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**Qian Li and Fred C. Lee
**

ECE Department of Virginia Tech Center for Power Electronics Systems 655 Whittemore Hall, Blacksburg, VA liq07@vt.edu

Abstract—With the fast growing information technologies, high efficiency and high power density become the two major challenges for AC-DC front-end power supplies in all kinds of distributed power system applications. For the power factor correction (PFC) stage, the adaptive on-time control was proposed to achieve high efficiency over the whole load range[1]. The EMI performance of single phase adaptive on time controlled PFC is tested in this paper, and multi-phase approach is used to improve the EMI performance. Since the switching frequency of the adaptive on time control is a variable, the novel adaptive phase angle control is proposed to achieve the best noise cancellation effect, leading to significant EMI filter size reduction. The experiment results show that both high efficiency and high power density can be achieved by the multi-phase adaptive on-time PFC approach.

Another challenge of the of AC-DC front-end converter is the power density. Figure 3 shows the power density roadmap for server/telecom front end converter [5]. The EMI filter, boost inductor and bulk capacitors represent the major portion of the PFC stage size. In a typical 1 kilowatt PFC design, the EMI filter can occupy about 35% ~ 40% size of the whole PFC circuit.

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I.

INTRODUCTION

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With the fast growing information technologies, high efficiency and high power density become the two major challenges for AC-DC front-end power supplies in all kinds of distributed power system. Driven strongly by economic and environmental concerns, the efficiency requirement is being pushed by various organizations and programs, such as the 80 PLUS [2], U.S. Energy Star [3] and Climate Savers [4]. 80 plus is a basic efficiency requirement for the front-end converter, as shown in Figure 1. Other than the 80 plus requirement, Climate Savers is targeting at higher efficiency. They even target to achieve 4% or 3% efficiency improvement every year in these coming two years. Moreover, the industry customer is targeting even more aggressive efficiencies, as shown in Figure 1. Not only the efficiency target is set higher, but also 10% and 5% load efficiency is required. To achieve the most stringent efficiency requirement of the whole front-end converter, the corresponding PFC and DC-DC efficiency targets are also shown in Figure 1. Comparing efficiency of today’s PFC product which uses the conventional constant frequency average current mode control with the efficiency target, as shown in Figure 2, the light load range efficiency needs to be improved.

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Load Figure 1. Efficiency requirements for AC-DC front-end converters

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Figure 2. PFC light load efficiency challenge

In the following sections, the adaptive on-time control to improve light load efficiency for PFC will be illustrated

978-1-4244-8085-2/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE

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the heavy load efficiency are the same. the experiment results show the improvement on both efficiency and EMI filter size reduction. 98.0% 97. Vo=400V Fs=70kHz Adaptive Ton Load Figure 5. part DCM in the half line cycle. On time and frequency profile of adaptive on-time control at 90V input in different load conditions The efficiency comparison of single phase adaptive on time PFC and constant frequency PFC is shown in Figure 5. The on time and frequency profiles of the adaptive on time control within on half line cycle at 90V input in different load conditions are shown in Figure 4. turn-off loss and inductor core loss.5% 94. 3) DCM for the whole half line cycle. Power density roadmap of sever/telecom front end power supply II.5% 97. the adaptive on time control shows significant efficiency improvement.0% 94. The efficiency and EMI performance of single phase adaptive on time PFC are tested to compare with the conventional constant frequency PFC. CCM Medium load. part CCM part DCM Light load. multi-phase approach is used and the novel adaptive phase shift control is proposed for the adaptive on time PFC to achieve the best noise cancellation effect.5% 98. On time profile Tline /2 Switching frequency (kHz) 80 60 40 20 0 Heavy load. DCM 0 Tline/4 Tline/2 Figure 3. The adaptive on-time control [1] can effectively reduce the switching frequency at light load condition and therefore reduce the switching frequency related loss. and it remains unchanged in different load conditions. such as turn-on loss. 16 12 8 4 0 Same Ton at different load 0 Tline/4 (a). the on time in a half line cycle can be expressed as equation (1) below. The two sides of the half line cycle will enter DCM prior to the middle of the half line cycle when load is decreasing.5% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Vin=220V. Efficiency comparison of single phase adaptive on time PFC and constant frequency PFC 530 .0% (1) Efficiency where fconst is the switching frequency in CCM. ADAPTIVE ON-TIME PFC The light load efficiency of the conventional constant frequency PFC drops very fast because of high switching frequency related loss. in light load range. the switching frequency of adaptive on-time control is constant in heavy load. The on time profile of the adaptive on time PFC is controlled the same as that of the constant frequency PFC in continuous conduction mode (CCM).0% 93. From Figure 4. However. so there are three operation modes in total: 1) CCM for the whole half line cycle. Based on the boost converter voltage gain in CCM. we can see that by keeping the same on time profile at different load. At last. To reduce the EMI noise of the adaptive on time PFC.0% 95.5% 95.On Time (us) briefly first. Ton (t ) = Vo (t ) − Vin (t ) Vo (t ) f const (b). 2) Part CCM. Since the circuit operation condition under the two control methods are the same in CCM. Frequency profile Figure 4. and it is reduced at light load to enter DCM operation. 96.5% 96.

For the CM noise. Based on the measured DM and CM noise. DM CORNER FREQUENCY COMPARISON DM Corner Frequency 33. The fixed phase shift angle is not able to cancel these harmonics. 4th order of 37. Once we get the attenuation requirements. The remaining part of this section will use a four-phase interleaved adaptive on time PFC as an example to illustrate the benefit of interleaving. the multi-phase PFC with a properly selected phase angle is presented to greatly reduce the EMI filter size. etc.5kHz. 5th harmonic of 30kHz ripple. It can be clearly seen that the DM noise at 150kHz is reduced by about 10dB. Among these sources. The noise peak of the constant frequency PFC at each order of switching harmonic can be clearly identified. etc). leading to a wider frequency band. the filter corner frequency can be calculated. The EMI noise comparison between single phase adaptive on time PFC and 4 phase adaptive on time PFC with 30 degrees phase shift is shown in Figure 8.The average DM noise comparison of single phase adaptive on time PFC and constant frequency PFC are shown in Figure 6. and the results are shown in table I. the single phase adaptive on time PFC needs 64dB attenuation at 150kHz. TABLE I. proper phase shift angle of the multi-phase PFC should be chosen. in order to meet the noise standard. There are many sources of the 150kHz harmonic. there are still 150kHz noise contributed by high order harmonics of lower frequency ripple (37.5kHz ripple. ADAPTIVE PHASE ANGLE CONTROL FOR MULTIPHASE ADAPTIVE ON TIME PFC The multi-phase interleaving is an effect way to reduce the EMI noise due to the ripple cancellation. the 3rd harmonic of 50kHz ripple will be totally cancelled with 4 phase interleaving. Figure 6. such as the 3rd harmonic of 50kHz ripple. the situation is different for multi-phase adaptive on time PFC since the switching frequency is a variable.5kHz 33. Figure 6 clearly shows that the EMI spectrum is a continuous curve so the filter will always be designed based on the noise magnitude at 150kHz. The EMI noise of the adaptive on time PFC is a continuously changed curve because the switching frequency varies in a half line cycle in DCM. Based on the tested EMI noise magnitude. if the balance technique [6] is applied. the CM noise of the PFC is very small and can be neglected. as shown in Figure 7. Nevertheless. In paper [7]. we can see that the switching frequency is changing with load variation.4kHz Control Method Adaptive On Time Constant Frequency III. DM noise comparison of single phase adaptive on time PFC and constant frequency PFC Figure 8. In order to reduced the noise magnitude at 150kHz. 30kHz. while the single phase constant frequency PFC needs 79dB attenuation at 210kHz. If the phase shift angle is chosen to 30 degrees. Filter prototype for single phase constant frequency PFC and adaptive on time PFC Although the 3rd order harmonic of 50kHz ripple is totally cancelled. as long as the switching frequency and phase number are selected. In this paper. we just use the CM noise of the LLC resonant converter with 1MHz switching frequency. the phase shift angle is a fixed value. the corresponding attenuation requirement can be identified. the 3rd harmonic of 50kHz ripple is dominant. So the CM noise is mainly determined by the downstream DC/DC converter. In order to get the best cancellation effect 531 . From Figure 4. In the filter design process. For DM noise. the EMI filter is design and prototyped. EMI noise comparison of single phase adaptive on time PFC and 4 phase adaptive on time PFC with 30 degree phase shift Figure 7.

5° shift to cancel 4th order harmonic. The basic concept can be illustrated in Figure 9. Adaptive phase angle selection for adaptive on time PFC 35 Phase shift angle (degree) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 70kHz.3us Exact Phase Angle Simplified Phase Angle 30° phase shift. the 4th harmonic of switching frequency ripple is dominant for DM noise. frequency curve is not continuous.5 4-phase with 22. 14. we can see that the phase shift angle is automatically adjusted based on the present cycle switching frequency. The tested efficiencies at low line input and high line input of the multi-phase adaptive on time PFC are shown in Figure 13 and Figure 14. Phase angle selection at different switching frequency In Figure 10. the low frequency current ripple has very small contribution to the EMI noise. the 3rd harmonic of switching frequency ripple is dominant for DM noise. The boost inductor waveforms at heavy load and light load are shown in Figure 11 and Figure 12.of the 150kHz noise. 1. Two 220uF electrolytic capacitors are in parallel for the output bulk capacitor.5 degrees phase shift is used to totally cancel the 4th order harmonic. the same principle applies. 532 . Because the inductor current ripple is lower at lower frequency. In DCM operation condition. respectively. For example. respectively. As the switching frequency is changing.2us Figure 11. The proper phase shift angle at different switching frequency is summarized in Figure 10.5kHz and 50kHz. Based on the analysis. as shown as the red dashed line. Vo=400V. the blue solid line the phase angle selection criterion of the adaptive phase angle control. In this way. When the switching frequency is between 50kHz to 70kHz. IV. the DM noise at 150kHz can be cancelled. 70 the phase angle at low frequency range (less than 25kHz) can be reasonably approximated by a simple straight line. if the switching frequency is between 37. the novel adaptive phase angle control is proposed. 2A/div 15% load 20 0 0 Tline/4 30 Tline/2 Figure 9. By following this phase angle control method. From Figure 11 and Figure 12. the phase shift angle changes accordingly. which means the phase angle selection is not that critical at low frequency range. Po=960W Frequency (kHz) Figure 10. the switching frequency of 1 phase CCM PFC is 70kHz. 4-phase with 18° shift to cancel 5th order harmonic. It indicates that the light load efficiency is greatly improved over the conventional constant frequency PFC. Inductor current at heavy load Vin=110V. The 4 600uH boost inductors are implemented by using CoolMu 77894 toroid core from Magnetics Inc. This is a stair case curve and the steps get smaller when the frequency is reduced. so 30 degrees phase shift is used to totally cancel the 3rd order harmonic. the phase angle algorithm can be greatly simplified. It is difficult to implement this method because the phase-angle vs. 4-phase with 30° shift to cancel 3rd order harmonic. Typical Frequency Profile 80 100% load 30% load Frequency(kHz) 60 40 50 37. so 22. since the switching in one half line cycle changes. In both figures. EXPERIMENT VERIFICATION The 4 phase interleaved adaptive on-time PFC prototype was built for experiment verification.

the multi-phase adaptive on time control PFC with adaptive phase angle control is proposed.1A/div control.5% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 phase const-fs 4 phase adaptive Ton V. the total EMI filter size can be reduced by 50%. Based on the tested noise magnitude.0% Vin=220V. therefore greatly reduce the EMI filter size. EMI noise comparison of 4 phase adaptive on time PFC with 30 degree phase shift and 4 phase adaptive on time PFC with adaptive phase shift Efficiency 95.0% 93. Vo=400V 97.5% 94.5us Figure 12.5% 97.0% 96. 1.5% 94. Improved light load efficiency is achieved by reducing switching frequency.0% 94.5°.0% 93. 34.5% 95. 22.5% 98. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author would like to thank the Power Manage Consortium (PMC) for the support. 1.56us 40kHz . the noise magnitude at 150kHz is further reduced by 6dB. CONCLUSION Power Figure 14.44us 29kHz. there is about 16kHz increase.0% Figure 15. the DM filter corner frequency of the adaptive phase angle controlled PFC can be calculated as 49kHz. Efficiency comparison at low line input 98.5% 93.5% 95.0% 97. Vo=400V Figure 16. The filter prototype for the 4 phase adaptive on time PFC is shown in Figure 16. By using the same CM filter as the single phase PFC and redesigned DM filter. Comparing with the single phase adaptive on time PFC. The novel adaptive phase angle control can achieve the best noise cancellation effect. 25us 15°. Since better ripple cancellation can be achieved by the adaptive phase angle 533 . Filter prototype for 4 phase adaptive on time PFC with adaptive phase angle control Efficiency 96. Inductor current at light load Vin=110V. Efficiency comparison at high line input In this paper.0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 phase const-fs 4 phase adaptive Ton Power Figure 13.0% 94. The analysis is verified by experiments results. The tested DM noise is shown in Figure 15 and it is compared with the noise of multi-phase adaptive on time PFC with fixed 30 degrees phase shift.5% 96.0% 95.5% 96.

C. Power Electronics Specialists Conference. Lee.735 Chuanyun Wang. 1 .org/ [5] [6] [2] [3] [4] [7] Lee.gov/ http://www.80plus. Vol. Bing Lu. 2007. "Reduction Technique for the Interleaved Multichannel PFC Converter". Lee.energystar. Shuo Wang. pp. "Design Challenges for Distributed Power Systems". 1.. "EMI Study for the Interleaved Multi-Channel PFC". Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition. Chuanyun Wang. F. pp. Chuanyun Wang. Ming Xu. 1336 .. 2009. 2008. Ming Xu.org/ http://www. pp. "Light Load Efficiency Improvement for PFC". Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition. Shou Wang. F. Pengju Kong..15.REFERENCES [1] Qian Li. Lee.1342 534 . F. pp.C. Ming Xu. International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference. 3755 .3760 http://www.climatesaverscomputing. Bing Lu. 2006. 729 . F.C. C.

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