Windows Storage Server 2008 R2

Architecture and Deployment White Paper
Version 1.0

Published: February 2011

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Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................ 1 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Overview .................................................... 3 Comparing Windows Server Operating System Storage Offerings .................. 3 Comparing Windows Storage Server with Windows Server ..................... 3 Identifying Windows Storage Server Features ....................................... 4 What’s New in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 .................................. 5 Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2 ................................................................................................ 8 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Editions ................................................10 Identifying Storage Challenges ................................................................12 Identify Scalability Storage Challenges ................................................12 Identify Availability Storage Challenges ...............................................13 Identify Security Storage Challenges ..................................................14 Identify Manageability Storage Challenges ..........................................14 Identify Data Recovery Storage Challenges .........................................14 Identifying Windows Storage Server Solution Benefits ................................14 Identifying Scalability Benefits ...........................................................15 Identifying Availability Benefits ..........................................................15 Identifying Security Benefits ..............................................................16 Identifying Manageability Benefits ......................................................16 Identifying Data Recovery Benefits .....................................................18 Exploring Windows Storage Server Features and Capabilities ............................19 Providing Access to File Services Workloads ..............................................20 Supporting File Services Workloads Using CIFS, SMB, or SMB2 ..............20 Supporting File Services Workloads Using NFS .....................................21 Supporting File Services Workloads Using WebDAV ..............................22 Supporting File Services Workloads Using Windows SharePoint Services ..........................................................................................23 Providing Access to iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ..........................................23 Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target ...............................................................................24 Supporting iSCSI Boot ......................................................................27 Providing Access to Web Services Workloads .............................................30 Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads ..............................................31 Providing Access to Print Services Workloads ............................................31 Providing Reduction in Power Consumption ...............................................33 Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers ...............................33 Processor Power Management ............................................................33 Storage Power Management ..............................................................34 Additional Power Saving Features .......................................................35 Performing Highly Automated Installations ................................................35 Managing Windows Storage Server ................................................................36 Management Tools for All Workloads ........................................................36 Managing Power Consumption for All Workloads ........................................37

...................................51 Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data............................................................................................................................................................exe Tool to Backup Printer Information ......41 Managing Single Instance Storage ...................56 Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data .......................................................59 Securing File Services Workloads ...........................................37 In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting .........38 Managing File Services Using File Server Resource Manager ..72 Improving Availability of Print Services Workloads ........................................................41 Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication ...........................52 Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data ...................................................................................................67 Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Targets ....70 Improving Availability of Web Services Workloads .......................................45 Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell ...............................ii Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Remote Manageability of Power Policy.......................................................73 .......................47 Managing Print Services Workloads ...............................................................63 Securing Print Services Workloads .........................................54 Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap ............................................................................................................................................55 Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization .....................................................56 Using Automated System Recovery to Protect Data ...............................................45 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ......51 Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data ....65 Improving Availability of File Services Workloads ................................................................................................68 Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Initiators ..........................................65 Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ...........................................................58 Using the PrintBRM.........................................................43 Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads .....................................57 Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect Data ..........................................................................59 Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads ...56 Using DFS Replication to Protect Data .................................................................................................................46 Managing Web Services Workloads ................61 Securing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ...................................................38 Managing File Services Using Share and Storage Management ..................38 Managing File Services Workloads ............64 Improving Availability of Windows Storage Server Workloads.62 Securing Web Services Workloads.......54 Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service ....................44 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ....58 Securing Windows Storage Server Workloads ...........................................49 Protecting Windows Storage Server Workload Data ..............................................55 Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization ..................53 Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data ..............................................................................................exe Tool to Backup IIS Configuration .....57 Using the Appcmd................................

..........................................79 Review SMB-based File Services Workload Test Results.....96 Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration ...................87 Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files ............................1 in Windows Server 2008 R2 ........................... 119 Conclusion ..............96 Overview of Windows Storage Server Configurations ......98 Using Windows Storage Server in iSCSI Block I/O Configuration ............................... 113 Creating Solutions for Heterogeneous Environments ............................................................... 109 Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation .....................96 Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration ..95 Windows Storage Server Deployment Scenarios ..............................................................................................................90 Review I/O Storage Test Results ................................93 Improving Performance and Scalability for Web Services Workloads ...........................74 Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Protocol .......................97 Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration ......... 113 Creating Application Consolidation Solutions ........................78 Review Improvements in the SMB2 Protocol ............. 116 Running Virtual Machines on Windows Storage Server ..............................................................94 Review Web Services Workload Test Results .............................. 115 Creating Virtualization Solutions .......94 Identify Methods for Improving Web Services Workload Performance and Scalability ...................... 120 .................75 Improvements in Network Adapter Performance.............76 Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations ............................... 120 More Information ......................................................................... 114 Creating Unified Storage Solutions .........................................................................................94 Improving Performance and Scalability for Print Workloads ........ 118 Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions ........ 101 Creating Highly-Available Solutions ........................................................................................................................................................................................................85 Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache .................................................................................................................................iii Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Performance and Scalability for Windows Storage Server Solutions .........74 Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity ...74 Improving Performance and Scalability for All Workloads .................................................................90 Improving Performance and Scalability for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ................................... 110 Creating Small to Medium Business Solutions ............................... 116 Connecting Virtual Machines to iSCSI LUNs..................................................................... 100 Creating Branch Office Solutions ...............................................................90 Identify Methods for Improving iSCSI Block I/O Workload Performance and Scalability ..82 Reviewing Performance Improvements in SMB Version 2...............................................................................................77 Improving Performance and Scalability for File Services Workloads ................................

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Windows Storage Server refers to Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. which are connected using the Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) standard. deploy. including file services. Line Printer Daemon (LPD) services. Windows Storage Server provides a unified solution for the following workloads:  Files services. In addition to providing extended features. Windows Storage Server provides solutions that complement the file services provided by Windows Server.  Print services.  Web services. scalable. which can be accessed using HTTP. iSCSI block input/output (I/O). or Internet printing services. purchasing Windows Storage Server bundled with partner appliances can be more cost effective than purchasing Windows Server and a server computer separately. Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV). File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) protocols. Web services.  Virtualization services. such as Common Internet File System (CIFS) or Network File System (NFS). and operate storage solutions. SMB2 provides a superset of the features found in CIFS and provides improved performance and reliability over previous versions of SMB. depending on the Windows Storage Server edition. Microsoft OEM partners offer specialized hardware and additional software components to create network attached storage appliances. use email efficiently and effectively.0. WebDAV. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials provides entrylevel solutions intended for use in organizations with 24 or less computers. Provides access to files managed by the appliance for computers using file access protocols. NFS version 3.Introduction Windows® Storage Server 2008 R2 is the latest in the Windows Storage Server family of products and is based on the technologies and features found in Windows Server® 2008 R2. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 is built on Windows Server 2008 to create efficient and effective storage solutions. Provides access to Web-based content and services. These services also provide high-performance access to remote disk LUNs using the iSCSI industry standard and can act as an iSCSI initiator or an iSCSI target. and how Windows Storage Server appliances address them. or FTP. see Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Windows Storage Server is only available through Microsoft Partners. which supports check-in and check-out features. extensible. Note This white paper focuses on all Windows Storage Server editions except for Windows® Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials. Windows Storage Server extends the file services in Windows Server by providing addition storage features not found in Windows Server.0.  Windows® SharePoint® Services. Note In this white paper.  iSCSI Block storage services. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS). and print services workloads. The following table lists some of the problems and pain points that organizations have with network attached storage appliances. . and highly-available storage solutions. and file history. version control. Provides the ability to share documents. This white paper describes the features and technologies in Windows Storage Server. unless otherwise specified. and share ideas and information. Provides the ability to run up to two virtual machines on an appliance. Provides remote network attached storage that appears as a disk logical unit number (LUN) to other computers. Provides access to files using the Server Message Block (SMB) version 2. Provides access to printers using Microsoft print services. The most common feature is to store files in document libraries. This white paper is intended for IT professionals who design. track tasks. and how to create secure. For more information about Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials.

Supports Windows Server Failover Clusters. Provides a set of software update management technologies and products for any sized organization. such as System Center Data Protection Manager.2 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 1. Distributed File System (DFS). Limited breadth of vendor support. NTFS permissions. Limited customization and extensibility. including BitLocker® Drive Encryption. and the server software supports extensibility using any application programming interfaces (APIs) supported by Windows Server 2008. and from Microsoft partners. Management of workloads. Implements nonstandard or proprietary protocols or services. Limited protection of information stored on the appliance. Lack of comprehensive software update management. Windows Software Update Services (WSUS). Integrates with Active Directory® Doman Services (AD DS) and Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services. and Network Load Balancing for improved availability and fault tolerance in addition to the hardware fault tolerance features provided by Microsoft OEM partners. Many of the management consoles can be customized to include Microsoft OEM partner branding. Designed to work "better together" with Windows operating systems. and Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager. Minimal or no integration with existing authentication and authorization system. including Windows Update. Network Attached Storage Appliance Problems and Pain Points Problem or pain point Windows Storage Server solution Dedicated or limited function Provides servicing of multiple workloads on highly appliance. and Microsoft® Forefront®. including Windows Vista® and Windows® 7. Uses familiar Windows Server management consoles. availability. and supports other disaster recovery products from Microsoft. Many on-going operations and management tasks can also be automated using System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager. Supports industry standard protocols and services that provide interoperability in heterogeneous environments. extensible Microsoft OEM vendor hardware platforms. Limited disaster recovery. performance. Share permissions. to provide optimal security. . scalability. Ongoing operations and maintenance is labor intensive. Provides Windows Server Backup as part of Windows Storage Server. Takes advantage of the breadth and depth of the software and hardware products provided by other vendors that are provided for Windows Server 2008. and manageability. Loosely integrated with clients that consume the services. Supports a wide variety of security products and technologies. Limited provisions for failover or fault tolerant configurations.

 Identifying the features that are new to Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Network Access Protection. including:  A common application programming interface.  Identifying the features that are unique to Windows Storage Server. As a general purpose operating system. but is optimized for storage solutions. see the “Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2” section in this white paper. However. and support for web applications running Internet Information Services (IIS).  Automation of administration tasks using Windows PowerShell™.  Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2. Windows Server includes Microsoft file and print services. This overview of Windows Storage Server includes the following topics:  Comparing Windows Server operating system storage offerings.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 editions. scalable. such as deduplication of files using the Single Instance Storage (SIS) feature. Windows Server® operating systems have been providing storage solutions since their introduction. DFS-N. and then replaces the files with reparse points (links) to the single instance. For a more detailed description of the differences between these operating systems. . to provide a unified storage solution. and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.3 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Overview Windows Storage Server is optimized for file workloads and includes additional technologies. because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server. This comparison of Windows Server operating system storage offerings includes:  Comparing Windows Storage Server with Window Server. such as Active Directory® Domain Services. Deduplication of files is a specific form of compression provided by the SIS feature that combines redundant files into a single instance of the file. These optimizations provide enhanced features and performance not found in the general purpose Windows Server operating systems.  Identifying Windows Storage Server solution benefits. or Direct Access. DHCP Server. Comparing Windows Server Operating System Storage Offerings Each current Windows® operating system provides some level of storage services.  Tightly integrated with Windows infrastructure services. However. each of these Windows operating systems has different storage capabilities and features. full screen remote desktop control of storage server administration using Web RDP. DFS-R. and easy to manage. Comparing Windows Storage Server with Windows Server Windows Server operating systems are a family of general purpose operating systems that provide a platform for running IT services and applications that are highly-available.  Identifying Storage challenges. Windows Storage Server is a member of the Windows Sever operating system family that is built on Windows Server.  Efficient management of shared resources using familiar Windows management consoles and command-line utilities. it shares all the benefits of Window Server. secure.

Runs more than two virtual machines in a Microsoft Hyper-V™ environment. Reasons to Select Windows Storage Server or Windows Server Solution Windows Storage Server Why select this solution      Windows Server      Provides iSCSI block I/O storage for application storage scenarios. Identifying Windows Storage Server Features Windows Storage Server includes the following features that are not included in Windows Server:  Deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage (SIS) v2 as described in the section “Managing Single Instance Storage” in this white paper. .4 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper There are many instances in which Windows Storage Server provides a more costeffective and efficient storage solution than Windows Server. Windows Server many have distinct advantages over Windows Storage Server. such as database services or messaging services. such as Initial Configuration Tasks window. Table 2. Provides file deduplicaton using SIS.  The ability to function as an iSCSI target using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. In other instances.  Full-screen remote desktop management using Windows Internet Explorer® or any web browser that supports Java using the WebRDP feature as described in the “Management Tools for All Workloads” section in this white paper.3 as described in the section “Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target” in this white paper.  The ability to extend the Windows user experience for commonly used management tools. Provides multiple roles on the same computer. Table 2 lists the reasons for selecting Windows Storage Server or Windows Server as your storage solution. Runs applications on the same computer. Installs on existing computers. such as file services and domain controller on the same computer. as described in the “Step 2: Customize the end user installation experience for the usage scenario” section in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 OEM Deployment Guide. Consolidate file services and iSCSI block I/O on one appliance Provides file services for an existing SAN solution by acting as a SAN gateway. Provides additional installation and configuration options. Potentially lowers deployment cost than Windows Server when new hardware is required.

Provides read-only access to replica copies of data. New or Improved Features in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Feature DFS replication (DFS-R) Description Supports up to 16 simultaneous replication streams. Table 3. NFS client user identities use automatically generated Windows SIDs to access NFS shares. iSCSI Software Target 3. Supports replication to and from failover clusters.5 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper What’s New in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Table 3 lists the new or improved features in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 that did not exist in previous versions of Windows Storage Server.000 domain-based namespaces and improvements in fault tolerances. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Provides locally cached copies of files to reduce network utilization between locations.3 . For more information. For more information. For more information. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Review Improvements in the SMB Protocol”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Reduced administrative effort for providing and monitoring access to NFS shares. For more information. which minimizes administrative effort. For more information. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication”  “Using DFS Replication to Protect Data”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Scales to support up to 60. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using Branch Cache”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Dramatic reduction in network utilization for accessing files. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target”  “Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions” DFS namespace (DFS-N) improvements Branch cache hosted cache mode SMB2 file access improvements Unmapped UNIX User Access (UUUA) for NFS file services. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Supporting Files Services Workloads Using NFS”  “Securing Files Services Workloads” Improved performance for iSCSI block I/O workloads and support for differencing VHDs used in iSCSI boot solutions. For more information.

For more information. and increased memory capacity. In addition.6 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Simplified deployment for two node clusters Description Reduced administrative effort for installing and configuring a failover cluster using two appliances using the Initial Configuration Tasks window. see “Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads” section in this white paper. the power management features can be configured using Group Policy settings. the Cluster Name and Domain Join Wizard and the Cluster Validation and Setup Wizard. Dramatic reduction in power consumption due to improvements in system resource power management. Power consumption and power management Performance and memory capacity I/O performance FTP services . see the following sections in this white paper:  “Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity”  “Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using Branch Cache” Performance for I/O operations has been dramatically improved. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Providing Reduction in Power Consumption”  “Management Tools for All Workloads” Overall performance enhancements due to operating system optimization. see the “Management Tools for All Workloads” section in this white paper. For more information. For more information. such as processor power consumption. For more information. 64-bit processor support. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Improving Availability of File Services Workloads”  “Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads” Windows PowerShell providers are included for Single Instance Storage and iSCSI block I/O workloads. For more information. Performance and manageability for FTP services have been improved. For more information. Automation of repetitive administrative tasks using Windows PowerShell Remote management using WebRDP Client. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell”  “Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell” IT pros can remotely perform full-screen remote desktop management using Internet Explorer or any web browser that supports Java. see the “Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations” section in this white paper.

For more information. which allows files to be managed based on their classification. For more information. For more information. Windows PowerShell Windows PowerShell support has been improved for helping to automate storage management tasks. LUN resynchronization Volume Shadow Copy Service improvements . see the “Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data”” section in this white paper. see “Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data” section in this white paper.7 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description Windows File Classification Management of files has been improved though the infrastructure Windows File Classification Infrastructure. LUN resynchronization can be used to provide faster recovery in some disaster recovery scenarios. see “Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure” in this white paper. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell”  “Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell” Unattended installation and Storage settings can be configured at installation time configuration of storage using the unattended installation. Provides snapshots of volumes virtual hard disks (VHDs). The classification of files is defined by IT administrators. supports concurrent restores. For more information. Windows Server Backup Windows Server Backup provides improved features for performing backup and recovery scenarios. For more information. For more information. which facilitates fully settings automated installations. see “Performing Highly Automated Installations” in this white paper. see the “Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data” section in this white paper. and reduced effort for developing a backup extension.

and antivirus software.NET 3.8 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2 The following lists features and technologies common to both Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2:  Administration Tools  Microsoft .                                  BITS Server Extensions Desktop Experience DFS Namespace DFS Replication DHCP Server Failover Clustering Note Failover clustering is available only in the Enterprise edition of Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) Full Text Search Group Policy Management Console Integration with Windows Server ecosystems (including backup software.) Internet Printing Client LPR Port Monitor Microsoft file services based on SMB2 Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ) Multipath I/O Network File System (NFS) Peer Name Resolution Protocol Remote Assistance Remove Desktop Connection Remote Differential Compression Remote Server Admin Tools RPC Over HTTP Proxy Simple TCP/IP Services SNMP Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications (SUA) Telnet Server TFTP Client Windows Biometric Framework Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Windows Network Load Balancing Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) Windows PowerShell Windows Process Activation Server .0  BitLocker Drive Encryption Note BitLocker Drive Encryption does not work with failover clusters.

there are some differences between the two products. Table 4 lists the feature and technology differences between the two products. Table 4. Supports full screen remote desktop management using Web RDP. Supports acting as an iSCSI target using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3.9 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Windows Server Backup Note Windows Server Backup does not work with failover clusters and does not support volumes larger than 2 terabytes. Supports customized branding of user interface. Optimized for file services workloads.3. Windows Server 2008 R2 Retail channels Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Microsoft OEM partners     Optionally performed by Microsoft OEM partners .  Windows Server Migration Tools  WS-Management  Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) Although Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 is based on the features and technologies in Windows Server 2008 R2. Supports deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage (SIS). Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Differences Feature or technology Availability to organizations.

BranchCache in hosted cache mode. Workgroup is an entry-level technology foundation also targeted at small business owners and IT generalists supporting small businesses. which provides key functionality to support any sized business and IT storage challenge. Use the information in Table 5 to identify which Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 edition is best suited for your organization. Deduplication of files using SIS. Enterprise provides support for an unlimited number of users with maximum faulttolerance and scalability provided in a Windows Storage Server product. is available in the following editions:  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Workgroup. and Web services workloads. deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage. Maximum amount of memory.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Standard. Type of disk adapters supported. Table 5. iSCSI block I/O services. NFS. File Services Resource Manager. Standard provides support for an unlimited number of users who require access to file services using Microsoft file services or NFS. print services.10 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Editions Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Table 5 lists the capabilities of Windows Storage Server. Enterprise is an advanced platform that provides more cost-effective and reliable support for mission-critical workloads. iSCSI block I/O services. Hardware RAID supported. BitLocker Drive Encryption    Workgroup 64-bit 4 32 GB 2 6 Any  Workgroup 25     Standard 64-bit 4 32 GB Unlimited Any Any  Standard Unlimited     Enterprise 64-bit 8 2 terabyte Unlimited Any Any  Enterprise Unlimited        . DFS replication. and Web services workloads. Comparison of Windows Storage Editions Maximum system resources support Capabilities Supported processor architecture. Maximum number of processor sockets. Number of disks supported.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Enterprise. and the support level for the capabilities in each edition of the product. Workgroup provides support for less than 25 users who require access to file services using Microsoft file services or NFS. Capabilities Maximum number of simultaneous users supported. Maximum number of network adapters. File Classification Infrastructure. print services.

. "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Specifications" later in this white paper. Hyper-V guest support. Windows Server Backup. Domain membership. see the section. Workgroup Optional Standard Optional Enterprise Optional Failover clusters. OEM customization of user interface and experience. AD DS read-only domain controller. Domain name system (DNS). Number of printers supported for Print Services workloads.11 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Capabilities Microsoft iSCSI Target Software. DHCP Server services. Windows Search services. Windows Management Instrumentation. Note Some Microsoft partners include the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by default. Multipath I/O.      Any    1 Any             2 Any           For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target specifications. Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services. Fax services.

Table 6 lists the categories of storage challenges that most organizations experience. Identify Scalability Storage Challenges Internal or external hard disks are the most common way to store data on desktops. and it should be protected from any single point of failure. Many organizations must adhere to data retention regulatory requirements to not keep data older than a defined age. and inadvertent user error. or branch offices using highly-automated. Data must be easy to manage and maintain for local users. workstations. Data must be accessible by users on an on-demand basis for a high percentage of the time. compromise. and servers. When an administrator finds that these hard disk drives are getting too full. unauthorized access. the simplest solutions to increase storage capacity are: add more hard drives.  Identify security challenges in storage solutions.  Identify manageability challenges in storage solutions. making it difficult for users to know what resources exist. and where to find them. there is no effective mechanism to determine exactly where information is stored or which version of a document is the most up-todate. Data must remain free from corruption.  Identify availability challenges in storage solutions. This is an especially troublesome problem with data stored on desktops — without file sharing enabled on these computers. Finding the appropriate solution requires careful optimization of an enterprise-wide storage plan. Table 6. Data must be recoverable in the event of a disaster. remote users. data is increasingly dispersed throughout a company. or purchase additional computers that each have more hard disks. it can be difficult to make the data accessible to others. policy-driven processes and procedures. Business requirements determine the challenges that an organization must solve to provide a comprehensive storage solution.12 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Storage Challenges IT pros face most of the same storage challenges. However. regardless of the size of their organization.  Identify data recovery challenges in storage solutions. Security Manageability Data recovery Identify storage solution challenges by performing the following steps:  Identify scalability challenges in storage solutions. Storage Challenge Categories Category Scalability Availability Description Data must be accessible in a timely manner based on the response times defined in your Service Level Agreements (SLAs).  Underutilization of storage resources. in a decentralized structure an administrator can . Scalability storage challenges include:  Decentralized of data. Even when sharing is enabled.  Compatibility with storage networking solutions. Decentralization of Data As the number of systems increase. upgrade to higher capacity disks.

Migrating a company’s critical data to a centralized server can help the situation. directly attached storage tends to scale poorly over the long term. they also scale well with more advanced storage solutions. Effective storage planning requires accurate predictions of which users and applications will require more storage capacity. mechanisms need to be put in place to ensure data availability so that user productivity is not negatively affected. as more servers are added to increase storage capacity (and to provide redundancy in the event of hardware failure). Failure in any of a number of hardware components — storage devices. Identify Availability Storage Challenges Businesses rely on making their services and information available for access. Fault tolerance can be achieved through redundancy of hardware components. These parity-based approaches can provide protection from a disk failure through the maintenance of checksum information. and ensuring that the data is protected well enough to meet requirements. cabling. . Adding more servers does not eliminate the problem of inefficient utilization of storage space between servers.  Server redundancy. Storage remains local to each server. thus space may be available on one server. Storage solutions must be able to integrate with. and those resources must be provisioned before disk capacity is exceeded. storage interconnects. Hard disks using the same RAID controller can be combined to provide a fault tolerance disk configuration using RAID subsystems. organizations can experience bandwidth bottlenecks as users in remote locations attempt to access data in a central location via potentially slow. because the data can be readily shared across the network.13 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper face many hurdles when building and applying a consistent policy to the type and age of data that is stored. such as network attached storage (NAS) and storage area networks (SANs). other storage mediums with the end result being consolidated management flow for administrators and a consistent experience for users. Anticipating growth and implementing storage solutions that scale with growth remains a problem. users still have the problem of not being able to find the data that they need — or in some cases even knowing that it exists. Compatibility with Storage Networking Solutions The best storage solutions not only meet today’s storage needs. while others have excess capacity but no means to effectively share those resources. and offer services for. Some computers inevitably exceed their storage capacity. processors. You can also create more sophisticated. But. In this case. motherboards and power supplies — can result in a temporary or permanent loss of data. but capacity exceeded on another. RAID 5. network interconnects. 24x7. Unfortunately. or RAID 6. As data is centralized. high latency WAN links. Hard Disk Redundancy Hard disk redundancy can be achieved using RAID types such as RAID 10. parity-based configurations that spread multiple data over multiple drives. year-round. The availability storage challenges include:  Hard disk redundancy. Underutilization of Storage Resources Storage that is directly attached to a server is made available to other computers on the network through the operating system’s sharing capabilities. and is one way to ensure highly available data.

especially in midsize and large organizations. where it can be properly backed up. or the Internet. and disasters. even if a server goes down. Identify Security Storage Challenges Preventing unauthorized access to confidential data requires tight integration between file services and identity management systems. Security in depth is required in terms of multi-level and multi-factor security in instances where the data is highly confidential. Hard disks must be backed up by the individual user. system administrators strongly advocate storing critical documents and data on a server. and database servers. although many organizations require multiple platforms to support various applications. extranets. Unfortunately. Identify Manageability Storage Challenges System administration can become enormously complex. The benefits to creating storage solutions using Windows Storage Server include:  Scalability  Availability  Security  Manageability  Data recovery . The most common means of protecting data from these problems is through tape backups and restores. Technologies such as folder redirection combined with Offline Files can help users store data on servers by redirecting key folders. With Failover Clustering. and for clustering those servers to ensure effective performance and high availability. UNIX. Administrators are responsible for managing file. Identify Data Recovery Storage Challenges System administrators must protect data not only from hardware failure. remote users must be able to access the data through remote access connections. these solutions provide only partial protection. but also from data corruption.14 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Server Redundancy Failover clustering allows two or more computer systems to perform and be managed as a single system. In addition. Access to the data must be secured for users on the organization’s intranet. or another operating system. and for that reason. Most of these advantages are available because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server 2008 R2. However. applications remain online. such as My Documents to a network location while keeping a cached version of the data on the user’s local machine. Users are redirected to another computer without any loss of services. IT pros have to help ensure the strongest possible security while allowing users the access they require to data. This redirection can also ensure data availability even when the computer is not connected to the network. application. Identifying Windows Storage Server Solution Benefits Network attached storage appliances running Windows Storage Server have a number of advantages compared to other network attached storage appliances. Finally. users are rarely effective in performing regular backups. user error. demand is increasing to share data among users whether they are running Windows. web.

partition units can be added or replaced without restarting the operating system. and hot-replace of processors and memory on x64-based and Itanium-based systems which support DHP. offering the ability to contain and recover from several types of multi-bit ECC errors in memory and cache without operating system or application interruption. . protection and recovery by Single Instance Store-aware backup solutions can significantly reduce backup windows and recovery times. You can select the failover priority by configuring the load-balancing policies for your storage solution. Single Instance Storage actively compares and eliminates identical files on selected volumes.  Improved fault tolerance between servers and storage. When multiple paths exist between servers and storage. DFS only displays items in the namespace and folders that the user has access to.  Windows Hardware Error Architecture (WHEA).000-link target limit that previously existed. ensuring access to the nearest available copy of the data at the lowest cost. Failover clustering can help you build redundancy into your network and eliminate single points of failure. The Distributed File System Replication (DFSR) service controls replication and synchronization of data using Remote Differential Compression (RDC) that only replicates modifications to a file. The Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server helps optimize storage capacity using built-in file deduplication. Windows Storage Server can failover to an alternate path if the primary path fails. scalable servers.  Processor scaling. DFS has been enhanced to remove the 5. On a dynamically partitionable server. Windows Storage Server can scale up to 256 logical processors to meet the demands of business-critical servers supporting large databases.15 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Scalability Benefits The following are the scalability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Increasing the Effectiveness of File Sharing. therefore. including fans and power supplies and processors and RAM that runs in lockstep together. Those modifications are compressed during transmission. With the release of Windows Server 2008 R2. It is no longer necessary to add an additional server for each additional DFS root directory. and custom applications that sometimes require highly reliable. If a primary component fails. the secondary component takes over in a process that is seamless to the application running on the server. Distributed File System (DFS) simplifies the user’s process of locating and accessing files distributed across an organization. Windows Storage Server supports hot-add of processors. faster synchronization. Fault-tolerant servers contain redundant hardware. and I/O host bridges. and this capability has been maintained in Windows Server 2008 R2. DFS also offers closest site selection. In addition. Windows Server® 2003 introduced the ability to accommodate multiple DFS root directories on each server. This data can be made highly available in a transparent manner using the Distributed File System Namespace. WHEA has been enhanced to support Machine Check Architecture (MCA) error recovery. line of business. Duplicate files are transparently replaced with file system links to the single copy retained in the SIS Common Store — saving significant capacity.  Fault tolerant hardware. and to provide support for Access Based Enumeration (ABE) on DFS Namespaces. resulting in less bandwidth used for replication and. Identifying Availability Benefits The following are the availability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Failover clustering. Windows Storage Server includes support for fault tolerate memory synchronization. memory.  Reduces storage requirements.  Dynamic hardware partitioning. Once enabled.

Identities from AD DS. Forefront Identity Manager (FIM) 2010 also can be used to synchronize identities from other identity systems. You can use the same extensive security products and technologies found in Windows Server 2008 to secure Windows Storage Server. For example. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. such as System Center Operations Manager. such as System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager 2007. can be used to access resources shared by Windows Storage Server.16 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Improved recovery from configuration errors. The broad range of well documented APIs and scripting languages can help you customize Windows Storage Server to meet your organization's requirements. Comprehensive Microsoft support for Windows Server products and the extensive community of partners and peers help you resolve storage-related issues with less effort. and federated domains using Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS). more precisely. In past versions of Windows Server. In the event of a subsequent configuration failure. Windows Server 2008 R2 contains a number of management interfaces for SAN hardware. such as Microsoft Forefront. Identifying Manageability Benefits The following are the manageability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Reduces time to realize efficient management. include knowledge from the product groups at Microsoft to help provide you with accurate and relevant information to resolve support issues. Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS). build.  Manages and operates your storage solution using your existing processes and procedures. multi-vendor storage device management required a system administrator to manage each device independently and to use a different vendor-supplied interface to do so — all of which adds another layer of complexity to the system administrator’s job.  Manages multi-vendor storage more effectively. .  Resolves support issues faster. This level of integration also helps minimize any infrastructure remediation that may be required to deploy and operate your storage solution. such as BitLocker Drive Encryption. deploy. In addition. Identifying Security Benefits The following are the security benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Secures digital assets. Windows Storage Server integrates easily with existing Windows IT infrastructure services. and with less effort. This helps protect your existing investment while developing custom processes and procedures. You can easily extend the features and services provided by Windows Storage Server using the large number of products and services provided by Microsoft partners or by developing your own solution. many of the Microsoft management products. and operate storage solutions. such as AD DS.  Easily extends storage solutions. and IPsec. You can also use Microsoft and partner products to further strengthen the security of your storage solutions. This familiarity dramatically can help reduce your learning curve so that you can quickly and efficiently plan. the Storage Manager for SANs. you can take advantage of your expertise with Windows Server. An error in the configuration of the storage subsystem can negatively affect storage availability. Much of this existing knowledge is integrated in the product or available online. you can manage and operate Windows Storage Server using other products. the iSCSI configuration).  Seamlessly integrates with your existing Windows IT infrastructure. In addition. Windows Storage Server allows you to take configuration snapshots of the storage subsystem (for example. In addition. Because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server 2008 R2. You can manage and operate Windows Storage Server using the same IT processes and procedures that are currently used to manage Windows Server 2008 R2. you can quickly restore the configuration to a previous version.  Integrates with existing identity management systems. NTFS permissions.

These tools help protect the integrity of your existing data while ensuring the current user permissions and security configuration is transferred to Windows Storage Server. The Windows Storage Server 2008 operating system is a multi-purpose server designed to handle a diverse set of server roles. Windows support for iSCSI technology allows users to connect computers to consolidated storage devices using existing Ethernet technologies. using available iSCSI initiators. many Microsoft partners produce products to help in migrating workloads to Windows Server products. you can use other Microsoft products to further automate the administration of Windows Storage Server. The Windows Storage Server 2008 platform now provides better support for SANs. web. remote desktop. such as the File Server Migration Tools. Provides centralized storage for applications. and new features have been added aimed at helping businesses control storage management costs and increase availability of data. Reduces administration effort for storage solutions. In addition. Takes advantage of existing network infrastructure for SAN storage. rather than having to install a separate Fibre Channel network. You can manage file services.  Fibre Channel and iSCSI SANs handling has been improved. Web services. You can automate repetitive administrative tasks using Windows PowerShell scripts in Windows Storage Server. iSCSI technology helps bring the advantages of storage area networking (SAN) to midsize and small businesses that otherwise could not afford the extra cost and management of running a separate Fibre Channel network. iSCSI block I/O services. The integrated storage services available in Windows Server and Windows Storage Server 2008 have been enhanced in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2.17 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper       Migrates from other storage solutions to Windows Storage Server. You can also centrally manage many of the Windows Storage Server configuration settings using Group Policy. For example. built on Windows Server 2008 R2 operating system technologies. Provides unified solution to storage management and operations. You can use the same set of tools and process to manage all the workloads supported by Windows Storage Server. which in turn helps lower total cost of ownership (TCO) especially in complex multivendor storage environments. you can draw on the large number of existing scripts developed by the partner and peer communities to further reduce the time required to achieve automation. such as Linux. You can migrate workloads from existing Windows Server operating systems to Windows Storage Server using highly-automated migration tools. Disk LUNs can be remotely mounted by application servers. Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 make it easier to manage and maintain disks. including file and print. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target component in Windows Storage Server allows you to create iSCSI disk LUNs. such as System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager. using the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator or application servers running other operating systems. instead of using a different set of management tools for each workload. Windows Storage Server 2008 is a network-attached storage (NAS) operating system.  SAN Host Bus Adapter (HBA) interoperability has been simplified with the SAN MMC management snap-in. Robust storage solutions. . storing Exchange Server and virtual server data and directory services. SAN technology based on IP also removes the physical limitations of moving data associated with Fibre Channel. In addition. and print services workloads using the well-known management consoles and utilities in Windows Storage Server. such as Microsoft® Exchange Server 2010 running on a Windows Server operating system. For example. Enhancements include:  Administrators can now control volume mounting to protect volumes from unintentional access.

because only the changes to the data are saved. The VSS process ensures data integrity though the utilization of VSS writers. With VSS. This capability can be extended with technologies like System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM). Windows Storage Server can failover to an alternate path if the primary path fails. separate from the originating server. Making data highly available throughout an organization requires data redundancy. When multiple paths exist between servers and storage. Identifying Data Recovery Benefits The following are the data recovery benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Easier data recovery.  Manages backups and restores more effectively. VSS allows administrators to schedule regular copies of data stored on disk. The Windows Recovery Environment in Windows Storage Server is a partial version of the operating system and a set of tools that you can use to perform operating system or full server recoveries. and best practice guidance to help make certain that the planning. deployment. which can centrally store the snapshot information. backing up data becomes an increasingly time intensive and potentially disruptive operation. As organizations produce more information. Your IT organization and users are less likely to experience difficulties in using and operating Windows Storage Server because they are already familiar with Windows Server. enabling companies to make copies of necessary data. thus making unnecessary the disruptive practice of shutting down applications during backup to prevent data consistency issues. and ongoing operations of Windows Storage Server succeed. you can minimize the risk of adoption for your new storage solution. These can be responsible for flushing buffers and getting data on a disk in a consistent state that is suitable to back up. The Shadow Copy for Shared Folders feature of the new Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) enables users to easily restore their own deleted files without IT intervention. Moreover. In the case of catastrophic system failures — cases in which all operating system information is lost and the server is effectively stripped down to bare metal — Automated System Recovery makes possible rapid restore of the system’s original state. thus adding availability to the data. The accidental deletion or overwriting of files has long been the bane of system administrators charged with the time-intensive and costly task of locating and restoring single files from tape. Because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server.  Windows Server backup tools. You can use many of the existing tools. shadow copies take up little disk space. You can select the failover priority by configuring the load-balancing policies for your storage solution  Windows Recovery Environment.18 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Minimizes storage solution adoption risk. open file backups are enabled. . Microsoft Solution Accelerators.

as illustrated in Figure 1.19 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Exploring Windows Storage Server Features and Capabilities Windows Storage Server includes a rich set of features and capabilities to help service multiple workloads. unlike dedicated or single function network attached storage appliances. Figure 1. These features and capabilities allow Windows Storage Server to act as a unified platform to manage various workloads. Workloads supported by Window Storage Server .

test. Select this protocol to support homogeneous or heterogeneous environments that contain:  Windows-based computers that use Client for Microsoft Networks to access file services workloads using the SMB protocol. The File Services server role in Windows Storage Server supports both SMB2.  Providing access to FTP services workloads.  Providing access to iSCSI block I/O workloads in development. . Windows Storage Server can support file services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments with a variety of operating systems. Some network access storage appliances that are not running Windows Storage Server implement generic CIFS-based file services that implement only older versions of SMB and lack the performance advantages and improved reliability of SMB2. and the prior versions of SMB for previous Windows operating systems. For more information about the improvements available in SMB2. or SMB2 The SMB2 protocol in Windows Storage Server provides access to files and folders for client computers using the SMB or CIFS protocols.  Computers running other operating systems that access file services workloads using the CIFS protocol. SMB. as illustrated in Figure 1. including the following workloads:  Hyper-V  Microsoft SQL Server®  Microsoft Exchange Server  iSCSI boot  Providing access to Web services workloads. or SMB2  NFS  WebDAV  Windows SharePoint® Services Supporting File Services Workloads Using CIFS.  Print services workloads This section includes the following topics:  Providing access to file services workloads. Providing Access to File Services Workloads File services workloads allow computers to access files and folders stored on network access storage appliances. Windows-based client computers use the SMB protocol while other operating systems typically use the CIFS protocol. or production environments.20 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper These features and capabilities help you provide access to:  File services workloads. see the "Review Improvements in File Services" section later in this white paper. which is highly-optimized for use with Windows 7. SMB.  iSCSI block I/O workloads. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous file services workloads using the following protocols or features:  CIFS.  Providing access to print services workloads.  Web services workloads.

For more information about installing and configuring the Services for Network File System role service.0. This component includes the Services for NFS snap-in.2  Hewlett Packard HP-UX version 11i The Server for NFS component allows you to share a folder as a NFS exported folder (also known as a NFS shared folder).0 with the Services for Network File System role service. the NFS client allows access to the NFS exported folder using a universal naming convention (UNC) path or by mapping the NFS exported folder to a drive letter.  Client for NFS. For computers running Windows. A computer running an NFS client can mount the NFS exported folder into the local file system of the operating system running on the computer. Server for NFS can support unmapped user access using:  Unmapped UNIX User Access. download NFS Account Mapping in Windows Server 2008 R2. For more information about enabling identity (account) mapping for Services for NFS. Windows Server 2008. In addition. This component allows a computer running Windows Storage Server and Client for NFS to access NFS mount points on NFS servers. . The Server for NFS component is required to support file services workloads using NFS. see Services for NFS Step-by-Step Guide for Windows Server 2008. This method allows users to access shared resources using automatically generated Windows Security Identifiers (SIDs) based on the UNIX UID and GID.21 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Supporting File Services Workloads Using NFS Windows Storage Server supports access to file services workloads using the NFS protocol version 3. This enables Server for NFS and Client for NFS to look up Windows-to-UNIX user account mappings directly from AD DS or AD LDS. UNIX Version Support The Services for NFS supports the following versions of UNIX:  Sun Microsystems Solaris version 9  Red Hat Linux version 9  IBM AIX version 5L 5. Note The Server for NFS component supports NFS version 2. This method allows all unmapped users to access shared resources using a common anonymous account is configurable.  Anonymous access. NFS Authentication The Server for NFS component can use Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) for mapped identity management. The Services for Network File System role service includes the following components:  Server for NFS. Select this protocol to support heterogeneous environments that contain computers running an NFS client that access file services workloads using the NFS protocol. the Identity Management for UNIX Active Directory schema extension includes the UNIX user identifier (UID) and group identifier (GID) fields. In Windows Storage Server. This component allows a computer running Windows Storage Server and Server for NFS to service NFS client computer requests. The NFS protocol allows any NFS client computer to access files and folders managed by Windows Storage Server using version 2 and version 3 of the NFS protocol.0 and version 3. and a number of command-line tools for managing it. and later Windows Server operating systems.

In contrast. All current Windows operating systems include a WebDAV redirector. thereby .0.5 can be enabled at the site level. IIS 7. For example. so colon characters are valid in non-Windows file names. For more information. WebDAV 7. Administrators can specify how characters in directory and file names will be converted when files are shared between Server for NFS and client computers.0. These authoring rules are separate from the IIS 7. By default. By default. and includes the following improvements:  Integration with IIS 7. Administrators can configure Server for NFS to ignore case sensitivity when returning directory and file names.  Hidden files. files are hidden by setting a special attribute for the file. The WebDAV extension module is available as a separate download at WebDAV 7. see Configure Case Sensitivity for File and Folder Names. This setting can be turned off by administrators to ensure that files whose names begin with a period (. allowing you to specify custom WebDAV security settings on a per-URL basis.0 (x64). contain special characters.5 for IIS 7. it preserves the case of the names of directories and files when creating files on behalf of NFS client computers.5 supports per-URL authoring rules.  Special characters. WebDAV 7. The differences between Windows and non-Windows filenames include the following:  Case sensitivity. The new WebDAV extension module is tightly integrated with this new design. Non-Windows file systems do not use letters to identify drives. Files can be hidden on both non-Windows and Windows computers. Previous versions of WebDAV only allowed you to enable WebDAV at the server level. Client computers running a WebDAV redirector can access file services workloads using the WebDAV protocol. In the case of Windows computers. the new WebDAV extension module integrates with the Internet Information Services Manager console to provide ease of administration. which provides support for homogeneous and heterogeneous environments.and file-access requests to directories and files in its shared directories. file names can be case sensitive. a file stored on NTFS cannot contain the colon (:) character because that character separates the drive letter from the rest of the path in a fully qualified path name.5 is the latest version of WebDAV for Windows Storage Server. the administrator creates a file that defines how these characters are to be mapped. and then specifies where Server for NFS can find the file containing the character map.  Per-URL Security Settings.) character are hidden. see Nfsadmin. Also. Supporting File Services Workloads Using WebDAV The WebDAV protocol is a set of extensions to the HTTP protocol that enables file management over any IP network. or be hidden from users. Non-Windows file systems simply do not list files whose names begin with a period (.0 per-URL authorization rules.0 has a new administration interface and configuration store.  Per-site Configuration. Every file system reserves characters for use in path and command syntax. Windows Storage Server includes version 7. Windows computers preserve the case. but are not case sensitive. For more information. Server for NFS is case-sensitive when matching directory. Server for NFS does not create files with names beginning with a period as hidden files in the Windows file system.5 of the WebDAV extension module for Internet Information Services (IIS) 7. Most UNIX-like non-Windows file systems are case-sensitive when handling directory and file names. WebDAV 7. To accomplish this.22 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Non-Windows and Windows File Names Many of the conventions used for naming files and directories on non-Windows systems differ from those used by Windows. Depending on the operating system. Other operating systems also include a WebDAV redirector.) character.

" later in this white paper. . such as SQL Server® 2008 or Exchange Server 2010. Computers running Windows can also access the document libraries through Windows Explorer. as illustrated in Figure 2. Windows Storage Server is used to connect to external iSCSI targets. Windows Storage Server can be an iSCSI. such as Microsoft Word 2007 or Excel® 2007. Also. For more information about providing WebDAV support on Windows Storage Server. see WebDAV for IIS 7. As an iSCSI target. Windows Storage Server is used to support iSCSI block IO workloads for applications. Document libraries include the ability to check in and check out files to help maintain version control.23 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper allowing one set of security settings for normal HTTP requests.0. Providing Access to iSCSI Block I/O Workloads iSCSI block I/O workloads are another type of workload provided by most network access storage appliances. Client computers can access the document libraries using either protocol.0. For more information.0 allows users to collaborate with each other using either HTTP or HTTPS. iSCSI block I/O workloads include both a server component (iSCSI target) and a client component (iSCSI initiator). but the feature specific to file services is the document library feature. you can configure document libraries to retain a specified number of versions for each file in the document library. see the section "Using Windows Storage Server as a NAS Gateway in Solutions. which allows you to easily restore a previous version of a file and track version history. Windows SharePoint Services include a number of collaboration features. In addition. see Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3. Note When Windows Storage Server is deployed in a NAS gateway scenario. Select this protocol to support heterogeneous environments that contain computers running WebDAV redirectors that need to access the file services workloads using the HTTP or HTTPS protocol.0 support on Windows Storage Server. Microsoft Office System client applications. Serial Attached SCSI (SAS). support opening and saving files to document libraries directly within the application. As an iSCSI initiator. or Fibre Channel initiator based on the type of storage being accessed. and a separate set of security settings for WebDAV requests. such as a SAN. Supporting File Services Workloads Using Windows SharePoint Services Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3. For more information about providing Windows SharePoint Services 3.

The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. see Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3.24 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 2. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Specifications Table 7 lists the specifications for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. . Windows Storage Server can function as an iSCSI target (the server component) or an iSCSI initiator (the client component).3.3 is the latest version of the iSCSI target software and is an optional component in Window Storage Server Workgroup. Standard.3. and Enterprise editions.3 available for Windows Storage Server provides iSCSI target functionality. iSCSI block I/O workloads supported by Windows Storage Server Windows Storage Server supports iSCSI block I/O workloads using the iSCSI standard. These specifications are applicable to all Windows Storage Server editions that include Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Note Some Microsoft partners include the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by default.3 in Windows Storage Server. This allows a large number of configuration options for iSCSI block I/O workload solutions. For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3.

iSCSI offload.3 Specifications Specification Maximum number of iSCSI target instances per appliance.25 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 7. see the section "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads. For more information about multipath I/O. we recommend to use Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 in clustered configurations when connecting to the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. IPsec. Value 64 128 128 512 32 (or 4 per cluster node) 64 16 64 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Windows Storage Server includes support for single path and multipath I/O connections to nonclustered and clustered configurations. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator includes a multipath I/O Device Specific Module (DSM) for the Microsoft Multipath I/O (MPIO) in Windows Server. Maximum number of snapshots per virtual disk. Jumbo frames. . Maximum number of virtual disks or snapshots that can be locally mounted by the appliance. Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Version 3. Maximum number of virtual disk per iSCSI target instance. For these reasons. Failures for non-network related issues have been tested with acceptable recovery times. Multipath I/O connections allow for improved fault-tolerance and performance for iSCSI block I/O workloads. IPv6. TCP offload. Table 8. Maximum number of iSCSI initiators per appliance. Maximum number of iSCSI initiators that can connect to the same iSCSI target instance. Maximum number of iSCSI initiator sessions that can connect to the same iSCSI target instance. IPv4. Support for Single or Multipath IO Connections for Non-Clustered or Clustered Configurations Specification Windows Server 2008 (multipath I/O connection) Windows Server 2008 (single path I/O connection) Windows Server 2008 (multipath I/O connection) Windows Server 2003 (single path I/O connection) Nonclustered Supported Supported Supported Supported Clustered Supported Limited * Limited * Limited* * There is limited support for iSCSI initiators or iSCSI targets in clustered configurations of Windows Server 2003 when connected to the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Maximum number of virtual disks per appliance. Failures on the iSCSI network path may result in delayed failover and recovery times. Table 8 lists the support for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with single or multipath I/O connections when connecting to nonclustered or clustered configurations." later in this white paper.

.  32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Server® 2003 SP2. Customers using a different iSCSI target should refer to the storage array vendor for supported configurations. firmware 3. Prior versions of the hardware providers are not supported by Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider. VDS provides an end-to-end solution for managing storage hardware and disks. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider is required to manage virtual disks on a storage subsystem.3 includes a hardware provider for:  Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS).  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Vista.  Red Hat Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 5.  64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server 2008. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for VSS and VDS Providers Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Install this hardware provider on the computer running the iSCSI initiator and the computer that is to perform backups.x. VDS is a set of APIs that provides a single interface for managing disks. The backup software must support transporting snapshots.26 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note The limitation for iSCSI initiators or iSCSI targets in clustered configurations of Windows Server 2003 is specific to Microsoft iSCSI Software Target usage.07 and 2.3.  Qlogic initiator QLE4062C-SP. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3.3 supports only version 3.  Virtual Disk Service (VDS).  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server 2008 R2.24.  SUSE Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 10. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3 of the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. and for creating volumes on those disks.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows 7.3 and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3.x.  64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server 2008 R2.3 supports the following iSCSI initiators:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator 2. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider is required to create transportable snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks and application-consistent snapshots from iSCSI initiators.01. VSS is a set of APIs that implement a framework to allow volume backups to be performed while applications on a system continue to write to the volumes. iSCSI snapshots are created using VSS and a storage array with a hardware provider designed for use with VSS.  32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2008 SP1.3 support the following operating systems:  Windows Server 2008 R2. Note Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Install the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider on each iSCSI initiator computer running a storage management application (such as the Microsoft Storage Manager for SANs) that uses the hardware provider to manage storage The most recent version of these hardware provider APIs is Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3.3 and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server 2008 SP1 and SP2.3.08 in Windows Server 2003.00.

 iBFT. . iSCSI boot process for Windows operating systems For iSCSI boot-enabled network adapters and host bus adapters.3:  Any Windows client operating system. This phase is performed by the firmware on the network adapter.  Network boot program software that provides iSCSI boot capability. Table 9 lists the components in an iSCSI boot solution using Windows Storage Server and provides a brief description of the purpose for each component. The BIOS function used to access disk boot functions. all the necessary preboot phase components are in firmware on the adapter. For more information. For network boot programs. Figure 3. or network boot program.  UNDI. Windows Vista. The iSCSI boot process for Windows operating systems. This phase of the process is performed by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. depending on the method used for the diskless computer. iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT) is a block of information containing parameters needed to boot Windows Server 2003 and later versions of Windows using the iSCSI protocol and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. These functions are redirected to the virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server. including Windows® XP. Universal Network Device Interface (UNDI) is an application programming interface (API) for network interface cards (NIC) used by the Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) protocol. Independent Hardware Vendors implementing iSCSI boot support in their firmware need to use the table headers defined in this specification to enable the passing of boot critical parameters to the Windows operating system.27 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The following operating systems are not supported by Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3. as illustrated in Figure 3. and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3. The components in this phase include:  Int 13.3. is divided into the following phases:  Pre-boot. and Windows® 7. these components are provided by the partner providing the program. The Windows Boot Manager is configured to boot using LUNs that are accessible through the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. see iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT). iSCSI boot support is provided on diskless computers using one of the following methods:  Network adapters that support iSCSI boot capability.  32-bit version of Windows Storage Server 2008. firmware on the host bus adapter.  iSCSI host bus adapters that support iSCSI boot capability. This phase of the process is used to initiate the Window iSCSI boot process.  Windows. Supporting iSCSI Boot iSCSI boot allows diskless computers (computers without local disk) to boot over the network.

Virtual disk iSCSI connection in diskless computer DHCP server Trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP) server Provides download of boot image to target computer when the virtual disk cannot be directly accessed using the iSCSI connection in the diskless computer. Virtual disk files (.  iSCSI host bus adapter.28 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 9. Components in an iSCSI Boot Solution Using Windows Storage Server Component Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Description Provides iSCSI block I/O access to virtual disks stored on Windows Storage Server. . Differencing virtual disks can be used for multiple computers based on the same fixed virtual disk. Figure 4 illustrates how diskless computers can boot from virtual disk files (. Note The TFTP server is required only if you are using iSCSI boot software that requires a TFTP server. However. The TFTP server is not required for network adapters that support iSCSI boot or an iSCSI host bus adapter. The iSCSI boot process and Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator can access these virtual disks during the boot process. Note The DHCP server is optional if the network adapter supports IP and iSCSI boot configuration or if you are using an iSCSI host bus adapter. the DHCP is practical requirement for any scalable requirement. which can be any one of the following:  Network adapter that supports iSCSI boot. This allows for fast deployment and recovery of diskless computers. The diskless computer requires an iSCSI connection to Windows Storage Server. Provides IP configuration for iSCSI boot using network adapters using DHCP reservation that is configured for BOOTP support.  iSCSI boot software.vhd files) stored on Windows Storage Server.vhd files) stored on Windows Storage Server using a network boot program that provides iSCSI boot capability.

The TFTP Server provides a PXE boot image to the diskless computer. .29 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 4. iSCSI boot process from Windows Storage Server DHCP and TFTP services can be provided by Windows Storage Server or Windows Server. The diskless client computer requests a Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) boot image from the TFPT Server. 5. the diskless computer can boot from a virtual disks stored on Windows Storage Server using the following steps for a network boot program: 1. 2. The DHCP Server sends IP configuration information to the diskless client. The diskless client computer requests IP configuration from the DHCP Server. 3. 4. As illustrated in Figure 4. The diskless computer establishes a connection with Windows Storage Server and connects to a virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server.

8. Using this method. Windows Storage Server can support Web services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments that include a variety of operating system. Any subsequent writes to the differencing disk are written to the differencing virtual disk and the parent virtual disk is not modified. The Windows operating system starts. A differencing virtual disk is a virtual disk type that is based on a fixed or expandable virtual disk.07 or 2. see:  Microsoft iSCSI Boot Step-by-Step Guide.08  Red Hat Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 5. Windows Storage Server supports Web services workloads.3 supports iSCSI boot for the following iSCSI initiators:  Any Windows operating system running Microsoft iSCSI Initiator version 2.30 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 6. The diskless computer boots from Differencing Virtual Disk . .x  SUSE Enterprise Linux version 10.  About VHD. which is the iSCSI LUN specified in the configuration for the computer. the operating system on the parent virtual disk stays in its original state for quick recovery or for quickly creating more boot images based on additional differencing virtual disks. and create a differencing virtual disk as the current virtual disk for the diskless computer. All subsequent disk I/O is performed using iSCSI I/O to the virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server.B that is stored on Windows Storage Server. For example. Web services workloads allow users to access Web-based content stored on Windows Storage Server appliances.  The “Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions” section later in this white paper. Providing Access to Web Services Workloads Unlike most network access storage appliances. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous Web services workloads using the protocols listed in Table 10. 7. Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. You can use separate virtual disks for each diskless computer or you can use differencing virtual disks.x  PCI-E network iSCSI Initiator adapter  Broadcom network adapter  qLogic iSCSI host bus adapter  Netboot software For more information about iSCSI boot in Windows operating systems. you can create clean-install system boot operating system virtual disk as a parent.

and more. Protocols Supported for Web Services Workloads Protocol HTTP Support description Provides:  Access to traditional Web-based content accessed through Web browsers. Providing Access to Print Services Workloads Another advantage to using Windows Storage Server appliances is the ability to support print services workloads. virtual host name for an FTP site. an additional detail field in FTP logs. unique tracking for FTP sessions.5 administration interface and configuration store. a UNC path.  Reduced effort for support and troubleshooting FTP–related issues. but are differentiated by using unique virtual host names. upload or download.  Provides support for the Internet Printing role service. Windows Storage Server can support .  The foundation for the WebDAV protocol used in accessing file services workloads. With the new FTP server. or from a command line. The new FTP server is fully integrated with the IIS 7.  Simplified file transfer. Improved logging that now supports all FTP-related traffic. Print services workloads allow users to access printers managed by Windows Storage Server appliances.  Extended support for Internet standards. but includes additional security protection of using secure sockets layer (SSL) encryption between clients and Windows Storage Server. using the same folders that can be accessed using any of the file services workloads protocols. which can be essential in some heterogeneous environments. Provides the same level of support as HTTP. This allows administrators to perform common administrative tasks within one common administration console. The new FTP server includes support for:  Improved security by supporting FTP over secure sockets layer (SSL). download only.  Support of extended character sets by including UTF8 support. FTP sub statuses. Provides a simplified file transfer. This allows you to create multiple FTP sites that use the same IP address. This allows you to provide FTP and Web content from the same website simply by binding an FTP site to a website. File transfer can be performed using Windows® Internet Explorer®. which can be essential in some heterogeneous environments.  The foundation for Web-based remote administration using Terminal Services Web Access. you can specify a. for the same files and folders accessed using any of the file services workloads protocols.  Extended IP addressing features provided by IPv6.31 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 10. HTTPS FTP Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 includes FTP services that offer the following improvements:  Reduced administrative effort for FTP server services.  Improved integration with web-based applications and services. a mapped drive.

However. There is no configuration necessary for the LPD service. Select the Printer Server role services when clients must print to printers using the only HTTP protocol. see Print Management. .32 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper print services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments that include a variety of operating system. If the Print Spooler service is stopped or restarted after the LPD Service is installed. When the Print Server role is installed. Internet Printing provides access to shared printers using the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) that is encapsulated in HTTP. the removal of the role service does. Provides support for computers that run an Internet Printing client. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous print services workloads using the Print Server role services listed in Table 11. the installation of the service does require a restart of the Print Spooler service. an inbound firewall exception for TCP port 515 is created. Select this Print Server role service to support LPR clients in heterogeneous environments. typically used in heterogeneous environments or to print over the Internet. In order to install the Internet Printing role service.  Printer management in Windows Storage Server.dll. The Print Management Console (PMC) is then accessible from Server Manager. The Print Server role service is a mandatory role service for the Print Services role. the Print Services and Web Server roles must also be installed. Select this Print Server role service to support any print services workloads in Windows Storage Server. Although the installation of the Print Server role service does not require a system restart. When the LPD Service is installed. Administrative Tools. see Print and Document Services. The LDP Service is an optional Print Services role service. Table 11. Line Printer Daemon (LPD) Service Internet Printing For more information about:  The Print Services server role. the TCP/IP Print Server service is also stopped — and you must restart it manually. typically used in heterogeneous environments. which is done automatically during installation. the Print Services Tools Remote Server Administration Tool feature is also installed. If you are supporting only Windows-based computers that are printing with your homogeneous environment. select only this role service. Print Server Role Services Supported for Print Services Workloads Role Service Print Server Support description Provides support for Windows-based computers running Client for Microsoft Networks. The LPD Service installs and starts the TCP/IP Print Server (LPDSVC) service which is implemented in lpdsvc. Provides support for computers that run Line Printer Remote (LPR). or as an MMC snap-in.

or less power. It now provides the ability to fine-tune the processor’s speed and power consumption to match . Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers Windows Storage Server helps improve the power efficiency of individual servers through a variety of incremental improvements. Microsoft measured power consumption of Windows Storage Server 2003 and Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 using a representative online transaction processing (OLTP) workload. power consumption is of paramount importance. Figure 5. which demonstrate that many servers that operate within a range of utilization levels will benefit from the improved power efficiency of Windows Server 2008 R2. Therefore.33 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Providing Reduction in Power Consumption With the proliferation of physical computers in data centers. from idle up to 100 percent utilization. Figure 5shows the results. reducing your power consumption also allows you to support more physical computers while using the same amount of power. Power savings with Windows Storage Server Processor Power Management The PPM engine in Windows Storage Server has been rewritten and improved. In addition to the cost-saving associated with reducing power consumption. average utilization for many servers is 5 to 15 percent. and budget power usage across the system. many data centers are constrained by the number of computers they can support in their data center by the actual power available to the data center.  Additional incremental power saving features. manage. Throughput was gradually throttled up across the utilization range of the systems. Window Storage Server includes the following improvements to reduce power consumption:  Reduced power usage of individual servers by including:  A new PPM engine. To quantify the power savings. than before.  The ability to measure.  Storage power management. Measuring power usage only when hardware is fully utilized does not reflect real-world usage.

New parameters for PPM — which administrators can configure — further improve power efficiency. This means that commands are not repeatedly sent to check for media changes. as shown in Figure 6. Storage Power Management Another strategy for reducing power used by individual servers is to centralize their storage by using a Storage Area Network (SAN). . which eliminates the need for local hard disks (local storage) in the individual server computers and decreases power consumption as a result. Windows Storage Server greatly improves access to storage on SANs.  Asynchronous notification of media change for optical devices. Core parking is a feature that enables Windows Storage Server to reduce multi-core processor power consumption by consolidating processing onto fewer processor cores and suspending the inactive cores. A SAN also makes more efficient use of the available disk space. because any server can have access to the available storage on the SAN.  Support for “remove on delete”. The workloads of cores that are not fully utilized can be suspended. which means less communication with the drive and less power consumption. the system activates the idle processor cores to handle the increased processing requirements. Windows Storage Server includes support for storage devices that work with solid state drives that can power down unused RAM when a file system deletes files. Windows Storage Server provides asynchronous notification of drive media changes.  Optimized link power management for SATA disks. thus saving power. and their workloads then shifted to alternate cores. When additional processing power is required. and also adds the following enhancements:  ATA Slumber feature. This feature helps reduce power usage for managing the communication bus link between the hard disk and the chipset. The workloads of every logical core in a server are tracked relative to all the others. This feature is integrated with the power management framework to use the new power states (partial and active).34 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper current demands. Keeping the unutilized cores in an idle state reduces system power consumption. which has a higher storage-capacity-topower-consumption ratio than a typical server. Windows Server Storage also supports the ability to boot from a SAN.

xml file to run Windows PowerShell scripts or any command-line program that can used to perform storage configuration tasks. creating LUNs. as well as your physical systems. . The benefit of this automation is that the storage configuration requires minimal or no configuration by IT pros. thus saving power.xml file. However. Servers without local storage that each consume less power Additional Power Saving Features Windows Storage Server includes Intelligent Timer Tick Distribution (or Tick Skipping). OEMs can configure the FirstLogonCommand attribute in the Unattend. or formatting partitions. other processors are signaled only as necessary. This also allows processors to better utilize the deep C-states. non-timer interrupts will still activate sleeping processors. in which the processor consumes very little energy but requires time to return to an operational state. creating partitions. You can take advantage of most of these technologies in virtualization scenarios to maximize the power efficiency of your virtualized environments. One processor handles the periodic system timer tick. such as creating a RAID set. Performing Highly Automated Installations You can automate the storage subsystem configuration settings in Windows Storage Server by customizing the Windows Storage Server Unattend.35 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 6. with C3 set as the deepest-sleep state and C0 as the operating state) by not activating the CPU unnecessarily. This feature extends processor idle or deep C-states (processor sleep states within the ACPI specification.) The amount of background work that is performed by the operating system has also been reduced in Windows Storage Server.

 Remote Desktop Services Web Connection. and the applications and services running on Windows Storage Server. For more information. secure the appliance. . see Terminal Services Web Access (TS Web Access). and Remote Server Administration Tools Pack. and the feature uses the remote desktop protocol (RDP) to communicate with Windows Storage Server. see Group Policy. and you also can use it to manage 32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server.1 and later versions. You can remotely manage Windows Storage Server using the Remote Desktop Connection feature. Then you connect to Windows Storage Server using the Microsoft ActiveX® control included in Remote Desktop Client version 6. features.  Management of iSCSI block I/O workloads.  Group Policy.  Remote Desktop Services Connection.  Microsoft Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT). and before deploying the new appliance in your enterprise. and customize the appliance by adding server roles and features. For more information about Server Manager. Management Tools for All Workloads Windows Storage Server supports the following tools. For more information. see Description of Windows Server 2008 Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows Vista Service Pack 1. enable administrators to perform tasks on the appliance. You can complete these tasks by using commands in the Initial Configuration Tasks window. Server Manager in Windows Storage Server provides a single source for managing a server's identity and system information. and managing all roles installed on the server. Group Policy provides an infrastructure for centralized configuration management of Windows Storage Server. see Windows Server Initial Configuration Tasks. You make the initial connection to Windows Storage Server using Internet Explorer and the Terminal Services Web Access Web site.  Management of Web services workloads. displaying server status. some configuration is required to identify the appliance to other computing resources on your network. see Terminal Services in Windows Server 2008. You can run RSAT on 32-bit or 64-bit Windows operating systems. see Server Manager.  Management of Print services workloads. This feature requires the Remote Desktop Client to be installed on the computer used to manage Windows Storage Server. You can use Group Policy on any Windows Storage Server appliance that is a member of an Active Directory domain. After installing Windows Storage Server. identifying problems with server role configuration. For more information about the Initial Configuration Tasks window.36 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing Windows Storage Server You can manage Windows Storage Server using the management features in each of the following areas:  Management tools for all workloads. For more information about RSAT. and technologies for managing all workloads:  Initial Configuration Tasks window.  Server Manager. For more information. which opens immediately after the operating system installation is complete.  Management of file services workloads. RSAT allows you to remotely manage roles and features in Windows Storage Server from a computer running Windows Vista SP1 or a later Windows operating system.  Management of power consumption for all workloads. This feature requires only Internet Explorer to be installed on the computer used to manage Windows Storage Server. Description of Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows 7.

which provide the ability to manage Group Policy from the Windows PowerShell command line and to run Windows PowerShell scripts during logon and startup. the infrastructure for management data and operations on Windows-based operating systems. Windows PowerShell is a task-based command-line shell and scripting language designed especially for system administration. VDS. You can run command-line programs. see Windows PowerShell. For more information. only hardware platform support. both locally and remotely. For centralized power policy management. You can perform disk management for any of the workloads using VDSenabled management tools. both locally and remotely across the enterprise. Telnet. providing a powerful and convenient way to capture and report information about power consumption. additional policy settings. Diskraid command-line tool. This is useful for IT administrators who use WMI queries in scripts to monitor and administer their infrastructure. WMI. exposes the data that is gathered to users. ensuring interoperability across the entire IT environment. You can use any Telnet client to create a remote command console session on a Windows Storage Server appliance. and scripts in the remote command console session. A vast library of existing Windows PowerShell scripts reduces the effort and learning curve for using Windows PowerShell to automate administrative tasks. providing them with the data they need to make informed and timely power management decisions. Microsoft storage partners develop VDS hardware providers that allow management of their storage solutions.37 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper    Windows PowerShell. or management tools in a manner that is compliant with the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) management profiles. and in turn making power consumption data an actionable metric. scripts. You can manage storage with VDS hardware providers using VDS-enabled management tools. Remote Manageability of Power Policy Key in Windows Storage Server is the greatly enhanced ability to measure. or the Share and Storage Management console. Windows Storage Server provides a new power namespace. Windows PowerShell is built on the Microsoft . Microsoft is pursuing an ACPI standards-based approach to the features that provide these capabilities. In conjunction with server OEMs. manage. Windows Storage Server supports the configuration of power policy. root\cimv2\power. through Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). Power metering and budgeting in Windows Storage Server require no additional drivers or hardware changes. IT workers responsible for power management can control power policies and receive power condition events. Storage Manager for SANs snap-in. . and the applications and services that run on Windows Storage Server. including an improved user interface. such as the Diskpart command-line tool. and budget energy usage for individual servers and across the entire server environment.NET Framework and is designed to help you automate the administration of Windows Storage Server. Managing Power Consumption for All Workloads Windows Storage Server also helps you better measure and manage power consumption. just as if you were locally logged on to the host and using a local command prompt. and Windows PowerShell™ cmdlets for Group Policy. there are new features in Group Policy for Windows Storage Server. For more information. which enables code and scripts to query power data on compliant systems. see Telnet.

or caps.  Single Instance Storage management tools. and can configure the system so that it automatically takes action when the budget is exceeded. Managing File Services Using File Server Resource Manager File Server Resource Manager is a suite of tools in Windows Storage Server that enables you to place storage limits on volumes and folders. and Storage Reports With the File Server Resource Manager snap-in.  Share and Storage Management. it also aids in the planning and implementation of future changes to the storage infrastructure. Another set of metrics can be used for virtualization and consolidation. The server platform reports information in-band to the Windows Storage Server through the use of ACPI.  DFS management tools. Managing Disk Usage Quotas. Based on the information gathered. Set soft or hard space limits on a volume or folder tree. it becomes an actionable metric for IT staff when appropriate hardware support is available. prevent users from saving specific file types to the server. and generate comprehensive storage reports. You can create and apply quota templates with standard quota properties. Now that power consumption is measurable. and the files themselves. the IT administrator can write a script or use Microsoft® System Center to centrally collect and monitor power consumption data across the datacenter.38 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting The new power features introduce new opportunities for managing power consumption. The WMI namespace additions for power meters and supplies mean that the user mode power service can provide data to the WMI namespace. Unauthorized File Types. Microsoft recommends a collaborative model between the server platform and the operating system for power metering and budgeting (the process that lets administrators set power limits. the folder structure to store the files. You manage file services workloads running on Windows Storage Server by using:  File Server Resource Manager. or in a more likely scenario. on datacenter components as small as a single server). and this means power data can be queried by Microsoft System Center and other management tools to budget and monitor power usage across the entire IT environment. you can perform three tasks to manage storage resources on local or remote servers:  Quota management. File Server Resource Manager not only helps you efficiently control and monitor existing storage resources from a central location. An administrator can use the performance monitor on a server to view the moment-bymoment power consumption. . the workloads of underutilized servers can be consolidated onto a smaller number of better-utilized physical machines using live migration (the ability to move virtual machines between servers with virtually no downtime) with Hyper-V. An administrator can set power budgets for the servers and the system. Fewer physical machines can lead to reduced costs through lower hardware and energy costs and through reduced management overhead. Managing File Services Workloads Managing file services workloads includes managing disk volumes.

39 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  File screening management. and other common IT operations tasks. Policy-based Classification of Files One of the key advantages to the Windows File Classification Infrastructure is the ability to centrally manage the classification of the files by establishing classification policies . such as sensitivity or criticality of the information in them. reduce costs. Because users store files on a network shared with little or no restrictions. or date of the file.  Perform file management tasks based on the file classification that you define.  Contain sensitive information to encrypt those files. size. The File Classification Infrastructure feature is also managed with the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. Define filtering rules that monitor or block attempts by users to save certain file types on a volume or folder tree. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to establish policies for classifying files and then performing common administrative tasks based on the classification. Even with this knowledge. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to:  Centrally define policy-based classification of the files stored in your intranet. see File Server Resource Manager. rather than on only simple information such as the location. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure in Windows Storage Server provides insight into your data to help you manage your data more effectively. you cannot rely on the user to properly determine the proper classification of information. file screening activity. the user storing the files is the only individual who has any knowledge of the information stored in the files and other characteristics about the files.  Are not accessed frequently to move the files to slower.  Storage reports management.  Generate reports about the types of information stored in the files in your intranet. You can also apply quota and file screening policies when you provision a shared folder. You can create and apply screening templates with standard file exclusions. but is covered separately in the “Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure” section in this white paper. and mitigate risks. data archival schedule. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to identify files that:  Contain sensitive information on servers with lower security to move the files to servers with higher security. Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure Managing data stored on file services is usually challenging because of the sheer number of files being stored on network shared folders. or through a command-line interface.  Require different backup schedules to back up the files accordingly. Generate built-in reports to track quota usage.  Create or purchase custom file management solutions based on the Windows File Classification Infrastructure. and patterns of storage use. For more information.  Notify content owners when a file management task is going to be performed on their content. more affordable storage solutions. You need to be able to centrally categorize these files and then perform IT file operations based on the classification of the files.  Require different backup solutions based on the sensitivity of the information in the files.  Are no longer essential to automatically remove the files from servers.

And the extensible nature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to integrate with existing messaging systems or information portals.  When running a classification rule. and other relevant information about the files. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to help you perform common file management tasks. Without classification of the files. location or other classification categories. Reporting on Information Stored in Files Most IT organizations have no easy method of providing information about the types of files that are stored and managed.40 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper using the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. and run classification rules. the content owners can be notified in advance and given the opportunity to prevent the files from being archived or deleted. IT administrators are able to automatically move data based on policies for either centralizing the location of sensitive data or for moving data to a less expensive storage resource. including:  Grooming of data. optionally re-evaluate files that are already classified.  Create. The architecture of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows the use of any supported development . or add the value to properties that support multiple values. File Management Tasks The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to perform file management tasks based on the classifications that you define using the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. based on installed classification plug-ins. For example. ordered lists.  Custom Tasks. update. You can also select the method for notification based on the type of file management task being performed. Property types can include Boolean. You can use the reporting infrastructure to generate information that can be used by another application (such as a comma separated variable format text file that could be imported into Microsoft® Excel®). when files become old enough to be automatically expired. For example. You can automatically delete data by using policies based on data age or classification properties to free valuable storage space and intelligently reduce storage demand growth. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to:  Define classification properties and values. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to automate any file management task by using the file classifications you establish for your organization. which can be assigned to files on a per-server basis by running classification rules. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to generate reports in multiple formats that can provide statistical information about the files stored on each file server. Improved Development of File Management Tasks You can extend the file management features of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure by creating your own custom file management solution or purchasing a file management solution from an independent software vendor. and string values. Each rule assigns a single predefined property and value to files within a specified directory. date. File Owner Notification of File Management Tasks Another feature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure that reduces your administrative effort is the ability to send notifications to content owners when an automated file management task runs. This centralized approach allows you to classify user files without requiring their intervention. there is minimal information that can be used to help identify the usage of the files. You can choose to overwrite existing classification values. Execute custom commands based on age. the sensitivity of the files. numbered.

Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication The Distributed File System (DFS) technologies offer wide area network (WAN)-friendly replication as well as simplified. You can configure shared folders for SMB or NFS protocols and DFS settings using Share and Storage Management.  Change volume properties like compression.  Format a volume. The technologies in DFS include the following:  DFS Namespaces. For more information about Share and Storage Management.  Access disk tools for error checking. user limits.41 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper environments for Windows Storage Server including Windows PowerShell and Microsoft Visual Basic® Scripting Edition (VBScript). Managing File Services Using Share and Storage Management Share and Storage Management in Windows Storage Server provides a centralized location for you to perform:  Shared resource management. and offline access to files in the shared resource. This structure .  Multi-vendor storage management.  If File Server Resource Manager is installed. For example. You can perform the following tasks using this tool:  Specify the folder or volume that you want to share or create a new folder to share. highly-available access to geographically dispersed files. DFS Namespaces lets you group shared folders located on different servers into one or more logically structured namespaces. or on storage subsystems that have a VDS Hardware Provider using Share and Storage Management. apply storage quotas to the new shared resource.  See which users are currently accessing a folder or a file and disconnect a user if necessary. see Overview of Share and Storage Management. security.  Specify the network sharing protocol used to access the shared resource. This architecture allows you to select the level of programming sophistication required to automate your file management tasks.  Stop the sharing of a folder or volume.  Manage the local NTFS permissions for the folder or volume you will be sharing. and backup.  Manage the share access permissions. You can perform the following tasks using this tool:  Extend the size of a volume. you could write Windows PowerShell scripts to manage files based on the classifications you define for your organization. You can manage storage on disks available on your server. and create file screens to limit the type of files that can be stored in it. which can be installed and configured for use in Windows Storage Server. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider.  Publish the shared resource to a DFS namespace. Each namespace appears to users as a single shared folder with a series of subfolders.  Delete a volume. Each vendor supplies the VDS Hardware Provider. offline availability and indexing. defragmentation.  Manage NFS-based access permissions for the shared resource.

For more information about:  DFS.exe  DfsCmd. RDC detects insertions.exe  DfsDiag. see DFS Management. In addition. removals. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Securing File Services Workloads”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” You can manage DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication using the:  The DFS Management snap-in hosted by Server Manager. Read-only DFS Replication is a secure method for replicating data where read-only access is required to the data. For example." later in this white paper. and re-arrangements of data in files. you can replicate files and folders to another location using DFS for disaster recovery scenarios. For more information. such as in Branch office locations.  Using DFS to replicate file services workloads for disaster recovery scenarios. when available. multiple-master replication engine that you can use to keep folders synchronized between servers across limited bandwidth network connections. RDC is a "diff-over-the wire" client-server protocol that can be used to efficiently update files over a limited-bandwidth network. instead of routing them over WAN connections.exe You also can use DFS to replicate files and folders in geographically dispersed environments so that users have a local copy of the files and folders. you can use read-only DFS Replication to publish data from a head office to branch offices where users in the branch office should not change the data. and the data is not replicated back to the head office. This can greatly reduce the amount of traffic transferred over limited-bandwidth networks. DFS Replication is an efficient.  The DFS Management snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder.  DFS Replication. . DFS Replication uses a new compression algorithm known as remote differential compression (RDC). enabling DFS Replication to replicate only the changed file blocks when files are updated. see Replication. see the section "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data.42 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper increases availability and automatically connects users to shared folders in the same AD DS site. as well as AD DS SYSVOL folder replication in domains that use the Windows Server 2008 domain functional level.  The following command line tools:  DfsUtil. which replaces the File Replication Service (FRS) as the replication engine for DFS Namespaces.  For more information about DFS Replication. see Distributed File System.  Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication.exe  DfsrDiag.  Read-only DFS Replication.exe  DfsrAdmin.

The Groveler discovers duplicate files and initiates the deduplication of files.exe. Support backup of single instance of file using Single Instance Storage APIs in sisbkup. see Single Instance Storage. The Single Instance Storage Filter runs in kernel mode.  Managing Single Instance Storage using Sisadmin. Supports system drives. The Groveler service scans the hard-disk volumes on a server for duplicate copies of files. Supports remote drives. Table 12.43 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing Single Instance Storage The Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server reduces the amount of space used to store data on a volume. Identifying Single Instance Storage Specifications Table 12 lists the specifications for the Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server. Identifying Single Instance Storage Management Tools You can enable or disable Single Instance Storage on a volume through the Share and Storage Management console. Minimum file size supported. Identifying Single Instance Storage Architecture Single Instance Storage consists of the following components that together maintain a database of file signatures:  Groveler service. Failover cluster support. Single Instance Storage does this by replacing duplicate files with logical links that point to a single copy of the file in the SIS Common Store. For more information about:  The Single Instance Storage feature. Supports boot drives. Ability to undo single instancing of files. Value 128 Yes Yes Yes 32 KB Yes Yes No No No No Yes . Support files with extended attributes.  Single Instance Storage Filter. The Groveler service runs in user-mode. see Managing SIS Using SisAdmin.dll. You can also automate the administration of Single Instance Storage using Windows PowerShell scripting or any other scripting language that supports WMI.exe. The Single Instance Storage Filter is a file system filter service that redirects reads to the common store and performs the replacement of file pointers when users start changing a duplicate file. which is a hidden folder located in the root directory of the volume.exe. but the primary administration tool for this feature is Sisadmin. Single Instance Storage Feature Specifications in Windows Storage Server Specification Maximum number of volumes per appliance. Requires volumes to be formatted as NTFS. WMI support. Supports replication of files using DFS Replication.

44 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Typical Reduction in Storage Usage Using Single Instance Storage The extent to which the Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server can help reduce storage usage depends on the number of duplicate files stored on the appliance. Installs SIS on a volume. In this scenario. Enable-SisVolume. including the:  Spaced saved. Table 13.  Percentage of the volume saved. Table 14 lists the Windows PowerShell cmdlets included in the SingleInstanceStorage module and provides a brief description of each cmdlet. Get-SisVolume. Lists all the volumes that have SIS installed enabled. You can manage iSCSI block I/O workloads running on Windows Storage Server for the following components:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator . build and release provides the largest reduction of storage usage. Disables SIS on a volume. which is included in Windows Storage Server. For more information about managing the Single Instance Storage feature using Windows PowerShell. Configures SIS after it has been installed on a volume. Files stored in user home folders provide the most typical scenario where the larger reduction of storage usage is realized. This will cause all linked files to revert to the original file stored in the SIS common store. In this scenario. and connections to storage arrays. see Single Instance Storage Cmdlets in Windows PowerShell. IT organizations typically realize storage savings of more than 50 percent. Install-SisVolume. IT organizations typically realize storage savings that average from 10 percent to 30 percent. Displays a SIS summary report for each volume. Windows PowerShell Cmdlets for Managing Single Instance storage Category SIS linked files SIS disk volumes Cmdlet and description         Get-SisLinkFile. For files in a software development environment. Disable-SisVolume. Enables SIS on a volume. Get-SisVolumeReport. Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The types of management tasks for disk block I/O workload include managing iSCSI targets. Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell You can manage the Single Instance Storage feature using the SingleInstanceStorage module.  Number of linked files. Uninstalls SIS from a volume. Returns a list of all the linked files and the corresponding filename in the SIS Common Store. Uninstall-SisVolume. virtual disks.  Number of files in the SIS Common Store. Set-SisVolume.

For more information about managing Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI block I/O workloads." later in this white paper. Virtual disks are the LUNs that the computer running an iSCSI initiator uses. You manage iSCSI targets using the iSCSI Targets node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. and the most current version of the . through an Ethernet network adapter. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. If you assign multiple iSCSI initiators to the same iSCSI target. Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Using Share and Storage Management Console You can manage storage on the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using Share and Storage Management.  Share and Storage Management console. For more information about Share and Storage Management. All current Windows operating systems support the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator.3 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator enables you to connect Windows operating systems to an external iSCSI-based storage array. see:  Configuring the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. see the section "Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect iSCSI Block I/O Workload Data. see the previous section. An iSCSI target can manage multiple virtual disks. You can manage this feature by using the:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. see Overview of Share and Storage Management. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target includes the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider that allows LUNs on Windows Storage Server to be managed by any application that uses VDS. Typically. iSCSI targets are the logical endpoint to which an iSCSI initiator connects.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Snap-in Typical tasks that you use the Microsoft iSCSI Target snap-in to perform include managing:  iSCSI targets.  Virtual disk snapshots. there is a potential for conflict between the computers running the iSCSI initiators. but a virtual disk can only be managed by one iSCSI target. For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider. The most typical reason for assigning multiple iSCSI initiators to the same iSCSI target is for shared storage in failover clusters. You manage virtual disks using the iSCSI Targets node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. For more information about using virtual disk snapshots for backup and in disaster recovery scenarios. you assign just one iSCSI initiator to each iSCSI target. such as Share and Storage Management. "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for VSS and VDS Providers" in this white paper.  Virtual disks. You manage virtual disks using the Snapshots node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in.45 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target feature allows Windows Storage Server appliances to act as an iSCSI target. Virtual disk snapshots are point-in-time copies of virtual disks that you can use to back up active virtual disks for disaster recover scenarios or to restore a LUN to a previous state.

and then a virtual disk can be associated with the target. New-IscsiVirtualDisk. the virtual disk can be assigned to an iSCSI target. Windows PowerShell Cmdlets for Managing Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Version 3. Remove-IscsiServerTarget. Deletes the iSCSI virtual disk object. Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell You can manage the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Afterwards.46 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator is version 2. The VHD file is not deleted. Deletes an iSCSI target object.exe).3 using the MicrosoftIscsiTarget module. Obtains the iSCSI virtual disks and their associated properties. Modifies settings for the iSCSi target and returns the corresponding iSCSI target object if the PassThru parameter is specified. Table 14 lists the Windows PowerShell cmdlets included in the MicrosoftIscsiTarget module and provides a brief description of each cmdlet. Creates a new iSCSI virtual hard disk (VHD) object with the specified file path and size. Set-IscsiVirtualDisk. For more information about managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator.  iSCSICLI. the iSCSI target can be assigned to an iSCSI initiator.3 Category iSCSI target management Cmdlet and description  New-IscsiServerTarget Creates a new iSCSI target object with the specified name. Afterwards. Get-IscsiServerTarget.  iSCSI Control Panel configuration utility (iSCSICPL.08. Obtains the iSCSI targets and their associated properties from the local server or specified computer. An iSCSI initiator cannot access the VHD or LUN after the target is deleted. Remove-IscsiVirtualDisk. Set-IscsiServerTarget. Modifies the settings for the virtual disk and returns the corresponding iSCSI virtual disk object if the PassThru parameter is specified. which is included in Windows Storage Server.exe tool from a command line.    Virtual disk management     . You can manage the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator by using the:  Graphical user interface in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator." later in the white paper. Table 14. such as those described in the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Storage Server allows the server software to connect to other external iSCSIbased storage arrays. Get-IscsiVirtualDisk. Once a virtual disk has been assigned to a target. see the Microsoft iSCSI Initiator Step-by-Step Guide. an iSCSI initiator can access the virtual disk after the initiator connects to the target.

NET in one tool.  Configure user and role authorization for sites and applications. All the virtual disks assigned to the same iSCSI target will be accessible by the connected iSCSI initiator. For example. Once a virtual disk has been assigned to a target. and to return output in text or you can use XML.  View health and diagnostic information that includes the ability to view currently running requests in real time.0. The management tools available for managing IIS 7. are listed in Table 15.exe.Appcmd. Removes the assignment between a virtual disk and iSCSI target.exe You can manage IIS 7 using the command-line tool Appcmd. reducing the complexity of learning syntax.3 using Windows PowerShell.0 tools to manage FTP sites. an iSCSI initiator can access the virtual disk after the initiator connects to the target. and for managing Web services workloads. For more information. Remove-VirtualDiskTargetMapping.3.0. In addition. For more information. which provides consistent commands for common queries and configuration tasks.47 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Category LUN management Cmdlet and description  Add-VirtualDiskTargetMapping. see Appcmd. or application remotely by using HTTP. Table 15. Use IIS 6. . site.exe.  Connect to a web server. see IIS Manager (IIS 7). which lets you:  Manage IIS and ASP. The virtual disk will be no longer accessible by an iSCSI initiator once the assignment is removed.  For more information about managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Tools for Managing Web Services Workloads in Windows Storage Server Tool Internet Information Services Manager snap-in Description You can manage IIS 7 using the Internet Information Services Manager snap-in.exe to configure and query objects on your web server. Note You cannot use IIS Manager to manage FTP sites in IIS 7 on Windows Storage Server.  Delegate site and application configuration to nonadministrators. Assigns a virtual disk to an iSCSI target. you can combine commands to return more complex data about objects on your web server or to perform tasks that are more complex. Managing Web Services Workloads Web services workloads in Windows Storage Server can be managed by any of the management methods available for IIS 7. Appcmd. you can complete complex tasks like stopping all sites with pending requests that have been running longer than sixty seconds. see PowerShell cmdlets for the Microsoft iSCSI Target 3.

This module includes the filtering features previously found in URLScan 3. You can use WMI to build scripts for web administration. In addition. web applications. and their associated objects and properties using any scripting language that supports WMI. Configuration Editor exposes several configuration settings that are not exposed elsewhere in IIS Manager.0. WebAdministration. For more information.1. a collection of task-oriented cmdlets provide a simple way to manage websites. and directories.5 supports the use of managed service accounts for application pool identities. see Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) in IIS 7. Allows you to manage any configuration section available in the configuration system. The FastCGI module. Windows Storage Server allows domain-based service accounts to have passwords that are managed by AD DS. allows management of FastCGI settings while the ASP. and troubleshooting effort:  Automation of common tasks through the PowerShell provider. For more information. The IIS 7 WMI provider namespace. the Request Filter module helps prevent potentially harmful requests from being processed by Web applications on the server. IIS configuration is stored in the ApplicationHost.5 release that make it possible to manage obscure settings such as those used for FastCGI and ASP.NET applications or adding and editing request filtering rules through a graphical user interface.  Request Filtering. the server administrator is the only user who has permission to view and edit the ApplicationHost. These enhancements include updates to:  Configuration Editor. Available through a set of APIs. The Windows PowerShell Provider for IIS is a Windows PowerShell snap-in that allows you to perform IIS administrative tasks. see Configuration Store (IIS 7). such as Windows PowerShell. By default. and manage IIS configuration and run-time data. Scripts using WMI Windows Storage Server includes the following features which help reduce administration. unless they have been locked to prevent changes. for example. New features have been added to IIS Manager for the 7. this feature lets the core IIS Web engine to be consumed or hosted by other applications. support.  Enhancements to IIS Manager.NET configuration. The Request Filtering user interface provides a graphical user interface for configuring the Request Filtering module.config files for sites.5 integrates and enhances existing extensions and allows for further enhancements and customizations in the future. By blocking specific HTTP requests.48 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Tool Configuration store Description You can manage IIS 7 using the XML-based configuration store that is modeled after the ASP. contains classes and methods that enable you to script administration of websites.NET module allows management of authorization and custom error settings. web applications and web servers.  IIS Manager UI extensions. These new type of accounts reduce the recurrent administrative task of having to update passwords on processes running with these accounts. The hostable . the new IIS 7. Utilizing the extensible and modular architecture introduced with IIS 7. applications.config file.  Hostable Web Core. allowing those apps to service HTTP requests directly. Settings configured at one level are inherited automatically by lower levels. IIS 7.  Managed service accounts. Developers are able to service HTTP requests directly in their applications by using the hostable Web core feature.config file and can also be distributed among Web.

see the Print Management Step-by-Step Guide. Best Practices Analyzer (BPA). Managing Print Services Workloads The Print services workloads in Windows Storage Server that the Print Server role provides can be managed by using the tools listed in Table 16. The new Configuration Logging feature in IIS 7. In IIS 7. which allows you to track the configuration changes made to your test and production environments.5 provides enhanced auditing of changes to IIS and application configuration. For Windows operating systems prior to Windows Vista. For more information. It can also send email notifications or run scripts when a printer or print server needs attention. PHP developers can use the FastCGI module to include IIS trace calls in their applications. For more information. Print Management can display more data. Use Print Management to install printer connections to a group of client computers simultaneously and to monitor print queues remotely.exe tool in a startup script (for percomputer connections) or in a logon script (for per-user connections).49 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper    Web core feature is useful for enabling basic Web server capabilities for custom applications or for debugging applications. see Server Manager and the Print Services Role. which can administer the local server only. Print Management can also help you find printers that have an error condition by using filters. optional role services. Print Management snap-in Group Policy . The BPA for IIS 7. This provides logging of both reads and writes.5. use the PushPrinterConnections. On printers that provide a web-based management interface. This reduces the effort required for debugging code during development and troubleshooting application errors after deployment by using IIS Failed Request Tracing. Failed Request Tracing for FastCGI.5 Web server and reporting on potential configuration issues found.5 and application configuration. You can access the BPA through Server Manager and Windows PowerShell. file creations and more. Tools for Managing Print Services Workloads in Windows Storage Server Tool Server Manager Description Use Server Manager to install the Print Services server role. as well as logon attempts. Server Manager also displays print-related events from Event Viewer and includes an instance of the Print Management snap-in. Use Print Management with Group Policy to automatically deploy printer connections to users or computers and install the appropriate printer drivers for computers running Windows Vista and later Windows operating systems. Table 16. and features. see the Print Management Step-by-Step Guide. For more information. such as toner and paper levels.5 is a management tool that can help you reduce best practice violations by scanning an IIS 7. The Print Management snap-in provides current details about the status of printers and print servers on the network. Enhanced auditing of changes to IIS 7. changes to path mappings.

Printbrm. see the Print Migration Tool. and language monitors. and then import them on another print server that is running a Windows operating system. This is an efficient way to consolidate multiple print servers or replace an older print server. For more information. Use Windows PowerShell to manage print services workloads. Provides the same features and functionality as the Printer Migration Wizard.exe command-line tool Windows PowerShell . printer settings. For more information about using Windows PowerShell to manage print services workloads. printer ports. see Printer Management Using PowerShell.50 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Tool Printer Migration Wizard Description The Printer Migration Wizard allows you to export print queues.

DVDs.  The Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature. helps protect the data managed by Windows Storage Server.  Can only back up volumes 2 terabyte or less in size.  Does not include the ability to e-mail or provide notification of the backup status report. tools. Table 17. Features and Limitations of Windows Server Backup Features Use Windows Server Backup to:  Back up a full server (all volumes).  The LUN resynchronization capabilities. Table 17 lists the features and limitations of this feature. Using proper backup and disaster recovery processes. Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data The Windows Server Backup feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 consists of a MMC snap-in and command-line tools that provide a solution for backup and recovery requirements. and reduce the risk of potential data loss.  Cannot back up shared storage in a failover cluster if the storage is moved between active nodes. certain applications. and the system state.exe tool to backup printer information.51 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protecting Windows Storage Server Workload Data One of the essential aspects to ongoing operations of Windows Storage Server workloads is the ability to protect the data that the server software manages.  System Center Data Protection Manager.  The Automated System Recovery feature.  The Appcmd. files.  Perform backups of applications like SQL Server to protect application data using VSS functionality. . and shared folders. You cannot perform backups to tape. You can protect the data managed by Windows Storage Server using:  The Windows Server Backup feature. which is available separately. or the system state.  Perform a system recovery in case of disasters like hard disk failures.  Does not support a centralized monitoring ability for enterprise environments.  The DFS Replication feature. folders.  Does not implement a method of including media rotation strategies. and technologies. Limitations Windows Server Backup has the following limitations:  Supports backing up only to external and internal disks.  Recover volumes.exe tool to backup IIS configuration. Note In addition to the products and technologies discussed in this section.  The PrintBRM. support of tape storage drivers is still included in Windows Storage Server. which will restore your complete system onto the new hard disk by using a full server backup and the Windows Recovery Environment. However. you can use most backup and disaster recovery products offered by Microsoft partners for Windows Server 2008 to protect data managed by Windows Storage Server.  The Volume Shadow Copy Service feature. selected volumes.

There is a limit of 64 shadow copies per volume (when this limit is reached." later in this white paper. For more information. This feature allows a user to restore selective files or folders from previous versions without IT assistance. Shadow Copies of Shared Folders is enabled for an entire volume. is useful because you can:  Recover files that were accidentally deleted. Note This default task can be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Shadow copies are read-only and as such you cannot edit the contents of a shadow copy. The default configuration for this feature is as follows:  A default task is scheduled to create shadow copies at 7:00 A.M.M. With Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. . and 12:00 P. consider using:  System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. see the section "Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data. It works by taking snapshots of an entire volume at particular points in time.  Recover from accidentally overwriting a file. Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data The Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature in Windows Storage Server is a feature in Windows Server that transparently maintains previous versions of files on selected volumes by using shadow copies. If you accidentally delete a file. You cannot enable this feature for specific shared folders and files on a volume.52 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Features Limitations  Only supports backup of entire volumes (cannot be used to backup individual files and folders. you can open a previous version and copy it to a safe location. see:  Shadow Copies for Shared Folders Technical Reference. For more information. You can use previous versions when you want to check what has changed between the versions of a file. If your backup and recovery requirements are affected by any of the limitations listed above.  Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. you can view shared files and folders as they existed at points of time in the past. The Shadow Copies for Shared Folders features uses the Volume Shadow Copy Service to create the file copies.)  Compare versions of a file while working. Note For more information about the Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature. contact the appropriate Microsoft partner. or shadow copies. you can recover a previous version of the file. the oldest shadow copy will be deleted and cannot be retrieved).   The default storage area is on the same volume and its size requires 10 percent of the available space.  Only supports backup of local volumes (cannot be used to backup network shared folders). Monday through Friday. Accessing previous versions of files.  Backup and recovery solutions from Microsoft partners. (The number of versions depends on how many snapshots you have created. If you accidentally overwrite a file.

For example. Components in the Volume Shadow Copy Architecture Component Volume Shadow Copy Service Requestor Description A service that coordinates various components to create consistent shadow copies of one or more volumes. or the Diskshadow command-line tool." "Shadow Copies of Shared Folders." and "Virtual Disk Snapshots" in this white paper. the Windows Server Backup feature. Volume Shadow Copy Service Architecture Table 18 lists the components in the Volume Shadow Copy Service architecture and how the components relate to each other.53 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data The Volume Shadow Copy Service feature in Windows Storage Server provides the ability to take point-in-time snapshots of files and is the foundation for other applications or features. such as those in the sections about "Windows Server Backup. System Center Data Protection Manager. Figure 7 illustrates the architecture of the Volume Copy Shadow Service in Windows Storage Server. Typically. Table 18. this is a database application like SQL Server or Exchange Server. The volume that holds the shadow copy storage files for the system copy-on-write software provider. A component that creates and maintains the shadow copies. A component of an application that stores persistent information on one or more volumes that participate in shadow copy synchronization. The volume that contains the data to be shadow copied. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. Figure 7. Examples include the system provider included with the Windows Storage Server operating system. Shadow Copy of Shared Folders feature. and the hardware providers included with storage arrays. or a system service like Active Directory. An application that requests that a volume shadow copy be taken. Writer Provider Source volume Storage volume . This architecture allows the point-in-time snapshots of files stored in Windows Storage Server.

Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data Windows Server 2008 R2 includes support for LUN resynchronization (also known as LUN resynch or LUN revert). the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider is required to create point-in-time snapshots. see Volume Shadow Copy Service Technical Reference. of the virtual hard disks managed by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.54 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper As described in Table 18 and illustrated in Figure 7. LUN resynchronization creates hardware-based shadow copies that allow you to recover a volume from an existing shadow copy of the volume.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. LUN resynchronization is a method for quickly restoring volumes that takes advantage of the capabilities of storage arrays. Table 19 lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and current features in Volume Shadow Copy Service. LUN resynchronization uses the same application programming interfaces (APIs) that are used by the Volume Shadow Copy Service. The Volume Shadow Copy Services uses the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider to create these snapshots. Performed by server computer. . You can also use LUN resynchronization to help quickly create duplicates of productions LUNs for use in a storage environment for backup or in test. and then restore from those shadow copies. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service LUN resynchronization Recovers entire LUN.exe command-line tool to manage Volume Shadow Copy Services for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. or development environments. Note You can use DiskShadow. Typically takes less time than restoring by using traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service. using the inherent snapshot or copying features in the storage array. This allows you to create shadow copies of entire LUNs. Typically takes more time than restoring by using LUN resynchronization. Table 19. or copies. Traditional volume shadow copy service Recovers only a volume. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service Window Server 2008 R2 LUN resynchronization support is an extension of the features provided by the Volume Shadow Copy Service in Windows Server 2008 R2. which may contain multiple volumes. such as SANs. see the "Hardware Providers" section of Virtual Disks and Snapshots. For more information about the:  Volume Shadow Copy Service. Performed by storage array hardware.

Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap LUN resynchronization Source (shadow copy) LUN remains unmodified after the resynchronization completes. The source LUN is the shadow copy of the LUN that contains the data you wish to use. This helps ensure that you can use the same tools and processes for a traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service recovery. future versions of Windows Server will also provide support for LUN resynchronization. LUN swap Source (shadow copy) LUN becomes the active LUN and is modified. less expensive storage. Table 20 lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and a LUN swap. Requires that the destination LUN exists and is usable. the server hardware resources are only minimally affected. a shadow copy version of a LUN is exchanged with the active LUN. . The APIs used to perform LUN resynchronization are the same APIs that perform a traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service recovery.  Compatibility with future improvements. The destination LUN is the target LUN that will be synchronized or swapped with the source LUN. Destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN. users can continue to access data on the volume while the synchronization is being performed. Contains only the information on the source LUN. Source LUN can be used for recovery again. This allows the server to continue processing other workloads with the same performance while the LUN resynchronization process completes. Source LUN can exist on slower. In a LUN swap. users and applications are still able to access their data. After the recovery of a volume using LUN resynchronization is initiated.  Integration with existing volume recovery methods. Destination LUN does not have to exist or can be unusable. supported APIs in Windows Server 2008 R2.55 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap LUN swap is a fast volume recovery scenario supported since the release of Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1). Although there may be a reduction in performance. Must create another shadow copy to perform recovery. and any information written during the resynchronization. Because LUN resynchronization uses published. Because the hardware storage array is performing the resynchronization.  Reduce the workload while recovering volumes. Source LUN must have the same performance as the production LUN. Table 20. Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization The benefits of LUN resynchronization include the following:  Perform recovery of volumes with minimal disruption of service.

You can use DFS Replication to create replica copies of data in a centralized location and then back up the replica copies. including any volume information. Restoring the base operating system plus the backup application (the minimum required to restore backed up applications and data) is a time intensive process. . In the event of system failure. Using DFS Replication to Protect Data DFS Replication can be used as part of a centralized backup solution.56 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization Before you can perform a full volume recovery using LUN synchronization. a system administrator prepares for such a disaster by saving to physical media a complete backup set of information about the how the server was configured. this backup set is used with the ASR restore CD (which contains the necessary software and drivers to allow the restore) to rapidly restore all system setup information. For more information about DFS Replication in branch office scenarios for data protection. 2. 3. Using Automated System Recovery to Protect Data While backing up data to tape protects mission critical data from catastrophic events. users can access the volume using the following methods:  For read operations. the source LUN is unmodified and the destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN. The LUN resynchronization continues by performing a block-level copy from the source (shadow copy) LUN to the destination LUN. Note At the end of the LUN resynchronization process. ASR is tightly integrated with VSS. such as fire or electrical surges. The LUN resynchronization completes and all user requests are now performed from the destination LUN. you need to have a hardware shadow copy (snapshot) of the LUN. 5. it does nothing to protect system software stored on the hard drive. and in the Windows Software Development Kit (SDK) for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. You can make full or differential shadow copies of the LUN. The source and destination LUNs are identified. For example. system files. volume requests are directed to the destination LUN. nothing remains but the bare metal. volume requests are directed to the source LUN. plus any data that was written to the destination LUN during the LUN resynchronization process. You can find more information about how these steps are performed by viewing the Volume Shadow Copy Service APIs on MSDN®. The following includes the sequence of events that occur when performing a full volume restore using LUN synchronization: 1. During the LUN resynchronization. because that information is not copied during the backup process. see the section "Creating Branch Office Solutions" later in this white paper. A critically damaged hard drive will lose all critical registry information.  For write operations. you can use this method in branch office scenarios to create replica copies of data in the branch offices in the head office and then back up the data in the head office. and disk partition information. With the Automated System Recovery (ASR) technology in Windows Storage Server. 4. The LUN resynchronization is initiated between the source (shadow copy) and the destination LUNs.

Data Protection Manager 2007 includes the following benefits:  Continuous data protection for Windows application and file services workloads. minimize the time required to create disks. Data Protection Manager 2007 was specifically designed to protect and recover files services for SQL Server. Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 is designed to provide and restore Windows Server applications. .57 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper ASR provides a VSS Writer for the preparation of an ASR set. They can be extended to provide extra capacity on demand. Exchange Server. Microsoft Virtual Server. During a restore operation the ASR VSS writer is executed within the Windows PE environment.  Snapshots are space-efficient because they are differential copies. A snapshot is a point-in-time. Snapshots are useful for backups. Data Protection Manager 2007 enables IT administrators and users to easily recover data in minutes from easily accessible disk instead of locating and restoring from less-reliable tapes. Data Protection Manager 2007 combines the best aspects of CDP real-time protection with traditional tape backup/restore to provide a comprehensive disk-to-disk-to-tape data recovery solution. Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect Data The disks you create by using the iSCSI Software Target are iSCSI virtual disks. Focused on the primary Microsoft server workloads. enable efficient storage utilization. and one-click lossless application recovery. Windows 2008 also provides the Recovery Console that utilizes the Windows Recovery Environment (Windows RE).  Rapid and reliable recovery. in case of accidental data deletion by a user. read-only copy of an iSCSI virtual disk.  Advanced technology for enterprises of all sizes. Data Protection Manager 2007 blends the best aspects of continuous data protection (CDP) to disk storage with traditional tape backup. These virtual disks offer flexible and effective storage. Finally. overwritten data. In addition. SharePoint® Portal Server. This change removes a previous problem in which dynamic disks were always recreated even if a restoration was not necessary. To facilitate backup and recovery operations. Data Protection Manager 2007 provides technically advanced and comprehensive data protection for organizations ranging in size from small business environments to enterprise environments. which are files in the fixed virtual hard disk (VHD) format. Combined with Windows Server technology. and minimize the down time that is typically required to install new disks. in addition to supporting dynamic disks. and Windows Server operating systems. providing an easy-to-manage and robust disk/tape back-end platform. ASR has been enhanced to support EFI system partitions. a version of Windows PE that contains numerous troubleshooting and system resolution utilities. or data corruption resulting from a malicious program. Data Protection Manager 2007 protects core Windows Server workloads by continuously capturing data changes with application-aware byte-level agents.  Snapshots are useful for fast system recovery of files and volumes. you can schedule and create snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks. which recreates all critical volumes and restores the required data. see System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. For more information about System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. They offer the following advantages:  Snapshots can be scheduled to be created automatically.

servers. you need to use backup software that works with Volume Shadow Copy Service from a Microsoft partner. see Virtual Disks and Snapshots.exe Tool to Backup IIS Configuration You can protect data managed by Web services workloads using the Appcmd.exe Tool to Backup Printer Information You can protect data managed by Print services workloads using the PrintBRM. The snapshot can be used to provide the ability to rollback services to a previous version. Using the PrintBRM.exe tool in Windows Storage Server. or archival media and then later used to restore the data in the event of a failure. You can back up the configuration files for IIS 7. so application servers can continue servicing clients without disruption.exe tool. Snapshots do not require that you close files or stop programs when you create them.  The Volume Shadow Copy Service. Table 21 lists scenarios for using virtual disk snapshots. For more information about:  Virtual disks and virtual disk snapshots. For example. the snapshot must be created from the iSCSI initiator computer by using the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider and other backup software that works with the Volume Shadow Copy Service. For more information about the Appcmd. see Migrate Print Servers. Most modern file systems can recover from this state.exe tool in Windows Storage Server. Table 21. see How to backup/restore IIS7 configuration." in this white paper.exe tool allows you to export printer information on a periodic basis as a way of backing up a print server. you could create snapshots prior to performing an upgrade to provide the ability to roll back the environment should the upgrade fail. Note Snapshots that are created on the iSCSI target server are crash consistent. Virtual disk snapshots require the Volume Shadow Copy Service and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider. The PrintBRM.0 using this tool. To perform backups of the virtual disks. Using the Appcmd. To create an application-consistent snapshot. Uses for Virtual Disk Snapshots Scenario Provide disaster recovery Create a restore point Use of the virtual disk snapshots The snapshots can be saved to other appliances. For more information. .58 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper   Snapshots can be mounted locally or exported to facilitate backup and recovery operations. see the previous section "Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data.

Secure Windows Storage Server workloads by securing:  Windows Storage Server for all workloads  File services workloads  Disk block I/O workloads  Web services workloads  Print services workloads Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads Before securing specific workloads. see the section "NTFS Permissions" in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. regardless of the workloads running on Windows Storage Server. or inappropriately decommissioned appliances. encrypts data stored on hard disks. These security measures can be implemented. included in Windows Storage Server. stolen. see BitLocker Drive Encryption. you can further secure your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. This encryption helps protect the data by preventing unauthorized users from breaking Windows file and system protection on lost. Windows Storage Server includes all of the security features and technologies found in Windows Server. secure the Windows Storage Server operating system. NTFS permissions work with share folder permissions to help prevent unauthorized network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. and is used for accessing all workloads. For more information. Note For remote or network users. passwords. Table 22. For more information. This is especially important for Branch Office scenarios where the physical security may not be as strong as in a data center. Security Features or Technologies for All Workloads Feature or technology BitLocker Drive Encryption Description BitLocker Drive Encryption. Services (AD DS) accounts. help prevent unauthorized local and network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. Table 22 lists the features or technologies that you can use to secure Windows Storage Server. see Active Directory Domain Services Overview. . included in Windows Storage Server. In addition. For more information. Active Directory Domain AD DS provides centralized management of credentials.59 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Securing Windows Storage Server Workloads Windows Storage Server includes a number of features and technologies to help you secure your workloads. NTFS permissions NTFS permissions. access to files and folders are defined by the combination of NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions.

access to files and folders are defined by the combination of NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions. For more information. available separately. Windows operating systems. data integrity. Specifically. provide protection. Shared folder permissions work with NTFS permissions to help prevent unauthorized network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. and management solutions that are integrated with Microsoft user identity management. and other Microsoft products. Windows Firewall is also integrated with Internet Protocol Security (IPsec). allows you to protect the communications between Windows Storage Server and other Windows operating systems. For more information. which dramatically reduces the ongoing administrative and operations effort. see the section "SMB Permissions" in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. IPsec Microsoft Forefront .  Remote connectivity to Windows Storage Server using Forefront Unified Access Gateway 2010. included in Windows Storage Server. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. Note For remote or network users. you can help protect:  Windows Storage Server and other Windows-based computers or appliances that communicate with the appliance using Forefront Client Security. only help prevent unauthorized network access to the files and folders stored on Windows Storage Server. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security is integrated with Network Awareness so that it can apply security settings appropriate to the types of networks to which the computer is connected. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. included in Windows Storage Server. IPsec. so that the IPsec configuration settings are integrated into the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in. You can centrally manage IPsec using Group Policy. and replay protection. and access. included in Windows Storage Server. data confidentiality (encryption). data origin authentication.60 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature or technology Shared folder permissions Description Shared folder permission. IPsec supports network-level peer authentication. Microsoft Forefront products. These shared folder permissions affect users accessing the files and folders using the SMB protocol. see Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec.  Communication with other computers or appliances over the Internet using Forefront Threat Management Gateway 2010. helps reduce the attack surface by blocking unauthorized network traffic flowing into or out of the appliance. For more information.

You can manage the NFS share permissions using the Share and Storage Management snap-in. Use read-only DFS Replication to provide read-only copies of file and folders to servers where only readonly access is allowed. For more information. NFS-based access control for a shared resource is determined based on network names and groups. you must first install the Services for Network File System (NFS) role service using Server Manager. File Services Protocols and How to Secure the Protocols Protocol SMB How to secure this protocol  Use NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions to secure SMB-based access to shared resources. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. the Security Compliance Management Toolkit Series provides an end-to-end solution to help plan." earlier in this white paper. deploy. This is the home page for all Microsoft security products and technologies for all operating systems and products. see the “Creating Branch Office Solutions” section in this white paper. see "NTFS Permissions" and "SMB Permissions" sections in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. For more information.61 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature or technology Microsoft partner products Description There are a large number of security related products and technologies that are available from Microsoft partners. In addition to features and technologies listed in Table 22.exe to create client groups and to add client computers to those groups before configuring NFS share permissions. Specifically. Securing File Services Workloads File services workloads are secured based on the protocol that provides access to the file services workloads. Use read-only DFS Replication to provide read-only copies of file and folders to servers where only read-  NFS   . and operate your security infrastructure. This collection of tools and guidance are free. and monitor security baselines of Windows operating systems. you can use the following resources to help secure Windows Storage Server:  Microsoft Security. Table 23. integrate. Typically. use NFSAdmin. For more information. see the "NFS Permissions" section in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. Table 23 lists the file services protocols and how to secure the protocol. any security product that is compatible with Windows Server 2008 R2 is also compatible with Windows Storage Server 2008 R2.  Security Solution Accelerators. authoritative resources to help you to proactively plan. After installing Services for NFS. To use NFS permissions.

To use this level of security.  Encrypt all WebDAV communication with the appliance using secure socket layer (SSL). The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) secret is set just for the target. The IPsec protocol enforces . see the “Creating Branch Office Solutions” section in this white paper.  Mutual CHAP authentication. Require authentication for all users that Windows SharePoint Server on the appliance. you must have a RADIUS server running on your network. WebDAV  Windows SharePoint Services   Securing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Disk block I/O workloads are secured by configuring the appropriate security between the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and the iSCSI initiators. see Plan authentication settings for Web applications (Windows SharePoint Services). Transactions between the iSCSI initiator and the RADIUS server are also authenticated through the use of a shared secret. For more information. For more information. the iSCSI target and the initiator authenticate each other. With this level of security. For more information. see Authentication and Security Using WebDAV. All initiators that want to access that target need to use the same secret to start a logon session with the target. Securing Communication for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Protocol Require authentication How to secure Require all iSCSI initiators to authenticate with the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using one of the following methods:  One-way CHAP authentication. Table 24 lists the methods of securing the communication for the iSCSI block I/O workloads. For more information. With this level of security. the iSCSI initiator is authenticated by a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server. Encrypt all Windows SharePoint communication with the appliance using SSL. see Plan authentication settings for Web applications (Windows SharePoint Services). Table 24. or you must deploy one.62 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protocol How to secure this protocol only access is allowed.  RADIUS authentication. A separate secret is set for each target and for each initiator. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. For more information. With this level of security. Require authentication for all users that access the appliance using WebDAV. see Authentication and Security Using WebDAV.  IPsec authentication. only the iSCSI target authenticates the initiator.

Use IPsec to protect communication between the appliance and FTP clients. FTP    Note IIS 7.5. Ensure that all HTTP connections require authentication as necessary. Table 25. FTP is an insecure protocol and sends all traffic in clear text. Note HTTPS   HTTPS is a secure protocol and does not need further protection for confidentiality. less-privileged identity. Isolate the network segments used for communication between the iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by using separate physical network segments or by using virtual local area networks (VLANs). see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec.5 application pool now runs with a unique. Isolate iSCSI network segments Securing Web Services Workloads Web services workloads are secured based on the protocol that provides access to the Web services workloads. Table 25 lists the Web services protocols and how to secure the protocol.5 builds on the application pool isolation that was available with IIS 7. Ensure that all HTTPS connections require authentication as necessary. This helps harden the security of applications and services running on IIS 7. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. Encrypt all communication Protect communication between the iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using IPsec encryption. . Allow connectivity to the appliance only from computers on your internal network." earlier in this white paper.0 that increased security and reliability. use one-way CHAP authentication between iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. For more information. For more information. every IIS 7.63 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protocol How to secure authentication at the IP packet layer. HTTP is an insecure protocol and sends all traffic in clear text. Ensure that all FTP connections require authentication. Note At a minimum. Allow connectivity to the appliance only from computers on your internal network. Web Services Protocols and How to Secure the Protocols Protocol HTTP How to secure this protocol    Use the HTTPS protocol instead to provide encryption of all communication between the appliance and the clients. see iSCSI Security.

Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. Use the HTTPS protocol instead when connecting to the URL for the printer. If required." earlier in this white paper. Table 26. There is no authentication available or security permissions available. LPD Service Internet Printing . Print Server Role Services and How to Secure the Role Service Role service Print Server How to secure this protocol Use printer permissions to control access to the appliance running the Print Server role services using the Print Management snapin. use IPsec to protect the communication between the LPD Service and LPR clients. The communication between the LPD Service and LPR clients is unsecured. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. see Internet Printing and Resulting Internet Communication in Windows Server 2008. Protect all communication between the Internet Printing clients and the appliance using SSL. For more information.64 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Securing Print Services Workloads Print services workloads are secured based on the Print Server role service that provides access to the file services workloads. Table 26 lists the Print Server role services and how to secure the role service. For more information. see Assigning Delegated Print Administrator and Printer Permission Settings in Windows Server 2008 R2. For more information.

and effort required to create a two node cluster. see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node File Server Failover Cluster. For more information about failover clusters for file services workloads. Table 27. In addition. complexity. you can further improve the availability of your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners.      . In addition.65 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Availability of Windows Storage Server Workloads High levels of availability are essential for mission-critical applications and services. DFS. Windows Storage Server provides an easy to install and configure user interface for creating a two node failover cluster. This user interface reduces the learning curve. Methods for Improving File Services Workload Availability Method SMB NFS WebDAV Windows SharePoint Services Failover clusters. The method supports read and write access to the files. Table 27 lists the methods for improving the availability for file services workload and which protocols can use that method. Windows Storage Server includes all of the high availability features and technologies found in Windows Server. Then you can use DFS Namespace to provide automatic failover to replica copies of content when a local copy of the content is unavailable. can be used to improve the availability of SMB-based file services workloads. you can improve DFS Replication availability by running on failover clusters in Windows Storage Server. Failover clusters in Windows Storage Server. Improve the availability of Windows Storage Server workloads by:  Improving File services workload availability  Improving iSCSI block I/O workload availability  Improving Web services workload availability  Improving Print services workloads availability Improving Availability of File Services Workloads The availability of file services workloads in Windows Storage Server can be improved based on the protocol used to access the file services. You can use DFS Replication to create replica copies of shared network folders. as illustrated in Figure 8.

66 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Method SMB NFS WebDAV Windows SharePoint Services For more information. Note The cluster storage illustrated in Figure 8 could be provided by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server. PCI RAID controllers are not supported for shared storage. or Fibre Channel connected storage. . For more information about using NLB to improve availability for file services workloads. Network Load Balancing. SAS. The Network Load Balancing (NLB) feature in Windows Storage Server can be used to provide fault tolerance for file services workloads.   The most common method of improving the availability for file services workloads is by using failover clusters. Figure 8 illustrates a typically two-node failover cluster for file services workloads. see Network Load Balancing. see Distributed File System. The shared storage in Figure 8 can be iSCSI.

and switches — to create logical paths between the iSCSI initiator and the appliance . cables. Multipath I/O uses physical path components — adapters.67 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 8. You can use failover clusters to improve the availability for the iSCSI initiator running a Windows Server operating system or the iSCSI target running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. The most common failover cluster used for iSCSI block I/O workloads is a file server failover cluster. For more information. A failover cluster is a group of independent computers that work together to increase the availability of applications and services. see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and the Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node File Server Failover Cluster. Typical two-node failover cluster for file services workloads Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads You can improve the availability iSCSI block I/O workloads by using a combination of the following features in Windows Server products:  Failover clustering.  Multipath I/O.

Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Targets The highest priority in improving the availability of iSCSI block I/O workloads is to improve the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Each iSCSI network interface card should be connected by using redundant switch infrastructures to provide continued access to storage in the event of a failure in a storage fabric component. This section also discusses the following combinations of failover clustering and multipath I/O features:  Creating highly-available iSCSI targets with single or multipath connections. In the event that one or more of these components fails.  Creating highly-available iSCSI initiators with single or multipath connections. multipathing logic uses an alternate path for I/O so that applications running on the iSCSI initiator can still access their data. For more information. see Multipath I/O Overview. Redundancy for file services and print services is also provided by network adapter teaming support from the network adapter vendor. However. causing the path to fail. As illustrated in Figure 9. you can use failover clusters to improve the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server. Redundancy for iSCSI initiators on other operating systems or hardware iSCSI initiators is provided by network adapter teaming from the network adapter vendor. . there is no fault tolerance depicted in the connection between the iSCSI initiator and the clustered iSCSI targets (the storage fabric). The configuration in Figure 9 helps prevent loss of iSCSI block I/O workloads in the event of a failure of one of the appliances.68 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Note Multipath connections for Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiators is provided by the MPIO feature in Windows Server.

69 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 9. and network cables. This redundancy in the physical connectivity helps eliminate any single point of failures due to the network infrastructure for the storage fabric used by iSCSI. such as a switch failure or a disconnected network cable. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with a single path connection The configuration in Figure 10 illustrates combining multipath I/O with the failover cluster solution. switches. . The network infrastructure for the iSCSI communication between the iSCSI initiator and the clustered nodes running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target has been updated to include redundant network adapters.

you can improve the availability of the iSCSI initiators running Windows Server operating systems.70 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 10. The configuration in Figure 11 helps prevent loss of iSCSI block I/O workloads in the event that one of the computers or appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator or Microsoft iSCSI Software Target fails. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with multipath connections Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Initiators After improving the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. you can use failover clusters to improve the availability of the computers or appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server operating systems. . there is no fault tolerance depicted in the connection between the clustered iSCSI initiators and the clustered iSCSI targets (the storage fabric). However. As illustrated in Figure 11.

such as a switch failure or a disconnected network cable. This redundancy in the physical connectivity helps eliminate any single point of failure due to the network infrastructure for the storage fabric used by iSCSI. . Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and iSCSI initiators with single path connections The configuration in Figure 12 illustrates combining multipath I/O with the failover cluster solution for the iSCSI initiators and iSCSI targets in Figure 11. switches. and network cables.71 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 11. The network infrastructure for the iSCSI communication between the clustered nodes running the iSCSI initiators and the clustered nodes running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target has been updated to include redundant network adapters.

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Figure 12. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and iSCSI initiators with multipath connections

Improving Availability of Web Services Workloads
The NLB feature in Windows Storage Server can be used to provide fault tolerance for Web services workloads. The assumption of this solution is that each of the appliances in the NLB cluster have identical content and are continuously synchronized (such as by DFS Replication). For more information about using NLB to improve availability for Web services workloads, see Network Load Balancing.
Note If the Web applications use a centralized SQL Server database for storing information, you can also use failover clustering to improve the availability of the database. For more information, see Getting Started with SQL Server 2008 Failover Clustering.

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Improving Availability of Print Services Workloads
Failover clusters in Windows Storage Server can be used to improve the availability of Print services workloads. Figure 13 illustrates a typically two-node failover cluster for Print services workloads.
Note The cluster storage illustrated in Figure 13 could be provided by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server.

Figure 13. Typical two-node failover cluster for Print services workloads This method helps prevent any print services outages due to the failure a node in the cluster. Print services outages for specific printers occur in the event of a printer failure. However, the print jobs for the printer continue to be queued until the printer failure is resolved and the printer is restored to normal operation. For more information about failover clusters for file services workloads, see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and the Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node Print Server Failover Cluster.

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Improving Performance and Scalability for Windows Storage Server Solutions
The ability to take full advantage of the system resources of Windows Storage Server based appliance is essential to creating successful solutions. Windows Storage Server includes all of the performance and scalability features and technologies found in Windows Server 2008. In addition, you can further improve the performance and scalability of your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. Improve the performance and scalability of Windows Storage Server workloads by improving performance and scalability for:  All workloads.  File services workloads.  iSCSI block I/O workloads.  Web services workloads.  Print services workloads.

Improving Performance and Scalability for All Workloads
Windows Storage Server includes a number of technologies and features that will improve the performance and scalability for all workloads. These performance and scalability improvements are inherent in Windows Storage Server. Improve the performance and scalability for all workloads by taking advantage of the:  Improvements in processor and memory capacity.  Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol.  Improvements in network adapter performance.  Reduction in processor utilization for I/O operations.

Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity
The improvements in computer design have resulted in modern server computers that support an ever increasing number of processors and increased memory capacity. Current server computers are only shipping with 64-bit processors, multiple processors, and higher memory capacity than ever before. These improvements allow you to create application platforms that are able to support larger workloads, reduce rack space in your data center, reduce power consumption, provide improved reliability, and reduce your overall administrative effort.

Improved Physical Processor and Memory Resources
32-bit processors impose system resource limitations that restrict your ability to handle increased workloads without investing in additional server computers. 64-bit processors allow you to support larger workloads, while minimizing the number of physical computers in your data center. Also, server consolidation by using virtualization requires 64-bit processors to provide the processing and memory resources to support higher ratios of server consolidation. To support the increased processor performance and memory capacity provided by 64bit processors, Windows Storage Server is only available for 64-bit processor architectures. Windows Storage Server supports up to 256 logical processor cores for a single operating system instance.

This feature works with the Compound TCP feature on the sender side. Reducing the number of retransmitted TCP segments improves the overall performance of traffic that used the TCP protocol. or scale workloads to greater extremes to match changing demand. rather than relying on the receipt of the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) error messages.500 persistent active connections. high-latency. Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Protocol With the introduction of Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. significantly reducing hypervisor processor time and saving about 1MB of memory per virtual machine. CTCP more aggressively increases the Send window for connections with large Receive window sizes and large bandwidth-delay products. TCP peers receiving marked IP packets lower their transmission rate to ease congestion . and high-loss networking environments. and improves overall network performance. and improves overall network performance. This feature senses when large TCP segments retransmit and automatically adjusts the Path Maximum Transmission Unit (PMTU) for the connection.  Improving black hole router detection. Aggressively increasing the TCP Send window size allows the maximum amount of data to be transmitted between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. The Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite includes a new set of performance enhancements to increase throughput in high-bandwidth.  Reducing IP packet resending due to router congestion. routers experiencing congestion mark the IP packets as they forward them. However. For example. the exact number of connections is vendor specific. CPU Core Parking enables power savings by scheduling virtual machine execution on only some processor cores and placing the remaining processor cores in a sleep state. Automatically tuning the receive window size allows the maximum amount of data to be transmitted between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Hyper-V in Windows Storage Server also supports Second-Level Address Translation (SLAT) and CPU Core Parking.  Automating the tuning of the maximum receive window size. SLAT uses special processor functionality available in recent Intel and AMD processors to carry out some virtual machine memory management functions. Optimizing the network to receive TCP data can substantially increase overall network utilization by applications. especially on high latency connections. when the computer is performing a backup over the network. Offloading some of the TCP/IP protocol processing to a network adapter reduces the processor utilization associated with handling TCP/IP connections. With Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) support on both TCP peers and in the routing infrastructure.  Aggressively increasing the TCP Send windows size by using Compound TCP (CTCP). This increased processor support makes it possible to run even more demanding workloads on a single computer. CTCP attempts to maximize throughput on these types of connections by monitoring delay variations and losses. This feature automatically determines the value of the maximum receive window size for a connection based on the current conditions of the network. also referred to as the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite.75 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Increased Logical Processor Support Hyper-V in Windows Storage Server can support up to 64 logical processors. Microsoft included a new version of the TCP/IP protocol suite. The performance and scalability features in the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite include:  Offloading TCP/IP protocol processing to specialized network adapter hardware. TCP/IP offloading can be used when a server is performing heavy receive processing with less than 1. CTCP also ensures that its behavior does not negatively impact other TCP connections.

1 allows a single deferred procedure call (DPC) for each network adapter. .76 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper and prevent segment losses. NDIS 5.  New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. using RSS. Reducing IP packet resending improves the overall performance of traffic that uses the TCP protocol. while preserving in-order delivery of messages on a per-stream basis.0.0 with RSS prevents bottlenecks for incoming network traffic. Because all processors are able to process incoming network traffic. RSS also supports dynamic load balancing. parallel interrupts. a secure hashing mechanism.0 balances the network load from a network adapter across multiple processors. Incoming network traffic with RSS For more information about RSS. see Receive-Side Scaling Enhancements in Windows Server 2008. For more information about the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite in Windows Server 2008. Note RSS support has also been released in the scalable networking pack for Windows Server 2003. and parallel DPCs. enables multiple DPCs on different processors for each instance of a network adapter miniport driver.  Performance Enhancements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. Figure 14. Figure 14 illustrates how the architecture of NDIS 6. NDIS 6. Improvements in Network Adapter Performance RSS in NDIS 6. all processors have available capacity and none are a bottleneck for incoming network traffic. see:  Next Generation TCP/IP Stack.

77 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations Windows Server 2008 performs dynamic redirection of I/O interrupts and I/O completion processing to reduce overall processor utilization. that data will have to go from memory to Processor 2 over the node interconnect and then back over the node interconnect to Processor 3 when the application starts to access the data. and the subsequent completion processing of the I/O occurs on Processor 3. reduces the possibility of interrupting an application unrelated to the I/O operation. when the request is initiated. or decompression of the data). the selection of processors to interrupt and perform completion processing was statically chosen when the device was detected (similar to a round-robin order across all processors). Figure 15 illustrates an example of the components that might be required for processing a statically directed I/O completion. if the completion processing accesses data read from the disk (for example to perform virus detection. In prior versions of Windows. Processor 2 subsequently interrupts Processor 3 to indicate that the I/O operation is complete (assuming that the application waiting for the I/O is executing on Processor 3). and minimizes I/O completion processing time. In this example. the I/O operation is initiated on Processor 3. Multiprocessor I/O operation without NUMA optimization Figure 16 illustrates an example of the components that might be required for processing a dynamically directed I/O completion by using NUMA I/O. Furthermore. A disk controller takes advantage of the NonUniform Memory Access (NUMA) I/O functionality in Windows Server 2008 and can use the information specified during the initiation of the I/O operation to select a processor that can most efficiently perform the necessary processing of the completed I/O. Figure 15. the data will go from memory to Processor 3. . Although the I/O operation is initiated on Processor 3. the interrupt from the disk is directed to Processor 2 because of the static assignment made when the disk was detected at boot time. decryption. the interrupt from the disk is directed to Processor 3. The interrupt and subsequent completion processing of the I/O operation occurs on Processor 2. reduces the hardware interconnect activity. If the completion processing accesses the data read from the disk. and the application will experience a high cache hit ratio when it accesses the data. Disk controller drivers can make use of new application programming interfaces (APIs) that allow Windows to specify the processor on which to efficiently perform completion processing for each I/O. NUMA I/O functionality improves the hardware cache hit ratios.

the selected completion processor for an I/O is ideally the same processor that initiated the I/O operation.  Better NUMA and non-NUMA processor architecture.  Reviewing performance improvements in SMB Version 2. the fact that Processor 4 is unaffected by the I/O operation still results in performance benefits. the I/O processing is performed on a specific processor.  Reviewing SMB-based file services workload test results. see:  The "NUMA Support" section of the "Advances in Memory Management for Windows" white paper. For more information about NUMA support in Windows Server 2008. Improving Performance and Scalability for File Services Workloads File services workloads in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of Windows Server.1 in Windows Server 2008 R2. These improvements are largely due to improvements in the SMB2 protocol. Multiprocessor I/O operation with NUMA optimization The dynamic I/O completion redirection (NUMA I/O) improvements in Windows Server 2008 provide the following benefits:  Support for the Message Signaled Interrupt eXtension (MSI-X) that enables a PCI-X or PCI-Express device to use new APIs to specify a processor to complete processing of each specific I/O operation.  Download NUMA I/O Optimizations. In scenarios where the system consists of only Processors 3 and 4 in a single node configuration. the node interconnect and all unrelated processors are unaffected by the I/O completion. Figure 16. Identify the performance and scalability improvements for file services workloads by:  Reviewing the performance and scalability improvements in the SMB2 protocol. . the I/O processing is localized to a NUMA node or a specific processor within the node. For NUMA architectures.  Improving network performance between head offices and branch offices using the BranchCache feature. For non-NUMA architectures.78 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In this example. In the current implementation.

79 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Improving network performance between client computers and Windows Storage Server for the folder redirection and offline files features. . Review Improvements in the SMB2 Protocol Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 includes the latest version of SMB. write request 2 must wait for the write response from write request 1. For example. In SMB 1. SMB2. which is optimized for greater performance over high-latency links. Figure 17 illustrates how SMB 1 processes multiple write operations between a client computer running Windows XP and a server computer running Windows Server 2003.  Support for durable handles that can withstand short interruptions in network availability.  Support for symbolic links. Examples include an increase in the number of concurrent open file handles on the server and the number of file shares that a server can have. This reduces the number of packets sent between an SMB client and server. SMB in Windows Server 2008 and later versions supports SMB 1 as well as SMB2. each write request must wait for the write response from a previous write request. The SMB2 protocol features include:  Support for sending multiple SMB commands within the same packet. a common issue in the effective tuning of SMB 1. and better security through the use of mutual authentication and message signing.  Support for much larger buffer sizes when compared to SMB 1. SMB 1—the technology behind Windows Server versions prior to Windows Server 2008—was originally designed for early Windows-based network operating systems.  An increase in the restrictive constants within the protocol design to allow for scalability. such as Microsoft LAN Manager and Windows for Workgroups. The SMB2 protocol provides a number of communication enhancements. Windows includes an SMB client (the “Client for Microsoft Windows” component) and an SMB server (the “File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Windows” component). including greater performance when servers connect to file shares over high-latency links. the new version of SMB that has been redesigned for today’s complex networking environments and next-generation file servers.

is that remote file operations are much faster. Write operations in SMB 1 Figure 18 illustrates how SMB2 processes multiple write operations between a client computer running Windows Vista and a server computer running Windows Server 2008. multiple write requests can be issued before receiving a write response. . especially on high-latency network connections.80 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 17. The overall effect. In SMB2.

Write operations in SMB2 For more information about SMB2.0" section of New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. see the "Server Message Block 2. .81 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 18.

 Copying large files to a remote location over a WAN connection. This test environment emulates two geographic locations (New York and London) separated by a WAN connection. The test results for Windows Server 2003 do not include Windows Firewall. The server computers running Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003 are in New York while the client computers running Windows Vista and Windows XP are in London.  Accessing files on a shared folder at a remote location over a WAN connection. . This tool simulates a home folders file workload on a set of client computers and computes the maximum number of users a server can support based on the response time of simulated scenarios as illustrated in Figure 20. Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network For this test.82 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Review SMB-based File Services Workload Test Results The File Services server role is one of the most common server roles deployed. The File Services server role implements SMB-based file services. Figure 19. Environment for performing File Services role tests The following tests were performed for the File Servers role:  Running the Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) on a high-speed network. the Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) was run against a server running Windows Server 2008. Note The tests results reflect the performance of Windows Server 2008 with Windows Firewall enabled. The performance gains that are illustrated in these tests are a direct result of the performance and scalability features in Windows Server 2008. Windows Firewall imposes a minimal impact (approximately 5 percent) on network throughput. Figure 19 illustrates the environment for tests performed over a WAN connection.

00% 50. copying files.00% 90.00% 60.00% Average scenario throughput CPU utilization Figure 20.83 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 450 Number of Scenarios per Second 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 Number of users 100. and disk subsystem utilization details to help identify potential bottlenecks. the tool will compute a throughput number corresponding to the average scenario per second that the server is able to sustain.2% A significantly higher number of users can be supported by adding more drives.00% 0.00% 40.00% 10.00% 30. The tool also provides the ability to collect performance counters such as processor. Table 28 lists example performance characteristics for appliances with different system resources. and modifying Microsoft Office files.5% 11. .00% 20.00% 80. network. As reflected by these performance characteristics. the appliances contained only a single or dual processor socket that is typical for these types of appliances at the time of writing. For a given number of users accessing data on a file server.700 5. The number and speed of the drives has the largest influence on the number of users who can be supported. you can expand the processor and disk resources of the appliances to support tens of thousands of users on a single appliance.00% Procesor utilization 70.7% 5. memory. File Services Role scalability test results The scenarios include common operations such as browsing a directory.000 Processor utilization 7. In these examples. and processors.6% 7. memory. Example Performance Characteristics of Appliances with Different System Resources Processor sockets Single socket Single socket Single socket Dual socket Disk configuration 4 SATA drives 10 SATA drives 10 SATA drives 24 SAS drives Raid level RAID 5 RAID 5 RAID 1+0 RAID 1+0 Users supported 600 1. Table 28.200 1.

the combination of Windows Vista SP1 and Windows Server 2008 provided dramatic performance improvements compared to the combination of Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP2.84 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Copying Large Files to a Remote Location Over a WAN Connection For this test.  Opening a 2-MB Word document stored on a network shared folder in Word 2007. For both scenarios. a lower length of time indicates that the file copy process occurred faster. 100 1-megabyte (MB) files were copied between the client computers and the server computers. The test scenarios were performed for the combination of Windows Vista SP1 with Windows Server 2008. the scenarios were performed (as illustrated in Figure 21) over a simulated WAN connection:  Opening a 47-KB Excel spreadsheet stored on a network shared folder in Excel 2007. Figure 21. In the chart in Figure 22. . two scenarios were performed (as illustrated in Figure 21) over a simulated WAN connection. In the chart in Figure 21. and Windows XP SP2 with Windows Server 2003 SP2.  Copying a 6-MB file to a network shared folder in Windows Explorer. For this test. the combination of Windows Vista SP1 and Windows Server 2008 provided dramatic performance improvements compared to the combination of Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP2. In all these scenarios. In the first scenario. one 268-MB file was copied between the client computers and the server computers. a lower length of time indicates that the file operation occurred faster. Remote large file copy test results Accessing Files at a Remote Location Over a WAN Connection This test series provides an indication of how typical user applications perform when accessing files and folders on network shared folders on server computers running Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003.  Browsing a network shared folder that contains 50 files in Windows Explorer. In the second scenario.

In SMB version 2.  Improved opportunistic file locking method. Previously. This increase in packet size significantly improves the performance for file copies and directory enumerations. SMB version 2. For example. This improvement helps performance by sending larger SMB packets. . SMB. This method helps improve application performance when opening and closing files. such as files for Microsoft Office System applications.  Improved performance for file copy operations. a single packet can now contain thousands of directory entries. or SMB2 client requests. This improvement helps performance when multiple files are opened in sequence or in parallel by the same client. SMB packet size was limited to 64 KB. the SMB packet size can now increase up to 1 MB.1 in Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new version of SMB. Figure 23 and Figure 24 illustrate the SMB performance differences between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 on two servers with different system resources.85 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 22.1. The Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) can be used to help perform file server capacity and performance planning and troubleshooting for CIFS. This improvement helps file copy operations performed remotely on network shared folders using the SMB protocol. Remote file application test results Reviewing Performance Improvements in SMB Version 2. which includes the following improvements over previous versions of SMB:  Support for large protocol data unit (PDU) and maximum transmission unit (MTU).1.

Performance results with first hardware configuration In the performance results comparison in Figure 23. the server has the following system resources:  One processor.  24 hard disks configured in a RAID-10 array. Performance results with second hardware configuration . Figure 24.  16 GB of memory.86 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 23.  One Fibre Channel host bus adapter.

 96 hard disks configured in a RAID-10 array.002) SMB 1 SMB2 (v2. and prior operating systems Windows Vista. Reducing the network utilization on the WAN network segments provides available network bandwidth for applications and services. Table 29 shows the version of SMB used between two computers running different combinations of operating systems.  Two Fibre Channel host bus adapters.1 For example. SMB 1 is used for file services traffic. and prior operating systems. The performance improvements in SMB 2.1 are realized only when both operating systems support SMB 2. if a computer running Windows XP is accessing a computer running Windows Server 2008 R2.002) SMB 2.  72 GB memory. The type of content that is cached is content returned by SMB requests and HTTP requests. the server has the following system resources:  Two processors. Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache One of the largest problems facing branch offices is how to improve the performance of accessing intranet resources in other locations.002) SMB2 (v2. BranchCache Modes BranchCache supports the following operational modes:  Distributed Cache mode  Hosted Cache mode . The BranchCache feature in Windows Storage Server and Windows 7 reduces the network utilization on WAN segments that connect branch offices by locally caching frequently used files on computers in the branch office. Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008 Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SMB 1 Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008 SMB 1 Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SMB 1 SMB 1 SMB2 (v2. Table 29. the increased system resources allow Windows Server 2008 R2 to support almost twice as many users as the system resources in Figure 23. Versions of SMB Supported Between Different Windows Operating Systems Windows Vista. As illustrated in Figure 24.1 is only supported when both computers are running Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 R2. Windows Server 2003. Typically branch offices are connected by wide area networks (WANs) that usually have slower data rates than your intranet. Windows Server 2003.87 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In the performance results comparison in Figure 24. SMB 2. such as the head office or regional data centers.1.

BranchCache Distributed Cache mode The following sequence reflects how the Distributed Cache mode caches content: 1. or headers that are already part of the BranchCache-enabled protocol. The client then adds this data to its local cache. using fields. content is cached on the branch on client computers running Windows 7. such as SMB. messages. the content must be retrieved over the WAN connection. 5. The client computer indicates to the server that it is BranchCache capable. such as SMB.88 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Distributed Cache Mode In Distributed Cache mode. Client 1 issues a request for a file on a BranchCache-enabled server in the head office. The disadvantage to this solution is that content is cached on client computers. Client 2 uses the BranchCache discovery protocol to search for the content. . 2. 3. so it does not receive any responses. Client 2 receives identifiers describing the content from the server in the head office. and sends a response to Client 2. Client 2 requests the content from Client 1 by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol. so if the computer containing the cached content is unavailable. 4. This request can be transmitted over any of the BranchCache-enabled protocols. This request is not marked as BranchCache capable. Client 1 receives this request. as illustrated in Figure 25. 6. which in turn uses HTTP. Client 1 searches locally for a computer that has already downloaded and cached the content. which in turn uses WS-Discovery. Figure 25. HTTP. Client 1 transmits the content to Client 2. Client 1 is the first computer in the branch to download this piece of content. protecting it with the BranchCache encryption scheme. The server responds. Client 2 issues a request for the same content that Client 1 downloaded earlier. This search is conducted by using the BranchCache discovery protocol. HTTP. finds the requested content in its local cache. Client 2 verifies the data against the identifiers downloaded from the server in the head office. a multicast protocol sent over UDP. The server responds with the requested data. and transmits a set of identifiers that describe the chunks of content the client computer wants to download. or Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS). Client 1 issues another request to the server in the head office by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. or BITS. These identifiers are transmitted by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol.

The unavailability of any client computer running Windows 7 does not affect the availability of the content cache. as illustrated in Figure 26. HTTP. These identifiers are transmitted by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. 3. and transmits a set of identifiers that describe the chunks of content that the client computer wants to download. . or headers that are already part of the BranchCache-enabled protocol.89 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note Hosted Cache mode and Distributed Cache mode are mutually exclusive. Figure 26. 2. HTTP. using fields. A client computer can be configured to use only a single caching mode at one time. or BITS. The client computer indicates to the server that it is BranchCache capable. The server responds with the requested data. 4. This request can be transmitted over any of the BranchCache-enabled protocols. Hosted Cache Mode In Hosted Cache mode. This request is not marked BranchCache capable. Client 1 issues another request to the server in the head office by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. The hosted cache response informs Client 1 that the target data is not available. Client 1 advertises the newly downloaded content to the Hosted Cache server running Windows Storage Server by using the BranchCache hosted cache protocol (MS-PCHC). or BITS. Client 1 requests the content from the hosted cache in the branch office by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). such as SMB. Client 1 issues a request to a BranchCache-enabled server in the head office. The advantage to this mode is that the server is always available. messages. content is cached at the branch office on client computers running Windows Server 2008 R2. which in turn uses HTTP. so the cached content is always available. The server responds. such as SMB. which in turn uses HTTPS. BranchCache Hosted Cache mode The following sequence reflects how the Hosted Cache mode caches content: 1.

You can improve the performance and scalability for iSCSI block I/O workloads by:  Identifying methods for improving iSCSI block I/O workload performance and scalability. The hosted cache responds with the data.  Reviewing the results of I/O storage workload tests.  Offline files. Client 2 requests the content from the hosted cache in the branch office by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). For more information about configuring BranchCache by using the NetSH command. Windows Storage Server includes a Group Policy administrative template that you can use to administer the BranchCache configuration settings. 7. If a client computer cannot locate content on the hosted cache server. Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files Windows 7 includes the following features that allow users to provide user state virtualization:  Folder redirection. Client 2 issues a request for the same content that Client 1 downloaded earlier. Folder redirection allows users to quickly recover from local failures of their computer. Both of these features require access to shared network folders on Windows Storage Server. A client computer can be configured to use only a single caching mode at one time. This feature allows users to store the user’s folders in a shared folder on Windows Storage Server. You can also manage BranchCache by using the NetSH command. Note Hosted Cache mode and Distributed Cache mode are mutually exclusive. Identify Methods for Improving iSCSI Block I/O Workload Performance and Scalability You can improve the performance and scalability for iSCSI block I/O workloads by using the following methods:  Ensure the system resources of the appliance are sufficient. Client 2 verifies the data by using the identifiers downloaded from the server in the head office. 6. which in turn uses HTTP. .90 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 5. The typical system resources that are heavily utilized by iSCSI block I/O workloads include memory. Client 2 receives identifiers describing the content from the server in the head office. The Hosted Cache server connects to the client and downloads the recently advertised content by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). BranchCache Management You can configure BranchCache behavior by using Group Policy. see Network Shell (Netsh) Commands for BranchCache. Users are able to modify local copies of files in the event they are disconnected from the network. which in turn uses HTTP. All of the performance features listed in this section will also improve the performance for folder redirection and offline files. Improving Performance and Scalability for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads File services workloads in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of Windows Server. the client computer returns to the server in the head office and requests a download. This feature allows users to locally cache files stored on a shared folder on Windows Storage Server.

Different types of workloads on the same physical network can cause overutilization and performance problems. Ensure that the appliance has sufficient resources to provide adequate performance and scaling. When encountering network utilization problems. Sector alignment allows Windows Storage Server to create partitions that align with the underlying physical disk.exe command line tool.vhd files. In this example.  Isolate different types of workloads using separate physical network segments.exe. or SMB workloads. Dedicate a physical array for each conflicting workload. also ensure they are sufficient for I/O throughput. When encountering network utilization problems. segregate each type of workload to a separate physical network segment to reduce network contention. Always size disks for performance in addition to capacity. which causes performance degradation. and network. Sector alignment helps prevent an I/O operation from spanning two tracks. Different types of workloads on the same physical array can degrade performance for the workloads. Isolate different types of workloads using separate physical network segments. such as sequential I/O workloads. You can configure sector alignment for physical disks using the Diskpart. Configure sector alignment for iSCSI Target volumes and . Note Consult your storage vendor to determine the proper values to use with the Diskpart. random I/O workloads. Isolate different types of workloads using dedicated physical arrays. the number may not provide sufficient I/O throughput. Although a given number of disks may have adequate storage capacity. Different types of workloads on the same physical network can cause overutilization and performance problems. Figure 27 illustrates a Windows Storage Server solution that has been optimized to provide improved performance and scalability. the Windows Storage Server solution is optimized to support Exchange Server connecting to disk LUNs on Windows Storage Server. NFS workloads. . After ensuring the number of disks is sufficient for capacity.91 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper     disk. segregate each type of workload to a separate physical network segment to reduce network contention.

Separate iSCSI targets that corresponds to the iSCSI sequential I/O and iSCSI random I/O. An optimized number of disks for disk I/O bandwidth capacity. iSCSI random I/O.92 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 27. and file services access using SMB or NFS. A Windows Storage Server solution optimized for performance For the sample scenario in Figure 27. . the following optimizations were chosen:       Sufficient system resources of the Windows Storage Server appliance for the given workloads. Separate arrays dedicated to different iSCSI I/O traffic as the Exchange storage group data is random I/O. including iSCSI sequential I/O. Separate network segments for workload types. while the Exchange storage group logs are sequential I/O. Separate network adapters in the Exchange server to support the separate network segments.

93 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Sector-aligned disk arrays to help prevent I/O operations from spanning multiple tracks. Figure 28. The test result. the server computer had 16 dual-core processors for a total of 32 processor cores. illustrates the number of disk I/O operations per second performed by Windows Server 2008 and Window Server 2003 running on identical hardware. Windows Server 2008 can perform more than 20 percent more disk I/O operations per second than Windows Server 2003. For this test. General disk I/O operation test results . shown in the chart in Figure 28. Review I/O Storage Test Results The results of this test provide an indication of the improvements in disk I/O operations. regardless of the server role running on the server computer.

Performance includes the following features:  Compression. These improvements are largely due to improvements in data compression of content and caching of content. In IIS Manager. unified facility for output caching by integrating the dynamic output-caching capabilities of ASP. This improvement in performance results in www.  Output Caching. The results were obtained by closely monitoring the performance over a 72-hour period for both test cases.0 and Windows Server 2008 can support more than 10 percent higher throughput than IIS 6. edit existing caching rules.0 provides a powerful. and IIS 7. The chart in Figure 29 illustrates the performance gain by running IIS 7. IIS 7. you can create caching rules. For more information about how to configure compression.com processing more than an additional 100 million requests per day at the same processor utilization.94 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Performance and Scalability for Web Services Workloads Web services workloads running on Internet Information Services (IIS) 7. . see Optimize IIS Performance (IIS 7).NET with the static output-caching capabilities that were present in IIS 6. see Configuring Output Caching in IIS 7. Review Web Services Workload Test Results These results were obtained by measuring the performance of www. see Configuring HTTP Compression in IIS 7. For more information about improving Web services workload performance and scalability.  Reviewing Web services workload test results.0 running on Windows Server 2008. You can improve the performance and scalability for Web services workloads by:  Identifying methods for improving Web services workload performance and scalability. Output caching allows you to manage output caching rules and to control the caching of served content.0 and Windows Server 2008 on the same computer resources.0 and Windows Server 2003. and configure output cache settings.microsoft.0 on Window Server 2003.0 in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of IIS and Windows Server.0.microsoft. For more information about configuring output caching. You can configure HTTP compression for both static and dynamic sites. Identify Methods for Improving Web Services Workload Performance and Scalability IIS 7.com running IIS 6. HTTP compression lets you make more efficient use of bandwidth and enhances the performance of sites and applications. IIS also lets you use bandwidth more effectively and efficiently by using common compression mechanisms such as Gzip and Deflate.

see the Windows Print Server Scalability and Sizing Technical Overview.  The number and type of printers served by the print server and the types of printer drivers each printer uses.95 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 29.  The operating system version or versions on each client machine. size. For more information about improving the performance and scalability of print services workloads. Web Services (IIS) Role test results Improving Performance and Scalability for Print Workloads Print server scalability plays a key role in the deployment of Windows Storage Server print servers. and frequency of print jobs. This section of the white paper provides information to help you size a server to meet an organization's needs by identifying and investigating primary issues and configuration details to maximize print server performance. Some of the factors that influence print server performance and capacity include:  The number of print server clients.  The types of print jobs sent to the print server. The maximum load and performance level of a print server greatly depends on key configuration decisions. .  The number.

 NAS gateway. . illustrated in Figure 30.  Highly-available NAS. The typical characteristics of the appliance are as follows:  The appliance has the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network." in this white paper.  The processors and storage reside in a single appliance enclosure.  Creating highly-available solutions.  Creating small.96 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server Deployment Scenarios You can use Windows Storage Server to provide a wide range of storage solutions.  Creating iSCSI boot solutions. Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration The stand-alone NAS configuration.  Creating solutions for storage consolidation. Regardless of the solution complexity. review the following:  Overview of NAS configurations. industry standard hardware that can be readily expanded. some Microsoft partners provide additional storage in external enclosures.to medium-sized business solutions. is based on a single Windows Storage Server appliance. To select the appropriate deployment scenario for you. Windows Storage Server provides the following basic configurations:  Stand-alone network attached storage (NAS). Overview of Windows Storage Server Configurations Window Storage Server provides a wide range of storage solutions for all size organizations. such as Just a Bunch of Disks (JBOD Disks) or RAID configurations (RAID 5 or RAID 1+0).  The solution is based on low cost.  It can create a variety of disk configurations.  Creating solutions for heterogeneous environments.  Creating unified storage solutions.  Creating application consolidation solutions.  Creating virtualization solutions.  It can support 4 to 12 disks in the single enclosure using RAID interfaces.  Creating branch office solutions. However.

 New storage is included as part of the solution (existing storage is not used in the solution).  Storage is separate from the appliance enclosure. illustrated in Figure 31.  Multipath I/O connections exist between the appliances. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network.  The appliances are configured as nodes in a Windows failover cluster to provide higher availability.  Additional appliances can be added to the solution to provide improved scalability. Note The failover cluster in Figure 31 can be quickly and easily configured using the Initial Configuration Tasks form in Windows Storage Server. and it is shared between two or more appliances. Windows Storage Server stand-alone NAS configuration Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration The highly-available NAS configuration. .97 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 30. is based on two or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide some degree of fault tolerance." in this white paper.

 They connect to existing storage that supports SAN block I/O protocols." in this white paper. Windows Storage Server highly-available NAS configuration Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration The NAS gateway configuration. in Figure 32.98 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 31. is based on one or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide connectivity to existing storage devices. . The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network.

99 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper   They provide an inexpensive iSCSI target. SMB file access. Figure 32. and NFS file access to storage. They provide highly-available configurations based on solution availability requirements. Windows Storage Server NAS gateway configuration .

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Using Windows Storage Server in iSCSI Block I/O Configuration
The iSCSI block I/O configuration, in Figure 32, is based on one or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide iSCSI access to storage resources. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network," in this white paper.  They can be used with any combination of the following storage configurations:  Located within the appliance.  Located within an enclosure external to the appliance.  Existing storage subsystem that supports SAN block I/O protocols.  They provide highly-available configurations based on solution availability requirements.  They provide an inexpensive iSCSI target access to storage.  They provide iSCSI boot support for diskless computers.  They integrate with DHCP and TFTP servers to provide iSCSI boot support for diskless computers.

Figure 33. Windows Storage Server iSCSI Block I/O configuration

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Creating Branch Office Solutions
In a branch office solution, an organization has a number geographically distributed branch office locations that are connected to one or more centralized head offices. Table 30 lists the types of data to manage in the branch office solution, as illustrated in Figure 34, and a description of the type of data. Table 30. Types of Data to Manage in the Branch Office Solution Type of data User folders Description Contains user home directories and user shares within the branch office in addition to the well-known Windows folders, such as Documents, Videos, Pictures, and Music. The well-known Windows folders are typically stored on the local computer, but can be stored on network shared folders using the Folder Direction feature. The Folder Redirection feature allows user folders to be stored on appliances in the branch offices and to be replicated to appliances in the head office for backup and centralized management using DFS Replication. The user folders are accessed within the branch office, but are archived in the head office. Contains content that is published from the head offices to the branch offices as read-only content. The content is a set of data that is relevant to the branch office, regardless of the region where the branch office is located, for example:  Templates, such as Word or Excel templates.  Source for software distribution files, such as files from 2007 Microsoft Office System or Windows 7. Contains content used in collaborative efforts between branch offices. The collaboration content is stored on the Windows Storage Server appliances in the head office. Users in the branch offices access the collaboration content over the WAN connections. The collaboration content can be stored in network shared folders or in Windows SharePoint Service document libraries.

Published content

Collaboration content

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Figure 34. Branch office solution for Windows Storage Server

 Consolidating of data in head office to provide centralized management.  Centralized management of the branch office. Provides local caching of the collaboration content stored on the appliances in the head office. IT personnel in the head office must be able to manage the configuration settings of the devices and users in the branch offices. In addition. Also. Provides file services for computers running NFS clients. In some instances there may be computers running other operating systems. such back up and data protection. The appliance in the branch office is configured for BranchCache hosted caching mode. This helps protect the user profile folders in the branch office in the event of a catastrophic disaster in the branch office location that results in the total failure of the appliance. which allows the appliance to provide local caching of the collaboration content accessed using the SMB and HTTP protocols. For more information about this type of appliance." in this white paper.  Stand-alone NAS appliances are used.103 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The assumptions in this scenario are:  The data centers have local IT personnel. Most of the computers in the branch office are running Windows operating systems." earlier in this white paper. Mobile users need to access their user folders when they are not connected to the internal network in the branch office. The available network speed of the WAN connections between the head offices and the branch offices is a limited resource in terms of both available bandwidth and cost. Most of the configuration and all of the support is provided by the IT personnel in the head office. The branch offices typically do not have local IT personnel and require assistance from the IT personnel in the head office. while the branch offices have minimal or no local IT personnel. SMB2 helps minimize WAN network utilization because of the efficiencies provided by SMB2. see the section "Review Improvements in the SMB Protocol. failover clusters can be an optional part of this solution. Table 31 lists the Windows Storage Server and Windows client operating system features used in the branch office solution and provides a brief description of the role each plays in the solution. BranchCache dramatically reduces the network File services using NFS BranchCache in hosted caching mode . all users need to access their user folders regardless of any scheduled maintenance of the appliance or appliance failure. The solution must minimize the utilization of the WAN connection as much as possible. Due to cost constraints and lack of local IT personnel. see the previous section "Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-alone NAS Configuration. Table 31. depending on the availability requirements of the branch offices. Features Used In Branch Office Solutions Feature File services using SMB2 Description Provides file services for computers running Windows operating systems. For more information. All user profile folders in the branch offices need to be copied to the head offices for centralized management.  Minimizing the utilization of the WAN connections is essential.  Users must have access to their user folders regardless of connectivity to the branch office appliance. including the computers running Linux or Mac OS. Centralized management of the appliances in the branch office is essential and remote administration is required.  Computers are running mostly Windows operating systems. such as Linux or the Mac OS.

Allows users to recover files by themselves without the assistance of IT professionals. Helps reduce the effort spent by IT personnel in data centers for recovery of files.  Provides improved file access for users in the branch office because the files are accessed locally instead of over the WAN connection. For more information.104 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description utilization for accessing these files. Uses DFS Replication to provide replication of files and folder structure from the head office to the branch offices. see the section. For more information. The Folder Redirection feature allows the user folders to be available from any computer on the network. which:  Reduces WAN network utilization by providing local access to the files. This is primarily for files that are for public use and are typically read-only at the branch office. see the section. "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. The files and folders are set to read-only access by DFS Replication. Any updates to the collaboration content are automatically saved on the appliances in the head office. Read-only DFS Replicated Folders Shadow Copies of Shared Folders Folder Redirection . and Windows XP. The user folders are copied to the head office for backup and centralized management functions. This allows the head office to avoid doing backups over the WAN link. For more information." earlier in this white paper. Windows Vista." earlier in this white paper. including Windows 7. You can administer the Folder Redirection feature using Group Policy. DFS Replication uses RDC to transmit only the changes to a file." earlier in this white paper. Computers running Windows client operating systems are using the Folder Redirection feature to redirect the user folders to network shared folders on the appliance in the branch office. which dramatically reduces the network bandwidth utilization. For more information. For more information. see:  Folder Redirection Overview." earlier in this white paper. which provides data consolidation in the head office so that all backups are performed in the head office. The Folder Redirection feature is available in all current Windows client operating systems. see the section "Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data. "Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache. DFS Replication Provides replication of files and folder structure from the branch offices to the head office. see the section. "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data.

When users reconnect to the network. Users can continue to work on copies of the files on their local computers. For more information. Mobile users may want to access their files while away from the office.  Configuring Folder Redirection.  Configuring Offline Files. see the section "Providing Access to Print Services Workloads. The Offline Files feature provides access to files:  When users are not connected to the branch office network. Computers running Windows can print to the printers in the branch office using the print services workloads provided by Windows Storage Server. and Windows XP. any new or modified files are automatically synchronized with the network shared folders on the appliance. For more information. The read-only domain controller provides enhanced security by preventing unauthorized or inadvertent updates to AD DS. Computers running Linux or Mac OS can print to the printers in the branch office using the print services workloads provided by Windows Storage Server." earlier in the white paper. The Offline Files feature is available in all current Windows client operating systems. see the section "Providing Access to Print Services Workloads. When the appliance is restored to service. The Offline Files feature allows users to always have access to files from network shared folder by synchronizing the contents of the network shared folder to the Offline Files cache on the user’s computer.  Configuring Group Policy for Offline Files.105 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description  Folder redirection overview for GPMC. including Windows 7.  The “Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files” section in this white paper. For more information.  In the event the appliance is taken offline for maintenance or of an appliance failure." earlier in the white paper. The Offline Files feature allows users to modify local copies of their files while disconnected from the network. Authentication is performed using an AD DS read-only domain controller on the local appliance. see:  Understanding offline files. The local read-only domain controller also Offline Files Print Server LPD Print Services Read-only domain controller .  Working with network files when you are offline. Windows Vista. You can administer the Offline Files feature using Group Policy.  The “Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files” section in this white paper. any new or modified files are automatically synchronized with the network shared folders on the appliance.

 Use Storage Reports to profile storage usage and trends within the branch. For more information. You can use File Server Resource Manager to:  Limit the amount of disk space used by using the Quota Management feature. File Server Resource Manager allows you to understand.  Prevent storage of certain file types by using the File Screening feature. Note All of these features operate transparently to users in the branch office. The local DNS Server reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because DNS queries are resolved locally. see File Server Resource Manager. and manage the quantity and type of data stored on Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Most of the features and configuration settings available in all Windows products can be configured by using Group Policy. Computers in the branch office that are configured using DHCP can be configured using the DHCP Server running on the local appliance. and they are centrally configured by the IT personnel in the head office using Group Policy. The local DHCP Server reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because DHCP configuration is performed locally. DHCP Server File Server Resource Manager Group Policy Table 32 lists how to manage each type of data is accessed by users. DNS Server Computers in the branch office can resolve DNS names using the DNS Server running on the local appliance.106 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because authentication is performed locally. . Group Policy allows you to centrally configure the Windows Storage Server appliances and Windowsbased computers in the branch office. see Group Policy. For more information. control.

After the user profile folders are stored on the branch office appliance.  Published content   . The head office and each of the branch offices is a separate Active Directory site. The replica copies of the published content in the branch offices are maintained read-only by DFS Replication so that users in the branch office have read-only access to the replica content. Once these files are synchronized with the branch office appliances.107 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 32. then DFS Namespace directs the client computers to access the replica copy in the Active Directory site with the next lowest cost. Remote Differential Compression in DFS Replication replicates only the changes to the user profile folders. which minimizes the bandwidth utilization on the connection between the branch offices and the head office. DFS Namespace always preferentially directs client computers to access a local replica copy of the published content within the local site (lower cost than other sites). Managing Types of Data in the Branch Office Solution Type of data User folders Managed using  Offline Files. In addition. DFS Replication replicates the user profile folders to the head office so that they can be centrally backed up and managed by the IT personnel. When the branch office replica copy becomes available again. DFS Namespace will automatically direct users to use the replica copy in the branch office. depending on the availability of the branch office appliance. If the branch office replica copy is unavailable. the Folder Redirection feature helps in fast recovery of computers because the user profile folders are not stored on the local computer. which are typically stored locally on the user’s computer. This feature stores the user profile folders. which in this scenario is the head office. DFS Namespace. Folder Redirection. on the branch office appliance. Read-only DFS Replicated Folders. Any new files or changes made to the cached copy of the files are automatically synchronized when the connection to the appliance is restored. any changes in the user profile folders are replicated to the head office using DFS Replication. This feature allows for users to transparently access the published content on the appliances in the branch office or in the head office. This feature determines which replica copy to access based on the availability of the copy and the location of the copy using Active Directory sites. This feature allows users to access their user profile folders when not connected to the appliance. DFS Replication replicates the published content stored on the head office appliances to the branch office appliances.

This feature also supports version control.108 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Type of data Collaboration content Managed using  Network shared folders. network shared folders and SharePoint Services with the BranchCache feature provide the appropriate solution. The BranchCache feature dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch office when users access content stored on the network shared folders that has already been locally cached on the appliance in the branch office. . and check out capabilities.  For the collaboration content in Table 32. Windows SharePoint Services. The BranchCache feature dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch offices when users access Web content that has already been locally cached on the appliance in the branch office.  Any updates to the content from users in the branch offices. network shared folders and Windows SharePoint services are used instead DFS Replication. The SMB2 protocol dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch offices for:  The initial local caching of the content using BranchCache. This feature allows users to access the content from the head office appliances. This feature allows users to access the content from the head office appliances using the HTTP or HTTPS protocol. check in. Because multiple users need to modify the content. This is because DFS Replication in Windows Storage Server is appropriate when only one copy of the content is centrally modified and all replica copies are read-only.

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Creating Highly-Available Solutions
In a highly-available solution, the workloads provided by Windows Storage Server must provide improved fault tolerance. Figure 35 illustrates how to create highly-available solutions using Windows Storage Server and Windows Server operating systems using Windows failover clusters and multipath I/O.

Figure 35. Highly-available solution using Windows Storage Server The key elements of the highly-available solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  The application servers are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an application server failure.

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The Windows Storage Server appliances act as iSCSI targets by running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  The application servers are using the multipath I/O feature to provide redundant connections to the clustered appliances.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the clustered appliances to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. For more information about Windows failover clustering for iSCSI targets, see the following sections earlier in this white paper:  "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration." For more information about Multipath I/O for iSCSI initiators in Windows Server operating system, see the following sections earlier in this white paper:  "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration."

Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation
In the storage consolidation solution, all the myriad of devices providing SMB file services, NFS file services, and iSCSI block I/O are consolidated into a few, highlyavailable Windows Storage Server appliances. Typically this solution is used in medium to large organizations that want to reduce the number and types of devices in the organization. This consolidation effort can help reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. Figure 36 illustrates an IT environment prior to implementing the storage consolidation solution. There are a number of different computers providing file services and applications. Each computer has local storage that is used to support the services that each provides. This configuration provides inefficient storage management and usage. For example, one Exchange server may have insufficient available disk space while a file server may have many more times the available disk space than is required.

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Figure 36. IT environment prior to implementing the storage consolidation solution

Figure 37 illustrates the same IT environment after implementing the storage consolidation solution. The number of computers to be supported has been dramatically decreased, which reduces ongoing operations effort and complexity. Also, the overall availability of workloads has been improved. Because storage is centralized, the effort for ongoing storage management is dramatically reduced. And, because all storage resources are pooled, storage can be easily allocated to the appropriate computer.

IT environment after implementing the storage consolidation solution .112 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 37.

 Windows print services. depending on the availability requirements of the organization.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity." earlier in this white paper. such as Group Policy.  Access to Web-based content using IIS 7. The key elements of the small.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric. and Internet printing. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management.  Collaboration using Windows SharePoint Services. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management.  The appliances provide centralized storage management. Creating Solutions for Heterogeneous Environments In solutions for heterogeneous environments. such as providing iSCSI LUNs for SQL Server or Exchange Server.  The Windows Storage Server appliances provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support.  Providing SMB file services.  The appliances may be configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. The key elements of the solutions for heterogeneous environments include:  Windows Storage Server appliances that provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support. Creating Small to Medium Business Solutions In small. .0.113 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The key elements of the storage consolidation solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  Centralized storage for application servers using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  Highly-automated management tools.  The Windows Storage Server appliances are:  Acting as iSCSI targets and are running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. LPR print services. the organization needs to support a variety of operating systems.to medium-sized business solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.to medium-sized business solutions.  NFS file services for NFS clients. the organization needs to provide multiple workloads on Windows Storage Server appliances.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. as described in the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration.  Providing NFS file services.  Typically configured as a stand-alone NAS.

earlier in this white paper. Access to Web-based content using IIS 7. This solution is very similar to the storage consolidation solution described in the section "Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation" and as illustrated in Figure 36 and Figure 37. AD LDS can be used to provide identity mapping for NFS file services in environments where an Active Directory infrastructure does not already exist.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. see AD LDS Identity Mapping for Services for NFS. and other application servers that have a significant dependency on storage. depending on the availability requirements of the organization. .  Typically the application servers are configured in clustered configurations to improve availability.  The Windows Storage Server appliances act as iSCSI targets and are running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric. Collaboration using Windows SharePoint Services. Centralized storage for all operating systems that have supported iSCSI initiators using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. LPR print services for other operating systems.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. The types of application servers that are consolidated include those running Exchange Server. see the section "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators" earlier in this white paper. For more information about supported iSCSI initiators. Typically this solution is used in medium to large organizations that want to increase the efficiency of storage allocation and management for application servers. The appliances provide centralized storage management. all the local or shared storage for the application servers in the IT environment are consolidated into a few.0. For more information.114 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper             NFS file services for NFS clients. The appliances may be configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. highly-available Windows Storage Server appliances.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management. The key elements of the application consolidation solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28. Highly-automated management tools. This consolidation effort can help reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. Windows print services for Windows operating systems. such as Group Policy. SQL Server. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management. There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. such as described in the section "Creating Highly-Available Solutions" earlier in this white paper. Creating Application Consolidation Solutions In the application consolidation solution.

The key elements of the solutions for heterogeneous environments include:  Windows Storage Server appliances that provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management. For more information about NAS gateway configurations. see the section "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators" earlier in this white paper.  The appliances provide centralized storage management. earlier in this white paper.  The appliances are typically configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. After implementing this scenario.115 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating Unified Storage Solutions In the unified storage consolidation solution. NFS-based file services. This centralization of storage management helps reduce the inefficiency of storage allocation and management and helps reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity.  Centralized storage for all operating systems that have supported iSCSI initiators using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. highly-available Windows Storage Server appliances. For more information. or iSCSI connectivity.  AD LDS can be used to provide identity mapping for NFS file services in environments where an Active Directory infrastructure does not already exist. the existing IT environment has separate devices provide SMB-based file services. such as Group Policy.  Highly-automated management tools. This solution is very similar to the storage consolidation solution described in the section "Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation" and as illustrated in Figure 36 and Figure 37.  NFS file services for NFS clients. see the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration" earlier in this white paper. . all of the storage resources in the organization are managed using Windows Storage Server. In this scenario. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management. and other storage connections (such as Fibre Channel or SAS). iSCSI block I/O storage. depending on the availability requirements of the organization. NFS-base file services.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric and provide fault tolerant network connectivity. file and iSCSI block I/O storage services in the IT environment are consolidated into a few.  NAS gateway services for existing storage solutions that do not provide SMBbased file services. For more information about the supported iSCSI initiators. see AD LDS Identity Mapping for Services for NFS.

In the virtualization solution. Figure 38.116 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating Virtualization Solutions You can create virtualized solutions using Windows Storage Server by:  Connecting virtual machines to iSCSI LUNs managed by Windows Storage Server. Connecting Virtual Machines to iSCSI LUNs Virtual machines running on Hyper-V can access iSCSI LUNs using a number of different methods. the physical computer is referred to as the parent partition. as illustrated in Figure 38.  Running virtual machines on Windows Storage Server. Each virtual machine is referred to as a child partition. Windows Storage Server runs the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target to provide iSCSI LUNs for use by virtual machines performing the Hyper-V server role in Windows Server 2008. In Hyper-V. Windows Storage Server in virtualization solutions Table 33 lists the different methods that virtual machines can use to connect to iSCSI LUNs .

vhd files on the same iSCSI LUN. regardless if the operating system supports an iSCSI initiator.  Allows the virtual machine to boot from the iSCSI LUN.  Supports Live Migration scenarios using Cluster Shared Volumes. However the parent partition is unaware of the child partition using the LUN because the child partition is directly accessing the LUN.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine that have a supported iSCSI initiator. A . As illustrated in Figure 38. the child partition connects to LUN-A. see Hyper-V: Using Live Migration with Cluster Shared Volumes in Windows Server 2008 R2. the parent partition formats LUN-C as E: and the . For more information.  Allows the virtual machine to boot from the iSCSI LUN. The iSCSI LUN is attached to the child partition and the virtual machine directly accesses the partition.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine.117 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 33.vhd file is created on the volume that is accessed by the virtual machine. As illustrated in Figure 38. the parent partition connects to LUN-B and Virtual Machine B directly connects to the partition. the parent partition is also aware of the child partition using the LUN. As illustrated in Figure 38. The iSCSI LUN is attached to the parent partition and the virtual machine directly accesses the partition. Methods that Virtual Machines Can Use to Connect to iSCSI LUNs Method VHD created on parent partition volume Description The iSCSI LUN is attached to the parent partition and is formatted as an NTFS volume and assigned a drive letter in the parent partition. However.  Does not natively support boot from the iSCSI LUN and requires products available from Microsoft partners to support iSCSI boot for virtual machines. This method:  Allows only one virtual machine to use the iSCSI LUN. regardless if the operating system supports an iSCSI initiator. This method:  Allows multiple virtual machines to store .vhd file for Virtual Machine C is created on the E: volume. Pass-through parent partition disk Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN .  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine. This method:  Allows only one virtual machine to use the iSCSI LUN.

The recommended method is the VHD created on parent partition method for the following reasons:  Backups are complex using the Pass-through parent partition disk or the Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN methods. are stored on the same LUN where the . you could install an instance of Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) in a virtual machine that can be used for NFS account mapping.  There is minimal performance difference between the VHD created on parent partition and the Pass-through parent partition disk methods.vhd files reside using this method. iSCSI LUNs that are connected using the Pass-through parent partition disk or the Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN methods must be backed up separately in addition to performing a complete backup of the parent partition.118 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note Performing a complete backup of the parent partition will back up iSCSI LUNs that are connected using the VHD created on parent partition method. It is also recommended that you create a separate iSCSI target for each LUN that you connect to the parent partition to improve performance.bin files. Running Virtual Machines on Windows Storage Server Windows Storage Server can also run the Hyper-V server role. This feature allows you to provide other services in the virtual machines running on Windows Storage Server. Creating a separate iSCSI target for each LUN will improve performance because each iSCSI target has its own I/O submission queue. You can run:  One virtual machine on Windows Storage Server Standard Edition. This allows you to create a NFS file access solution that runs on one appliance.  Two virtual machines on Windows Storage Server Enterprise Edition. such as the . . You can run up to two virtual machines on Windows Storage Server depending on the Windows Storage Server edition. This reduces the complexity in providing your solution by reducing the number of physical appliances to manage and minimizes the power consumption for your solution (with the appropriate licensing). For example.  The associated virtual machine files.

Windows Storage Server centralizes the storage for the HPC cluster. In this solution.  Interactive kiosks in retail stores. Figure 39.119 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server supports iSCSI boot for solutions that include diskless physical computers or virtual machines. Windows Storage Server in Windows HPC iSCSI Boot Deployment By using iSCSI and Windows Storage Server. including those that provide iSCSI boot services for:  Web blades configured to support the same application in a web farm. There are many solutions that can take advantage of iSCSI boot. see the “Supporting iSCSI Boot” section earlier in this white paper. the nodes in the cluster do not require a local hard disk drive to serve as a system disk. the nodes can use the storage . For more information about how to support iSCSI boot using Windows Storage Server.  Thin clients in libraries or schools.  Computer nodes in Windows High-Performance Computing (HPC) Server clusters. Instead. Figure 39 illustrates how iSCSI boot can support a Windows HPC Server cluster solution.

the NAS gateway capabilities extend the storage services provided by existing storage solutions. availability. operations and management products (such as the System Center family of products).  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Technical Library  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. Tight integration with other Microsoft products and technologies also helps IT pros use existing infrastructure services (such as AD DS). Highly-efficient. such as Linux or Mac OS. and DFS Replication features in Windows Storage Server enhance performance. Using this solution. The high-availability features in Windows Storage Server help create mission-critical solutions that require maximum uptime. This allows for fast deployment and recovery of the nodes. and iSCSI target services features in Windows Storage Server help protect investments in existing networks with other operating systems. Windows Storage Server can run file services. Because Windows Storage Server is an optimized version of Windows Server 2008 R2. such as Group Policy. Windows Storage Server appliances can provide storage solutions that are flexible. More Information For more information.3 Technical Library . disk usage quotas. Conclusion Windows Storage Server provides storage solutions for all types and sizes of organizations. easier to maintain. DFS Namespace. instead of dedicated or single function appliances. Branch offices can be easily managed from central head offices using these management features. Solutions can be scaled up by adding costeffective. Also. and operate Window Storage Server solutions in their organization.  Subsequently boot the 256 cluster nodes in less than 9 minutes. Web services. and scalability for Windows operating systems. and the creation of shared network storage resources. LPR print services. The NFS file services. and iSCSI block I/O services on a single appliance. This allows small. deploy. All aspects of storage management can be centrally managed. and security products (such as Microsoft Forefront products). print services. you can:  Deploy Windows HPC Server to 256 cluster nodes in approximately 34 minutes. industry-standard hardware to appliances or they can be scaled out by adding additional appliances. A variety of Windows Storage Server appliances are available from Microsoft partners that can support entry level to enterprise level workloads. The SMB2 protocol. IT pros can quickly plan. and more cost effective than other dedicated appliances or storage solutions. help reduce the ongoing operations and management of storage solutions.to medium-sized organizations and branch offices to take advantage of a multifunction appliance. including filtering of content.  Windows Storage Server blog. Nodes that use the storage resources on the storage array to boot over iSCSI are called iSCSI boot nodes.120 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper resources on Windows Storage Server to boot Windows HPC Server over the network. Each cluster node boots from a differencing virtual disk that is based on the same fixed virtual disk. centralized management features. see the following resources:  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 home page.

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