATA drives 24 SAS drives Raid level RAID 5 RAID 5 RAID 1+0 RAID 1+0 Users supported 600 1. Table 28. memory.00% Average scenario throughput CPU utilization Figure 20. and disk subsystem utilization details to help identify potential bottlenecks. memory.200 1.00% 80. the tool will compute a throughput number corresponding to the average scenario per second that the server is able to sustain.2% A significantly higher number of users can be supported by adding more drives.00% 10. and modifying Microsoft Office files.7% 5.00% 30.00% 0. and processors. the appliances contained only a single or dual processor socket that is typical for these types of appliances at the time of writing. For a given number of users accessing data on a file server. . File Services Role scalability test results The scenarios include common operations such as browsing a directory.83 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 450 Number of Scenarios per Second 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 Number of users 100. Table 28 lists example performance characteristics for appliances with different system resources.00% 50. you can expand the processor and disk resources of the appliances to support tens of thousands of users on a single appliance. As reflected by these performance characteristics.000 Processor utilization 7.00% Procesor utilization 70.00% 60.00% 20. network. The number and speed of the drives has the largest influence on the number of users who can be supported.5% 11.00% 90.700 5.6% 7. copying files. The tool also provides the ability to collect performance counters such as processor. In these examples.00% 40.

For both scenarios. In all these scenarios. one 268-MB file was copied between the client computers and the server computers.  Browsing a network shared folder that contains 50 files in Windows Explorer. For this test. Remote large file copy test results Accessing Files at a Remote Location Over a WAN Connection This test series provides an indication of how typical user applications perform when accessing files and folders on network shared folders on server computers running Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003. In the chart in Figure 21. In the first scenario. In the chart in Figure 22. the combination of Windows Vista SP1 and Windows Server 2008 provided dramatic performance improvements compared to the combination of Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP2. . the combination of Windows Vista SP1 and Windows Server 2008 provided dramatic performance improvements compared to the combination of Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP2.  Opening a 2-MB Word document stored on a network shared folder in Word 2007. and Windows XP SP2 with Windows Server 2003 SP2. the scenarios were performed (as illustrated in Figure 21) over a simulated WAN connection:  Opening a 47-KB Excel spreadsheet stored on a network shared folder in Excel 2007.84 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Copying Large Files to a Remote Location Over a WAN Connection For this test. Figure 21.  Copying a 6-MB file to a network shared folder in Windows Explorer. a lower length of time indicates that the file operation occurred faster. two scenarios were performed (as illustrated in Figure 21) over a simulated WAN connection. a lower length of time indicates that the file copy process occurred faster. The test scenarios were performed for the combination of Windows Vista SP1 with Windows Server 2008. In the second scenario. 100 1-megabyte (MB) files were copied between the client computers and the server computers.

SMB version 2. .85 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 22. the SMB packet size can now increase up to 1 MB. For example. This method helps improve application performance when opening and closing files. which includes the following improvements over previous versions of SMB:  Support for large protocol data unit (PDU) and maximum transmission unit (MTU). The Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) can be used to help perform file server capacity and performance planning and troubleshooting for CIFS.1 in Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new version of SMB. such as files for Microsoft Office System applications.  Improved performance for file copy operations.  Improved opportunistic file locking method. In SMB version 2. Remote file application test results Reviewing Performance Improvements in SMB Version 2. Previously. This improvement helps performance when multiple files are opened in sequence or in parallel by the same client. or SMB2 client requests. This increase in packet size significantly improves the performance for file copies and directory enumerations.1. SMB packet size was limited to 64 KB.1. a single packet can now contain thousands of directory entries. Figure 23 and Figure 24 illustrate the SMB performance differences between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 on two servers with different system resources. This improvement helps file copy operations performed remotely on network shared folders using the SMB protocol. This improvement helps performance by sending larger SMB packets. SMB.

the server has the following system resources:  One processor.  One Fibre Channel host bus adapter.  24 hard disks configured in a RAID-10 array.86 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 23. Performance results with second hardware configuration . Figure 24.  16 GB of memory. Performance results with first hardware configuration In the performance results comparison in Figure 23.

002) SMB2 (v2. Table 29 shows the version of SMB used between two computers running different combinations of operating systems.1 For example.87 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In the performance results comparison in Figure 24. such as the head office or regional data centers.1 is only supported when both computers are running Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 R2. if a computer running Windows XP is accessing a computer running Windows Server 2008 R2. Windows Server 2003. Windows Server 2003.  72 GB memory. The performance improvements in SMB 2. BranchCache Modes BranchCache supports the following operational modes:  Distributed Cache mode  Hosted Cache mode .1. SMB 1 is used for file services traffic. Reducing the network utilization on the WAN network segments provides available network bandwidth for applications and services. Table 29.  96 hard disks configured in a RAID-10 array. Versions of SMB Supported Between Different Windows Operating Systems Windows Vista. The type of content that is cached is content returned by SMB requests and HTTP requests. Typically branch offices are connected by wide area networks (WANs) that usually have slower data rates than your intranet. Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008 Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SMB 1 Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008 SMB 1 Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SMB 1 SMB 1 SMB2 (v2. Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache One of the largest problems facing branch offices is how to improve the performance of accessing intranet resources in other locations. and prior operating systems.1 are realized only when both operating systems support SMB 2.  Two Fibre Channel host bus adapters.002) SMB 1 SMB2 (v2. the increased system resources allow Windows Server 2008 R2 to support almost twice as many users as the system resources in Figure 23. and prior operating systems Windows Vista. SMB 2. The BranchCache feature in Windows Storage Server and Windows 7 reduces the network utilization on WAN segments that connect branch offices by locally caching frequently used files on computers in the branch office. the server has the following system resources:  Two processors. As illustrated in Figure 24.002) SMB 2.

or BITS. Client 1 receives this request. HTTP. Client 1 issues a request for a file on a BranchCache-enabled server in the head office. such as SMB. HTTP. The disadvantage to this solution is that content is cached on client computers. 4. Client 2 receives identifiers describing the content from the server in the head office. messages. protecting it with the BranchCache encryption scheme. Client 2 uses the BranchCache discovery protocol to search for the content. The client computer indicates to the server that it is BranchCache capable. This search is conducted by using the BranchCache discovery protocol. finds the requested content in its local cache. as illustrated in Figure 25. BranchCache Distributed Cache mode The following sequence reflects how the Distributed Cache mode caches content: 1. Client 2 issues a request for the same content that Client 1 downloaded earlier. The server responds. 6. Client 1 transmits the content to Client 2. Client 2 verifies the data against the identifiers downloaded from the server in the head office. and transmits a set of identifiers that describe the chunks of content the client computer wants to download. Client 1 searches locally for a computer that has already downloaded and cached the content. Client 2 requests the content from Client 1 by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol. or headers that are already part of the BranchCache-enabled protocol. a multicast protocol sent over UDP. This request is not marked as BranchCache capable. or Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS). so it does not receive any responses.88 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Distributed Cache Mode In Distributed Cache mode. These identifiers are transmitted by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. which in turn uses HTTP. the content must be retrieved over the WAN connection. and sends a response to Client 2. Figure 25. This request can be transmitted over any of the BranchCache-enabled protocols. such as SMB. Client 1 is the first computer in the branch to download this piece of content. using fields. 5. content is cached on the branch on client computers running Windows 7. 3. The client then adds this data to its local cache. 2. The server responds with the requested data. so if the computer containing the cached content is unavailable. . Client 1 issues another request to the server in the head office by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. which in turn uses WS-Discovery.

The advantage to this mode is that the server is always available. Client 1 issues another request to the server in the head office by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. The hosted cache response informs Client 1 that the target data is not available. 2. such as SMB. as illustrated in Figure 26. The unavailability of any client computer running Windows 7 does not affect the availability of the content cache. Client 1 issues a request to a BranchCache-enabled server in the head office. such as SMB. . or BITS. Hosted Cache Mode In Hosted Cache mode. Figure 26.89 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note Hosted Cache mode and Distributed Cache mode are mutually exclusive. content is cached at the branch office on client computers running Windows Server 2008 R2. HTTP. or BITS. using fields. Client 1 advertises the newly downloaded content to the Hosted Cache server running Windows Storage Server by using the BranchCache hosted cache protocol (MS-PCHC). This request is not marked BranchCache capable. and transmits a set of identifiers that describe the chunks of content that the client computer wants to download. This request can be transmitted over any of the BranchCache-enabled protocols. which in turn uses HTTP. These identifiers are transmitted by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. which in turn uses HTTPS. A client computer can be configured to use only a single caching mode at one time. The server responds. HTTP. The server responds with the requested data. Client 1 requests the content from the hosted cache in the branch office by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). BranchCache Hosted Cache mode The following sequence reflects how the Hosted Cache mode caches content: 1. 4. or headers that are already part of the BranchCache-enabled protocol. The client computer indicates to the server that it is BranchCache capable. 3. so the cached content is always available. messages.

You can also manage BranchCache by using the NetSH command. Folder redirection allows users to quickly recover from local failures of their computer. The typical system resources that are heavily utilized by iSCSI block I/O workloads include memory. . You can improve the performance and scalability for iSCSI block I/O workloads by:  Identifying methods for improving iSCSI block I/O workload performance and scalability. which in turn uses HTTP. For more information about configuring BranchCache by using the NetSH command. the client computer returns to the server in the head office and requests a download. This feature allows users to store the user’s folders in a shared folder on Windows Storage Server. 7. Improving Performance and Scalability for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads File services workloads in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of Windows Server. 6. The hosted cache responds with the data. This feature allows users to locally cache files stored on a shared folder on Windows Storage Server. Client 2 requests the content from the hosted cache in the branch office by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). If a client computer cannot locate content on the hosted cache server. Client 2 receives identifiers describing the content from the server in the head office. All of the performance features listed in this section will also improve the performance for folder redirection and offline files. BranchCache Management You can configure BranchCache behavior by using Group Policy. Client 2 verifies the data by using the identifiers downloaded from the server in the head office. which in turn uses HTTP. see Network Shell (Netsh) Commands for BranchCache. Client 2 issues a request for the same content that Client 1 downloaded earlier. Users are able to modify local copies of files in the event they are disconnected from the network.  Offline files. Identify Methods for Improving iSCSI Block I/O Workload Performance and Scalability You can improve the performance and scalability for iSCSI block I/O workloads by using the following methods:  Ensure the system resources of the appliance are sufficient.90 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 5. Note Hosted Cache mode and Distributed Cache mode are mutually exclusive.  Reviewing the results of I/O storage workload tests. The Hosted Cache server connects to the client and downloads the recently advertised content by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). Both of these features require access to shared network folders on Windows Storage Server. Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files Windows 7 includes the following features that allow users to provide user state virtualization:  Folder redirection. Windows Storage Server includes a Group Policy administrative template that you can use to administer the BranchCache configuration settings. A client computer can be configured to use only a single caching mode at one time.

or SMB workloads. Different types of workloads on the same physical network can cause overutilization and performance problems. Configure sector alignment for iSCSI Target volumes and . Different types of workloads on the same physical array can degrade performance for the workloads.vhd files.91 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper     disk. Figure 27 illustrates a Windows Storage Server solution that has been optimized to provide improved performance and scalability.  Isolate different types of workloads using separate physical network segments. Isolate different types of workloads using separate physical network segments. which causes performance degradation. Always size disks for performance in addition to capacity. Sector alignment helps prevent an I/O operation from spanning two tracks. segregate each type of workload to a separate physical network segment to reduce network contention. also ensure they are sufficient for I/O throughput. such as sequential I/O workloads. NFS workloads. In this example. Isolate different types of workloads using dedicated physical arrays. When encountering network utilization problems. the Windows Storage Server solution is optimized to support Exchange Server connecting to disk LUNs on Windows Storage Server. After ensuring the number of disks is sufficient for capacity. You can configure sector alignment for physical disks using the Diskpart. Although a given number of disks may have adequate storage capacity. the number may not provide sufficient I/O throughput. Ensure that the appliance has sufficient resources to provide adequate performance and scaling. Dedicate a physical array for each conflicting workload. Note Consult your storage vendor to determine the proper values to use with the Diskpart.exe command line tool.exe. . Different types of workloads on the same physical network can cause overutilization and performance problems. segregate each type of workload to a separate physical network segment to reduce network contention. When encountering network utilization problems. and network. Sector alignment allows Windows Storage Server to create partitions that align with the underlying physical disk. random I/O workloads.

92 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 27. while the Exchange storage group logs are sequential I/O. iSCSI random I/O. and file services access using SMB or NFS. the following optimizations were chosen:       Sufficient system resources of the Windows Storage Server appliance for the given workloads. . Separate network adapters in the Exchange server to support the separate network segments. Separate network segments for workload types. An optimized number of disks for disk I/O bandwidth capacity. A Windows Storage Server solution optimized for performance For the sample scenario in Figure 27. including iSCSI sequential I/O. Separate iSCSI targets that corresponds to the iSCSI sequential I/O and iSCSI random I/O. Separate arrays dedicated to different iSCSI I/O traffic as the Exchange storage group data is random I/O.

For this test. regardless of the server role running on the server computer. The test result. illustrates the number of disk I/O operations per second performed by Windows Server 2008 and Window Server 2003 running on identical hardware. Figure 28. the server computer had 16 dual-core processors for a total of 32 processor cores. General disk I/O operation test results . Review I/O Storage Test Results The results of this test provide an indication of the improvements in disk I/O operations. shown in the chart in Figure 28. Windows Server 2008 can perform more than 20 percent more disk I/O operations per second than Windows Server 2003.93 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Sector-aligned disk arrays to help prevent I/O operations from spanning multiple tracks.

These improvements are largely due to improvements in data compression of content and caching of content.0 on Window Server 2003. IIS 7. and configure output cache settings.microsoft.0 in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of IIS and Windows Server. and IIS 7. The results were obtained by closely monitoring the performance over a 72-hour period for both test cases. For more information about how to configure compression. Identify Methods for Improving Web Services Workload Performance and Scalability IIS 7. The chart in Figure 29 illustrates the performance gain by running IIS 7. Review Web Services Workload Test Results These results were obtained by measuring the performance of www. In IIS Manager.0 running on Windows Server 2008. you can create caching rules. For more information about configuring output caching. You can improve the performance and scalability for Web services workloads by:  Identifying methods for improving Web services workload performance and scalability. This improvement in performance results in www. Performance includes the following features:  Compression.  Output Caching. IIS also lets you use bandwidth more effectively and efficiently by using common compression mechanisms such as Gzip and Deflate.com running IIS 6.0 and Windows Server 2003.NET with the static output-caching capabilities that were present in IIS 6. see Configuring Output Caching in IIS 7.0 and Windows Server 2008 can support more than 10 percent higher throughput than IIS 6. . edit existing caching rules. For more information about improving Web services workload performance and scalability.0.0 and Windows Server 2008 on the same computer resources. unified facility for output caching by integrating the dynamic output-caching capabilities of ASP.microsoft. see Optimize IIS Performance (IIS 7). see Configuring HTTP Compression in IIS 7.94 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Performance and Scalability for Web Services Workloads Web services workloads running on Internet Information Services (IIS) 7. You can configure HTTP compression for both static and dynamic sites.  Reviewing Web services workload test results. HTTP compression lets you make more efficient use of bandwidth and enhances the performance of sites and applications. Output caching allows you to manage output caching rules and to control the caching of served content.com processing more than an additional 100 million requests per day at the same processor utilization.0 provides a powerful.

. see the Windows Print Server Scalability and Sizing Technical Overview. For more information about improving the performance and scalability of print services workloads.  The number.  The operating system version or versions on each client machine.  The number and type of printers served by the print server and the types of printer drivers each printer uses. The maximum load and performance level of a print server greatly depends on key configuration decisions.95 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 29. Web Services (IIS) Role test results Improving Performance and Scalability for Print Workloads Print server scalability plays a key role in the deployment of Windows Storage Server print servers.  The types of print jobs sent to the print server. Some of the factors that influence print server performance and capacity include:  The number of print server clients. size. and frequency of print jobs. This section of the white paper provides information to help you size a server to meet an organization's needs by identifying and investigating primary issues and configuration details to maximize print server performance.

However.  Creating solutions for heterogeneous environments.  It can support 4 to 12 disks in the single enclosure using RAID interfaces. . The typical characteristics of the appliance are as follows:  The appliance has the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network.  Creating application consolidation solutions. such as Just a Bunch of Disks (JBOD Disks) or RAID configurations (RAID 5 or RAID 1+0).  Highly-available NAS. industry standard hardware that can be readily expanded.to medium-sized business solutions.  The solution is based on low cost. Windows Storage Server provides the following basic configurations:  Stand-alone network attached storage (NAS).  NAS gateway. illustrated in Figure 30.  Creating highly-available solutions. is based on a single Windows Storage Server appliance. To select the appropriate deployment scenario for you. review the following:  Overview of NAS configurations.  The processors and storage reside in a single appliance enclosure.  Creating unified storage solutions.  Creating iSCSI boot solutions. Overview of Windows Storage Server Configurations Window Storage Server provides a wide range of storage solutions for all size organizations. Regardless of the solution complexity.96 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server Deployment Scenarios You can use Windows Storage Server to provide a wide range of storage solutions.  Creating solutions for storage consolidation. some Microsoft partners provide additional storage in external enclosures. Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration The stand-alone NAS configuration.  It can create a variety of disk configurations.  Creating virtualization solutions.  Creating small.  Creating branch office solutions." in this white paper.

 Storage is separate from the appliance enclosure. illustrated in Figure 31. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network. Windows Storage Server stand-alone NAS configuration Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration The highly-available NAS configuration. Note The failover cluster in Figure 31 can be quickly and easily configured using the Initial Configuration Tasks form in Windows Storage Server. .  Additional appliances can be added to the solution to provide improved scalability.  New storage is included as part of the solution (existing storage is not used in the solution). and it is shared between two or more appliances.  The appliances are configured as nodes in a Windows failover cluster to provide higher availability. is based on two or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide some degree of fault tolerance." in this white paper.  Multipath I/O connections exist between the appliances.97 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 30.

in Figure 32." in this white paper.98 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 31. Windows Storage Server highly-available NAS configuration Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration The NAS gateway configuration. is based on one or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide connectivity to existing storage devices. .  They connect to existing storage that supports SAN block I/O protocols. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network.

Windows Storage Server NAS gateway configuration . They provide highly-available configurations based on solution availability requirements. Figure 32. SMB file access. and NFS file access to storage.99 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper   They provide an inexpensive iSCSI target.

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Using Windows Storage Server in iSCSI Block I/O Configuration
The iSCSI block I/O configuration, in Figure 32, is based on one or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide iSCSI access to storage resources. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network," in this white paper.  They can be used with any combination of the following storage configurations:  Located within the appliance.  Located within an enclosure external to the appliance.  Existing storage subsystem that supports SAN block I/O protocols.  They provide highly-available configurations based on solution availability requirements.  They provide an inexpensive iSCSI target access to storage.  They provide iSCSI boot support for diskless computers.  They integrate with DHCP and TFTP servers to provide iSCSI boot support for diskless computers.

Figure 33. Windows Storage Server iSCSI Block I/O configuration

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Creating Branch Office Solutions
In a branch office solution, an organization has a number geographically distributed branch office locations that are connected to one or more centralized head offices. Table 30 lists the types of data to manage in the branch office solution, as illustrated in Figure 34, and a description of the type of data. Table 30. Types of Data to Manage in the Branch Office Solution Type of data User folders Description Contains user home directories and user shares within the branch office in addition to the well-known Windows folders, such as Documents, Videos, Pictures, and Music. The well-known Windows folders are typically stored on the local computer, but can be stored on network shared folders using the Folder Direction feature. The Folder Redirection feature allows user folders to be stored on appliances in the branch offices and to be replicated to appliances in the head office for backup and centralized management using DFS Replication. The user folders are accessed within the branch office, but are archived in the head office. Contains content that is published from the head offices to the branch offices as read-only content. The content is a set of data that is relevant to the branch office, regardless of the region where the branch office is located, for example:  Templates, such as Word or Excel templates.  Source for software distribution files, such as files from 2007 Microsoft Office System or Windows 7. Contains content used in collaborative efforts between branch offices. The collaboration content is stored on the Windows Storage Server appliances in the head office. Users in the branch offices access the collaboration content over the WAN connections. The collaboration content can be stored in network shared folders or in Windows SharePoint Service document libraries.

Published content

Collaboration content

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Figure 34. Branch office solution for Windows Storage Server

 Consolidating of data in head office to provide centralized management.  Stand-alone NAS appliances are used. such back up and data protection. SMB2 helps minimize WAN network utilization because of the efficiencies provided by SMB2. In some instances there may be computers running other operating systems. IT personnel in the head office must be able to manage the configuration settings of the devices and users in the branch offices. Provides file services for computers running NFS clients. Also. Table 31 lists the Windows Storage Server and Windows client operating system features used in the branch office solution and provides a brief description of the role each plays in the solution. while the branch offices have minimal or no local IT personnel. This helps protect the user profile folders in the branch office in the event of a catastrophic disaster in the branch office location that results in the total failure of the appliance. Most of the configuration and all of the support is provided by the IT personnel in the head office. For more information. In addition.  Users must have access to their user folders regardless of connectivity to the branch office appliance. Features Used In Branch Office Solutions Feature File services using SMB2 Description Provides file services for computers running Windows operating systems. all users need to access their user folders regardless of any scheduled maintenance of the appliance or appliance failure. For more information about this type of appliance. Mobile users need to access their user folders when they are not connected to the internal network in the branch office." in this white paper. including the computers running Linux or Mac OS. such as Linux or the Mac OS.  Centralized management of the branch office. The solution must minimize the utilization of the WAN connection as much as possible. Provides local caching of the collaboration content stored on the appliances in the head office. Table 31. failover clusters can be an optional part of this solution. Centralized management of the appliances in the branch office is essential and remote administration is required. Most of the computers in the branch office are running Windows operating systems. see the section "Review Improvements in the SMB Protocol.  Computers are running mostly Windows operating systems. see the previous section "Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-alone NAS Configuration.  Minimizing the utilization of the WAN connections is essential. BranchCache dramatically reduces the network File services using NFS BranchCache in hosted caching mode . All user profile folders in the branch offices need to be copied to the head offices for centralized management. Due to cost constraints and lack of local IT personnel." earlier in this white paper. The branch offices typically do not have local IT personnel and require assistance from the IT personnel in the head office. depending on the availability requirements of the branch offices. The appliance in the branch office is configured for BranchCache hosted caching mode. which allows the appliance to provide local caching of the collaboration content accessed using the SMB and HTTP protocols. The available network speed of the WAN connections between the head offices and the branch offices is a limited resource in terms of both available bandwidth and cost.103 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The assumptions in this scenario are:  The data centers have local IT personnel.

which provides data consolidation in the head office so that all backups are performed in the head office." earlier in this white paper. see:  Folder Redirection Overview. The files and folders are set to read-only access by DFS Replication. For more information." earlier in this white paper.104 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description utilization for accessing these files. see the section." earlier in this white paper. For more information. which:  Reduces WAN network utilization by providing local access to the files. "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. see the section. including Windows 7. DFS Replication Provides replication of files and folder structure from the branch offices to the head office. This allows the head office to avoid doing backups over the WAN link. You can administer the Folder Redirection feature using Group Policy. Computers running Windows client operating systems are using the Folder Redirection feature to redirect the user folders to network shared folders on the appliance in the branch office. For more information. Windows Vista. which dramatically reduces the network bandwidth utilization.  Provides improved file access for users in the branch office because the files are accessed locally instead of over the WAN connection. DFS Replication uses RDC to transmit only the changes to a file. "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. For more information. Uses DFS Replication to provide replication of files and folder structure from the head office to the branch offices. This is primarily for files that are for public use and are typically read-only at the branch office. For more information. "Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache. The Folder Redirection feature allows the user folders to be available from any computer on the network. Read-only DFS Replicated Folders Shadow Copies of Shared Folders Folder Redirection ." earlier in this white paper. see the section. see the section "Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data. Allows users to recover files by themselves without the assistance of IT professionals. The user folders are copied to the head office for backup and centralized management functions. and Windows XP. The Folder Redirection feature is available in all current Windows client operating systems. Any updates to the collaboration content are automatically saved on the appliances in the head office. Helps reduce the effort spent by IT personnel in data centers for recovery of files.

The Offline Files feature allows users to always have access to files from network shared folder by synchronizing the contents of the network shared folder to the Offline Files cache on the user’s computer.105 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description  Folder redirection overview for GPMC. Mobile users may want to access their files while away from the office. Computers running Linux or Mac OS can print to the printers in the branch office using the print services workloads provided by Windows Storage Server. When the appliance is restored to service. see the section "Providing Access to Print Services Workloads. For more information. The Offline Files feature allows users to modify local copies of their files while disconnected from the network. The local read-only domain controller also Offline Files Print Server LPD Print Services Read-only domain controller ." earlier in the white paper. The Offline Files feature provides access to files:  When users are not connected to the branch office network. Authentication is performed using an AD DS read-only domain controller on the local appliance.  The “Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files” section in this white paper." earlier in the white paper. any new or modified files are automatically synchronized with the network shared folders on the appliance.  The “Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files” section in this white paper.  Configuring Folder Redirection. Windows Vista.  Configuring Group Policy for Offline Files.  Working with network files when you are offline. Computers running Windows can print to the printers in the branch office using the print services workloads provided by Windows Storage Server. see the section "Providing Access to Print Services Workloads. Users can continue to work on copies of the files on their local computers.  Configuring Offline Files. For more information.  In the event the appliance is taken offline for maintenance or of an appliance failure. including Windows 7. You can administer the Offline Files feature using Group Policy. The read-only domain controller provides enhanced security by preventing unauthorized or inadvertent updates to AD DS. When users reconnect to the network. any new or modified files are automatically synchronized with the network shared folders on the appliance. The Offline Files feature is available in all current Windows client operating systems. and Windows XP. see:  Understanding offline files. For more information.

Computers in the branch office that are configured using DHCP can be configured using the DHCP Server running on the local appliance. DNS Server Computers in the branch office can resolve DNS names using the DNS Server running on the local appliance.106 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because authentication is performed locally. For more information. Note All of these features operate transparently to users in the branch office. File Server Resource Manager allows you to understand. The local DNS Server reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because DNS queries are resolved locally. see File Server Resource Manager.  Use Storage Reports to profile storage usage and trends within the branch. Most of the features and configuration settings available in all Windows products can be configured by using Group Policy.  Prevent storage of certain file types by using the File Screening feature. For more information. DHCP Server File Server Resource Manager Group Policy Table 32 lists how to manage each type of data is accessed by users. You can use File Server Resource Manager to:  Limit the amount of disk space used by using the Quota Management feature. and manage the quantity and type of data stored on Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. and they are centrally configured by the IT personnel in the head office using Group Policy. control. . Group Policy allows you to centrally configure the Windows Storage Server appliances and Windowsbased computers in the branch office. see Group Policy. The local DHCP Server reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because DHCP configuration is performed locally.

 Published content   . DFS Replication replicates the published content stored on the head office appliances to the branch office appliances. This feature allows users to access their user profile folders when not connected to the appliance. The replica copies of the published content in the branch offices are maintained read-only by DFS Replication so that users in the branch office have read-only access to the replica content. on the branch office appliance. Managing Types of Data in the Branch Office Solution Type of data User folders Managed using  Offline Files. the Folder Redirection feature helps in fast recovery of computers because the user profile folders are not stored on the local computer. Folder Redirection. This feature stores the user profile folders. depending on the availability of the branch office appliance. If the branch office replica copy is unavailable. DFS Namespace.107 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 32. In addition. any changes in the user profile folders are replicated to the head office using DFS Replication. Once these files are synchronized with the branch office appliances. which are typically stored locally on the user’s computer. DFS Namespace will automatically direct users to use the replica copy in the branch office. When the branch office replica copy becomes available again. Remote Differential Compression in DFS Replication replicates only the changes to the user profile folders. After the user profile folders are stored on the branch office appliance. which minimizes the bandwidth utilization on the connection between the branch offices and the head office. This feature determines which replica copy to access based on the availability of the copy and the location of the copy using Active Directory sites. This feature allows for users to transparently access the published content on the appliances in the branch office or in the head office. Read-only DFS Replicated Folders. Any new files or changes made to the cached copy of the files are automatically synchronized when the connection to the appliance is restored. DFS Replication replicates the user profile folders to the head office so that they can be centrally backed up and managed by the IT personnel. The head office and each of the branch offices is a separate Active Directory site. DFS Namespace always preferentially directs client computers to access a local replica copy of the published content within the local site (lower cost than other sites). then DFS Namespace directs the client computers to access the replica copy in the Active Directory site with the next lowest cost. which in this scenario is the head office.

Because multiple users need to modify the content. This feature also supports version control. This feature allows users to access the content from the head office appliances using the HTTP or HTTPS protocol. . This is because DFS Replication in Windows Storage Server is appropriate when only one copy of the content is centrally modified and all replica copies are read-only. network shared folders and SharePoint Services with the BranchCache feature provide the appropriate solution. The SMB2 protocol dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch offices for:  The initial local caching of the content using BranchCache.108 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Type of data Collaboration content Managed using  Network shared folders.  Any updates to the content from users in the branch offices. The BranchCache feature dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch office when users access content stored on the network shared folders that has already been locally cached on the appliance in the branch office. The BranchCache feature dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch offices when users access Web content that has already been locally cached on the appliance in the branch office. network shared folders and Windows SharePoint services are used instead DFS Replication. check in.  For the collaboration content in Table 32. This feature allows users to access the content from the head office appliances. and check out capabilities. Windows SharePoint Services.

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Creating Highly-Available Solutions
In a highly-available solution, the workloads provided by Windows Storage Server must provide improved fault tolerance. Figure 35 illustrates how to create highly-available solutions using Windows Storage Server and Windows Server operating systems using Windows failover clusters and multipath I/O.

Figure 35. Highly-available solution using Windows Storage Server The key elements of the highly-available solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  The application servers are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an application server failure.

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The Windows Storage Server appliances act as iSCSI targets by running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  The application servers are using the multipath I/O feature to provide redundant connections to the clustered appliances.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the clustered appliances to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. For more information about Windows failover clustering for iSCSI targets, see the following sections earlier in this white paper:  "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration." For more information about Multipath I/O for iSCSI initiators in Windows Server operating system, see the following sections earlier in this white paper:  "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration."

Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation
In the storage consolidation solution, all the myriad of devices providing SMB file services, NFS file services, and iSCSI block I/O are consolidated into a few, highlyavailable Windows Storage Server appliances. Typically this solution is used in medium to large organizations that want to reduce the number and types of devices in the organization. This consolidation effort can help reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. Figure 36 illustrates an IT environment prior to implementing the storage consolidation solution. There are a number of different computers providing file services and applications. Each computer has local storage that is used to support the services that each provides. This configuration provides inefficient storage management and usage. For example, one Exchange server may have insufficient available disk space while a file server may have many more times the available disk space than is required.

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Figure 36. IT environment prior to implementing the storage consolidation solution

Figure 37 illustrates the same IT environment after implementing the storage consolidation solution. The number of computers to be supported has been dramatically decreased, which reduces ongoing operations effort and complexity. Also, the overall availability of workloads has been improved. Because storage is centralized, the effort for ongoing storage management is dramatically reduced. And, because all storage resources are pooled, storage can be easily allocated to the appropriate computer.

112 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 37. IT environment after implementing the storage consolidation solution .

to medium-sized business solutions. depending on the availability requirements of the organization.  The Windows Storage Server appliances provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support." earlier in this white paper.  Windows print services. and Internet printing. The key elements of the small.  Providing SMB file services.  Highly-automated management tools. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management.  Providing NFS file services. the organization needs to provide multiple workloads on Windows Storage Server appliances.  The appliances provide centralized storage management. Creating Solutions for Heterogeneous Environments In solutions for heterogeneous environments. such as providing iSCSI LUNs for SQL Server or Exchange Server.to medium-sized business solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28. Creating Small to Medium Business Solutions In small.  Collaboration using Windows SharePoint Services.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management.  The Windows Storage Server appliances are:  Acting as iSCSI targets and are running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. such as Group Policy.113 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The key elements of the storage consolidation solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  The appliances may be configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  Access to Web-based content using IIS 7. the organization needs to support a variety of operating systems.0.  NFS file services for NFS clients. LPR print services.  Typically configured as a stand-alone NAS.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. as described in the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric.  Centralized storage for application servers using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. The key elements of the solutions for heterogeneous environments include:  Windows Storage Server appliances that provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support. .

help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management. Collaboration using Windows SharePoint Services. see AD LDS Identity Mapping for Services for NFS. such as Group Policy. The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric.114 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper             NFS file services for NFS clients. Highly-automated management tools. all the local or shared storage for the application servers in the IT environment are consolidated into a few.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric. highly-available Windows Storage Server appliances.  The Windows Storage Server appliances act as iSCSI targets and are running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. SQL Server. This consolidation effort can help reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. The types of application servers that are consolidated include those running Exchange Server. . AD LDS can be used to provide identity mapping for NFS file services in environments where an Active Directory infrastructure does not already exist. Windows print services for Windows operating systems. There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. Access to Web-based content using IIS 7. and other application servers that have a significant dependency on storage. The appliances provide centralized storage management.0. Centralized storage for all operating systems that have supported iSCSI initiators using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. The key elements of the application consolidation solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity.  Typically the application servers are configured in clustered configurations to improve availability. depending on the availability requirements of the organization. such as described in the section "Creating Highly-Available Solutions" earlier in this white paper. For more information. LPR print services for other operating systems. This solution is very similar to the storage consolidation solution described in the section "Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation" and as illustrated in Figure 36 and Figure 37. The appliances may be configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. see the section "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators" earlier in this white paper. Typically this solution is used in medium to large organizations that want to increase the efficiency of storage allocation and management for application servers. earlier in this white paper. For more information about supported iSCSI initiators. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management. Creating Application Consolidation Solutions In the application consolidation solution.

For more information about the supported iSCSI initiators. or iSCSI connectivity. highly-available Windows Storage Server appliances. For more information. earlier in this white paper. iSCSI block I/O storage. . see the section "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators" earlier in this white paper.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric and provide fault tolerant network connectivity.115 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating Unified Storage Solutions In the unified storage consolidation solution. file and iSCSI block I/O storage services in the IT environment are consolidated into a few. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management. The key elements of the solutions for heterogeneous environments include:  Windows Storage Server appliances that provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support.  The appliances provide centralized storage management. In this scenario.  NAS gateway services for existing storage solutions that do not provide SMBbased file services. For more information about NAS gateway configurations. After implementing this scenario.  Highly-automated management tools. depending on the availability requirements of the organization. and other storage connections (such as Fibre Channel or SAS). see AD LDS Identity Mapping for Services for NFS. NFS-base file services. see the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration" earlier in this white paper. such as Group Policy. This centralization of storage management helps reduce the inefficiency of storage allocation and management and helps reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity.  NFS file services for NFS clients. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management. NFS-based file services.  Centralized storage for all operating systems that have supported iSCSI initiators using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  The appliances are typically configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. This solution is very similar to the storage consolidation solution described in the section "Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation" and as illustrated in Figure 36 and Figure 37.  AD LDS can be used to provide identity mapping for NFS file services in environments where an Active Directory infrastructure does not already exist. all of the storage resources in the organization are managed using Windows Storage Server. the existing IT environment has separate devices provide SMB-based file services.

Windows Storage Server in virtualization solutions Table 33 lists the different methods that virtual machines can use to connect to iSCSI LUNs . as illustrated in Figure 38. In the virtualization solution. Connecting Virtual Machines to iSCSI LUNs Virtual machines running on Hyper-V can access iSCSI LUNs using a number of different methods. In Hyper-V.116 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating Virtualization Solutions You can create virtualized solutions using Windows Storage Server by:  Connecting virtual machines to iSCSI LUNs managed by Windows Storage Server. Windows Storage Server runs the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target to provide iSCSI LUNs for use by virtual machines performing the Hyper-V server role in Windows Server 2008.  Running virtual machines on Windows Storage Server. Figure 38. Each virtual machine is referred to as a child partition. the physical computer is referred to as the parent partition.

As illustrated in Figure 38. see Hyper-V: Using Live Migration with Cluster Shared Volumes in Windows Server 2008 R2. regardless if the operating system supports an iSCSI initiator. This method:  Allows multiple virtual machines to store .117 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 33. the parent partition formats LUN-C as E: and the . regardless if the operating system supports an iSCSI initiator. the parent partition connects to LUN-B and Virtual Machine B directly connects to the partition.  Allows the virtual machine to boot from the iSCSI LUN.vhd file for Virtual Machine C is created on the E: volume. However the parent partition is unaware of the child partition using the LUN because the child partition is directly accessing the LUN.  Allows the virtual machine to boot from the iSCSI LUN.  Supports Live Migration scenarios using Cluster Shared Volumes.vhd files on the same iSCSI LUN. However.vhd file is created on the volume that is accessed by the virtual machine. the child partition connects to LUN-A. As illustrated in Figure 38. The iSCSI LUN is attached to the parent partition and the virtual machine directly accesses the partition.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine. For more information. Pass-through parent partition disk Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN . This method:  Allows only one virtual machine to use the iSCSI LUN.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine that have a supported iSCSI initiator. the parent partition is also aware of the child partition using the LUN. Methods that Virtual Machines Can Use to Connect to iSCSI LUNs Method VHD created on parent partition volume Description The iSCSI LUN is attached to the parent partition and is formatted as an NTFS volume and assigned a drive letter in the parent partition. The iSCSI LUN is attached to the child partition and the virtual machine directly accesses the partition. As illustrated in Figure 38. This method:  Allows only one virtual machine to use the iSCSI LUN.  Does not natively support boot from the iSCSI LUN and requires products available from Microsoft partners to support iSCSI boot for virtual machines. A .

Creating a separate iSCSI target for each LUN will improve performance because each iSCSI target has its own I/O submission queue. This reduces the complexity in providing your solution by reducing the number of physical appliances to manage and minimizes the power consumption for your solution (with the appropriate licensing). Running Virtual Machines on Windows Storage Server Windows Storage Server can also run the Hyper-V server role. .  There is minimal performance difference between the VHD created on parent partition and the Pass-through parent partition disk methods. The recommended method is the VHD created on parent partition method for the following reasons:  Backups are complex using the Pass-through parent partition disk or the Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN methods. You can run up to two virtual machines on Windows Storage Server depending on the Windows Storage Server edition.vhd files reside using this method. You can run:  One virtual machine on Windows Storage Server Standard Edition. It is also recommended that you create a separate iSCSI target for each LUN that you connect to the parent partition to improve performance. This allows you to create a NFS file access solution that runs on one appliance. iSCSI LUNs that are connected using the Pass-through parent partition disk or the Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN methods must be backed up separately in addition to performing a complete backup of the parent partition. you could install an instance of Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) in a virtual machine that can be used for NFS account mapping. For example. are stored on the same LUN where the .  The associated virtual machine files.  Two virtual machines on Windows Storage Server Enterprise Edition. such as the .bin files. This feature allows you to provide other services in the virtual machines running on Windows Storage Server.118 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note Performing a complete backup of the parent partition will back up iSCSI LUNs that are connected using the VHD created on parent partition method.

Windows Storage Server in Windows HPC iSCSI Boot Deployment By using iSCSI and Windows Storage Server. In this solution.119 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server supports iSCSI boot for solutions that include diskless physical computers or virtual machines. Windows Storage Server centralizes the storage for the HPC cluster. Figure 39. Instead. the nodes in the cluster do not require a local hard disk drive to serve as a system disk. Figure 39 illustrates how iSCSI boot can support a Windows HPC Server cluster solution.  Thin clients in libraries or schools. including those that provide iSCSI boot services for:  Web blades configured to support the same application in a web farm.  Computer nodes in Windows High-Performance Computing (HPC) Server clusters. the nodes can use the storage . There are many solutions that can take advantage of iSCSI boot.  Interactive kiosks in retail stores. For more information about how to support iSCSI boot using Windows Storage Server. see the “Supporting iSCSI Boot” section earlier in this white paper.

IT pros can quickly plan. including filtering of content. and iSCSI block I/O services on a single appliance.3 Technical Library . centralized management features. This allows for fast deployment and recovery of the nodes. More Information For more information. This allows small. and DFS Replication features in Windows Storage Server enhance performance. The high-availability features in Windows Storage Server help create mission-critical solutions that require maximum uptime. print services. operations and management products (such as the System Center family of products). Windows Storage Server can run file services. such as Linux or Mac OS. Also. instead of dedicated or single function appliances.to medium-sized organizations and branch offices to take advantage of a multifunction appliance. Web services. DFS Namespace.120 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper resources on Windows Storage Server to boot Windows HPC Server over the network. Tight integration with other Microsoft products and technologies also helps IT pros use existing infrastructure services (such as AD DS). industry-standard hardware to appliances or they can be scaled out by adding additional appliances. The SMB2 protocol. Conclusion Windows Storage Server provides storage solutions for all types and sizes of organizations. Because Windows Storage Server is an optimized version of Windows Server 2008 R2. and scalability for Windows operating systems. the NAS gateway capabilities extend the storage services provided by existing storage solutions. easier to maintain. such as Group Policy.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Technical Library  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. Each cluster node boots from a differencing virtual disk that is based on the same fixed virtual disk. LPR print services. deploy. help reduce the ongoing operations and management of storage solutions. Branch offices can be easily managed from central head offices using these management features. A variety of Windows Storage Server appliances are available from Microsoft partners that can support entry level to enterprise level workloads.  Windows Storage Server blog. Nodes that use the storage resources on the storage array to boot over iSCSI are called iSCSI boot nodes. The NFS file services. availability. disk usage quotas. All aspects of storage management can be centrally managed. and security products (such as Microsoft Forefront products). and operate Window Storage Server solutions in their organization. and iSCSI target services features in Windows Storage Server help protect investments in existing networks with other operating systems. you can:  Deploy Windows HPC Server to 256 cluster nodes in approximately 34 minutes. Highly-efficient. and more cost effective than other dedicated appliances or storage solutions. and the creation of shared network storage resources. Solutions can be scaled up by adding costeffective. Using this solution. see the following resources:  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 home page.  Subsequently boot the 256 cluster nodes in less than 9 minutes. Windows Storage Server appliances can provide storage solutions that are flexible.

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