Windows Storage Server 2008 R2

Architecture and Deployment White Paper
Version 1.0

Published: February 2011

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Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................ 1 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Overview .................................................... 3 Comparing Windows Server Operating System Storage Offerings .................. 3 Comparing Windows Storage Server with Windows Server ..................... 3 Identifying Windows Storage Server Features ....................................... 4 What’s New in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 .................................. 5 Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2 ................................................................................................ 8 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Editions ................................................10 Identifying Storage Challenges ................................................................12 Identify Scalability Storage Challenges ................................................12 Identify Availability Storage Challenges ...............................................13 Identify Security Storage Challenges ..................................................14 Identify Manageability Storage Challenges ..........................................14 Identify Data Recovery Storage Challenges .........................................14 Identifying Windows Storage Server Solution Benefits ................................14 Identifying Scalability Benefits ...........................................................15 Identifying Availability Benefits ..........................................................15 Identifying Security Benefits ..............................................................16 Identifying Manageability Benefits ......................................................16 Identifying Data Recovery Benefits .....................................................18 Exploring Windows Storage Server Features and Capabilities ............................19 Providing Access to File Services Workloads ..............................................20 Supporting File Services Workloads Using CIFS, SMB, or SMB2 ..............20 Supporting File Services Workloads Using NFS .....................................21 Supporting File Services Workloads Using WebDAV ..............................22 Supporting File Services Workloads Using Windows SharePoint Services ..........................................................................................23 Providing Access to iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ..........................................23 Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target ...............................................................................24 Supporting iSCSI Boot ......................................................................27 Providing Access to Web Services Workloads .............................................30 Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads ..............................................31 Providing Access to Print Services Workloads ............................................31 Providing Reduction in Power Consumption ...............................................33 Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers ...............................33 Processor Power Management ............................................................33 Storage Power Management ..............................................................34 Additional Power Saving Features .......................................................35 Performing Highly Automated Installations ................................................35 Managing Windows Storage Server ................................................................36 Management Tools for All Workloads ........................................................36 Managing Power Consumption for All Workloads ........................................37

....................................................................................49 Protecting Windows Storage Server Workload Data ..............67 Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Targets ...56 Using DFS Replication to Protect Data ..................51 Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data...........................................ii Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Remote Manageability of Power Policy.............................exe Tool to Backup IIS Configuration ...................................................................65 Improving Availability of File Services Workloads .............................................................................................................................................47 Managing Print Services Workloads .....58 Securing Windows Storage Server Workloads ...................41 Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication ..................................37 In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting ...................................................................................................................................................................................45 Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell ........................................................................................................................44 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads .............................................................................................43 Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ........................................38 Managing File Services Using Share and Storage Management ..68 Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Initiators ......................63 Securing Print Services Workloads ............................................57 Using the Appcmd.......55 Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization ......................................................64 Improving Availability of Windows Storage Server Workloads..............................................53 Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data .................45 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ..................................56 Using Automated System Recovery to Protect Data .........................................................51 Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data ................................................70 Improving Availability of Web Services Workloads ................................55 Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization ....41 Managing Single Instance Storage ...........................................72 Improving Availability of Print Services Workloads ....54 Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service ...........54 Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap ..........................46 Managing Web Services Workloads .......................................38 Managing File Services Using File Server Resource Manager .............................57 Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect Data .......................59 Securing File Services Workloads ....................................................exe Tool to Backup Printer Information ..........................61 Securing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads .......................................................59 Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads ................62 Securing Web Services Workloads................73 ...........38 Managing File Services Workloads ...............................................................................52 Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data ......................................................................................................65 Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ..............................................58 Using the PrintBRM........................56 Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data ...

....... 109 Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation ..............................94 Review Web Services Workload Test Results ..................................... 120 More Information .................................. 116 Connecting Virtual Machines to iSCSI LUNs..................... 120 .74 Improving Performance and Scalability for All Workloads ....................................................................................................... 116 Running Virtual Machines on Windows Storage Server ...................... 101 Creating Highly-Available Solutions ........79 Review SMB-based File Services Workload Test Results...............................90 Review I/O Storage Test Results ............93 Improving Performance and Scalability for Web Services Workloads ..................................82 Reviewing Performance Improvements in SMB Version 2.........................................................................................................................................97 Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration ...................................................................................................................................iii Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Performance and Scalability for Windows Storage Server Solutions ................................................................. 115 Creating Virtualization Solutions .......................................................85 Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache ............... 114 Creating Unified Storage Solutions ...........................96 Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration ..................................90 Improving Performance and Scalability for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads ......................................................................................76 Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations ..74 Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity ..... 110 Creating Small to Medium Business Solutions .......................................................................94 Improving Performance and Scalability for Print Workloads ..............98 Using Windows Storage Server in iSCSI Block I/O Configuration .......................................... 100 Creating Branch Office Solutions ...............................95 Windows Storage Server Deployment Scenarios .......87 Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files ................90 Identify Methods for Improving iSCSI Block I/O Workload Performance and Scalability ..... 118 Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions .................................................................94 Identify Methods for Improving Web Services Workload Performance and Scalability ............................................................. 113 Creating Application Consolidation Solutions ................................................... 113 Creating Solutions for Heterogeneous Environments ....................................................................................74 Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Protocol ............................................................78 Review Improvements in the SMB2 Protocol ................................................................................................................................ 119 Conclusion ..........1 in Windows Server 2008 R2 ....96 Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration .................96 Overview of Windows Storage Server Configurations ......77 Improving Performance and Scalability for File Services Workloads ............75 Improvements in Network Adapter Performance........

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Windows Storage Server provides a unified solution for the following workloads:  Files services. Windows Storage Server extends the file services in Windows Server by providing addition storage features not found in Windows Server. version control. and how Windows Storage Server appliances address them. Provides the ability to run up to two virtual machines on an appliance. and print services workloads. deploy. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS). File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) protocols. Provides access to printers using Microsoft print services. Web services. see Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. such as Common Internet File System (CIFS) or Network File System (NFS). Windows Storage Server is only available through Microsoft Partners. and file history. which are connected using the Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) standard.  iSCSI Block storage services. This white paper is intended for IT professionals who design. This white paper describes the features and technologies in Windows Storage Server. Provides access to Web-based content and services. SMB2 provides a superset of the features found in CIFS and provides improved performance and reliability over previous versions of SMB.0. . use email efficiently and effectively. Note In this white paper. Provides the ability to share documents. Note This white paper focuses on all Windows Storage Server editions except for Windows® Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials. Provides remote network attached storage that appears as a disk logical unit number (LUN) to other computers. which supports check-in and check-out features. Microsoft OEM partners offer specialized hardware and additional software components to create network attached storage appliances. Provides access to files using the Server Message Block (SMB) version 2. and highly-available storage solutions.  Print services. scalable. In addition to providing extended features. Line Printer Daemon (LPD) services. and share ideas and information. Windows Storage Server provides solutions that complement the file services provided by Windows Server.  Virtualization services. The most common feature is to store files in document libraries. or FTP. For more information about Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials. iSCSI block input/output (I/O).0.  Web services. purchasing Windows Storage Server bundled with partner appliances can be more cost effective than purchasing Windows Server and a server computer separately. NFS version 3. unless otherwise specified.Introduction Windows® Storage Server 2008 R2 is the latest in the Windows Storage Server family of products and is based on the technologies and features found in Windows Server® 2008 R2. Provides access to files managed by the appliance for computers using file access protocols. Windows Storage Server refers to Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. and operate storage solutions. WebDAV. including file services. These services also provide high-performance access to remote disk LUNs using the iSCSI industry standard and can act as an iSCSI initiator or an iSCSI target. and how to create secure. extensible. which can be accessed using HTTP. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Essentials provides entrylevel solutions intended for use in organizations with 24 or less computers. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 is built on Windows Server 2008 to create efficient and effective storage solutions. or Internet printing services. depending on the Windows Storage Server edition. Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV). The following table lists some of the problems and pain points that organizations have with network attached storage appliances.  Windows® SharePoint® Services. track tasks.

Supports industry standard protocols and services that provide interoperability in heterogeneous environments. Network Attached Storage Appliance Problems and Pain Points Problem or pain point Windows Storage Server solution Dedicated or limited function Provides servicing of multiple workloads on highly appliance. performance. Limited breadth of vendor support. to provide optimal security. Uses familiar Windows Server management consoles. Integrates with Active Directory® Doman Services (AD DS) and Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services. including Windows Vista® and Windows® 7. and manageability. availability. including BitLocker® Drive Encryption. Limited protection of information stored on the appliance. Limited customization and extensibility. NTFS permissions. extensible Microsoft OEM vendor hardware platforms. such as System Center Data Protection Manager. Share permissions. and Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager. Implements nonstandard or proprietary protocols or services. Supports a wide variety of security products and technologies. including Windows Update. Provides Windows Server Backup as part of Windows Storage Server. Limited provisions for failover or fault tolerant configurations. Many of the management consoles can be customized to include Microsoft OEM partner branding. . scalability. Management of workloads.2 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 1. and from Microsoft partners. Minimal or no integration with existing authentication and authorization system. Designed to work "better together" with Windows operating systems. Lack of comprehensive software update management. Many on-going operations and management tasks can also be automated using System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager. Windows Software Update Services (WSUS). Ongoing operations and maintenance is labor intensive. and the server software supports extensibility using any application programming interfaces (APIs) supported by Windows Server 2008. and Network Load Balancing for improved availability and fault tolerance in addition to the hardware fault tolerance features provided by Microsoft OEM partners. and supports other disaster recovery products from Microsoft. Loosely integrated with clients that consume the services. Supports Windows Server Failover Clusters. Distributed File System (DFS). Takes advantage of the breadth and depth of the software and hardware products provided by other vendors that are provided for Windows Server 2008. and Microsoft® Forefront®. Provides a set of software update management technologies and products for any sized organization. Limited disaster recovery.

However. such as Active Directory® Domain Services. Windows Server® operating systems have been providing storage solutions since their introduction. Windows Storage Server is a member of the Windows Sever operating system family that is built on Windows Server.  Automation of administration tasks using Windows PowerShell™. Comparing Windows Storage Server with Windows Server Windows Server operating systems are a family of general purpose operating systems that provide a platform for running IT services and applications that are highly-available. This overview of Windows Storage Server includes the following topics:  Comparing Windows Server operating system storage offerings. each of these Windows operating systems has different storage capabilities and features. Windows Server includes Microsoft file and print services. However. DHCP Server.  Identifying the features that are unique to Windows Storage Server. DFS-R. it shares all the benefits of Window Server. because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server. such as deduplication of files using the Single Instance Storage (SIS) feature. and support for web applications running Internet Information Services (IIS). Deduplication of files is a specific form of compression provided by the SIS feature that combines redundant files into a single instance of the file. secure.  Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2. As a general purpose operating system. or Direct Access. to provide a unified storage solution.3 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Overview Windows Storage Server is optimized for file workloads and includes additional technologies. full screen remote desktop control of storage server administration using Web RDP. DFS-N. including:  A common application programming interface. and then replaces the files with reparse points (links) to the single instance.  Identifying Windows Storage Server solution benefits. .  Tightly integrated with Windows infrastructure services. Comparing Windows Server Operating System Storage Offerings Each current Windows® operating system provides some level of storage services. but is optimized for storage solutions.  Identifying Storage challenges. and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  Efficient management of shared resources using familiar Windows management consoles and command-line utilities. Network Access Protection. and easy to manage.  Identifying the features that are new to Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. scalable. These optimizations provide enhanced features and performance not found in the general purpose Windows Server operating systems. see the “Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2” section in this white paper.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 editions. For a more detailed description of the differences between these operating systems. This comparison of Windows Server operating system storage offerings includes:  Comparing Windows Storage Server with Window Server.

Potentially lowers deployment cost than Windows Server when new hardware is required. Runs applications on the same computer. Provides additional installation and configuration options. Windows Server many have distinct advantages over Windows Storage Server. . In other instances. Consolidate file services and iSCSI block I/O on one appliance Provides file services for an existing SAN solution by acting as a SAN gateway. as described in the “Step 2: Customize the end user installation experience for the usage scenario” section in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 OEM Deployment Guide.  The ability to function as an iSCSI target using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. Installs on existing computers. Table 2 lists the reasons for selecting Windows Storage Server or Windows Server as your storage solution. Identifying Windows Storage Server Features Windows Storage Server includes the following features that are not included in Windows Server:  Deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage (SIS) v2 as described in the section “Managing Single Instance Storage” in this white paper.  Full-screen remote desktop management using Windows Internet Explorer® or any web browser that supports Java using the WebRDP feature as described in the “Management Tools for All Workloads” section in this white paper.  The ability to extend the Windows user experience for commonly used management tools. Reasons to Select Windows Storage Server or Windows Server Solution Windows Storage Server Why select this solution      Windows Server      Provides iSCSI block I/O storage for application storage scenarios. Table 2. Provides file deduplicaton using SIS. Provides multiple roles on the same computer.4 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper There are many instances in which Windows Storage Server provides a more costeffective and efficient storage solution than Windows Server. such as Initial Configuration Tasks window.3 as described in the section “Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target” in this white paper. such as database services or messaging services. such as file services and domain controller on the same computer. Runs more than two virtual machines in a Microsoft Hyper-V™ environment.

For more information. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication”  “Using DFS Replication to Protect Data”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Scales to support up to 60. For more information.3 . For more information. which minimizes administrative effort. For more information. NFS client user identities use automatically generated Windows SIDs to access NFS shares. New or Improved Features in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Feature DFS replication (DFS-R) Description Supports up to 16 simultaneous replication streams. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Supporting Files Services Workloads Using NFS”  “Securing Files Services Workloads” Improved performance for iSCSI block I/O workloads and support for differencing VHDs used in iSCSI boot solutions. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target”  “Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions” DFS namespace (DFS-N) improvements Branch cache hosted cache mode SMB2 file access improvements Unmapped UNIX User Access (UUUA) for NFS file services. Supports replication to and from failover clusters. For more information. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using Branch Cache”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Dramatic reduction in network utilization for accessing files.5 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper What’s New in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Table 3 lists the new or improved features in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 that did not exist in previous versions of Windows Storage Server. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Provides locally cached copies of files to reduce network utilization between locations. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Review Improvements in the SMB Protocol”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” Reduced administrative effort for providing and monitoring access to NFS shares. Provides read-only access to replica copies of data. For more information.000 domain-based namespaces and improvements in fault tolerances. Table 3. iSCSI Software Target 3.

Dramatic reduction in power consumption due to improvements in system resource power management.6 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Simplified deployment for two node clusters Description Reduced administrative effort for installing and configuring a failover cluster using two appliances using the Initial Configuration Tasks window. 64-bit processor support. For more information. such as processor power consumption. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell”  “Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell” IT pros can remotely perform full-screen remote desktop management using Internet Explorer or any web browser that supports Java. For more information. see the “Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations” section in this white paper. Automation of repetitive administrative tasks using Windows PowerShell Remote management using WebRDP Client. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Providing Reduction in Power Consumption”  “Management Tools for All Workloads” Overall performance enhancements due to operating system optimization. the power management features can be configured using Group Policy settings. the Cluster Name and Domain Join Wizard and the Cluster Validation and Setup Wizard. and increased memory capacity. In addition. see the following sections in this whitepaper:  “Improving Availability of File Services Workloads”  “Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads” Windows PowerShell providers are included for Single Instance Storage and iSCSI block I/O workloads. see “Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads” section in this white paper. For more information. For more information. Performance and manageability for FTP services have been improved. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity”  “Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using Branch Cache” Performance for I/O operations has been dramatically improved. For more information. Power consumption and power management Performance and memory capacity I/O performance FTP services . see the “Management Tools for All Workloads” section in this white paper. For more information.

see the “Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data” section in this white paper. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell”  “Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell” Unattended installation and Storage settings can be configured at installation time configuration of storage using the unattended installation. LUN resynchronization can be used to provide faster recovery in some disaster recovery scenarios. For more information. Windows PowerShell Windows PowerShell support has been improved for helping to automate storage management tasks. Provides snapshots of volumes virtual hard disks (VHDs). which facilitates fully settings automated installations. which allows files to be managed based on their classification. For more information. For more information. Windows Server Backup Windows Server Backup provides improved features for performing backup and recovery scenarios. see “Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data” section in this white paper. and reduced effort for developing a backup extension. The classification of files is defined by IT administrators. For more information. For more information. LUN resynchronization Volume Shadow Copy Service improvements . see the “Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data”” section in this white paper. supports concurrent restores. see “Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure” in this white paper.7 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description Windows File Classification Management of files has been improved though the infrastructure Windows File Classification Infrastructure. see “Performing Highly Automated Installations” in this white paper. For more information.

                                 BITS Server Extensions Desktop Experience DFS Namespace DFS Replication DHCP Server Failover Clustering Note Failover clustering is available only in the Enterprise edition of Windows Storage Server 2008 R2.8 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Comparing Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2 The following lists features and technologies common to both Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2:  Administration Tools  Microsoft . File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) Full Text Search Group Policy Management Console Integration with Windows Server ecosystems (including backup software. and antivirus software.) Internet Printing Client LPR Port Monitor Microsoft file services based on SMB2 Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ) Multipath I/O Network File System (NFS) Peer Name Resolution Protocol Remote Assistance Remove Desktop Connection Remote Differential Compression Remote Server Admin Tools RPC Over HTTP Proxy Simple TCP/IP Services SNMP Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications (SUA) Telnet Server TFTP Client Windows Biometric Framework Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Windows Network Load Balancing Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) Windows PowerShell Windows Process Activation Server .NET 3.0  BitLocker Drive Encryption Note BitLocker Drive Encryption does not work with failover clusters.

there are some differences between the two products. Supports customized branding of user interface. Supports acting as an iSCSI target using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. Table 4 lists the feature and technology differences between the two products. Windows Server 2008 R2 Retail channels Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Microsoft OEM partners     Optionally performed by Microsoft OEM partners . Table 4.3. Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Differences Feature or technology Availability to organizations. Optimized for file services workloads. Supports deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage (SIS).9 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Windows Server Backup Note Windows Server Backup does not work with failover clusters and does not support volumes larger than 2 terabytes.  Windows Server Migration Tools  WS-Management  Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) Although Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 is based on the features and technologies in Windows Server 2008 R2. Supports full screen remote desktop management using Web RDP.

File Services Resource Manager.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Enterprise. Capabilities Maximum number of simultaneous users supported. Maximum number of processor sockets. which provides key functionality to support any sized business and IT storage challenge. and Web services workloads. NFS.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Standard. Maximum number of network adapters. and the support level for the capabilities in each edition of the product. Table 5. deduplication of files using Single Instance Storage. Use the information in Table 5 to identify which Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 edition is best suited for your organization. iSCSI block I/O services. Type of disk adapters supported. Workgroup is an entry-level technology foundation also targeted at small business owners and IT generalists supporting small businesses. and Web services workloads. is available in the following editions:  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Workgroup. Comparison of Windows Storage Editions Maximum system resources support Capabilities Supported processor architecture. Enterprise is an advanced platform that provides more cost-effective and reliable support for mission-critical workloads.10 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Editions Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. print services. Deduplication of files using SIS. Enterprise provides support for an unlimited number of users with maximum faulttolerance and scalability provided in a Windows Storage Server product. Workgroup provides support for less than 25 users who require access to file services using Microsoft file services or NFS. File Classification Infrastructure. BitLocker Drive Encryption    Workgroup 64-bit 4 32 GB 2 6 Any  Workgroup 25     Standard 64-bit 4 32 GB Unlimited Any Any  Standard Unlimited     Enterprise 64-bit 8 2 terabyte Unlimited Any Any  Enterprise Unlimited        . print services. Maximum amount of memory. Standard provides support for an unlimited number of users who require access to file services using Microsoft file services or NFS. iSCSI block I/O services. DFS replication. Table 5 lists the capabilities of Windows Storage Server. Hardware RAID supported. Number of disks supported. BranchCache in hosted cache mode.

Hyper-V guest support. . Number of printers supported for Print Services workloads. Note Some Microsoft partners include the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by default. OEM customization of user interface and experience. Windows Server Backup. Fax services. Domain membership. Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services. Multipath I/O. Workgroup Optional Standard Optional Enterprise Optional Failover clusters. see the section. AD DS read-only domain controller.      Any    1 Any             2 Any           For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target specifications. Domain name system (DNS). Windows Search services. "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Specifications" later in this white paper. Windows Management Instrumentation. DHCP Server services.11 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Capabilities Microsoft iSCSI Target Software.

and servers. Finding the appropriate solution requires careful optimization of an enterprise-wide storage plan.  Underutilization of storage resources. data is increasingly dispersed throughout a company. it can be difficult to make the data accessible to others. Table 6. Business requirements determine the challenges that an organization must solve to provide a comprehensive storage solution. Many organizations must adhere to data retention regulatory requirements to not keep data older than a defined age. Table 6 lists the categories of storage challenges that most organizations experience.  Identify data recovery challenges in storage solutions. However. in a decentralized structure an administrator can . upgrade to higher capacity disks. regardless of the size of their organization. Data must remain free from corruption. or purchase additional computers that each have more hard disks. there is no effective mechanism to determine exactly where information is stored or which version of a document is the most up-todate. and inadvertent user error. Scalability storage challenges include:  Decentralized of data. Security Manageability Data recovery Identify storage solution challenges by performing the following steps:  Identify scalability challenges in storage solutions. Data must be recoverable in the event of a disaster. policy-driven processes and procedures. Data must be easy to manage and maintain for local users. the simplest solutions to increase storage capacity are: add more hard drives. remote users. and where to find them.  Identify manageability challenges in storage solutions.  Identify security challenges in storage solutions.  Compatibility with storage networking solutions. workstations. making it difficult for users to know what resources exist. Decentralization of Data As the number of systems increase. When an administrator finds that these hard disk drives are getting too full. and it should be protected from any single point of failure.12 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Storage Challenges IT pros face most of the same storage challenges. or branch offices using highly-automated. unauthorized access. Even when sharing is enabled. This is an especially troublesome problem with data stored on desktops — without file sharing enabled on these computers. Identify Scalability Storage Challenges Internal or external hard disks are the most common way to store data on desktops. compromise. Data must be accessible by users on an on-demand basis for a high percentage of the time. Storage Challenge Categories Category Scalability Availability Description Data must be accessible in a timely manner based on the response times defined in your Service Level Agreements (SLAs).  Identify availability challenges in storage solutions.

while others have excess capacity but no means to effectively share those resources. Identify Availability Storage Challenges Businesses rely on making their services and information available for access.13 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper face many hurdles when building and applying a consistent policy to the type and age of data that is stored. storage interconnects. motherboards and power supplies — can result in a temporary or permanent loss of data. Migrating a company’s critical data to a centralized server can help the situation. RAID 5. . as more servers are added to increase storage capacity (and to provide redundancy in the event of hardware failure). The availability storage challenges include:  Hard disk redundancy. parity-based configurations that spread multiple data over multiple drives. Some computers inevitably exceed their storage capacity. Failure in any of a number of hardware components — storage devices. because the data can be readily shared across the network. other storage mediums with the end result being consolidated management flow for administrators and a consistent experience for users. organizations can experience bandwidth bottlenecks as users in remote locations attempt to access data in a central location via potentially slow. but capacity exceeded on another. thus space may be available on one server. Underutilization of Storage Resources Storage that is directly attached to a server is made available to other computers on the network through the operating system’s sharing capabilities. Fault tolerance can be achieved through redundancy of hardware components. directly attached storage tends to scale poorly over the long term. Effective storage planning requires accurate predictions of which users and applications will require more storage capacity. These parity-based approaches can provide protection from a disk failure through the maintenance of checksum information. and those resources must be provisioned before disk capacity is exceeded. and ensuring that the data is protected well enough to meet requirements. Hard disks using the same RAID controller can be combined to provide a fault tolerance disk configuration using RAID subsystems. year-round. they also scale well with more advanced storage solutions. network interconnects. processors. Storage remains local to each server. and is one way to ensure highly available data. Unfortunately. Storage solutions must be able to integrate with. such as network attached storage (NAS) and storage area networks (SANs). You can also create more sophisticated. In this case.  Server redundancy. high latency WAN links. or RAID 6. Compatibility with Storage Networking Solutions The best storage solutions not only meet today’s storage needs. But. Adding more servers does not eliminate the problem of inefficient utilization of storage space between servers. users still have the problem of not being able to find the data that they need — or in some cases even knowing that it exists. As data is centralized. cabling. Anticipating growth and implementing storage solutions that scale with growth remains a problem. 24x7. and offer services for. Hard Disk Redundancy Hard disk redundancy can be achieved using RAID types such as RAID 10. mechanisms need to be put in place to ensure data availability so that user productivity is not negatively affected.

Security in depth is required in terms of multi-level and multi-factor security in instances where the data is highly confidential. these solutions provide only partial protection. and disasters. but also from data corruption. application. where it can be properly backed up. system administrators strongly advocate storing critical documents and data on a server. Users are redirected to another computer without any loss of services. web. Unfortunately. even if a server goes down. The most common means of protecting data from these problems is through tape backups and restores. UNIX. This redirection can also ensure data availability even when the computer is not connected to the network. Identifying Windows Storage Server Solution Benefits Network attached storage appliances running Windows Storage Server have a number of advantages compared to other network attached storage appliances. extranets. Identify Security Storage Challenges Preventing unauthorized access to confidential data requires tight integration between file services and identity management systems. In addition. user error. or another operating system. Finally. or the Internet. Hard disks must be backed up by the individual user. The benefits to creating storage solutions using Windows Storage Server include:  Scalability  Availability  Security  Manageability  Data recovery . IT pros have to help ensure the strongest possible security while allowing users the access they require to data. However. Most of these advantages are available because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server 2008 R2. and for clustering those servers to ensure effective performance and high availability. although many organizations require multiple platforms to support various applications. especially in midsize and large organizations. such as My Documents to a network location while keeping a cached version of the data on the user’s local machine. applications remain online.14 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Server Redundancy Failover clustering allows two or more computer systems to perform and be managed as a single system. Access to the data must be secured for users on the organization’s intranet. and database servers. Technologies such as folder redirection combined with Offline Files can help users store data on servers by redirecting key folders. and for that reason. With Failover Clustering. demand is increasing to share data among users whether they are running Windows. Identify Data Recovery Storage Challenges System administrators must protect data not only from hardware failure. Administrators are responsible for managing file. remote users must be able to access the data through remote access connections. Identify Manageability Storage Challenges System administration can become enormously complex. users are rarely effective in performing regular backups.

WHEA has been enhanced to support Machine Check Architecture (MCA) error recovery. The Distributed File System Replication (DFSR) service controls replication and synchronization of data using Remote Differential Compression (RDC) that only replicates modifications to a file. Single Instance Storage actively compares and eliminates identical files on selected volumes. Once enabled. offering the ability to contain and recover from several types of multi-bit ECC errors in memory and cache without operating system or application interruption. and I/O host bridges. Distributed File System (DFS) simplifies the user’s process of locating and accessing files distributed across an organization. Windows Storage Server can failover to an alternate path if the primary path fails. and this capability has been maintained in Windows Server 2008 R2. . It is no longer necessary to add an additional server for each additional DFS root directory. In addition. Failover clustering can help you build redundancy into your network and eliminate single points of failure. Windows Storage Server includes support for fault tolerate memory synchronization.  Fault tolerant hardware. With the release of Windows Server 2008 R2. faster synchronization. protection and recovery by Single Instance Store-aware backup solutions can significantly reduce backup windows and recovery times.  Improved fault tolerance between servers and storage. and custom applications that sometimes require highly reliable.  Processor scaling. and hot-replace of processors and memory on x64-based and Itanium-based systems which support DHP. resulting in less bandwidth used for replication and. memory. Fault-tolerant servers contain redundant hardware. If a primary component fails.15 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Scalability Benefits The following are the scalability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Increasing the Effectiveness of File Sharing. and to provide support for Access Based Enumeration (ABE) on DFS Namespaces. Windows Storage Server supports hot-add of processors. DFS also offers closest site selection. You can select the failover priority by configuring the load-balancing policies for your storage solution. the secondary component takes over in a process that is seamless to the application running on the server. The Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server helps optimize storage capacity using built-in file deduplication. therefore. Duplicate files are transparently replaced with file system links to the single copy retained in the SIS Common Store — saving significant capacity.  Windows Hardware Error Architecture (WHEA).  Dynamic hardware partitioning. DFS only displays items in the namespace and folders that the user has access to. DFS has been enhanced to remove the 5. On a dynamically partitionable server. ensuring access to the nearest available copy of the data at the lowest cost. When multiple paths exist between servers and storage. Windows Server® 2003 introduced the ability to accommodate multiple DFS root directories on each server.  Reduces storage requirements. Identifying Availability Benefits The following are the availability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Failover clustering. Those modifications are compressed during transmission. line of business. This data can be made highly available in a transparent manner using the Distributed File System Namespace. partition units can be added or replaced without restarting the operating system. including fans and power supplies and processors and RAM that runs in lockstep together. scalable servers. Windows Storage Server can scale up to 256 logical processors to meet the demands of business-critical servers supporting large databases.000-link target limit that previously existed.

 Resolves support issues faster. multi-vendor storage device management required a system administrator to manage each device independently and to use a different vendor-supplied interface to do so — all of which adds another layer of complexity to the system administrator’s job. NTFS permissions.  Integrates with existing identity management systems. You can manage and operate Windows Storage Server using the same IT processes and procedures that are currently used to manage Windows Server 2008 R2. An error in the configuration of the storage subsystem can negatively affect storage availability. and federated domains using Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS). you can take advantage of your expertise with Windows Server. You can also use Microsoft and partner products to further strengthen the security of your storage solutions. Windows Storage Server allows you to take configuration snapshots of the storage subsystem (for example. and with less effort. and IPsec. build. Forefront Identity Manager (FIM) 2010 also can be used to synchronize identities from other identity systems. include knowledge from the product groups at Microsoft to help provide you with accurate and relevant information to resolve support issues. Identifying Security Benefits The following are the security benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Secures digital assets. the iSCSI configuration). The broad range of well documented APIs and scripting languages can help you customize Windows Storage Server to meet your organization's requirements.16 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Improved recovery from configuration errors. In the event of a subsequent configuration failure.  Manages multi-vendor storage more effectively. Windows Server 2008 R2 contains a number of management interfaces for SAN hardware. Comprehensive Microsoft support for Windows Server products and the extensive community of partners and peers help you resolve storage-related issues with less effort. you can quickly restore the configuration to a previous version. In addition. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. such as System Center Operations Manager. This familiarity dramatically can help reduce your learning curve so that you can quickly and efficiently plan. such as Microsoft Forefront.  Manages and operates your storage solution using your existing processes and procedures.  Easily extends storage solutions. This helps protect your existing investment while developing custom processes and procedures. can be used to access resources shared by Windows Storage Server. Because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server 2008 R2. For example. such as System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager 2007. such as AD DS. This level of integration also helps minimize any infrastructure remediation that may be required to deploy and operate your storage solution. In addition. Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS). In addition.  Seamlessly integrates with your existing Windows IT infrastructure. you can manage and operate Windows Storage Server using other products. You can easily extend the features and services provided by Windows Storage Server using the large number of products and services provided by Microsoft partners or by developing your own solution. You can use the same extensive security products and technologies found in Windows Server 2008 to secure Windows Storage Server. many of the Microsoft management products. Identifying Manageability Benefits The following are the manageability benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Reduces time to realize efficient management. more precisely. Windows Storage Server integrates easily with existing Windows IT infrastructure services. the Storage Manager for SANs. and operate storage solutions. such as BitLocker Drive Encryption. In past versions of Windows Server. . Much of this existing knowledge is integrated in the product or available online. Identities from AD DS. deploy.

. SAN technology based on IP also removes the physical limitations of moving data associated with Fibre Channel. Windows support for iSCSI technology allows users to connect computers to consolidated storage devices using existing Ethernet technologies. using available iSCSI initiators. These tools help protect the integrity of your existing data while ensuring the current user permissions and security configuration is transferred to Windows Storage Server. You can use the same set of tools and process to manage all the workloads supported by Windows Storage Server. Windows Storage Server 2008 is a network-attached storage (NAS) operating system. You can manage file services. and print services workloads using the well-known management consoles and utilities in Windows Storage Server. Takes advantage of existing network infrastructure for SAN storage. including file and print. Reduces administration effort for storage solutions. which in turn helps lower total cost of ownership (TCO) especially in complex multivendor storage environments. web. Disk LUNs can be remotely mounted by application servers. Enhancements include:  Administrators can now control volume mounting to protect volumes from unintentional access. The integrated storage services available in Windows Server and Windows Storage Server 2008 have been enhanced in Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. For example.17 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper       Migrates from other storage solutions to Windows Storage Server. instead of using a different set of management tools for each workload. Provides centralized storage for applications. such as the File Server Migration Tools. rather than having to install a separate Fibre Channel network. For example. You can automate repetitive administrative tasks using Windows PowerShell scripts in Windows Storage Server. In addition.  Fibre Channel and iSCSI SANs handling has been improved. Provides unified solution to storage management and operations. Web services. such as Microsoft® Exchange Server 2010 running on a Windows Server operating system. built on Windows Server 2008 R2 operating system technologies. using the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator or application servers running other operating systems. many Microsoft partners produce products to help in migrating workloads to Windows Server products. You can migrate workloads from existing Windows Server operating systems to Windows Storage Server using highly-automated migration tools. such as System Center Configuration Manager or System Center Operations Manager. The Windows Storage Server 2008 operating system is a multi-purpose server designed to handle a diverse set of server roles. storing Exchange Server and virtual server data and directory services. you can draw on the large number of existing scripts developed by the partner and peer communities to further reduce the time required to achieve automation. Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 make it easier to manage and maintain disks. such as Linux. you can use other Microsoft products to further automate the administration of Windows Storage Server. iSCSI technology helps bring the advantages of storage area networking (SAN) to midsize and small businesses that otherwise could not afford the extra cost and management of running a separate Fibre Channel network. remote desktop. iSCSI block I/O services. Robust storage solutions.  SAN Host Bus Adapter (HBA) interoperability has been simplified with the SAN MMC management snap-in. The Windows Storage Server 2008 platform now provides better support for SANs. and new features have been added aimed at helping businesses control storage management costs and increase availability of data. In addition. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target component in Windows Storage Server allows you to create iSCSI disk LUNs. You can also centrally manage many of the Windows Storage Server configuration settings using Group Policy.

These can be responsible for flushing buffers and getting data on a disk in a consistent state that is suitable to back up. shadow copies take up little disk space. The Windows Recovery Environment in Windows Storage Server is a partial version of the operating system and a set of tools that you can use to perform operating system or full server recoveries. deployment. Making data highly available throughout an organization requires data redundancy. The Shadow Copy for Shared Folders feature of the new Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) enables users to easily restore their own deleted files without IT intervention. The accidental deletion or overwriting of files has long been the bane of system administrators charged with the time-intensive and costly task of locating and restoring single files from tape. VSS allows administrators to schedule regular copies of data stored on disk. and ongoing operations of Windows Storage Server succeed.  Manages backups and restores more effectively. Identifying Data Recovery Benefits The following are the data recovery benefits provided by Windows Storage Server:  Easier data recovery. The VSS process ensures data integrity though the utilization of VSS writers. thus adding availability to the data. Windows Storage Server can failover to an alternate path if the primary path fails. In the case of catastrophic system failures — cases in which all operating system information is lost and the server is effectively stripped down to bare metal — Automated System Recovery makes possible rapid restore of the system’s original state. This capability can be extended with technologies like System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM). When multiple paths exist between servers and storage. Your IT organization and users are less likely to experience difficulties in using and operating Windows Storage Server because they are already familiar with Windows Server. With VSS. which can centrally store the snapshot information. You can use many of the existing tools. thus making unnecessary the disruptive practice of shutting down applications during backup to prevent data consistency issues. Because Windows Storage Server is based on Windows Server. and best practice guidance to help make certain that the planning. As organizations produce more information. enabling companies to make copies of necessary data. open file backups are enabled. backing up data becomes an increasingly time intensive and potentially disruptive operation. separate from the originating server.18 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Minimizes storage solution adoption risk. because only the changes to the data are saved. .  Windows Server backup tools. Moreover. You can select the failover priority by configuring the load-balancing policies for your storage solution  Windows Recovery Environment. Microsoft Solution Accelerators. you can minimize the risk of adoption for your new storage solution.

as illustrated in Figure 1. These features and capabilities allow Windows Storage Server to act as a unified platform to manage various workloads.19 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Exploring Windows Storage Server Features and Capabilities Windows Storage Server includes a rich set of features and capabilities to help service multiple workloads. unlike dedicated or single function network attached storage appliances. Workloads supported by Window Storage Server . Figure 1.

Some network access storage appliances that are not running Windows Storage Server implement generic CIFS-based file services that implement only older versions of SMB and lack the performance advantages and improved reliability of SMB2. and the prior versions of SMB for previous Windows operating systems.  Providing access to iSCSI block I/O workloads in development. SMB.  Providing access to print services workloads. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous file services workloads using the following protocols or features:  CIFS. For more information about the improvements available in SMB2. or SMB2  NFS  WebDAV  Windows SharePoint® Services Supporting File Services Workloads Using CIFS. Select this protocol to support homogeneous or heterogeneous environments that contain:  Windows-based computers that use Client for Microsoft Networks to access file services workloads using the SMB protocol.  Computers running other operating systems that access file services workloads using the CIFS protocol. see the "Review Improvements in File Services" section later in this white paper.  Print services workloads This section includes the following topics:  Providing access to file services workloads. Windows Storage Server can support file services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments with a variety of operating systems. which is highly-optimized for use with Windows 7. . Windows-based client computers use the SMB protocol while other operating systems typically use the CIFS protocol. test. or production environments.  Web services workloads.  iSCSI block I/O workloads. The File Services server role in Windows Storage Server supports both SMB2.20 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper These features and capabilities help you provide access to:  File services workloads.  Providing access to FTP services workloads. including the following workloads:  Hyper-V  Microsoft SQL Server®  Microsoft Exchange Server  iSCSI boot  Providing access to Web services workloads. SMB. as illustrated in Figure 1. or SMB2 The SMB2 protocol in Windows Storage Server provides access to files and folders for client computers using the SMB or CIFS protocols. Providing Access to File Services Workloads File services workloads allow computers to access files and folders stored on network access storage appliances.

The NFS protocol allows any NFS client computer to access files and folders managed by Windows Storage Server using version 2 and version 3 of the NFS protocol. The Server for NFS component is required to support file services workloads using NFS. This component includes the Services for NFS snap-in.0 with the Services for Network File System role service.2  Hewlett Packard HP-UX version 11i The Server for NFS component allows you to share a folder as a NFS exported folder (also known as a NFS shared folder). the Identity Management for UNIX Active Directory schema extension includes the UNIX user identifier (UID) and group identifier (GID) fields.21 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Supporting File Services Workloads Using NFS Windows Storage Server supports access to file services workloads using the NFS protocol version 3. For computers running Windows.0. download NFS Account Mapping in Windows Server 2008 R2. This component allows a computer running Windows Storage Server and Server for NFS to service NFS client computer requests. NFS Authentication The Server for NFS component can use Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) for mapped identity management. Note The Server for NFS component supports NFS version 2. This component allows a computer running Windows Storage Server and Client for NFS to access NFS mount points on NFS servers. Select this protocol to support heterogeneous environments that contain computers running an NFS client that access file services workloads using the NFS protocol. the NFS client allows access to the NFS exported folder using a universal naming convention (UNC) path or by mapping the NFS exported folder to a drive letter. In Windows Storage Server. This method allows all unmapped users to access shared resources using a common anonymous account is configurable. This enables Server for NFS and Client for NFS to look up Windows-to-UNIX user account mappings directly from AD DS or AD LDS. A computer running an NFS client can mount the NFS exported folder into the local file system of the operating system running on the computer.0 and version 3. and a number of command-line tools for managing it. . see Services for NFS Step-by-Step Guide for Windows Server 2008. Windows Server 2008. Server for NFS can support unmapped user access using:  Unmapped UNIX User Access. and later Windows Server operating systems.  Anonymous access.  Client for NFS. The Services for Network File System role service includes the following components:  Server for NFS. For more information about installing and configuring the Services for Network File System role service. This method allows users to access shared resources using automatically generated Windows Security Identifiers (SIDs) based on the UNIX UID and GID. In addition. For more information about enabling identity (account) mapping for Services for NFS. UNIX Version Support The Services for NFS supports the following versions of UNIX:  Sun Microsystems Solaris version 9  Red Hat Linux version 9  IBM AIX version 5L 5.

) character. Windows Storage Server includes version 7. file names can be case sensitive. Depending on the operating system. Non-Windows file systems do not use letters to identify drives.5 is the latest version of WebDAV for Windows Storage Server. and then specifies where Server for NFS can find the file containing the character map.  Special characters.0 per-URL authorization rules.  Per-URL Security Settings. Previous versions of WebDAV only allowed you to enable WebDAV at the server level. Supporting File Services Workloads Using WebDAV The WebDAV protocol is a set of extensions to the HTTP protocol that enables file management over any IP network. allowing you to specify custom WebDAV security settings on a per-URL basis. WebDAV 7. Client computers running a WebDAV redirector can access file services workloads using the WebDAV protocol.  Per-site Configuration. Files can be hidden on both non-Windows and Windows computers. so colon characters are valid in non-Windows file names. Windows computers preserve the case. thereby . the new WebDAV extension module integrates with the Internet Information Services Manager console to provide ease of administration. By default. All current Windows operating systems include a WebDAV redirector. WebDAV 7.  Hidden files.22 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Non-Windows and Windows File Names Many of the conventions used for naming files and directories on non-Windows systems differ from those used by Windows. The new WebDAV extension module is tightly integrated with this new design. it preserves the case of the names of directories and files when creating files on behalf of NFS client computers.0 has a new administration interface and configuration store. see Nfsadmin. files are hidden by setting a special attribute for the file. For more information. or be hidden from users. WebDAV 7. This setting can be turned off by administrators to ensure that files whose names begin with a period (. Server for NFS is case-sensitive when matching directory.and file-access requests to directories and files in its shared directories.0. By default. a file stored on NTFS cannot contain the colon (:) character because that character separates the drive letter from the rest of the path in a fully qualified path name. Also. which provides support for homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. but are not case sensitive. contain special characters. These authoring rules are separate from the IIS 7. Non-Windows file systems simply do not list files whose names begin with a period (. In the case of Windows computers.0. Other operating systems also include a WebDAV redirector. and includes the following improvements:  Integration with IIS 7.5 of the WebDAV extension module for Internet Information Services (IIS) 7. see Configure Case Sensitivity for File and Folder Names. In contrast. IIS 7.5 can be enabled at the site level. the administrator creates a file that defines how these characters are to be mapped. Administrators can configure Server for NFS to ignore case sensitivity when returning directory and file names.5 supports per-URL authoring rules. Administrators can specify how characters in directory and file names will be converted when files are shared between Server for NFS and client computers. For example. Every file system reserves characters for use in path and command syntax. For more information.) character are hidden. To accomplish this. The differences between Windows and non-Windows filenames include the following:  Case sensitivity. Most UNIX-like non-Windows file systems are case-sensitive when handling directory and file names.0 (x64). Server for NFS does not create files with names beginning with a period as hidden files in the Windows file system.5 for IIS 7. The WebDAV extension module is available as a separate download at WebDAV 7.

As an iSCSI target. Client computers can access the document libraries using either protocol.0. Windows Storage Server can be an iSCSI. Providing Access to iSCSI Block I/O Workloads iSCSI block I/O workloads are another type of workload provided by most network access storage appliances. Also. In addition.0. Computers running Windows can also access the document libraries through Windows Explorer. and a separate set of security settings for WebDAV requests. Serial Attached SCSI (SAS). such as Microsoft Word 2007 or Excel® 2007. but the feature specific to file services is the document library feature. see Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3. For more information about providing Windows SharePoint Services 3.23 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper allowing one set of security settings for normal HTTP requests. Windows Storage Server is used to support iSCSI block IO workloads for applications. Supporting File Services Workloads Using Windows SharePoint Services Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3." later in this white paper.0 support on Windows Storage Server. .0 allows users to collaborate with each other using either HTTP or HTTPS. iSCSI block I/O workloads include both a server component (iSCSI target) and a client component (iSCSI initiator). such as a SAN. Windows SharePoint Services include a number of collaboration features. Windows Storage Server is used to connect to external iSCSI targets. Document libraries include the ability to check in and check out files to help maintain version control. Microsoft Office System client applications. As an iSCSI initiator. see the section "Using Windows Storage Server as a NAS Gateway in Solutions. as illustrated in Figure 2. or Fibre Channel initiator based on the type of storage being accessed. you can configure document libraries to retain a specified number of versions for each file in the document library. support opening and saving files to document libraries directly within the application. such as SQL Server® 2008 or Exchange Server 2010. see WebDAV for IIS 7. which allows you to easily restore a previous version of a file and track version history. Note When Windows Storage Server is deployed in a NAS gateway scenario. For more information about providing WebDAV support on Windows Storage Server. For more information. Select this protocol to support heterogeneous environments that contain computers running WebDAV redirectors that need to access the file services workloads using the HTTP or HTTPS protocol.

Standard. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3. For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.24 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 2.3.3 in Windows Storage Server. Note Some Microsoft partners include the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by default.3 is the latest version of the iSCSI target software and is an optional component in Window Storage Server Workgroup. Supporting iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. . This allows a large number of configuration options for iSCSI block I/O workload solutions. iSCSI block I/O workloads supported by Windows Storage Server Windows Storage Server supports iSCSI block I/O workloads using the iSCSI standard.3. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Specifications Table 7 lists the specifications for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3 available for Windows Storage Server provides iSCSI target functionality. and Enterprise editions. see Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. These specifications are applicable to all Windows Storage Server editions that include Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Windows Storage Server can function as an iSCSI target (the server component) or an iSCSI initiator (the client component).

Maximum number of iSCSI initiators that can connect to the same iSCSI target instance. Maximum number of virtual disk per iSCSI target instance. Table 8. For more information about multipath I/O. IPv6. Failures for non-network related issues have been tested with acceptable recovery times. iSCSI offload. we recommend to use Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 in clustered configurations when connecting to the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Support for Single or Multipath IO Connections for Non-Clustered or Clustered Configurations Specification Windows Server 2008 (multipath I/O connection) Windows Server 2008 (single path I/O connection) Windows Server 2008 (multipath I/O connection) Windows Server 2003 (single path I/O connection) Nonclustered Supported Supported Supported Supported Clustered Supported Limited * Limited * Limited* * There is limited support for iSCSI initiators or iSCSI targets in clustered configurations of Windows Server 2003 when connected to the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. .25 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 7. see the section "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads. For these reasons. Maximum number of virtual disks or snapshots that can be locally mounted by the appliance. IPsec. Failures on the iSCSI network path may result in delayed failover and recovery times. Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Version 3. Maximum number of iSCSI initiator sessions that can connect to the same iSCSI target instance. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator includes a multipath I/O Device Specific Module (DSM) for the Microsoft Multipath I/O (MPIO) in Windows Server. Table 8 lists the support for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with single or multipath I/O connections when connecting to nonclustered or clustered configurations. Maximum number of virtual disks per appliance. Maximum number of snapshots per virtual disk." later in this white paper. IPv4. Jumbo frames. TCP offload. Maximum number of iSCSI initiators per appliance. Value 64 128 128 512 32 (or 4 per cluster node) 64 16 64 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Windows Storage Server includes support for single path and multipath I/O connections to nonclustered and clustered configurations.3 Specifications Specification Maximum number of iSCSI target instances per appliance. Multipath I/O connections allow for improved fault-tolerance and performance for iSCSI block I/O workloads.

3 supports the following iSCSI initiators:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator 2.3 includes a hardware provider for:  Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS).  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server 2008 SP1 and SP2.07 and 2.x. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. VDS provides an end-to-end solution for managing storage hardware and disks. iSCSI snapshots are created using VSS and a storage array with a hardware provider designed for use with VSS. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3. The backup software must support transporting snapshots.  Qlogic initiator QLE4062C-SP.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows 7. and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider.  32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2008 SP1. Install this hardware provider on the computer running the iSCSI initiator and the computer that is to perform backups. Customers using a different iSCSI target should refer to the storage array vendor for supported configurations.3 supports only version 3.08 in Windows Server 2003.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Vista.  64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server 2008. Note Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.01. VSS is a set of APIs that implement a framework to allow volume backups to be performed while applications on a system continue to write to the volumes.24. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider is required to manage virtual disks on a storage subsystem.00.26 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note The limitation for iSCSI initiators or iSCSI targets in clustered configurations of Windows Server 2003 is specific to Microsoft iSCSI Software Target usage. VDS is a set of APIs that provides a single interface for managing disks.3 support the following operating systems:  Windows Server 2008 R2.x. Prior versions of the hardware providers are not supported by Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.3. .  Red Hat Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 5. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider is required to create transportable snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks and application-consistent snapshots from iSCSI initiators. and for creating volumes on those disks.3 of the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider.3 and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3. Install the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider on each iSCSI initiator computer running a storage management application (such as the Microsoft Storage Manager for SANs) that uses the hardware provider to manage storage The most recent version of these hardware provider APIs is Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server 2008 R2.  64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. firmware 3.3 and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3.3.  Virtual Disk Service (VDS).  SUSE Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 10. Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for VSS and VDS Providers Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3.  32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Server® 2003 SP2.

iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT) is a block of information containing parameters needed to boot Windows Server 2003 and later versions of Windows using the iSCSI protocol and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. The components in this phase include:  Int 13. these components are provided by the partner providing the program. This phase of the process is performed by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. see iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT). The BIOS function used to access disk boot functions. all the necessary preboot phase components are in firmware on the adapter. This phase is performed by the firmware on the network adapter.  Windows. firmware on the host bus adapter. . including Windows® XP. For network boot programs. Windows Vista. and Windows® 7. as illustrated in Figure 3. Table 9 lists the components in an iSCSI boot solution using Windows Storage Server and provides a brief description of the purpose for each component. is divided into the following phases:  Pre-boot. or network boot program. For more information.3:  Any Windows client operating system.  UNDI. Independent Hardware Vendors implementing iSCSI boot support in their firmware need to use the table headers defined in this specification to enable the passing of boot critical parameters to the Windows operating system.  iBFT. Supporting iSCSI Boot iSCSI boot allows diskless computers (computers without local disk) to boot over the network.  Network boot program software that provides iSCSI boot capability. iSCSI boot process for Windows operating systems For iSCSI boot-enabled network adapters and host bus adapters.27 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The following operating systems are not supported by Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider version 3. These functions are redirected to the virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server. The Windows Boot Manager is configured to boot using LUNs that are accessible through the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator.3. iSCSI boot support is provided on diskless computers using one of the following methods:  Network adapters that support iSCSI boot capability.  32-bit version of Windows Storage Server 2008.  iSCSI host bus adapters that support iSCSI boot capability. and Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider version 3. Universal Network Device Interface (UNDI) is an application programming interface (API) for network interface cards (NIC) used by the Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) protocol. This phase of the process is used to initiate the Window iSCSI boot process. depending on the method used for the diskless computer. The iSCSI boot process for Windows operating systems. Figure 3.

Note The TFTP server is required only if you are using iSCSI boot software that requires a TFTP server. However. Differencing virtual disks can be used for multiple computers based on the same fixed virtual disk.  iSCSI boot software. The TFTP server is not required for network adapters that support iSCSI boot or an iSCSI host bus adapter. Virtual disk files (. which can be any one of the following:  Network adapter that supports iSCSI boot.  iSCSI host bus adapter. Virtual disk iSCSI connection in diskless computer DHCP server Trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP) server Provides download of boot image to target computer when the virtual disk cannot be directly accessed using the iSCSI connection in the diskless computer. Figure 4 illustrates how diskless computers can boot from virtual disk files (.28 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 9. Components in an iSCSI Boot Solution Using Windows Storage Server Component Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Description Provides iSCSI block I/O access to virtual disks stored on Windows Storage Server. Note The DHCP server is optional if the network adapter supports IP and iSCSI boot configuration or if you are using an iSCSI host bus adapter. This allows for fast deployment and recovery of diskless computers. The iSCSI boot process and Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator can access these virtual disks during the boot process. . The diskless computer requires an iSCSI connection to Windows Storage Server. the DHCP is practical requirement for any scalable requirement. Provides IP configuration for iSCSI boot using network adapters using DHCP reservation that is configured for BOOTP support.vhd files) stored on Windows Storage Server.vhd files) stored on Windows Storage Server using a network boot program that provides iSCSI boot capability.

4. . 5. The TFTP Server provides a PXE boot image to the diskless computer.29 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 4. The diskless client computer requests IP configuration from the DHCP Server. 2. As illustrated in Figure 4. iSCSI boot process from Windows Storage Server DHCP and TFTP services can be provided by Windows Storage Server or Windows Server. The DHCP Server sends IP configuration information to the diskless client. The diskless client computer requests a Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) boot image from the TFPT Server. The diskless computer establishes a connection with Windows Storage Server and connects to a virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server. the diskless computer can boot from a virtual disks stored on Windows Storage Server using the following steps for a network boot program: 1. 3.

The diskless computer boots from Differencing Virtual Disk . Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous Web services workloads using the protocols listed in Table 10.  The “Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions” section later in this white paper. Windows Storage Server supports Web services workloads. see:  Microsoft iSCSI Boot Step-by-Step Guide. . Web services workloads allow users to access Web-based content stored on Windows Storage Server appliances.B that is stored on Windows Storage Server. 8.07 or 2. You can use separate virtual disks for each diskless computer or you can use differencing virtual disks. which is the iSCSI LUN specified in the configuration for the computer. A differencing virtual disk is a virtual disk type that is based on a fixed or expandable virtual disk. All subsequent disk I/O is performed using iSCSI I/O to the virtual disk stored on Windows Storage Server.x  SUSE Enterprise Linux version 10. For example. 7.08  Red Hat Enterprise Linux iSCSI Initiator version 5. Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Providing Access to Web Services Workloads Unlike most network access storage appliances. the operating system on the parent virtual disk stays in its original state for quick recovery or for quickly creating more boot images based on additional differencing virtual disks.3 supports iSCSI boot for the following iSCSI initiators:  Any Windows operating system running Microsoft iSCSI Initiator version 2.30 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 6. and create a differencing virtual disk as the current virtual disk for the diskless computer. Any subsequent writes to the differencing disk are written to the differencing virtual disk and the parent virtual disk is not modified.x  PCI-E network iSCSI Initiator adapter  Broadcom network adapter  qLogic iSCSI host bus adapter  Netboot software For more information about iSCSI boot in Windows operating systems. Windows Storage Server can support Web services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments that include a variety of operating system. you can create clean-install system boot operating system virtual disk as a parent. Using this method.  About VHD. The Windows operating system starts.

you can specify a. for the same files and folders accessed using any of the file services workloads protocols. which can be essential in some heterogeneous environments. but are differentiated by using unique virtual host names. a UNC path.  Extended support for Internet standards. The new FTP server is fully integrated with the IIS 7. This allows administrators to perform common administrative tasks within one common administration console. Provides the same level of support as HTTP. a mapped drive. Improved logging that now supports all FTP-related traffic. Providing Access to Print Services Workloads Another advantage to using Windows Storage Server appliances is the ability to support print services workloads. File transfer can be performed using Windows® Internet Explorer®.5 administration interface and configuration store. download only. or from a command line.  Improved integration with web-based applications and services. Protocols Supported for Web Services Workloads Protocol HTTP Support description Provides:  Access to traditional Web-based content accessed through Web browsers.  Extended IP addressing features provided by IPv6. unique tracking for FTP sessions.  Support of extended character sets by including UTF8 support.  Simplified file transfer. and more. FTP sub statuses. using the same folders that can be accessed using any of the file services workloads protocols. upload or download.  Provides support for the Internet Printing role service. virtual host name for an FTP site. This allows you to provide FTP and Web content from the same website simply by binding an FTP site to a website. Provides a simplified file transfer. The new FTP server includes support for:  Improved security by supporting FTP over secure sockets layer (SSL). This allows you to create multiple FTP sites that use the same IP address.  Reduced effort for support and troubleshooting FTP–related issues. an additional detail field in FTP logs. but includes additional security protection of using secure sockets layer (SSL) encryption between clients and Windows Storage Server.  The foundation for Web-based remote administration using Terminal Services Web Access. With the new FTP server. Windows Storage Server can support .31 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 10. Print services workloads allow users to access printers managed by Windows Storage Server appliances.  The foundation for the WebDAV protocol used in accessing file services workloads. which can be essential in some heterogeneous environments. HTTPS FTP Providing Access to FTP Services Workloads Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 includes FTP services that offer the following improvements:  Reduced administrative effort for FTP server services.

Provides support for computers that run an Internet Printing client. Select this Print Server role service to support LPR clients in heterogeneous environments. However. the removal of the role service does. Select this Print Server role service to support any print services workloads in Windows Storage Server. the installation of the service does require a restart of the Print Spooler service. .dll. see Print Management. The Print Management Console (PMC) is then accessible from Server Manager. an inbound firewall exception for TCP port 515 is created. The LDP Service is an optional Print Services role service. Internet Printing provides access to shared printers using the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) that is encapsulated in HTTP. Windows Storage Server provides support for homogeneous or heterogeneous print services workloads using the Print Server role services listed in Table 11. Table 11. If the Print Spooler service is stopped or restarted after the LPD Service is installed.  Printer management in Windows Storage Server. Line Printer Daemon (LPD) Service Internet Printing For more information about:  The Print Services server role. typically used in heterogeneous environments. the Print Services Tools Remote Server Administration Tool feature is also installed. see Print and Document Services. the TCP/IP Print Server service is also stopped — and you must restart it manually. When the LPD Service is installed. the Print Services and Web Server roles must also be installed. typically used in heterogeneous environments or to print over the Internet.32 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper print services workloads in homogeneous Windows network environments or heterogeneous network environments that include a variety of operating system. Although the installation of the Print Server role service does not require a system restart. Provides support for computers that run Line Printer Remote (LPR). Print Server Role Services Supported for Print Services Workloads Role Service Print Server Support description Provides support for Windows-based computers running Client for Microsoft Networks. select only this role service. The Print Server role service is a mandatory role service for the Print Services role. or as an MMC snap-in. There is no configuration necessary for the LPD service. Select the Printer Server role services when clients must print to printers using the only HTTP protocol. which is done automatically during installation. If you are supporting only Windows-based computers that are printing with your homogeneous environment. When the Print Server role is installed. Administrative Tools. The LPD Service installs and starts the TCP/IP Print Server (LPDSVC) service which is implemented in lpdsvc. In order to install the Internet Printing role service.

and budget power usage across the system. To quantify the power savings. from idle up to 100 percent utilization. power consumption is of paramount importance. which demonstrate that many servers that operate within a range of utilization levels will benefit from the improved power efficiency of Windows Server 2008 R2. Throughput was gradually throttled up across the utilization range of the systems. Power savings with Windows Storage Server Processor Power Management The PPM engine in Windows Storage Server has been rewritten and improved. many data centers are constrained by the number of computers they can support in their data center by the actual power available to the data center. reducing your power consumption also allows you to support more physical computers while using the same amount of power. Therefore. Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers Windows Storage Server helps improve the power efficiency of individual servers through a variety of incremental improvements. Measuring power usage only when hardware is fully utilized does not reflect real-world usage. Window Storage Server includes the following improvements to reduce power consumption:  Reduced power usage of individual servers by including:  A new PPM engine. than before.  Additional incremental power saving features. manage. or less power. Microsoft measured power consumption of Windows Storage Server 2003 and Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 using a representative online transaction processing (OLTP) workload.  The ability to measure. average utilization for many servers is 5 to 15 percent.33 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Providing Reduction in Power Consumption With the proliferation of physical computers in data centers.  Storage power management. Figure 5shows the results. It now provides the ability to fine-tune the processor’s speed and power consumption to match . Figure 5. In addition to the cost-saving associated with reducing power consumption.

Windows Storage Server greatly improves access to storage on SANs. This feature is integrated with the power management framework to use the new power states (partial and active).  Optimized link power management for SATA disks. Storage Power Management Another strategy for reducing power used by individual servers is to centralize their storage by using a Storage Area Network (SAN). which means less communication with the drive and less power consumption. as shown in Figure 6. When additional processing power is required.34 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper current demands. which eliminates the need for local hard disks (local storage) in the individual server computers and decreases power consumption as a result. which has a higher storage-capacity-topower-consumption ratio than a typical server.  Support for “remove on delete”. . This feature helps reduce power usage for managing the communication bus link between the hard disk and the chipset. because any server can have access to the available storage on the SAN. Core parking is a feature that enables Windows Storage Server to reduce multi-core processor power consumption by consolidating processing onto fewer processor cores and suspending the inactive cores. New parameters for PPM — which administrators can configure — further improve power efficiency. Windows Storage Server includes support for storage devices that work with solid state drives that can power down unused RAM when a file system deletes files. thus saving power. A SAN also makes more efficient use of the available disk space. Windows Storage Server provides asynchronous notification of drive media changes. The workloads of every logical core in a server are tracked relative to all the others.  Asynchronous notification of media change for optical devices. and their workloads then shifted to alternate cores. and also adds the following enhancements:  ATA Slumber feature. This means that commands are not repeatedly sent to check for media changes. the system activates the idle processor cores to handle the increased processing requirements. Keeping the unutilized cores in an idle state reduces system power consumption. The workloads of cores that are not fully utilized can be suspended. Windows Server Storage also supports the ability to boot from a SAN.

Servers without local storage that each consume less power Additional Power Saving Features Windows Storage Server includes Intelligent Timer Tick Distribution (or Tick Skipping). such as creating a RAID set. This also allows processors to better utilize the deep C-states. other processors are signaled only as necessary. creating partitions. The benefit of this automation is that the storage configuration requires minimal or no configuration by IT pros.xml file. with C3 set as the deepest-sleep state and C0 as the operating state) by not activating the CPU unnecessarily. Performing Highly Automated Installations You can automate the storage subsystem configuration settings in Windows Storage Server by customizing the Windows Storage Server Unattend. non-timer interrupts will still activate sleeping processors. in which the processor consumes very little energy but requires time to return to an operational state. . as well as your physical systems. creating LUNs. This feature extends processor idle or deep C-states (processor sleep states within the ACPI specification. One processor handles the periodic system timer tick. However. You can take advantage of most of these technologies in virtualization scenarios to maximize the power efficiency of your virtualized environments. OEMs can configure the FirstLogonCommand attribute in the Unattend. thus saving power.) The amount of background work that is performed by the operating system has also been reduced in Windows Storage Server.xml file to run Windows PowerShell scripts or any command-line program that can used to perform storage configuration tasks. or formatting partitions.35 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 6.

Group Policy provides an infrastructure for centralized configuration management of Windows Storage Server. You can remotely manage Windows Storage Server using the Remote Desktop Connection feature. some configuration is required to identify the appliance to other computing resources on your network. For more information about Server Manager. see Windows Server Initial Configuration Tasks. and technologies for managing all workloads:  Initial Configuration Tasks window. You make the initial connection to Windows Storage Server using Internet Explorer and the Terminal Services Web Access Web site. see Group Policy. features. This feature requires the Remote Desktop Client to be installed on the computer used to manage Windows Storage Server.  Management of iSCSI block I/O workloads. For more information about the Initial Configuration Tasks window. .  Remote Desktop Services Web Connection. For more information about RSAT. Server Manager in Windows Storage Server provides a single source for managing a server's identity and system information. RSAT allows you to remotely manage roles and features in Windows Storage Server from a computer running Windows Vista SP1 or a later Windows operating system. You can run RSAT on 32-bit or 64-bit Windows operating systems.  Management of power consumption for all workloads. and the applications and services running on Windows Storage Server. Management Tools for All Workloads Windows Storage Server supports the following tools.1 and later versions.  Management of file services workloads. Description of Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows 7. You can complete these tasks by using commands in the Initial Configuration Tasks window. see Terminal Services in Windows Server 2008.  Management of Print services workloads. and before deploying the new appliance in your enterprise. This feature requires only Internet Explorer to be installed on the computer used to manage Windows Storage Server. You can use Group Policy on any Windows Storage Server appliance that is a member of an Active Directory domain. Then you connect to Windows Storage Server using the Microsoft ActiveX® control included in Remote Desktop Client version 6.  Group Policy. displaying server status.  Server Manager. enable administrators to perform tasks on the appliance. secure the appliance. and the feature uses the remote desktop protocol (RDP) to communicate with Windows Storage Server. For more information.  Remote Desktop Services Connection. identifying problems with server role configuration. and Remote Server Administration Tools Pack. see Server Manager.36 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing Windows Storage Server You can manage Windows Storage Server using the management features in each of the following areas:  Management tools for all workloads. After installing Windows Storage Server.  Management of Web services workloads. see Terminal Services Web Access (TS Web Access). and customize the appliance by adding server roles and features. For more information. and you also can use it to manage 32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Storage Server. and managing all roles installed on the server. which opens immediately after the operating system installation is complete. For more information.  Microsoft Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT). see Description of Windows Server 2008 Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows Vista Service Pack 1.

Microsoft is pursuing an ACPI standards-based approach to the features that provide these capabilities. only hardware platform support. and scripts in the remote command console session. the infrastructure for management data and operations on Windows-based operating systems. Telnet. . Windows Storage Server supports the configuration of power policy. Diskraid command-line tool. exposes the data that is gathered to users. ensuring interoperability across the entire IT environment. This is useful for IT administrators who use WMI queries in scripts to monitor and administer their infrastructure. Windows PowerShell is a task-based command-line shell and scripting language designed especially for system administration. providing a powerful and convenient way to capture and report information about power consumption. see Telnet. just as if you were locally logged on to the host and using a local command prompt. through Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). see Windows PowerShell. or the Share and Storage Management console. For centralized power policy management. additional policy settings. Power metering and budgeting in Windows Storage Server require no additional drivers or hardware changes. providing them with the data they need to make informed and timely power management decisions. For more information.NET Framework and is designed to help you automate the administration of Windows Storage Server. For more information. IT workers responsible for power management can control power policies and receive power condition events. which enables code and scripts to query power data on compliant systems. Windows PowerShell is built on the Microsoft . Remote Manageability of Power Policy Key in Windows Storage Server is the greatly enhanced ability to measure. Microsoft storage partners develop VDS hardware providers that allow management of their storage solutions. manage. You can use any Telnet client to create a remote command console session on a Windows Storage Server appliance. You can manage storage with VDS hardware providers using VDS-enabled management tools. and the applications and services that run on Windows Storage Server. which provide the ability to manage Group Policy from the Windows PowerShell command line and to run Windows PowerShell scripts during logon and startup. or management tools in a manner that is compliant with the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) management profiles. You can run command-line programs. Windows Storage Server provides a new power namespace. In conjunction with server OEMs. there are new features in Group Policy for Windows Storage Server. VDS. A vast library of existing Windows PowerShell scripts reduces the effort and learning curve for using Windows PowerShell to automate administrative tasks.37 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper    Windows PowerShell. both locally and remotely across the enterprise. Storage Manager for SANs snap-in. and Windows PowerShell™ cmdlets for Group Policy. such as the Diskpart command-line tool. and in turn making power consumption data an actionable metric. Managing Power Consumption for All Workloads Windows Storage Server also helps you better measure and manage power consumption. WMI. scripts. both locally and remotely. including an improved user interface. You can perform disk management for any of the workloads using VDSenabled management tools. root\cimv2\power. and budget energy usage for individual servers and across the entire server environment.

You can create and apply quota templates with standard quota properties. You manage file services workloads running on Windows Storage Server by using:  File Server Resource Manager. and this means power data can be queried by Microsoft System Center and other management tools to budget and monitor power usage across the entire IT environment. and the files themselves. it becomes an actionable metric for IT staff when appropriate hardware support is available. Fewer physical machines can lead to reduced costs through lower hardware and energy costs and through reduced management overhead. Based on the information gathered. File Server Resource Manager not only helps you efficiently control and monitor existing storage resources from a central location. Managing File Services Workloads Managing file services workloads includes managing disk volumes. . Now that power consumption is measurable.38 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting The new power features introduce new opportunities for managing power consumption.  Share and Storage Management. or in a more likely scenario. An administrator can use the performance monitor on a server to view the moment-bymoment power consumption. Managing File Services Using File Server Resource Manager File Server Resource Manager is a suite of tools in Windows Storage Server that enables you to place storage limits on volumes and folders. and generate comprehensive storage reports. the IT administrator can write a script or use Microsoft® System Center to centrally collect and monitor power consumption data across the datacenter. it also aids in the planning and implementation of future changes to the storage infrastructure. and can configure the system so that it automatically takes action when the budget is exceeded. you can perform three tasks to manage storage resources on local or remote servers:  Quota management.  Single Instance Storage management tools. The server platform reports information in-band to the Windows Storage Server through the use of ACPI. Set soft or hard space limits on a volume or folder tree. or caps. prevent users from saving specific file types to the server. Unauthorized File Types. and Storage Reports With the File Server Resource Manager snap-in. Managing Disk Usage Quotas. Another set of metrics can be used for virtualization and consolidation. the folder structure to store the files. the workloads of underutilized servers can be consolidated onto a smaller number of better-utilized physical machines using live migration (the ability to move virtual machines between servers with virtually no downtime) with Hyper-V. on datacenter components as small as a single server). The WMI namespace additions for power meters and supplies mean that the user mode power service can provide data to the WMI namespace.  DFS management tools. Microsoft recommends a collaborative model between the server platform and the operating system for power metering and budgeting (the process that lets administrators set power limits. An administrator can set power budgets for the servers and the system.

 Contain sensitive information to encrypt those files. For more information. file screening activity. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to establish policies for classifying files and then performing common administrative tasks based on the classification. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to identify files that:  Contain sensitive information on servers with lower security to move the files to servers with higher security. Even with this knowledge. Define filtering rules that monitor or block attempts by users to save certain file types on a volume or folder tree. The File Classification Infrastructure feature is also managed with the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. and mitigate risks. You can also apply quota and file screening policies when you provision a shared folder. You can create and apply screening templates with standard file exclusions. You need to be able to centrally categorize these files and then perform IT file operations based on the classification of the files. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure in Windows Storage Server provides insight into your data to help you manage your data more effectively. the user storing the files is the only individual who has any knowledge of the information stored in the files and other characteristics about the files. and other common IT operations tasks. data archival schedule. or through a command-line interface. such as sensitivity or criticality of the information in them.  Create or purchase custom file management solutions based on the Windows File Classification Infrastructure. size. but is covered separately in the “Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure” section in this white paper. see File Server Resource Manager.  Require different backup solutions based on the sensitivity of the information in the files.  Generate reports about the types of information stored in the files in your intranet.  Are not accessed frequently to move the files to slower. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to:  Centrally define policy-based classification of the files stored in your intranet.  Are no longer essential to automatically remove the files from servers. Because users store files on a network shared with little or no restrictions. you cannot rely on the user to properly determine the proper classification of information. and patterns of storage use. Managing File Services Workloads Using File Classification Infrastructure Managing data stored on file services is usually challenging because of the sheer number of files being stored on network shared folders.39 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  File screening management.  Storage reports management.  Require different backup schedules to back up the files accordingly. Policy-based Classification of Files One of the key advantages to the Windows File Classification Infrastructure is the ability to centrally manage the classification of the files by establishing classification policies .  Perform file management tasks based on the file classification that you define. more affordable storage solutions. rather than on only simple information such as the location. reduce costs. Generate built-in reports to track quota usage.  Notify content owners when a file management task is going to be performed on their content. or date of the file.

Property types can include Boolean. and run classification rules. the content owners can be notified in advance and given the opportunity to prevent the files from being archived or deleted. the sensitivity of the files. You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to help you perform common file management tasks. You can also select the method for notification based on the type of file management task being performed. The architecture of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows the use of any supported development . when files become old enough to be automatically expired.40 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper using the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. Reporting on Information Stored in Files Most IT organizations have no easy method of providing information about the types of files that are stored and managed. there is minimal information that can be used to help identify the usage of the files. This centralized approach allows you to classify user files without requiring their intervention. Each rule assigns a single predefined property and value to files within a specified directory. which can be assigned to files on a per-server basis by running classification rules. ordered lists. You can choose to overwrite existing classification values. numbered. including:  Grooming of data. and string values. or add the value to properties that support multiple values. Improved Development of File Management Tasks You can extend the file management features of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure by creating your own custom file management solution or purchasing a file management solution from an independent software vendor. File Owner Notification of File Management Tasks Another feature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure that reduces your administrative effort is the ability to send notifications to content owners when an automated file management task runs. IT administrators are able to automatically move data based on policies for either centralizing the location of sensitive data or for moving data to a less expensive storage resource. location or other classification categories. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to automate any file management task by using the file classifications you establish for your organization. Execute custom commands based on age. For example.  Custom Tasks. You can automatically delete data by using policies based on data age or classification properties to free valuable storage space and intelligently reduce storage demand growth.  Create. update. date. And the extensible nature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to integrate with existing messaging systems or information portals.  When running a classification rule. Without classification of the files. For example. File Management Tasks The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to perform file management tasks based on the classifications that you define using the File Services Resource Manager snap-in. You can use the reporting infrastructure to generate information that can be used by another application (such as a comma separated variable format text file that could be imported into Microsoft® Excel®). You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to:  Define classification properties and values. based on installed classification plug-ins. optionally re-evaluate files that are already classified. and other relevant information about the files. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to generate reports in multiple formats that can provide statistical information about the files stored on each file server.

This structure . Managing File Services Using Share and Storage Management Share and Storage Management in Windows Storage Server provides a centralized location for you to perform:  Shared resource management. or on storage subsystems that have a VDS Hardware Provider using Share and Storage Management. and offline access to files in the shared resource. For example. Each vendor supplies the VDS Hardware Provider. you could write Windows PowerShell scripts to manage files based on the classifications you define for your organization. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider.  Manage the share access permissions.  Stop the sharing of a folder or volume. offline availability and indexing.  See which users are currently accessing a folder or a file and disconnect a user if necessary. user limits. and backup.  Delete a volume.  Format a volume.  Access disk tools for error checking.  If File Server Resource Manager is installed.  Publish the shared resource to a DFS namespace.  Multi-vendor storage management. Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication The Distributed File System (DFS) technologies offer wide area network (WAN)-friendly replication as well as simplified. apply storage quotas to the new shared resource. You can configure shared folders for SMB or NFS protocols and DFS settings using Share and Storage Management. The technologies in DFS include the following:  DFS Namespaces. Each namespace appears to users as a single shared folder with a series of subfolders.  Specify the network sharing protocol used to access the shared resource. DFS Namespaces lets you group shared folders located on different servers into one or more logically structured namespaces. security. You can perform the following tasks using this tool:  Specify the folder or volume that you want to share or create a new folder to share. and create file screens to limit the type of files that can be stored in it. highly-available access to geographically dispersed files.  Manage NFS-based access permissions for the shared resource. You can perform the following tasks using this tool:  Extend the size of a volume. For more information about Share and Storage Management.41 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper environments for Windows Storage Server including Windows PowerShell and Microsoft Visual Basic® Scripting Edition (VBScript). see Overview of Share and Storage Management. which can be installed and configured for use in Windows Storage Server. This architecture allows you to select the level of programming sophistication required to automate your file management tasks.  Change volume properties like compression.  Manage the local NTFS permissions for the folder or volume you will be sharing. You can manage storage on disks available on your server. defragmentation.

exe You also can use DFS to replicate files and folders in geographically dispersed environments so that users have a local copy of the files and folders. such as in Branch office locations.  Read-only DFS Replication.  The DFS Management snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. For example. multiple-master replication engine that you can use to keep folders synchronized between servers across limited bandwidth network connections. see DFS Management. Read-only DFS Replication is a secure method for replicating data where read-only access is required to the data. RDC detects insertions. when available.exe  DfsCmd. as well as AD DS SYSVOL folder replication in domains that use the Windows Server 2008 domain functional level. instead of routing them over WAN connections. In addition. This can greatly reduce the amount of traffic transferred over limited-bandwidth networks.  DFS Replication." later in this white paper. and the data is not replicated back to the head office. RDC is a "diff-over-the wire" client-server protocol that can be used to efficiently update files over a limited-bandwidth network.exe  DfsDiag.  Managing DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication. . which replaces the File Replication Service (FRS) as the replication engine for DFS Namespaces. and re-arrangements of data in files. see Replication.  Using DFS to replicate file services workloads for disaster recovery scenarios. see the following sections in this white paper:  “Securing File Services Workloads”  “Creating Branch Office Solutions” You can manage DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication using the:  The DFS Management snap-in hosted by Server Manager. For more information about:  DFS. see the section "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. you can replicate files and folders to another location using DFS for disaster recovery scenarios. DFS Replication is an efficient.42 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper increases availability and automatically connects users to shared folders in the same AD DS site. For more information.exe  DfsrDiag.  For more information about DFS Replication.  The following command line tools:  DfsUtil. enabling DFS Replication to replicate only the changed file blocks when files are updated. you can use read-only DFS Replication to publish data from a head office to branch offices where users in the branch office should not change the data. removals. DFS Replication uses a new compression algorithm known as remote differential compression (RDC). see Distributed File System.exe  DfsrAdmin.

but the primary administration tool for this feature is Sisadmin. The Groveler service scans the hard-disk volumes on a server for duplicate copies of files. You can also automate the administration of Single Instance Storage using Windows PowerShell scripting or any other scripting language that supports WMI. Single Instance Storage Feature Specifications in Windows Storage Server Specification Maximum number of volumes per appliance. The Single Instance Storage Filter runs in kernel mode. Supports replication of files using DFS Replication. Value 128 Yes Yes Yes 32 KB Yes Yes No No No No Yes .  Single Instance Storage Filter. Support files with extended attributes. Supports remote drives.  Managing Single Instance Storage using Sisadmin. Single Instance Storage does this by replacing duplicate files with logical links that point to a single copy of the file in the SIS Common Store. The Single Instance Storage Filter is a file system filter service that redirects reads to the common store and performs the replacement of file pointers when users start changing a duplicate file. WMI support. Ability to undo single instancing of files. Identifying Single Instance Storage Specifications Table 12 lists the specifications for the Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server. For more information about:  The Single Instance Storage feature. Minimum file size supported.exe. Identifying Single Instance Storage Architecture Single Instance Storage consists of the following components that together maintain a database of file signatures:  Groveler service.exe. see Single Instance Storage. Table 12. The Groveler service runs in user-mode. Supports boot drives.exe. The Groveler discovers duplicate files and initiates the deduplication of files. Failover cluster support.43 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing Single Instance Storage The Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server reduces the amount of space used to store data on a volume. Requires volumes to be formatted as NTFS.dll. which is a hidden folder located in the root directory of the volume. Identifying Single Instance Storage Management Tools You can enable or disable Single Instance Storage on a volume through the Share and Storage Management console. Supports system drives. Support backup of single instance of file using Single Instance Storage APIs in sisbkup. see Managing SIS Using SisAdmin.

Uninstall-SisVolume. Configures SIS after it has been installed on a volume. Returns a list of all the linked files and the corresponding filename in the SIS Common Store. Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The types of management tasks for disk block I/O workload include managing iSCSI targets. which is included in Windows Storage Server. In this scenario. Lists all the volumes that have SIS installed enabled. Enables SIS on a volume. Set-SisVolume. Disables SIS on a volume.  Number of files in the SIS Common Store. and connections to storage arrays. Table 13. This will cause all linked files to revert to the original file stored in the SIS common store. You can manage iSCSI block I/O workloads running on Windows Storage Server for the following components:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target  Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator . including the:  Spaced saved. In this scenario. For more information about managing the Single Instance Storage feature using Windows PowerShell. Uninstalls SIS from a volume. Files stored in user home folders provide the most typical scenario where the larger reduction of storage usage is realized.44 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Identifying Typical Reduction in Storage Usage Using Single Instance Storage The extent to which the Single Instance Storage feature in Windows Storage Server can help reduce storage usage depends on the number of duplicate files stored on the appliance. Install-SisVolume. For files in a software development environment.  Percentage of the volume saved. build and release provides the largest reduction of storage usage. Windows PowerShell Cmdlets for Managing Single Instance storage Category SIS linked files SIS disk volumes Cmdlet and description         Get-SisLinkFile.  Number of linked files. Get-SisVolumeReport. IT organizations typically realize storage savings that average from 10 percent to 30 percent. Table 14 lists the Windows PowerShell cmdlets included in the SingleInstanceStorage module and provides a brief description of each cmdlet. Managing Single Instance Storage Using Windows PowerShell You can manage the Single Instance Storage feature using the SingleInstanceStorage module. Installs SIS on a volume. Disable-SisVolume. see Single Instance Storage Cmdlets in Windows PowerShell. virtual disks. Displays a SIS summary report for each volume. Get-SisVolume. Enable-SisVolume. IT organizations typically realize storage savings of more than 50 percent.

 Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. you assign just one iSCSI initiator to each iSCSI target. "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for VSS and VDS Providers" in this white paper. Typically.3 Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator enables you to connect Windows operating systems to an external iSCSI-based storage array. iSCSI targets are the logical endpoint to which an iSCSI initiator connects. see the previous section." later in this white paper.  Virtual disk snapshots. The most typical reason for assigning multiple iSCSI initiators to the same iSCSI target is for shared storage in failover clusters.  Virtual disks. You manage virtual disks using the iSCSI Targets node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. but a virtual disk can only be managed by one iSCSI target. For more information about the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider. You manage iSCSI targets using the iSCSI Targets node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. For more information about Share and Storage Management. An iSCSI target can manage multiple virtual disks. Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Snap-in Typical tasks that you use the Microsoft iSCSI Target snap-in to perform include managing:  iSCSI targets. For more information about using virtual disk snapshots for backup and in disaster recovery scenarios. If you assign multiple iSCSI initiators to the same iSCSI target. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target includes the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VDS Hardware Provider that allows LUNs on Windows Storage Server to be managed by any application that uses VDS. see Overview of Share and Storage Management. Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Using Share and Storage Management Console You can manage storage on the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using Share and Storage Management.  Share and Storage Management console. You can manage this feature by using the:  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. For more information about managing Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI block I/O workloads. see:  Configuring the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. and the most current version of the . such as Share and Storage Management. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. through an Ethernet network adapter.45 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target feature allows Windows Storage Server appliances to act as an iSCSI target. All current Windows operating systems support the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. there is a potential for conflict between the computers running the iSCSI initiators. Virtual disks are the LUNs that the computer running an iSCSI initiator uses. You manage virtual disks using the Snapshots node in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target snap-in. see the section "Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect iSCSI Block I/O Workload Data. Virtual disk snapshots are point-in-time copies of virtual disks that you can use to back up active virtual disks for disaster recover scenarios or to restore a LUN to a previous state.

an iSCSI initiator can access the virtual disk after the initiator connects to the target. Afterwards. the virtual disk can be assigned to an iSCSI target. Modifies the settings for the virtual disk and returns the corresponding iSCSI virtual disk object if the PassThru parameter is specified. The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Storage Server allows the server software to connect to other external iSCSIbased storage arrays.  iSCSI Control Panel configuration utility (iSCSICPL. Obtains the iSCSI targets and their associated properties from the local server or specified computer. see the Microsoft iSCSI Initiator Step-by-Step Guide. Get-IscsiVirtualDisk. Table 14. Windows PowerShell Cmdlets for Managing Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Version 3.3 Category iSCSI target management Cmdlet and description  New-IscsiServerTarget Creates a new iSCSI target object with the specified name. Obtains the iSCSI virtual disks and their associated properties. New-IscsiVirtualDisk. For more information about managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. and then a virtual disk can be associated with the target.46 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator is version 2. Get-IscsiServerTarget.  iSCSICLI.exe). You can manage the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator by using the:  Graphical user interface in the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. Modifies settings for the iSCSi target and returns the corresponding iSCSI target object if the PassThru parameter is specified.3 using the MicrosoftIscsiTarget module. such as those described in the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration. Remove-IscsiVirtualDisk. The VHD file is not deleted. Once a virtual disk has been assigned to a target.exe tool from a command line. Table 14 lists the Windows PowerShell cmdlets included in the MicrosoftIscsiTarget module and provides a brief description of each cmdlet. Afterwards. Remove-IscsiServerTarget. Deletes the iSCSI virtual disk object. Deletes an iSCSI target object. Managing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Using Windows PowerShell You can manage the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Set-IscsiVirtualDisk. the iSCSI target can be assigned to an iSCSI initiator." later in the white paper. Set-IscsiServerTarget.    Virtual disk management     . An iSCSI initiator cannot access the VHD or LUN after the target is deleted.08. which is included in Windows Storage Server. Creates a new iSCSI virtual hard disk (VHD) object with the specified file path and size.

and to return output in text or you can use XML. and for managing Web services workloads.3. Note You cannot use IIS Manager to manage FTP sites in IIS 7 on Windows Storage Server.exe You can manage IIS 7 using the command-line tool Appcmd.0. you can combine commands to return more complex data about objects on your web server or to perform tasks that are more complex. Use IIS 6. In addition.  For more information about managing the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target version 3. Remove-VirtualDiskTargetMapping.0 tools to manage FTP sites. Tools for Managing Web Services Workloads in Windows Storage Server Tool Internet Information Services Manager snap-in Description You can manage IIS 7 using the Internet Information Services Manager snap-in. site. or application remotely by using HTTP. are listed in Table 15. see Appcmd.47 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Category LUN management Cmdlet and description  Add-VirtualDiskTargetMapping. Once a virtual disk has been assigned to a target. which provides consistent commands for common queries and configuration tasks.3 using Windows PowerShell. an iSCSI initiator can access the virtual disk after the initiator connects to the target. For more information.  Configure user and role authorization for sites and applications. Appcmd.exe.  View health and diagnostic information that includes the ability to view currently running requests in real time.exe to configure and query objects on your web server. For example.0. For more information.  Connect to a web server. The virtual disk will be no longer accessible by an iSCSI initiator once the assignment is removed.NET in one tool.Appcmd.  Delegate site and application configuration to nonadministrators. Removes the assignment between a virtual disk and iSCSI target.exe. Assigns a virtual disk to an iSCSI target. reducing the complexity of learning syntax. which lets you:  Manage IIS and ASP. see PowerShell cmdlets for the Microsoft iSCSI Target 3. . Managing Web Services Workloads Web services workloads in Windows Storage Server can be managed by any of the management methods available for IIS 7. see IIS Manager (IIS 7). The management tools available for managing IIS 7. Table 15. All the virtual disks assigned to the same iSCSI target will be accessible by the connected iSCSI initiator. you can complete complex tasks like stopping all sites with pending requests that have been running longer than sixty seconds.

NET configuration. such as Windows PowerShell. web applications and web servers. For more information.NET module allows management of authorization and custom error settings. a collection of task-oriented cmdlets provide a simple way to manage websites. By blocking specific HTTP requests. Developers are able to service HTTP requests directly in their applications by using the hostable Web core feature. The Windows PowerShell Provider for IIS is a Windows PowerShell snap-in that allows you to perform IIS administrative tasks. Settings configured at one level are inherited automatically by lower levels.  Request Filtering.config file. web applications. You can use WMI to build scripts for web administration. The hostable .  Hostable Web Core.  Managed service accounts. In addition. this feature lets the core IIS Web engine to be consumed or hosted by other applications. For more information. The Request Filtering user interface provides a graphical user interface for configuring the Request Filtering module. Allows you to manage any configuration section available in the configuration system. for example. and their associated objects and properties using any scripting language that supports WMI. New features have been added to IIS Manager for the 7. and manage IIS configuration and run-time data. support. allowing those apps to service HTTP requests directly. These enhancements include updates to:  Configuration Editor. IIS 7. The FastCGI module. These new type of accounts reduce the recurrent administrative task of having to update passwords on processes running with these accounts. contains classes and methods that enable you to script administration of websites. Scripts using WMI Windows Storage Server includes the following features which help reduce administration. The IIS 7 WMI provider namespace. WebAdministration. the new IIS 7.config file and can also be distributed among Web. and directories. Windows Storage Server allows domain-based service accounts to have passwords that are managed by AD DS. This module includes the filtering features previously found in URLScan 3.5 integrates and enhances existing extensions and allows for further enhancements and customizations in the future.NET applications or adding and editing request filtering rules through a graphical user interface. the server administrator is the only user who has permission to view and edit the ApplicationHost. see Configuration Store (IIS 7).0. unless they have been locked to prevent changes.  IIS Manager UI extensions.1. Available through a set of APIs. the Request Filter module helps prevent potentially harmful requests from being processed by Web applications on the server. and troubleshooting effort:  Automation of common tasks through the PowerShell provider.  Enhancements to IIS Manager. By default. allows management of FastCGI settings while the ASP.config files for sites.48 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Tool Configuration store Description You can manage IIS 7 using the XML-based configuration store that is modeled after the ASP.5 release that make it possible to manage obscure settings such as those used for FastCGI and ASP. applications. IIS configuration is stored in the ApplicationHost. Configuration Editor exposes several configuration settings that are not exposed elsewhere in IIS Manager. Utilizing the extensible and modular architecture introduced with IIS 7. see Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) in IIS 7.5 supports the use of managed service accounts for application pool identities.

The BPA for IIS 7. This provides logging of both reads and writes. The new Configuration Logging feature in IIS 7. Use Print Management with Group Policy to automatically deploy printer connections to users or computers and install the appropriate printer drivers for computers running Windows Vista and later Windows operating systems. use the PushPrinterConnections. Use Print Management to install printer connections to a group of client computers simultaneously and to monitor print queues remotely. Server Manager also displays print-related events from Event Viewer and includes an instance of the Print Management snap-in. For more information. file creations and more.exe tool in a startup script (for percomputer connections) or in a logon script (for per-user connections). as well as logon attempts. For more information. and features. Print Management can also help you find printers that have an error condition by using filters. which can administer the local server only. changes to path mappings. On printers that provide a web-based management interface. You can access the BPA through Server Manager and Windows PowerShell. The Print Management snap-in provides current details about the status of printers and print servers on the network. In IIS 7.5 provides enhanced auditing of changes to IIS and application configuration. which allows you to track the configuration changes made to your test and production environments. It can also send email notifications or run scripts when a printer or print server needs attention. Table 16. Best Practices Analyzer (BPA). Enhanced auditing of changes to IIS 7. see the Print Management Step-by-Step Guide. see the Print Management Step-by-Step Guide. optional role services. Managing Print Services Workloads The Print services workloads in Windows Storage Server that the Print Server role provides can be managed by using the tools listed in Table 16. This reduces the effort required for debugging code during development and troubleshooting application errors after deployment by using IIS Failed Request Tracing. For more information.5 Web server and reporting on potential configuration issues found. see Server Manager and the Print Services Role.49 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper    Web core feature is useful for enabling basic Web server capabilities for custom applications or for debugging applications. Failed Request Tracing for FastCGI. PHP developers can use the FastCGI module to include IIS trace calls in their applications. Tools for Managing Print Services Workloads in Windows Storage Server Tool Server Manager Description Use Server Manager to install the Print Services server role.5 is a management tool that can help you reduce best practice violations by scanning an IIS 7. such as toner and paper levels. Print Management snap-in Group Policy . For Windows operating systems prior to Windows Vista. Print Management can display more data.5.5 and application configuration.

For more information.exe command-line tool Windows PowerShell . printer ports. and then import them on another print server that is running a Windows operating system. Use Windows PowerShell to manage print services workloads. and language monitors.50 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Tool Printer Migration Wizard Description The Printer Migration Wizard allows you to export print queues. see the Print Migration Tool. This is an efficient way to consolidate multiple print servers or replace an older print server. Provides the same features and functionality as the Printer Migration Wizard. Printbrm. see Printer Management Using PowerShell. printer settings. For more information about using Windows PowerShell to manage print services workloads.

You cannot perform backups to tape.  The PrintBRM.  The Appcmd. However. and reduce the risk of potential data loss. which will restore your complete system onto the new hard disk by using a full server backup and the Windows Recovery Environment.  Perform backups of applications like SQL Server to protect application data using VSS functionality. which is available separately.  The Volume Shadow Copy Service feature. and technologies.51 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protecting Windows Storage Server Workload Data One of the essential aspects to ongoing operations of Windows Storage Server workloads is the ability to protect the data that the server software manages. Note In addition to the products and technologies discussed in this section. certain applications. and the system state.  The Automated System Recovery feature. files.  Can only back up volumes 2 terabyte or less in size. Using proper backup and disaster recovery processes. selected volumes.  Recover volumes.  System Center Data Protection Manager. DVDs. you can use most backup and disaster recovery products offered by Microsoft partners for Windows Server 2008 to protect data managed by Windows Storage Server. Table 17 lists the features and limitations of this feature. Using Windows Server Backup to Protect Data The Windows Server Backup feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 consists of a MMC snap-in and command-line tools that provide a solution for backup and recovery requirements.  The LUN resynchronization capabilities. You can protect the data managed by Windows Storage Server using:  The Windows Server Backup feature. folders. Table 17.exe tool to backup printer information. and shared folders.  The Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature.  Does not support a centralized monitoring ability for enterprise environments. Features and Limitations of Windows Server Backup Features Use Windows Server Backup to:  Back up a full server (all volumes).  Does not implement a method of including media rotation strategies.exe tool to backup IIS configuration.  The DFS Replication feature. Limitations Windows Server Backup has the following limitations:  Supports backing up only to external and internal disks. support of tape storage drivers is still included in Windows Storage Server.  Does not include the ability to e-mail or provide notification of the backup status report. or the system state. .  Cannot back up shared storage in a failover cluster if the storage is moved between active nodes. tools.  Perform a system recovery in case of disasters like hard disk failures. helps protect the data managed by Windows Storage Server.

you can view shared files and folders as they existed at points of time in the past. Monday through Friday. and 12:00 P.M.  Backup and recovery solutions from Microsoft partners. There is a limit of 64 shadow copies per volume (when this limit is reached.)  Compare versions of a file while working. you can recover a previous version of the file. For more information. If you accidentally overwrite a file. .  Only supports backup of local volumes (cannot be used to backup network shared folders)." later in this white paper.  Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. Shadow Copies of Shared Folders is enabled for an entire volume.   The default storage area is on the same volume and its size requires 10 percent of the available space. If you accidentally delete a file. see:  Shadow Copies for Shared Folders Technical Reference. This feature allows a user to restore selective files or folders from previous versions without IT assistance. You cannot enable this feature for specific shared folders and files on a volume. The Shadow Copies for Shared Folders features uses the Volume Shadow Copy Service to create the file copies. see the section "Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data. (The number of versions depends on how many snapshots you have created. It works by taking snapshots of an entire volume at particular points in time. or shadow copies. is useful because you can:  Recover files that were accidentally deleted.  Recover from accidentally overwriting a file. You can use previous versions when you want to check what has changed between the versions of a file. you can open a previous version and copy it to a safe location. the oldest shadow copy will be deleted and cannot be retrieved).52 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Features Limitations  Only supports backup of entire volumes (cannot be used to backup individual files and folders.M. If your backup and recovery requirements are affected by any of the limitations listed above. The default configuration for this feature is as follows:  A default task is scheduled to create shadow copies at 7:00 A. Note This default task can be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data The Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature in Windows Storage Server is a feature in Windows Server that transparently maintains previous versions of files on selected volumes by using shadow copies. Note For more information about the Shadow Copies of Shared Folders feature. contact the appropriate Microsoft partner. For more information. Accessing previous versions of files. With Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. consider using:  System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. Shadow copies are read-only and as such you cannot edit the contents of a shadow copy.

Shadow Copy of Shared Folders feature. An application that requests that a volume shadow copy be taken. or the Diskshadow command-line tool. or a system service like Active Directory. The volume that holds the shadow copy storage files for the system copy-on-write software provider. this is a database application like SQL Server or Exchange Server. such as those in the sections about "Windows Server Backup. Examples include the system provider included with the Windows Storage Server operating system. A component of an application that stores persistent information on one or more volumes that participate in shadow copy synchronization. The volume that contains the data to be shadow copied. System Center Data Protection Manager." "Shadow Copies of Shared Folders. Volume Shadow Copy Service Architecture Table 18 lists the components in the Volume Shadow Copy Service architecture and how the components relate to each other. For example. Components in the Volume Shadow Copy Architecture Component Volume Shadow Copy Service Requestor Description A service that coordinates various components to create consistent shadow copies of one or more volumes. Figure 7 illustrates the architecture of the Volume Copy Shadow Service in Windows Storage Server. Figure 7. A component that creates and maintains the shadow copies. the Windows Server Backup feature. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. This architecture allows the point-in-time snapshots of files stored in Windows Storage Server. Writer Provider Source volume Storage volume . Typically. Table 18.53 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data The Volume Shadow Copy Service feature in Windows Storage Server provides the ability to take point-in-time snapshots of files and is the foundation for other applications or features. and the hardware providers included with storage arrays." and "Virtual Disk Snapshots" in this white paper.

Traditional volume shadow copy service Recovers only a volume. and then restore from those shadow copies. Table 19 lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and current features in Volume Shadow Copy Service. You can also use LUN resynchronization to help quickly create duplicates of productions LUNs for use in a storage environment for backup or in test.54 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper As described in Table 18 and illustrated in Figure 7. . This allows you to create shadow copies of entire LUNs. Note You can use DiskShadow. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service Window Server 2008 R2 LUN resynchronization support is an extension of the features provided by the Volume Shadow Copy Service in Windows Server 2008 R2. which may contain multiple volumes.exe command-line tool to manage Volume Shadow Copy Services for the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. see the "Hardware Providers" section of Virtual Disks and Snapshots. Typically takes more time than restoring by using LUN resynchronization. LUN resynchronization is a method for quickly restoring volumes that takes advantage of the capabilities of storage arrays. Table 19.  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target VSS Hardware Provider. see Volume Shadow Copy Service Technical Reference. Using LUN Resynchronization to Protect Data Windows Server 2008 R2 includes support for LUN resynchronization (also known as LUN resynch or LUN revert). Performed by server computer. or development environments. For more information about the:  Volume Shadow Copy Service. Performed by storage array hardware. of the virtual hard disks managed by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. LUN resynchronization creates hardware-based shadow copies that allow you to recover a volume from an existing shadow copy of the volume. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service LUN resynchronization Recovers entire LUN. The Volume Shadow Copy Services uses the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider to create these snapshots. the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider is required to create point-in-time snapshots. Typically takes less time than restoring by using traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service. using the inherent snapshot or copying features in the storage array. or copies. LUN resynchronization uses the same application programming interfaces (APIs) that are used by the Volume Shadow Copy Service. such as SANs.

In a LUN swap. supported APIs in Windows Server 2008 R2. Table 20. Must create another shadow copy to perform recovery. Source LUN must have the same performance as the production LUN. Destination LUN does not have to exist or can be unusable. This allows the server to continue processing other workloads with the same performance while the LUN resynchronization process completes. a shadow copy version of a LUN is exchanged with the active LUN. Because the hardware storage array is performing the resynchronization. The destination LUN is the target LUN that will be synchronized or swapped with the source LUN. Source LUN can exist on slower. Destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN. Requires that the destination LUN exists and is usable. This helps ensure that you can use the same tools and processes for a traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service recovery. Contains only the information on the source LUN. Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap LUN resynchronization Source (shadow copy) LUN remains unmodified after the resynchronization completes. and any information written during the resynchronization. Although there may be a reduction in performance. Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization The benefits of LUN resynchronization include the following:  Perform recovery of volumes with minimal disruption of service. users can continue to access data on the volume while the synchronization is being performed. Because LUN resynchronization uses published.  Reduce the workload while recovering volumes. The source LUN is the shadow copy of the LUN that contains the data you wish to use. Source LUN can be used for recovery again.55 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap LUN swap is a fast volume recovery scenario supported since the release of Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1).  Compatibility with future improvements. LUN swap Source (shadow copy) LUN becomes the active LUN and is modified. future versions of Windows Server will also provide support for LUN resynchronization. Table 20 lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and a LUN swap. The APIs used to perform LUN resynchronization are the same APIs that perform a traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service recovery. less expensive storage. . After the recovery of a volume using LUN resynchronization is initiated. the server hardware resources are only minimally affected. users and applications are still able to access their data.  Integration with existing volume recovery methods.

volume requests are directed to the destination LUN. and in the Windows Software Development Kit (SDK) for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. plus any data that was written to the destination LUN during the LUN resynchronization process. The LUN resynchronization is initiated between the source (shadow copy) and the destination LUNs. 5. During the LUN resynchronization. The LUN resynchronization completes and all user requests are now performed from the destination LUN. including any volume information. You can use DFS Replication to create replica copies of data in a centralized location and then back up the replica copies. . you can use this method in branch office scenarios to create replica copies of data in the branch offices in the head office and then back up the data in the head office. For example. A critically damaged hard drive will lose all critical registry information. users can access the volume using the following methods:  For read operations. because that information is not copied during the backup process. The source and destination LUNs are identified. In the event of system failure. ASR is tightly integrated with VSS. 2. The following includes the sequence of events that occur when performing a full volume restore using LUN synchronization: 1. Using Automated System Recovery to Protect Data While backing up data to tape protects mission critical data from catastrophic events. The LUN resynchronization continues by performing a block-level copy from the source (shadow copy) LUN to the destination LUN. you need to have a hardware shadow copy (snapshot) of the LUN. Note At the end of the LUN resynchronization process. Using DFS Replication to Protect Data DFS Replication can be used as part of a centralized backup solution. this backup set is used with the ASR restore CD (which contains the necessary software and drivers to allow the restore) to rapidly restore all system setup information. volume requests are directed to the source LUN. 3.56 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization Before you can perform a full volume recovery using LUN synchronization. system files. see the section "Creating Branch Office Solutions" later in this white paper. and disk partition information. a system administrator prepares for such a disaster by saving to physical media a complete backup set of information about the how the server was configured. You can find more information about how these steps are performed by viewing the Volume Shadow Copy Service APIs on MSDN®. With the Automated System Recovery (ASR) technology in Windows Storage Server. nothing remains but the bare metal. the source LUN is unmodified and the destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN. You can make full or differential shadow copies of the LUN.  For write operations. 4. it does nothing to protect system software stored on the hard drive. such as fire or electrical surges. For more information about DFS Replication in branch office scenarios for data protection. Restoring the base operating system plus the backup application (the minimum required to restore backed up applications and data) is a time intensive process.

 Snapshots are useful for fast system recovery of files and volumes. For more information about System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. Snapshots are useful for backups.  Advanced technology for enterprises of all sizes. read-only copy of an iSCSI virtual disk.  Snapshots are space-efficient because they are differential copies. overwritten data. Data Protection Manager 2007 was specifically designed to protect and recover files services for SQL Server. In addition. or data corruption resulting from a malicious program. Windows 2008 also provides the Recovery Console that utilizes the Windows Recovery Environment (Windows RE).  Rapid and reliable recovery. which are files in the fixed virtual hard disk (VHD) format. Exchange Server. Data Protection Manager 2007 combines the best aspects of CDP real-time protection with traditional tape backup/restore to provide a comprehensive disk-to-disk-to-tape data recovery solution. in addition to supporting dynamic disks.57 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper ASR provides a VSS Writer for the preparation of an ASR set. which recreates all critical volumes and restores the required data. Data Protection Manager 2007 enables IT administrators and users to easily recover data in minutes from easily accessible disk instead of locating and restoring from less-reliable tapes. minimize the time required to create disks. Using System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 to Protect Data Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 is designed to provide and restore Windows Server applications. and one-click lossless application recovery. To facilitate backup and recovery operations. SharePoint® Portal Server. providing an easy-to-manage and robust disk/tape back-end platform. a version of Windows PE that contains numerous troubleshooting and system resolution utilities. in case of accidental data deletion by a user. Microsoft Virtual Server. Finally. Data Protection Manager 2007 provides technically advanced and comprehensive data protection for organizations ranging in size from small business environments to enterprise environments. They offer the following advantages:  Snapshots can be scheduled to be created automatically. you can schedule and create snapshots of iSCSI virtual disks. and minimize the down time that is typically required to install new disks. ASR has been enhanced to support EFI system partitions. This change removes a previous problem in which dynamic disks were always recreated even if a restoration was not necessary. Using Virtual Disk Snapshots to Protect Data The disks you create by using the iSCSI Software Target are iSCSI virtual disks. During a restore operation the ASR VSS writer is executed within the Windows PE environment. They can be extended to provide extra capacity on demand. see System Center Data Protection Manager 2007. Data Protection Manager 2007 protects core Windows Server workloads by continuously capturing data changes with application-aware byte-level agents. Data Protection Manager 2007 blends the best aspects of continuous data protection (CDP) to disk storage with traditional tape backup. These virtual disks offer flexible and effective storage. Focused on the primary Microsoft server workloads. Data Protection Manager 2007 includes the following benefits:  Continuous data protection for Windows application and file services workloads. enable efficient storage utilization. A snapshot is a point-in-time. and Windows Server operating systems. Combined with Windows Server technology. .

see Migrate Print Servers. see the previous section "Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service to Protect Data.exe tool in Windows Storage Server. To create an application-consistent snapshot. For more information about:  Virtual disks and virtual disk snapshots.  The Volume Shadow Copy Service. . Most modern file systems can recover from this state. To perform backups of the virtual disks. The snapshot can be used to provide the ability to rollback services to a previous version.exe Tool to Backup Printer Information You can protect data managed by Print services workloads using the PrintBRM. For example. you need to use backup software that works with Volume Shadow Copy Service from a Microsoft partner. Table 21 lists scenarios for using virtual disk snapshots. You can back up the configuration files for IIS 7. Uses for Virtual Disk Snapshots Scenario Provide disaster recovery Create a restore point Use of the virtual disk snapshots The snapshots can be saved to other appliances. servers. see Virtual Disks and Snapshots. The PrintBRM. For more information about the Appcmd. Using the PrintBRM. or archival media and then later used to restore the data in the event of a failure.58 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper   Snapshots can be mounted locally or exported to facilitate backup and recovery operations. Virtual disk snapshots require the Volume Shadow Copy Service and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider. For more information." in this white paper.exe tool.0 using this tool. the snapshot must be created from the iSCSI initiator computer by using the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Volume Shadow Copy Service Hardware Provider and other backup software that works with the Volume Shadow Copy Service. Table 21. see How to backup/restore IIS7 configuration. Note Snapshots that are created on the iSCSI target server are crash consistent. so application servers can continue servicing clients without disruption.exe tool allows you to export printer information on a periodic basis as a way of backing up a print server. you could create snapshots prior to performing an upgrade to provide the ability to roll back the environment should the upgrade fail.exe Tool to Backup IIS Configuration You can protect data managed by Web services workloads using the Appcmd. Snapshots do not require that you close files or stop programs when you create them.exe tool in Windows Storage Server. Using the Appcmd.

Table 22. In addition. These security measures can be implemented. Security Features or Technologies for All Workloads Feature or technology BitLocker Drive Encryption Description BitLocker Drive Encryption. encrypts data stored on hard disks. Services (AD DS) accounts. included in Windows Storage Server. or inappropriately decommissioned appliances. passwords. This encryption helps protect the data by preventing unauthorized users from breaking Windows file and system protection on lost. Note For remote or network users. help prevent unauthorized local and network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. Active Directory Domain AD DS provides centralized management of credentials. For more information. For more information. For more information. see BitLocker Drive Encryption. Windows Storage Server includes all of the security features and technologies found in Windows Server. regardless of the workloads running on Windows Storage Server. secure the Windows Storage Server operating system. Secure Windows Storage Server workloads by securing:  Windows Storage Server for all workloads  File services workloads  Disk block I/O workloads  Web services workloads  Print services workloads Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads Before securing specific workloads. access to files and folders are defined by the combination of NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions. . NTFS permissions work with share folder permissions to help prevent unauthorized network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. stolen. Table 22 lists the features or technologies that you can use to secure Windows Storage Server. and is used for accessing all workloads. This is especially important for Branch Office scenarios where the physical security may not be as strong as in a data center. see the section "NTFS Permissions" in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. NTFS permissions NTFS permissions. see Active Directory Domain Services Overview.59 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Securing Windows Storage Server Workloads Windows Storage Server includes a number of features and technologies to help you secure your workloads. included in Windows Storage Server. you can further secure your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners.

You can centrally manage IPsec using Group Policy. Microsoft Forefront products. Specifically. included in Windows Storage Server.60 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature or technology Shared folder permissions Description Shared folder permission. and management solutions that are integrated with Microsoft user identity management.  Remote connectivity to Windows Storage Server using Forefront Unified Access Gateway 2010. IPsec Microsoft Forefront . Note For remote or network users. helps reduce the attack surface by blocking unauthorized network traffic flowing into or out of the appliance. For more information. provide protection. IPsec supports network-level peer authentication. included in Windows Storage Server. and replay protection. only help prevent unauthorized network access to the files and folders stored on Windows Storage Server. so that the IPsec configuration settings are integrated into the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in. Windows operating systems. Windows Firewall is also integrated with Internet Protocol Security (IPsec). IPsec. data integrity. For more information. Shared folder permissions work with NTFS permissions to help prevent unauthorized network access to files and folders stored on NTFS volumes. you can help protect:  Windows Storage Server and other Windows-based computers or appliances that communicate with the appliance using Forefront Client Security. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. which dramatically reduces the ongoing administrative and operations effort. These shared folder permissions affect users accessing the files and folders using the SMB protocol.  Communication with other computers or appliances over the Internet using Forefront Threat Management Gateway 2010. see the section "SMB Permissions" in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. included in Windows Storage Server. data confidentiality (encryption). and other Microsoft products. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Windows Firewall with Advanced Security. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security is integrated with Network Awareness so that it can apply security settings appropriate to the types of networks to which the computer is connected. For more information. see Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. access to files and folders are defined by the combination of NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions. allows you to protect the communications between Windows Storage Server and other Windows operating systems. and access. data origin authentication. available separately.

In addition to features and technologies listed in Table 22. see the "NFS Permissions" section in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. This collection of tools and guidance are free. the Security Compliance Management Toolkit Series provides an end-to-end solution to help plan." earlier in this white paper. This is the home page for all Microsoft security products and technologies for all operating systems and products. any security product that is compatible with Windows Server 2008 R2 is also compatible with Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. Table 23. Table 23 lists the file services protocols and how to secure the protocol. authoritative resources to help you to proactively plan.exe to create client groups and to add client computers to those groups before configuring NFS share permissions. Specifically. you must first install the Services for Network File System (NFS) role service using Server Manager. After installing Services for NFS. For more information. To use NFS permissions. Use read-only DFS Replication to provide read-only copies of file and folders to servers where only readonly access is allowed. see the “Creating Branch Office Solutions” section in this white paper. see "NTFS Permissions" and "SMB Permissions" sections in Managing Permissions for Shared Folders. NFS-based access control for a shared resource is determined based on network names and groups. Securing File Services Workloads File services workloads are secured based on the protocol that provides access to the file services workloads. use NFSAdmin.61 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature or technology Microsoft partner products Description There are a large number of security related products and technologies that are available from Microsoft partners. and operate your security infrastructure. Typically. You can manage the NFS share permissions using the Share and Storage Management snap-in. you can use the following resources to help secure Windows Storage Server:  Microsoft Security.  Security Solution Accelerators. For more information. integrate. Use read-only DFS Replication to provide read-only copies of file and folders to servers where only read-  NFS   . and monitor security baselines of Windows operating systems. File Services Protocols and How to Secure the Protocols Protocol SMB How to secure this protocol  Use NTFS permissions and shared folder permissions to secure SMB-based access to shared resources. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. For more information. deploy.

 Encrypt all WebDAV communication with the appliance using secure socket layer (SSL). For more information. For more information. With this level of security.62 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protocol How to secure this protocol only access is allowed. such as the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator. The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) secret is set just for the target. Table 24.  RADIUS authentication. With this level of security.  IPsec authentication. The IPsec protocol enforces . Table 24 lists the methods of securing the communication for the iSCSI block I/O workloads. For more information. With this level of security. only the iSCSI target authenticates the initiator. WebDAV  Windows SharePoint Services   Securing iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Disk block I/O workloads are secured by configuring the appropriate security between the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and the iSCSI initiators. you must have a RADIUS server running on your network. see Authentication and Security Using WebDAV. To use this level of security. see Plan authentication settings for Web applications (Windows SharePoint Services). see Authentication and Security Using WebDAV. see Plan authentication settings for Web applications (Windows SharePoint Services). the iSCSI initiator is authenticated by a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server. Securing Communication for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads Protocol Require authentication How to secure Require all iSCSI initiators to authenticate with the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using one of the following methods:  One-way CHAP authentication. All initiators that want to access that target need to use the same secret to start a logon session with the target. Encrypt all Windows SharePoint communication with the appliance using SSL.  Mutual CHAP authentication. the iSCSI target and the initiator authenticate each other. Require authentication for all users that access the appliance using WebDAV. see the “Creating Branch Office Solutions” section in this white paper. Transactions between the iSCSI initiator and the RADIUS server are also authenticated through the use of a shared secret. For more information. Require authentication for all users that Windows SharePoint Server on the appliance. For more information. A separate secret is set for each target and for each initiator. or you must deploy one.

5 application pool now runs with a unique.5 builds on the application pool isolation that was available with IIS 7. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. HTTP is an insecure protocol and sends all traffic in clear text. see iSCSI Security. Allow connectivity to the appliance only from computers on your internal network. Ensure that all HTTPS connections require authentication as necessary. FTP    Note IIS 7. Table 25 lists the Web services protocols and how to secure the protocol. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec." earlier in this white paper.5. every IIS 7. For more information. Note HTTPS   HTTPS is a secure protocol and does not need further protection for confidentiality. Ensure that all HTTP connections require authentication as necessary. Use IPsec to protect communication between the appliance and FTP clients. Isolate iSCSI network segments Securing Web Services Workloads Web services workloads are secured based on the protocol that provides access to the Web services workloads.63 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Protocol How to secure authentication at the IP packet layer. Encrypt all communication Protect communication between the iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target using IPsec encryption.0 that increased security and reliability. Isolate the network segments used for communication between the iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target by using separate physical network segments or by using virtual local area networks (VLANs). This helps harden the security of applications and services running on IIS 7. Table 25. use one-way CHAP authentication between iSCSI initiators and the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Web Services Protocols and How to Secure the Protocols Protocol HTTP How to secure this protocol    Use the HTTPS protocol instead to provide encryption of all communication between the appliance and the clients. . less-privileged identity. Note At a minimum. Ensure that all FTP connections require authentication. FTP is an insecure protocol and sends all traffic in clear text. For more information. Allow connectivity to the appliance only from computers on your internal network.

see Internet Printing and Resulting Internet Communication in Windows Server 2008. If required." earlier in this white paper.64 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Securing Print Services Workloads Print services workloads are secured based on the Print Server role service that provides access to the file services workloads. see IPsec and Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IPsec. use IPsec to protect the communication between the LPD Service and LPR clients. For more information. Protect all communication between the Internet Printing clients and the appliance using SSL. The communication between the LPD Service and LPR clients is unsecured. For more information. Table 26 lists the Print Server role services and how to secure the role service. LPD Service Internet Printing . Use the HTTPS protocol instead when connecting to the URL for the printer. For more information. Print Server Role Services and How to Secure the Role Service Role service Print Server How to secure this protocol Use printer permissions to control access to the appliance running the Print Server role services using the Print Management snapin. see Assigning Delegated Print Administrator and Printer Permission Settings in Windows Server 2008 R2. Note The assumption is that Windows Storage Server has been secured using the features and technologies described in the section "Securing Windows Storage Server for All Workloads. There is no authentication available or security permissions available. Table 26.

Methods for Improving File Services Workload Availability Method SMB NFS WebDAV Windows SharePoint Services Failover clusters. Improve the availability of Windows Storage Server workloads by:  Improving File services workload availability  Improving iSCSI block I/O workload availability  Improving Web services workload availability  Improving Print services workloads availability Improving Availability of File Services Workloads The availability of file services workloads in Windows Storage Server can be improved based on the protocol used to access the file services. In addition. complexity. and effort required to create a two node cluster. as illustrated in Figure 8. This user interface reduces the learning curve. DFS. Windows Storage Server includes all of the high availability features and technologies found in Windows Server. Table 27. For more information about failover clusters for file services workloads.      . you can improve DFS Replication availability by running on failover clusters in Windows Storage Server. The method supports read and write access to the files. In addition. Then you can use DFS Namespace to provide automatic failover to replica copies of content when a local copy of the content is unavailable. see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node File Server Failover Cluster. Table 27 lists the methods for improving the availability for file services workload and which protocols can use that method.65 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Availability of Windows Storage Server Workloads High levels of availability are essential for mission-critical applications and services. can be used to improve the availability of SMB-based file services workloads. You can use DFS Replication to create replica copies of shared network folders. Failover clusters in Windows Storage Server. Windows Storage Server provides an easy to install and configure user interface for creating a two node failover cluster. you can further improve the availability of your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners.

see Network Load Balancing.   The most common method of improving the availability for file services workloads is by using failover clusters. The Network Load Balancing (NLB) feature in Windows Storage Server can be used to provide fault tolerance for file services workloads. Network Load Balancing. SAS.66 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Method SMB NFS WebDAV Windows SharePoint Services For more information. For more information about using NLB to improve availability for file services workloads. The shared storage in Figure 8 can be iSCSI. PCI RAID controllers are not supported for shared storage. or Fibre Channel connected storage. Figure 8 illustrates a typically two-node failover cluster for file services workloads. Note The cluster storage illustrated in Figure 8 could be provided by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server. see Distributed File System. .

Typical two-node failover cluster for file services workloads Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads You can improve the availability iSCSI block I/O workloads by using a combination of the following features in Windows Server products:  Failover clustering.  Multipath I/O.67 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 8. The most common failover cluster used for iSCSI block I/O workloads is a file server failover cluster. see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and the Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node File Server Failover Cluster. Multipath I/O uses physical path components — adapters. cables. A failover cluster is a group of independent computers that work together to increase the availability of applications and services. For more information. and switches — to create logical paths between the iSCSI initiator and the appliance . You can use failover clusters to improve the availability for the iSCSI initiator running a Windows Server operating system or the iSCSI target running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.

Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Targets The highest priority in improving the availability of iSCSI block I/O workloads is to improve the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Redundancy for iSCSI initiators on other operating systems or hardware iSCSI initiators is provided by network adapter teaming from the network adapter vendor. This section also discusses the following combinations of failover clustering and multipath I/O features:  Creating highly-available iSCSI targets with single or multipath connections. . As illustrated in Figure 9. Each iSCSI network interface card should be connected by using redundant switch infrastructures to provide continued access to storage in the event of a failure in a storage fabric component. there is no fault tolerance depicted in the connection between the iSCSI initiator and the clustered iSCSI targets (the storage fabric). In the event that one or more of these components fails. multipathing logic uses an alternate path for I/O so that applications running on the iSCSI initiator can still access their data. However.68 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. see Multipath I/O Overview. The configuration in Figure 9 helps prevent loss of iSCSI block I/O workloads in the event of a failure of one of the appliances. causing the path to fail. you can use failover clusters to improve the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server. For more information. Note Multipath connections for Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiators is provided by the MPIO feature in Windows Server. Redundancy for file services and print services is also provided by network adapter teaming support from the network adapter vendor.  Creating highly-available iSCSI initiators with single or multipath connections.

such as a switch failure or a disconnected network cable. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with a single path connection The configuration in Figure 10 illustrates combining multipath I/O with the failover cluster solution. and network cables. switches.69 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 9. . This redundancy in the physical connectivity helps eliminate any single point of failures due to the network infrastructure for the storage fabric used by iSCSI. The network infrastructure for the iSCSI communication between the iSCSI initiator and the clustered nodes running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target has been updated to include redundant network adapters.

there is no fault tolerance depicted in the connection between the clustered iSCSI initiators and the clustered iSCSI targets (the storage fabric). you can use failover clusters to improve the availability of the computers or appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator in Windows Server operating systems. . As illustrated in Figure 11. you can improve the availability of the iSCSI initiators running Windows Server operating systems. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target with multipath connections Creating Highly-Available iSCSI Initiators After improving the availability of the appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. However. The configuration in Figure 11 helps prevent loss of iSCSI block I/O workloads in the event that one of the computers or appliances running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator or Microsoft iSCSI Software Target fails.70 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 10.

This redundancy in the physical connectivity helps eliminate any single point of failure due to the network infrastructure for the storage fabric used by iSCSI.71 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 11. and network cables. such as a switch failure or a disconnected network cable. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and iSCSI initiators with single path connections The configuration in Figure 12 illustrates combining multipath I/O with the failover cluster solution for the iSCSI initiators and iSCSI targets in Figure 11. switches. . The network infrastructure for the iSCSI communication between the clustered nodes running the iSCSI initiators and the clustered nodes running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target has been updated to include redundant network adapters.

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Figure 12. Highly-available Microsoft iSCSI Software Target and iSCSI initiators with multipath connections

Improving Availability of Web Services Workloads
The NLB feature in Windows Storage Server can be used to provide fault tolerance for Web services workloads. The assumption of this solution is that each of the appliances in the NLB cluster have identical content and are continuously synchronized (such as by DFS Replication). For more information about using NLB to improve availability for Web services workloads, see Network Load Balancing.
Note If the Web applications use a centralized SQL Server database for storing information, you can also use failover clustering to improve the availability of the database. For more information, see Getting Started with SQL Server 2008 Failover Clustering.

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Improving Availability of Print Services Workloads
Failover clusters in Windows Storage Server can be used to improve the availability of Print services workloads. Figure 13 illustrates a typically two-node failover cluster for Print services workloads.
Note The cluster storage illustrated in Figure 13 could be provided by the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server.

Figure 13. Typical two-node failover cluster for Print services workloads This method helps prevent any print services outages due to the failure a node in the cluster. Print services outages for specific printers occur in the event of a printer failure. However, the print jobs for the printer continue to be queued until the printer failure is resolved and the printer is restored to normal operation. For more information about failover clusters for file services workloads, see Failover Clusters in Windows Server 2008 and the Failover Cluster Step-by-Step Guide: Configuring a Two-Node Print Server Failover Cluster.

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Improving Performance and Scalability for Windows Storage Server Solutions
The ability to take full advantage of the system resources of Windows Storage Server based appliance is essential to creating successful solutions. Windows Storage Server includes all of the performance and scalability features and technologies found in Windows Server 2008. In addition, you can further improve the performance and scalability of your workloads using products and technologies from Microsoft partners. Improve the performance and scalability of Windows Storage Server workloads by improving performance and scalability for:  All workloads.  File services workloads.  iSCSI block I/O workloads.  Web services workloads.  Print services workloads.

Improving Performance and Scalability for All Workloads
Windows Storage Server includes a number of technologies and features that will improve the performance and scalability for all workloads. These performance and scalability improvements are inherent in Windows Storage Server. Improve the performance and scalability for all workloads by taking advantage of the:  Improvements in processor and memory capacity.  Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol.  Improvements in network adapter performance.  Reduction in processor utilization for I/O operations.

Improvements in Processor and Memory Capacity
The improvements in computer design have resulted in modern server computers that support an ever increasing number of processors and increased memory capacity. Current server computers are only shipping with 64-bit processors, multiple processors, and higher memory capacity than ever before. These improvements allow you to create application platforms that are able to support larger workloads, reduce rack space in your data center, reduce power consumption, provide improved reliability, and reduce your overall administrative effort.

Improved Physical Processor and Memory Resources
32-bit processors impose system resource limitations that restrict your ability to handle increased workloads without investing in additional server computers. 64-bit processors allow you to support larger workloads, while minimizing the number of physical computers in your data center. Also, server consolidation by using virtualization requires 64-bit processors to provide the processing and memory resources to support higher ratios of server consolidation. To support the increased processor performance and memory capacity provided by 64bit processors, Windows Storage Server is only available for 64-bit processor architectures. Windows Storage Server supports up to 256 logical processor cores for a single operating system instance.

The Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite includes a new set of performance enhancements to increase throughput in high-bandwidth. high-latency. CPU Core Parking enables power savings by scheduling virtual machine execution on only some processor cores and placing the remaining processor cores in a sleep state. For example. The performance and scalability features in the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite include:  Offloading TCP/IP protocol processing to specialized network adapter hardware. Offloading some of the TCP/IP protocol processing to a network adapter reduces the processor utilization associated with handling TCP/IP connections.  Automating the tuning of the maximum receive window size. This feature works with the Compound TCP feature on the sender side.500 persistent active connections. TCP/IP offloading can be used when a server is performing heavy receive processing with less than 1. and improves overall network performance. rather than relying on the receipt of the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) error messages. especially on high latency connections. significantly reducing hypervisor processor time and saving about 1MB of memory per virtual machine. Aggressively increasing the TCP Send window size allows the maximum amount of data to be transmitted between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Microsoft included a new version of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Optimizing the network to receive TCP data can substantially increase overall network utilization by applications.  Reducing IP packet resending due to router congestion. and improves overall network performance. This feature senses when large TCP segments retransmit and automatically adjusts the Path Maximum Transmission Unit (PMTU) for the connection. Hyper-V in Windows Storage Server also supports Second-Level Address Translation (SLAT) and CPU Core Parking. CTCP attempts to maximize throughput on these types of connections by monitoring delay variations and losses. Improvements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Protocol With the introduction of Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008.  Improving black hole router detection. This feature automatically determines the value of the maximum receive window size for a connection based on the current conditions of the network. This increased processor support makes it possible to run even more demanding workloads on a single computer. CTCP also ensures that its behavior does not negatively impact other TCP connections. and high-loss networking environments. routers experiencing congestion mark the IP packets as they forward them. or scale workloads to greater extremes to match changing demand. However. Automatically tuning the receive window size allows the maximum amount of data to be transmitted between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. when the computer is performing a backup over the network. SLAT uses special processor functionality available in recent Intel and AMD processors to carry out some virtual machine memory management functions.75 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Increased Logical Processor Support Hyper-V in Windows Storage Server can support up to 64 logical processors.  Aggressively increasing the TCP Send windows size by using Compound TCP (CTCP). also referred to as the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite. Reducing the number of retransmitted TCP segments improves the overall performance of traffic that used the TCP protocol. TCP peers receiving marked IP packets lower their transmission rate to ease congestion . CTCP more aggressively increases the Send window for connections with large Receive window sizes and large bandwidth-delay products. the exact number of connections is vendor specific. With Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) support on both TCP peers and in the routing infrastructure.

Incoming network traffic with RSS For more information about RSS. all processors have available capacity and none are a bottleneck for incoming network traffic. see Receive-Side Scaling Enhancements in Windows Server 2008. Figure 14 illustrates how the architecture of NDIS 6. using RSS. Figure 14. enables multiple DPCs on different processors for each instance of a network adapter miniport driver. RSS also supports dynamic load balancing.0 with RSS prevents bottlenecks for incoming network traffic. Reducing IP packet resending improves the overall performance of traffic that uses the TCP protocol. Improvements in Network Adapter Performance RSS in NDIS 6.1 allows a single deferred procedure call (DPC) for each network adapter.0 balances the network load from a network adapter across multiple processors. For more information about the Next Generation TCP/IP protocol suite in Windows Server 2008.0. while preserving in-order delivery of messages on a per-stream basis.  Performance Enhancements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. . Because all processors are able to process incoming network traffic.  New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista.76 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper and prevent segment losses. parallel interrupts. NDIS 5. a secure hashing mechanism. Note RSS support has also been released in the scalable networking pack for Windows Server 2003. NDIS 6. see:  Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. and parallel DPCs.

when the request is initiated. and the subsequent completion processing of the I/O occurs on Processor 3. the data will go from memory to Processor 3. reduces the hardware interconnect activity. Although the I/O operation is initiated on Processor 3. Figure 15 illustrates an example of the components that might be required for processing a statically directed I/O completion. the interrupt from the disk is directed to Processor 2 because of the static assignment made when the disk was detected at boot time. Multiprocessor I/O operation without NUMA optimization Figure 16 illustrates an example of the components that might be required for processing a dynamically directed I/O completion by using NUMA I/O. the selection of processors to interrupt and perform completion processing was statically chosen when the device was detected (similar to a round-robin order across all processors).77 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Reduction in Processor Utilization for I/O Operations Windows Server 2008 performs dynamic redirection of I/O interrupts and I/O completion processing to reduce overall processor utilization. A disk controller takes advantage of the NonUniform Memory Access (NUMA) I/O functionality in Windows Server 2008 and can use the information specified during the initiation of the I/O operation to select a processor that can most efficiently perform the necessary processing of the completed I/O. if the completion processing accesses data read from the disk (for example to perform virus detection. Disk controller drivers can make use of new application programming interfaces (APIs) that allow Windows to specify the processor on which to efficiently perform completion processing for each I/O. and minimizes I/O completion processing time. If the completion processing accesses the data read from the disk. NUMA I/O functionality improves the hardware cache hit ratios. decryption. In prior versions of Windows. Furthermore. the I/O operation is initiated on Processor 3. the interrupt from the disk is directed to Processor 3. . Processor 2 subsequently interrupts Processor 3 to indicate that the I/O operation is complete (assuming that the application waiting for the I/O is executing on Processor 3). Figure 15. reduces the possibility of interrupting an application unrelated to the I/O operation. The interrupt and subsequent completion processing of the I/O operation occurs on Processor 2. and the application will experience a high cache hit ratio when it accesses the data. or decompression of the data). In this example. that data will have to go from memory to Processor 2 over the node interconnect and then back over the node interconnect to Processor 3 when the application starts to access the data.

 Improving network performance between head offices and branch offices using the BranchCache feature. Identify the performance and scalability improvements for file services workloads by:  Reviewing the performance and scalability improvements in the SMB2 protocol. . For NUMA architectures.  Better NUMA and non-NUMA processor architecture. the I/O processing is localized to a NUMA node or a specific processor within the node. Figure 16.  Download NUMA I/O Optimizations.78 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In this example. Multiprocessor I/O operation with NUMA optimization The dynamic I/O completion redirection (NUMA I/O) improvements in Windows Server 2008 provide the following benefits:  Support for the Message Signaled Interrupt eXtension (MSI-X) that enables a PCI-X or PCI-Express device to use new APIs to specify a processor to complete processing of each specific I/O operation. Improving Performance and Scalability for File Services Workloads File services workloads in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of Windows Server.1 in Windows Server 2008 R2. For more information about NUMA support in Windows Server 2008. In scenarios where the system consists of only Processors 3 and 4 in a single node configuration. the selected completion processor for an I/O is ideally the same processor that initiated the I/O operation. the fact that Processor 4 is unaffected by the I/O operation still results in performance benefits.  Reviewing performance improvements in SMB Version 2. For non-NUMA architectures. see:  The "NUMA Support" section of the "Advances in Memory Management for Windows" white paper.  Reviewing SMB-based file services workload test results. the I/O processing is performed on a specific processor. These improvements are largely due to improvements in the SMB2 protocol. In the current implementation. the node interconnect and all unrelated processors are unaffected by the I/O completion.

The SMB2 protocol features include:  Support for sending multiple SMB commands within the same packet. Examples include an increase in the number of concurrent open file handles on the server and the number of file shares that a server can have. write request 2 must wait for the write response from write request 1. Review Improvements in the SMB2 Protocol Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 includes the latest version of SMB. SMB2. a common issue in the effective tuning of SMB 1. The SMB2 protocol provides a number of communication enhancements. the new version of SMB that has been redesigned for today’s complex networking environments and next-generation file servers.  Support for much larger buffer sizes when compared to SMB 1. SMB in Windows Server 2008 and later versions supports SMB 1 as well as SMB2. including greater performance when servers connect to file shares over high-latency links.79 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Improving network performance between client computers and Windows Storage Server for the folder redirection and offline files features.  Support for symbolic links.  An increase in the restrictive constants within the protocol design to allow for scalability. For example. This reduces the number of packets sent between an SMB client and server. and better security through the use of mutual authentication and message signing. Figure 17 illustrates how SMB 1 processes multiple write operations between a client computer running Windows XP and a server computer running Windows Server 2003. Windows includes an SMB client (the “Client for Microsoft Windows” component) and an SMB server (the “File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Windows” component). which is optimized for greater performance over high-latency links. each write request must wait for the write response from a previous write request. . SMB 1—the technology behind Windows Server versions prior to Windows Server 2008—was originally designed for early Windows-based network operating systems.  Support for durable handles that can withstand short interruptions in network availability. such as Microsoft LAN Manager and Windows for Workgroups. In SMB 1.

80 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 17. is that remote file operations are much faster. In SMB2. especially on high-latency network connections. Write operations in SMB 1 Figure 18 illustrates how SMB2 processes multiple write operations between a client computer running Windows Vista and a server computer running Windows Server 2008. multiple write requests can be issued before receiving a write response. The overall effect. .

Write operations in SMB2 For more information about SMB2.0" section of New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. see the "Server Message Block 2. .81 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 18.

. This test environment emulates two geographic locations (New York and London) separated by a WAN connection. This tool simulates a home folders file workload on a set of client computers and computes the maximum number of users a server can support based on the response time of simulated scenarios as illustrated in Figure 20.  Accessing files on a shared folder at a remote location over a WAN connection. The server computers running Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003 are in New York while the client computers running Windows Vista and Windows XP are in London. The File Services server role implements SMB-based file services. Note The tests results reflect the performance of Windows Server 2008 with Windows Firewall enabled. The test results for Windows Server 2003 do not include Windows Firewall. Figure 19 illustrates the environment for tests performed over a WAN connection. the Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) was run against a server running Windows Server 2008. Environment for performing File Services role tests The following tests were performed for the File Servers role:  Running the Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) on a high-speed network.82 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Review SMB-based File Services Workload Test Results The File Services server role is one of the most common server roles deployed. Figure 19. The performance gains that are illustrated in these tests are a direct result of the performance and scalability features in Windows Server 2008.  Copying large files to a remote location over a WAN connection. Windows Firewall imposes a minimal impact (approximately 5 percent) on network throughput. Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network For this test.

00% 20.00% 40.83 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 450 Number of Scenarios per Second 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 Number of users 100.00% 0. Table 28. In these examples. the tool will compute a throughput number corresponding to the average scenario per second that the server is able to sustain.00% 60.5% 11. Example Performance Characteristics of Appliances with Different System Resources Processor sockets Single socket Single socket Single socket Dual socket Disk configuration 4 SATA drives 10 SATA drives 10 SATA drives 24 SAS drives Raid level RAID 5 RAID 5 RAID 1+0 RAID 1+0 Users supported 600 1. The tool also provides the ability to collect performance counters such as processor.700 5. and processors.2% A significantly higher number of users can be supported by adding more drives. network.00% 10. memory.00% 90. copying files.00% 80. As reflected by these performance characteristics. and disk subsystem utilization details to help identify potential bottlenecks.00% 50. For a given number of users accessing data on a file server.00% Procesor utilization 70.7% 5. and modifying Microsoft Office files. . Table 28 lists example performance characteristics for appliances with different system resources.6% 7. you can expand the processor and disk resources of the appliances to support tens of thousands of users on a single appliance.200 1.00% 30.00% Average scenario throughput CPU utilization Figure 20. the appliances contained only a single or dual processor socket that is typical for these types of appliances at the time of writing. memory. File Services Role scalability test results The scenarios include common operations such as browsing a directory.000 Processor utilization 7. The number and speed of the drives has the largest influence on the number of users who can be supported.

 Copying a 6-MB file to a network shared folder in Windows Explorer. 100 1-megabyte (MB) files were copied between the client computers and the server computers. Remote large file copy test results Accessing Files at a Remote Location Over a WAN Connection This test series provides an indication of how typical user applications perform when accessing files and folders on network shared folders on server computers running Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003. The test scenarios were performed for the combination of Windows Vista SP1 with Windows Server 2008.  Browsing a network shared folder that contains 50 files in Windows Explorer. a lower length of time indicates that the file copy process occurred faster. and Windows XP SP2 with Windows Server 2003 SP2. a lower length of time indicates that the file operation occurred faster. For this test. the combination of Windows Vista SP1 and Windows Server 2008 provided dramatic performance improvements compared to the combination of Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP2.  Opening a 2-MB Word document stored on a network shared folder in Word 2007. In the first scenario. the combination of Windows Vista SP1 and Windows Server 2008 provided dramatic performance improvements compared to the combination of Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP2. Figure 21. For both scenarios.84 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Copying Large Files to a Remote Location Over a WAN Connection For this test. two scenarios were performed (as illustrated in Figure 21) over a simulated WAN connection. one 268-MB file was copied between the client computers and the server computers. In the chart in Figure 22. . the scenarios were performed (as illustrated in Figure 21) over a simulated WAN connection:  Opening a 47-KB Excel spreadsheet stored on a network shared folder in Excel 2007. In all these scenarios. In the second scenario. In the chart in Figure 21.

This improvement helps performance when multiple files are opened in sequence or in parallel by the same client.  Improved performance for file copy operations. a single packet can now contain thousands of directory entries. This improvement helps performance by sending larger SMB packets.  Improved opportunistic file locking method. In SMB version 2.85 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 22. This method helps improve application performance when opening and closing files. Remote file application test results Reviewing Performance Improvements in SMB Version 2. Figure 23 and Figure 24 illustrate the SMB performance differences between Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 on two servers with different system resources. Previously. SMB packet size was limited to 64 KB. which includes the following improvements over previous versions of SMB:  Support for large protocol data unit (PDU) and maximum transmission unit (MTU).1 in Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new version of SMB. such as files for Microsoft Office System applications.1. This increase in packet size significantly improves the performance for file copies and directory enumerations. or SMB2 client requests. For example.1. SMB version 2. This improvement helps file copy operations performed remotely on network shared folders using the SMB protocol. SMB. . the SMB packet size can now increase up to 1 MB. The Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool (FSCT) can be used to help perform file server capacity and performance planning and troubleshooting for CIFS.

Performance results with second hardware configuration .  24 hard disks configured in a RAID-10 array. the server has the following system resources:  One processor.86 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 23.  One Fibre Channel host bus adapter. Figure 24. Performance results with first hardware configuration In the performance results comparison in Figure 23.  16 GB of memory.

002) SMB 2.  96 hard disks configured in a RAID-10 array.1 are realized only when both operating systems support SMB 2.002) SMB 1 SMB2 (v2.002) SMB2 (v2. such as the head office or regional data centers. SMB 1 is used for file services traffic. Table 29 shows the version of SMB used between two computers running different combinations of operating systems. Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008 Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SMB 1 Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008 SMB 1 Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SMB 1 SMB 1 SMB2 (v2.1.1 is only supported when both computers are running Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 R2. Versions of SMB Supported Between Different Windows Operating Systems Windows Vista. and prior operating systems. Windows Server 2003.  Two Fibre Channel host bus adapters. if a computer running Windows XP is accessing a computer running Windows Server 2008 R2. BranchCache Modes BranchCache supports the following operational modes:  Distributed Cache mode  Hosted Cache mode . the server has the following system resources:  Two processors. Typically branch offices are connected by wide area networks (WANs) that usually have slower data rates than your intranet. Reducing the network utilization on the WAN network segments provides available network bandwidth for applications and services.1 For example. the increased system resources allow Windows Server 2008 R2 to support almost twice as many users as the system resources in Figure 23.  72 GB memory. The performance improvements in SMB 2. Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache One of the largest problems facing branch offices is how to improve the performance of accessing intranet resources in other locations. SMB 2. The BranchCache feature in Windows Storage Server and Windows 7 reduces the network utilization on WAN segments that connect branch offices by locally caching frequently used files on computers in the branch office. Table 29. The type of content that is cached is content returned by SMB requests and HTTP requests.87 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper In the performance results comparison in Figure 24. Windows Server 2003. and prior operating systems Windows Vista. As illustrated in Figure 24.

Client 1 searches locally for a computer that has already downloaded and cached the content. so if the computer containing the cached content is unavailable. Client 1 receives this request. 6. Client 2 uses the BranchCache discovery protocol to search for the content. HTTP. This search is conducted by using the BranchCache discovery protocol. The client then adds this data to its local cache. Client 1 transmits the content to Client 2. Client 2 issues a request for the same content that Client 1 downloaded earlier. The server responds with the requested data. Client 2 receives identifiers describing the content from the server in the head office. the content must be retrieved over the WAN connection. This request can be transmitted over any of the BranchCache-enabled protocols. 2. content is cached on the branch on client computers running Windows 7. so it does not receive any responses. or headers that are already part of the BranchCache-enabled protocol. 4. 5.88 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Distributed Cache Mode In Distributed Cache mode. . using fields. Client 1 is the first computer in the branch to download this piece of content. protecting it with the BranchCache encryption scheme. Client 2 verifies the data against the identifiers downloaded from the server in the head office. and sends a response to Client 2. or BITS. The server responds. a multicast protocol sent over UDP. These identifiers are transmitted by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. as illustrated in Figure 25. Figure 25. which in turn uses WS-Discovery. HTTP. finds the requested content in its local cache. Client 2 requests the content from Client 1 by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol. Client 1 issues another request to the server in the head office by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. which in turn uses HTTP. This request is not marked as BranchCache capable. or Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS). BranchCache Distributed Cache mode The following sequence reflects how the Distributed Cache mode caches content: 1. Client 1 issues a request for a file on a BranchCache-enabled server in the head office. and transmits a set of identifiers that describe the chunks of content the client computer wants to download. such as SMB. The disadvantage to this solution is that content is cached on client computers. 3. such as SMB. messages. The client computer indicates to the server that it is BranchCache capable.

or BITS. or BITS. The hosted cache response informs Client 1 that the target data is not available. HTTP. 2. BranchCache Hosted Cache mode The following sequence reflects how the Hosted Cache mode caches content: 1. The unavailability of any client computer running Windows 7 does not affect the availability of the content cache. These identifiers are transmitted by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. Client 1 requests the content from the hosted cache in the branch office by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). such as SMB. This request can be transmitted over any of the BranchCache-enabled protocols. messages. The server responds with the requested data. 4. which in turn uses HTTP. and transmits a set of identifiers that describe the chunks of content that the client computer wants to download. This request is not marked BranchCache capable. A client computer can be configured to use only a single caching mode at one time. HTTP. The client computer indicates to the server that it is BranchCache capable. such as SMB. or headers that are already part of the BranchCache-enabled protocol. Figure 26. Client 1 issues another request to the server in the head office by using the BranchCache-enabled protocol. which in turn uses HTTPS. . using fields. 3.89 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note Hosted Cache mode and Distributed Cache mode are mutually exclusive. content is cached at the branch office on client computers running Windows Server 2008 R2. Client 1 issues a request to a BranchCache-enabled server in the head office. Hosted Cache Mode In Hosted Cache mode. The advantage to this mode is that the server is always available. The server responds. Client 1 advertises the newly downloaded content to the Hosted Cache server running Windows Storage Server by using the BranchCache hosted cache protocol (MS-PCHC). as illustrated in Figure 26. so the cached content is always available.

Identify Methods for Improving iSCSI Block I/O Workload Performance and Scalability You can improve the performance and scalability for iSCSI block I/O workloads by using the following methods:  Ensure the system resources of the appliance are sufficient. Both of these features require access to shared network folders on Windows Storage Server. 6. Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files Windows 7 includes the following features that allow users to provide user state virtualization:  Folder redirection. Note Hosted Cache mode and Distributed Cache mode are mutually exclusive. Improving Performance and Scalability for iSCSI Block I/O Workloads File services workloads in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of Windows Server.  Offline files. Client 2 requests the content from the hosted cache in the branch office by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). For more information about configuring BranchCache by using the NetSH command. the client computer returns to the server in the head office and requests a download. Users are able to modify local copies of files in the event they are disconnected from the network.90 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper 5. Client 2 issues a request for the same content that Client 1 downloaded earlier. All of the performance features listed in this section will also improve the performance for folder redirection and offline files. You can improve the performance and scalability for iSCSI block I/O workloads by:  Identifying methods for improving iSCSI block I/O workload performance and scalability. which in turn uses HTTP. BranchCache Management You can configure BranchCache behavior by using Group Policy. . Folder redirection allows users to quickly recover from local failures of their computer. This feature allows users to locally cache files stored on a shared folder on Windows Storage Server. The typical system resources that are heavily utilized by iSCSI block I/O workloads include memory. This feature allows users to store the user’s folders in a shared folder on Windows Storage Server. Client 2 verifies the data by using the identifiers downloaded from the server in the head office. 7. You can also manage BranchCache by using the NetSH command. which in turn uses HTTP. If a client computer cannot locate content on the hosted cache server. Client 2 receives identifiers describing the content from the server in the head office.  Reviewing the results of I/O storage workload tests. A client computer can be configured to use only a single caching mode at one time. The Hosted Cache server connects to the client and downloads the recently advertised content by using the BranchCache retrieval protocol (MS-PCCRD). see Network Shell (Netsh) Commands for BranchCache. Windows Storage Server includes a Group Policy administrative template that you can use to administer the BranchCache configuration settings. The hosted cache responds with the data.

Always size disks for performance in addition to capacity. Dedicate a physical array for each conflicting workload. . also ensure they are sufficient for I/O throughput.  Isolate different types of workloads using separate physical network segments.exe command line tool. Although a given number of disks may have adequate storage capacity. segregate each type of workload to a separate physical network segment to reduce network contention. such as sequential I/O workloads. Different types of workloads on the same physical network can cause overutilization and performance problems. Note Consult your storage vendor to determine the proper values to use with the Diskpart. Sector alignment helps prevent an I/O operation from spanning two tracks. In this example. Different types of workloads on the same physical network can cause overutilization and performance problems. After ensuring the number of disks is sufficient for capacity. and network. the Windows Storage Server solution is optimized to support Exchange Server connecting to disk LUNs on Windows Storage Server. NFS workloads.vhd files. the number may not provide sufficient I/O throughput. Different types of workloads on the same physical array can degrade performance for the workloads. which causes performance degradation.exe. When encountering network utilization problems. Isolate different types of workloads using dedicated physical arrays. You can configure sector alignment for physical disks using the Diskpart. Sector alignment allows Windows Storage Server to create partitions that align with the underlying physical disk. Isolate different types of workloads using separate physical network segments. Figure 27 illustrates a Windows Storage Server solution that has been optimized to provide improved performance and scalability. Configure sector alignment for iSCSI Target volumes and . segregate each type of workload to a separate physical network segment to reduce network contention. When encountering network utilization problems.91 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper     disk. random I/O workloads. or SMB workloads. Ensure that the appliance has sufficient resources to provide adequate performance and scaling.

A Windows Storage Server solution optimized for performance For the sample scenario in Figure 27. Separate network adapters in the Exchange server to support the separate network segments. Separate arrays dedicated to different iSCSI I/O traffic as the Exchange storage group data is random I/O. while the Exchange storage group logs are sequential I/O. Separate network segments for workload types. . An optimized number of disks for disk I/O bandwidth capacity. Separate iSCSI targets that corresponds to the iSCSI sequential I/O and iSCSI random I/O. the following optimizations were chosen:       Sufficient system resources of the Windows Storage Server appliance for the given workloads.92 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 27. iSCSI random I/O. including iSCSI sequential I/O. and file services access using SMB or NFS.

93 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper  Sector-aligned disk arrays to help prevent I/O operations from spanning multiple tracks. For this test. General disk I/O operation test results . the server computer had 16 dual-core processors for a total of 32 processor cores. illustrates the number of disk I/O operations per second performed by Windows Server 2008 and Window Server 2003 running on identical hardware. regardless of the server role running on the server computer. shown in the chart in Figure 28. Figure 28. Windows Server 2008 can perform more than 20 percent more disk I/O operations per second than Windows Server 2003. The test result. Review I/O Storage Test Results The results of this test provide an indication of the improvements in disk I/O operations.

94 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Improving Performance and Scalability for Web Services Workloads Web services workloads running on Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.0 running on Windows Server 2008. unified facility for output caching by integrating the dynamic output-caching capabilities of ASP.0 and Windows Server 2003. The chart in Figure 29 illustrates the performance gain by running IIS 7. you can create caching rules. For more information about configuring output caching. and IIS 7.NET with the static output-caching capabilities that were present in IIS 6. Review Web Services Workload Test Results These results were obtained by measuring the performance of www. In IIS Manager.microsoft.0 and Windows Server 2008 can support more than 10 percent higher throughput than IIS 6.0 and Windows Server 2008 on the same computer resources. see Configuring HTTP Compression in IIS 7. HTTP compression lets you make more efficient use of bandwidth and enhances the performance of sites and applications. Output caching allows you to manage output caching rules and to control the caching of served content. For more information about how to configure compression. This improvement in performance results in www.0 on Window Server 2003.microsoft. and configure output cache settings.0 provides a powerful.0. You can improve the performance and scalability for Web services workloads by:  Identifying methods for improving Web services workload performance and scalability. You can configure HTTP compression for both static and dynamic sites. For more information about improving Web services workload performance and scalability.com processing more than an additional 100 million requests per day at the same processor utilization. Identify Methods for Improving Web Services Workload Performance and Scalability IIS 7. IIS also lets you use bandwidth more effectively and efficiently by using common compression mechanisms such as Gzip and Deflate. see Configuring Output Caching in IIS 7. edit existing caching rules.com running IIS 6.  Reviewing Web services workload test results. These improvements are largely due to improvements in data compression of content and caching of content. The results were obtained by closely monitoring the performance over a 72-hour period for both test cases. . Performance includes the following features:  Compression.  Output Caching.0 in Windows Storage Server have improved performance and scalability compared to previous versions of IIS and Windows Server. see Optimize IIS Performance (IIS 7). IIS 7.

. This section of the white paper provides information to help you size a server to meet an organization's needs by identifying and investigating primary issues and configuration details to maximize print server performance. For more information about improving the performance and scalability of print services workloads. Web Services (IIS) Role test results Improving Performance and Scalability for Print Workloads Print server scalability plays a key role in the deployment of Windows Storage Server print servers. size. see the Windows Print Server Scalability and Sizing Technical Overview. The maximum load and performance level of a print server greatly depends on key configuration decisions. and frequency of print jobs. Some of the factors that influence print server performance and capacity include:  The number of print server clients.  The number and type of printers served by the print server and the types of printer drivers each printer uses.  The operating system version or versions on each client machine.  The number.  The types of print jobs sent to the print server.95 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 29.

However.  Highly-available NAS.  Creating branch office solutions.  Creating unified storage solutions.  Creating iSCSI boot solutions. Overview of Windows Storage Server Configurations Window Storage Server provides a wide range of storage solutions for all size organizations." in this white paper.  Creating small.  The solution is based on low cost. The typical characteristics of the appliance are as follows:  The appliance has the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network. is based on a single Windows Storage Server appliance. industry standard hardware that can be readily expanded. such as Just a Bunch of Disks (JBOD Disks) or RAID configurations (RAID 5 or RAID 1+0). To select the appropriate deployment scenario for you. Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration The stand-alone NAS configuration.  Creating application consolidation solutions.  It can create a variety of disk configurations.to medium-sized business solutions.  It can support 4 to 12 disks in the single enclosure using RAID interfaces. Regardless of the solution complexity. illustrated in Figure 30.96 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Windows Storage Server Deployment Scenarios You can use Windows Storage Server to provide a wide range of storage solutions. Windows Storage Server provides the following basic configurations:  Stand-alone network attached storage (NAS). .  The processors and storage reside in a single appliance enclosure. review the following:  Overview of NAS configurations.  Creating highly-available solutions. some Microsoft partners provide additional storage in external enclosures.  Creating virtualization solutions.  Creating solutions for storage consolidation.  Creating solutions for heterogeneous environments.  NAS gateway.

and it is shared between two or more appliances.  The appliances are configured as nodes in a Windows failover cluster to provide higher availability.97 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 30." in this white paper.  Multipath I/O connections exist between the appliances. . Note The failover cluster in Figure 31 can be quickly and easily configured using the Initial Configuration Tasks form in Windows Storage Server. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network. is based on two or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide some degree of fault tolerance.  New storage is included as part of the solution (existing storage is not used in the solution).  Additional appliances can be added to the solution to provide improved scalability. Windows Storage Server stand-alone NAS configuration Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration The highly-available NAS configuration.  Storage is separate from the appliance enclosure. illustrated in Figure 31.

in Figure 32.98 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 31. is based on one or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide connectivity to existing storage devices. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network." in this white paper.  They connect to existing storage that supports SAN block I/O protocols. . Windows Storage Server highly-available NAS configuration Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration The NAS gateway configuration.

Figure 32. and NFS file access to storage.99 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper   They provide an inexpensive iSCSI target. They provide highly-available configurations based on solution availability requirements. SMB file access. Windows Storage Server NAS gateway configuration .

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Using Windows Storage Server in iSCSI Block I/O Configuration
The iSCSI block I/O configuration, in Figure 32, is based on one or more Windows Storage Server appliances that provide iSCSI access to storage resources. The typical characteristics of the appliances are as follows:  They have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28 in the previous section "Running Microsoft File Server Capacity Tool On a High-Speed Network," in this white paper.  They can be used with any combination of the following storage configurations:  Located within the appliance.  Located within an enclosure external to the appliance.  Existing storage subsystem that supports SAN block I/O protocols.  They provide highly-available configurations based on solution availability requirements.  They provide an inexpensive iSCSI target access to storage.  They provide iSCSI boot support for diskless computers.  They integrate with DHCP and TFTP servers to provide iSCSI boot support for diskless computers.

Figure 33. Windows Storage Server iSCSI Block I/O configuration

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Creating Branch Office Solutions
In a branch office solution, an organization has a number geographically distributed branch office locations that are connected to one or more centralized head offices. Table 30 lists the types of data to manage in the branch office solution, as illustrated in Figure 34, and a description of the type of data. Table 30. Types of Data to Manage in the Branch Office Solution Type of data User folders Description Contains user home directories and user shares within the branch office in addition to the well-known Windows folders, such as Documents, Videos, Pictures, and Music. The well-known Windows folders are typically stored on the local computer, but can be stored on network shared folders using the Folder Direction feature. The Folder Redirection feature allows user folders to be stored on appliances in the branch offices and to be replicated to appliances in the head office for backup and centralized management using DFS Replication. The user folders are accessed within the branch office, but are archived in the head office. Contains content that is published from the head offices to the branch offices as read-only content. The content is a set of data that is relevant to the branch office, regardless of the region where the branch office is located, for example:  Templates, such as Word or Excel templates.  Source for software distribution files, such as files from 2007 Microsoft Office System or Windows 7. Contains content used in collaborative efforts between branch offices. The collaboration content is stored on the Windows Storage Server appliances in the head office. Users in the branch offices access the collaboration content over the WAN connections. The collaboration content can be stored in network shared folders or in Windows SharePoint Service document libraries.

Published content

Collaboration content

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Figure 34. Branch office solution for Windows Storage Server

 Users must have access to their user folders regardless of connectivity to the branch office appliance. This helps protect the user profile folders in the branch office in the event of a catastrophic disaster in the branch office location that results in the total failure of the appliance. see the section "Review Improvements in the SMB Protocol. For more information about this type of appliance. such as Linux or the Mac OS. The solution must minimize the utilization of the WAN connection as much as possible. all users need to access their user folders regardless of any scheduled maintenance of the appliance or appliance failure. Provides local caching of the collaboration content stored on the appliances in the head office. see the previous section "Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-alone NAS Configuration." in this white paper. Table 31 lists the Windows Storage Server and Windows client operating system features used in the branch office solution and provides a brief description of the role each plays in the solution. IT personnel in the head office must be able to manage the configuration settings of the devices and users in the branch offices. BranchCache dramatically reduces the network File services using NFS BranchCache in hosted caching mode .103 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The assumptions in this scenario are:  The data centers have local IT personnel. Centralized management of the appliances in the branch office is essential and remote administration is required. depending on the availability requirements of the branch offices. Table 31. Most of the configuration and all of the support is provided by the IT personnel in the head office. The appliance in the branch office is configured for BranchCache hosted caching mode.  Consolidating of data in head office to provide centralized management. In addition. failover clusters can be an optional part of this solution. For more information. while the branch offices have minimal or no local IT personnel. Features Used In Branch Office Solutions Feature File services using SMB2 Description Provides file services for computers running Windows operating systems. Mobile users need to access their user folders when they are not connected to the internal network in the branch office." earlier in this white paper.  Centralized management of the branch office.  Stand-alone NAS appliances are used. The branch offices typically do not have local IT personnel and require assistance from the IT personnel in the head office. SMB2 helps minimize WAN network utilization because of the efficiencies provided by SMB2. Provides file services for computers running NFS clients. which allows the appliance to provide local caching of the collaboration content accessed using the SMB and HTTP protocols.  Minimizing the utilization of the WAN connections is essential. Most of the computers in the branch office are running Windows operating systems. In some instances there may be computers running other operating systems.  Computers are running mostly Windows operating systems. such back up and data protection. including the computers running Linux or Mac OS. The available network speed of the WAN connections between the head offices and the branch offices is a limited resource in terms of both available bandwidth and cost. Also. All user profile folders in the branch offices need to be copied to the head offices for centralized management. Due to cost constraints and lack of local IT personnel.

For more information. see the section. "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. which provides data consolidation in the head office so that all backups are performed in the head office. Computers running Windows client operating systems are using the Folder Redirection feature to redirect the user folders to network shared folders on the appliance in the branch office. The user folders are copied to the head office for backup and centralized management functions. Helps reduce the effort spent by IT personnel in data centers for recovery of files. For more information." earlier in this white paper. Windows Vista. DFS Replication Provides replication of files and folder structure from the branch offices to the head office. The files and folders are set to read-only access by DFS Replication. which dramatically reduces the network bandwidth utilization. Any updates to the collaboration content are automatically saved on the appliances in the head office. which:  Reduces WAN network utilization by providing local access to the files. For more information. For more information." earlier in this white paper. see:  Folder Redirection Overview. The Folder Redirection feature is available in all current Windows client operating systems. DFS Replication uses RDC to transmit only the changes to a file. and Windows XP." earlier in this white paper. see the section "Using Shadow Copies of Shared Folders to Protect Data. see the section.104 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description utilization for accessing these files. Uses DFS Replication to provide replication of files and folder structure from the head office to the branch offices. The Folder Redirection feature allows the user folders to be available from any computer on the network. Allows users to recover files by themselves without the assistance of IT professionals. You can administer the Folder Redirection feature using Group Policy. This is primarily for files that are for public use and are typically read-only at the branch office." earlier in this white paper. For more information. Read-only DFS Replicated Folders Shadow Copies of Shared Folders Folder Redirection . "Improving Performance for Branch Offices Using BranchCache.  Provides improved file access for users in the branch office because the files are accessed locally instead of over the WAN connection. including Windows 7. "Using DFS Replication to Protect Data. see the section. This allows the head office to avoid doing backups over the WAN link.

The Offline Files feature is available in all current Windows client operating systems. For more information.  Configuring Offline Files. any new or modified files are automatically synchronized with the network shared folders on the appliance. You can administer the Offline Files feature using Group Policy. When users reconnect to the network. see:  Understanding offline files. see the section "Providing Access to Print Services Workloads. The local read-only domain controller also Offline Files Print Server LPD Print Services Read-only domain controller . The read-only domain controller provides enhanced security by preventing unauthorized or inadvertent updates to AD DS.  Configuring Folder Redirection. Mobile users may want to access their files while away from the office. The Offline Files feature allows users to modify local copies of their files while disconnected from the network.  Working with network files when you are offline. any new or modified files are automatically synchronized with the network shared folders on the appliance. The Offline Files feature allows users to always have access to files from network shared folder by synchronizing the contents of the network shared folder to the Offline Files cache on the user’s computer. For more information.  Configuring Group Policy for Offline Files. and Windows XP. The Offline Files feature provides access to files:  When users are not connected to the branch office network.  In the event the appliance is taken offline for maintenance or of an appliance failure.  The “Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files” section in this white paper. Authentication is performed using an AD DS read-only domain controller on the local appliance. Computers running Windows can print to the printers in the branch office using the print services workloads provided by Windows Storage Server. see the section "Providing Access to Print Services Workloads.  The “Improving Performance for Folder Redirection and Offline Files” section in this white paper.105 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description  Folder redirection overview for GPMC. including Windows 7." earlier in the white paper. Users can continue to work on copies of the files on their local computers. When the appliance is restored to service. For more information. Windows Vista." earlier in the white paper. Computers running Linux or Mac OS can print to the printers in the branch office using the print services workloads provided by Windows Storage Server.

File Server Resource Manager allows you to understand. For more information. The local DNS Server reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because DNS queries are resolved locally. The local DHCP Server reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because DHCP configuration is performed locally. see Group Policy. Note All of these features operate transparently to users in the branch office. control. You can use File Server Resource Manager to:  Limit the amount of disk space used by using the Quota Management feature.  Prevent storage of certain file types by using the File Screening feature. see File Server Resource Manager. Computers in the branch office that are configured using DHCP can be configured using the DHCP Server running on the local appliance. Group Policy allows you to centrally configure the Windows Storage Server appliances and Windowsbased computers in the branch office. DNS Server Computers in the branch office can resolve DNS names using the DNS Server running on the local appliance. and they are centrally configured by the IT personnel in the head office using Group Policy. Most of the features and configuration settings available in all Windows products can be configured by using Group Policy. For more information. and manage the quantity and type of data stored on Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. .  Use Storage Reports to profile storage usage and trends within the branch.106 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Feature Description reduces network traffic between the head office and branch offices because authentication is performed locally. DHCP Server File Server Resource Manager Group Policy Table 32 lists how to manage each type of data is accessed by users.

DFS Replication replicates the user profile folders to the head office so that they can be centrally backed up and managed by the IT personnel.  Published content   . on the branch office appliance. Managing Types of Data in the Branch Office Solution Type of data User folders Managed using  Offline Files. The head office and each of the branch offices is a separate Active Directory site. This feature stores the user profile folders. Read-only DFS Replicated Folders. If the branch office replica copy is unavailable. DFS Namespace.107 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 32. which are typically stored locally on the user’s computer. any changes in the user profile folders are replicated to the head office using DFS Replication. This feature allows users to access their user profile folders when not connected to the appliance. then DFS Namespace directs the client computers to access the replica copy in the Active Directory site with the next lowest cost. This feature determines which replica copy to access based on the availability of the copy and the location of the copy using Active Directory sites. Once these files are synchronized with the branch office appliances. Any new files or changes made to the cached copy of the files are automatically synchronized when the connection to the appliance is restored. Folder Redirection. The replica copies of the published content in the branch offices are maintained read-only by DFS Replication so that users in the branch office have read-only access to the replica content. This feature allows for users to transparently access the published content on the appliances in the branch office or in the head office. which minimizes the bandwidth utilization on the connection between the branch offices and the head office. depending on the availability of the branch office appliance. Remote Differential Compression in DFS Replication replicates only the changes to the user profile folders. After the user profile folders are stored on the branch office appliance. In addition. the Folder Redirection feature helps in fast recovery of computers because the user profile folders are not stored on the local computer. When the branch office replica copy becomes available again. DFS Namespace always preferentially directs client computers to access a local replica copy of the published content within the local site (lower cost than other sites). DFS Namespace will automatically direct users to use the replica copy in the branch office. DFS Replication replicates the published content stored on the head office appliances to the branch office appliances. which in this scenario is the head office.

and check out capabilities. The BranchCache feature dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch offices when users access Web content that has already been locally cached on the appliance in the branch office. This feature allows users to access the content from the head office appliances. This is because DFS Replication in Windows Storage Server is appropriate when only one copy of the content is centrally modified and all replica copies are read-only. check in. Windows SharePoint Services. network shared folders and Windows SharePoint services are used instead DFS Replication.  For the collaboration content in Table 32. .  Any updates to the content from users in the branch offices.108 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Type of data Collaboration content Managed using  Network shared folders. network shared folders and SharePoint Services with the BranchCache feature provide the appropriate solution. Because multiple users need to modify the content. The BranchCache feature dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch office when users access content stored on the network shared folders that has already been locally cached on the appliance in the branch office. This feature also supports version control. This feature allows users to access the content from the head office appliances using the HTTP or HTTPS protocol. The SMB2 protocol dramatically reduces the bandwidth utilization between the head office and the branch offices for:  The initial local caching of the content using BranchCache.

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Creating Highly-Available Solutions
In a highly-available solution, the workloads provided by Windows Storage Server must provide improved fault tolerance. Figure 35 illustrates how to create highly-available solutions using Windows Storage Server and Windows Server operating systems using Windows failover clusters and multipath I/O.

Figure 35. Highly-available solution using Windows Storage Server The key elements of the highly-available solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.  The application servers are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an application server failure.

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The Windows Storage Server appliances act as iSCSI targets by running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  The application servers are using the multipath I/O feature to provide redundant connections to the clustered appliances.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the clustered appliances to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. For more information about Windows failover clustering for iSCSI targets, see the following sections earlier in this white paper:  "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a Highly-Available NAS Configuration."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration." For more information about Multipath I/O for iSCSI initiators in Windows Server operating system, see the following sections earlier in this white paper:  "Improving Availability of iSCSI Block I/O Workloads."  "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration."

Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation
In the storage consolidation solution, all the myriad of devices providing SMB file services, NFS file services, and iSCSI block I/O are consolidated into a few, highlyavailable Windows Storage Server appliances. Typically this solution is used in medium to large organizations that want to reduce the number and types of devices in the organization. This consolidation effort can help reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. Figure 36 illustrates an IT environment prior to implementing the storage consolidation solution. There are a number of different computers providing file services and applications. Each computer has local storage that is used to support the services that each provides. This configuration provides inefficient storage management and usage. For example, one Exchange server may have insufficient available disk space while a file server may have many more times the available disk space than is required.

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Figure 36. IT environment prior to implementing the storage consolidation solution

Figure 37 illustrates the same IT environment after implementing the storage consolidation solution. The number of computers to be supported has been dramatically decreased, which reduces ongoing operations effort and complexity. Also, the overall availability of workloads has been improved. Because storage is centralized, the effort for ongoing storage management is dramatically reduced. And, because all storage resources are pooled, storage can be easily allocated to the appropriate computer.

112 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Figure 37. IT environment after implementing the storage consolidation solution .

which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management. LPR print services. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management.0.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric.  The appliances provide centralized storage management.  Typically configured as a stand-alone NAS. Creating Small to Medium Business Solutions In small. The key elements of the solutions for heterogeneous environments include:  Windows Storage Server appliances that provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support.113 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper The key elements of the storage consolidation solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28. The key elements of the small.  Centralized storage for application servers using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. such as providing iSCSI LUNs for SQL Server or Exchange Server." earlier in this white paper.  Highly-automated management tools.  The appliances may be configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  Collaboration using Windows SharePoint Services.  Access to Web-based content using IIS 7.  Providing NFS file services.to medium-sized business solutions.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. depending on the availability requirements of the organization.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. .  NFS file services for NFS clients.to medium-sized business solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28. the organization needs to support a variety of operating systems. Creating Solutions for Heterogeneous Environments In solutions for heterogeneous environments. such as Group Policy. the organization needs to provide multiple workloads on Windows Storage Server appliances.  Windows print services. and Internet printing. as described in the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a Stand-Alone NAS Configuration.  The Windows Storage Server appliances are:  Acting as iSCSI targets and are running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target.  Providing SMB file services.  The Windows Storage Server appliances provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support.

 The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric. such as described in the section "Creating Highly-Available Solutions" earlier in this white paper. Collaboration using Windows SharePoint Services. and other application servers that have a significant dependency on storage. such as Group Policy. Windows print services for Windows operating systems. highly-available Windows Storage Server appliances. see the section "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators" earlier in this white paper. . The appliances provide centralized storage management. This consolidation effort can help reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity. see AD LDS Identity Mapping for Services for NFS. depending on the availability requirements of the organization.0.  The Windows Storage Server appliances act as iSCSI targets and are running the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. Highly-automated management tools. AD LDS can be used to provide identity mapping for NFS file services in environments where an Active Directory infrastructure does not already exist. The appliances may be configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  Typically the application servers are configured in clustered configurations to improve availability. LPR print services for other operating systems. SQL Server.  The appliances are configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure. Typically this solution is used in medium to large organizations that want to increase the efficiency of storage allocation and management for application servers. For more information about supported iSCSI initiators. The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric. The types of application servers that are consolidated include those running Exchange Server.114 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper             NFS file services for NFS clients. For more information. earlier in this white paper. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management.  There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. Access to Web-based content using IIS 7. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management. all the local or shared storage for the application servers in the IT environment are consolidated into a few. There are redundant network connections between the cluster application servers and the storage fabric to provide fault tolerant network connectivity. Centralized storage for all operating systems that have supported iSCSI initiators using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. This solution is very similar to the storage consolidation solution described in the section "Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation" and as illustrated in Figure 36 and Figure 37. Creating Application Consolidation Solutions In the application consolidation solution. The key elements of the application consolidation solution include:  The appliances have the appropriate system resources based on the information in Table 28.

In this scenario. For more information. see AD LDS Identity Mapping for Services for NFS. .  NFS file services for NFS clients. For more information about the supported iSCSI initiators. After implementing this scenario. This solution is very similar to the storage consolidation solution described in the section "Creating Solutions for Storage Consolidation" and as illustrated in Figure 36 and Figure 37. iSCSI block I/O storage. and other storage connections (such as Fibre Channel or SAS). file and iSCSI block I/O storage services in the IT environment are consolidated into a few. NFS-based file services. all of the storage resources in the organization are managed using Windows Storage Server.  The appliances provide centralized storage management.  Centralized storage for all operating systems that have supported iSCSI initiators using Microsoft iSCSI Software Target. This centralization of storage management helps reduce the inefficiency of storage allocation and management and helps reduce the ongoing operating effort and complexity.  NAS gateway services for existing storage solutions that do not provide SMBbased file services.  The appliances have redundant network connections to support the multipath I/O feature from the storage fabric and provide fault tolerant network connectivity. which dramatically reduces the level of effort for ongoing operations and management. The key elements of the solutions for heterogeneous environments include:  Windows Storage Server appliances that provide:  SMB file services for Windows operating systems or for other operating systems with CIFS support. For more information about NAS gateway configurations. see the section "Using Windows Storage Server in a NAS Gateway Configuration" earlier in this white paper.  Highly-automated management tools.  The appliances are typically configured in a failover cluster to provide fault tolerance in the event of an appliance failure.  AD LDS can be used to provide identity mapping for NFS file services in environments where an Active Directory infrastructure does not already exist. such as Group Policy.115 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating Unified Storage Solutions In the unified storage consolidation solution. help reduce the effort required for ongoing operations and management. earlier in this white paper. see the section "Identifying Microsoft iSCSI Software Target Support for iSCSI Initiators" earlier in this white paper. depending on the availability requirements of the organization. NFS-base file services. the existing IT environment has separate devices provide SMB-based file services. or iSCSI connectivity. highly-available Windows Storage Server appliances.

Figure 38. In the virtualization solution. In Hyper-V. Windows Storage Server runs the Microsoft iSCSI Software Target to provide iSCSI LUNs for use by virtual machines performing the Hyper-V server role in Windows Server 2008. Each virtual machine is referred to as a child partition.  Running virtual machines on Windows Storage Server. Connecting Virtual Machines to iSCSI LUNs Virtual machines running on Hyper-V can access iSCSI LUNs using a number of different methods. the physical computer is referred to as the parent partition.116 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating Virtualization Solutions You can create virtualized solutions using Windows Storage Server by:  Connecting virtual machines to iSCSI LUNs managed by Windows Storage Server. as illustrated in Figure 38. Windows Storage Server in virtualization solutions Table 33 lists the different methods that virtual machines can use to connect to iSCSI LUNs .

regardless if the operating system supports an iSCSI initiator. This method:  Allows multiple virtual machines to store .vhd file for Virtual Machine C is created on the E: volume.vhd file is created on the volume that is accessed by the virtual machine.  Does not natively support boot from the iSCSI LUN and requires products available from Microsoft partners to support iSCSI boot for virtual machines. the parent partition connects to LUN-B and Virtual Machine B directly connects to the partition.vhd files on the same iSCSI LUN. A . As illustrated in Figure 38.117 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Table 33.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine. As illustrated in Figure 38. For more information. This method:  Allows only one virtual machine to use the iSCSI LUN. The iSCSI LUN is attached to the child partition and the virtual machine directly accesses the partition. regardless if the operating system supports an iSCSI initiator. As illustrated in Figure 38. Methods that Virtual Machines Can Use to Connect to iSCSI LUNs Method VHD created on parent partition volume Description The iSCSI LUN is attached to the parent partition and is formatted as an NTFS volume and assigned a drive letter in the parent partition. Pass-through parent partition disk Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN .  Allows the virtual machine to boot from the iSCSI LUN. The iSCSI LUN is attached to the parent partition and the virtual machine directly accesses the partition.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine.  Supports Live Migration scenarios using Cluster Shared Volumes. see Hyper-V: Using Live Migration with Cluster Shared Volumes in Windows Server 2008 R2. However the parent partition is unaware of the child partition using the LUN because the child partition is directly accessing the LUN.  Works for all supported operating systems in the virtual machine that have a supported iSCSI initiator. This method:  Allows only one virtual machine to use the iSCSI LUN. However. the parent partition formats LUN-C as E: and the .  Allows the virtual machine to boot from the iSCSI LUN. the child partition connects to LUN-A. the parent partition is also aware of the child partition using the LUN.

It is also recommended that you create a separate iSCSI target for each LUN that you connect to the parent partition to improve performance. Creating a separate iSCSI target for each LUN will improve performance because each iSCSI target has its own I/O submission queue. such as the . This allows you to create a NFS file access solution that runs on one appliance.vhd files reside using this method. Running Virtual Machines on Windows Storage Server Windows Storage Server can also run the Hyper-V server role. The recommended method is the VHD created on parent partition method for the following reasons:  Backups are complex using the Pass-through parent partition disk or the Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN methods. are stored on the same LUN where the . You can run:  One virtual machine on Windows Storage Server Standard Edition. For example. you could install an instance of Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) in a virtual machine that can be used for NFS account mapping. This feature allows you to provide other services in the virtual machines running on Windows Storage Server. This reduces the complexity in providing your solution by reducing the number of physical appliances to manage and minimizes the power consumption for your solution (with the appropriate licensing).  There is minimal performance difference between the VHD created on parent partition and the Pass-through parent partition disk methods.  The associated virtual machine files.118 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Note Performing a complete backup of the parent partition will back up iSCSI LUNs that are connected using the VHD created on parent partition method. You can run up to two virtual machines on Windows Storage Server depending on the Windows Storage Server edition. .  Two virtual machines on Windows Storage Server Enterprise Edition.bin files. iSCSI LUNs that are connected using the Pass-through parent partition disk or the Child partition iSCSI initiator direct to LUN methods must be backed up separately in addition to performing a complete backup of the parent partition.

Figure 39 illustrates how iSCSI boot can support a Windows HPC Server cluster solution. Figure 39. There are many solutions that can take advantage of iSCSI boot.  Interactive kiosks in retail stores. Windows Storage Server in Windows HPC iSCSI Boot Deployment By using iSCSI and Windows Storage Server.119 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper Creating iSCSI Boot Solutions The Microsoft iSCSI Software Target in Windows Storage Server supports iSCSI boot for solutions that include diskless physical computers or virtual machines. see the “Supporting iSCSI Boot” section earlier in this white paper. Windows Storage Server centralizes the storage for the HPC cluster.  Thin clients in libraries or schools. including those that provide iSCSI boot services for:  Web blades configured to support the same application in a web farm. the nodes in the cluster do not require a local hard disk drive to serve as a system disk. In this solution. For more information about how to support iSCSI boot using Windows Storage Server. Instead. the nodes can use the storage .  Computer nodes in Windows High-Performance Computing (HPC) Server clusters.

Nodes that use the storage resources on the storage array to boot over iSCSI are called iSCSI boot nodes. Each cluster node boots from a differencing virtual disk that is based on the same fixed virtual disk.to medium-sized organizations and branch offices to take advantage of a multifunction appliance. easier to maintain. and the creation of shared network storage resources. Web services. The NFS file services. A variety of Windows Storage Server appliances are available from Microsoft partners that can support entry level to enterprise level workloads. such as Linux or Mac OS. and scalability for Windows operating systems. such as Group Policy. More Information For more information. This allows small. Windows Storage Server can run file services. Solutions can be scaled up by adding costeffective. Branch offices can be easily managed from central head offices using these management features.  Subsequently boot the 256 cluster nodes in less than 9 minutes. operations and management products (such as the System Center family of products). and DFS Replication features in Windows Storage Server enhance performance. deploy. and iSCSI target services features in Windows Storage Server help protect investments in existing networks with other operating systems.3 Technical Library . print services. and operate Window Storage Server solutions in their organization. Also. Conclusion Windows Storage Server provides storage solutions for all types and sizes of organizations.  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Technical Library  Microsoft iSCSI Software Target 3. IT pros can quickly plan. and more cost effective than other dedicated appliances or storage solutions. centralized management features. and security products (such as Microsoft Forefront products). This allows for fast deployment and recovery of the nodes. and iSCSI block I/O services on a single appliance.  Windows Storage Server blog. availability. see the following resources:  Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 home page. you can:  Deploy Windows HPC Server to 256 cluster nodes in approximately 34 minutes. DFS Namespace. The high-availability features in Windows Storage Server help create mission-critical solutions that require maximum uptime. Because Windows Storage Server is an optimized version of Windows Server 2008 R2. industry-standard hardware to appliances or they can be scaled out by adding additional appliances. Windows Storage Server appliances can provide storage solutions that are flexible. Highly-efficient. Using this solution. Tight integration with other Microsoft products and technologies also helps IT pros use existing infrastructure services (such as AD DS). the NAS gateway capabilities extend the storage services provided by existing storage solutions. help reduce the ongoing operations and management of storage solutions. including filtering of content. All aspects of storage management can be centrally managed. instead of dedicated or single function appliances.120 Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 Architecture and Deployment White Paper resources on Windows Storage Server to boot Windows HPC Server over the network. LPR print services. The SMB2 protocol. disk usage quotas.