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01/2004

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Newsletters 2004

CONFUSABLE WORDS: Control - Manage Control: If you control something such as a country or an organization, you have the power to take all the important decisions about the way it is run. (The merchants controlled the network of marketing and supplies. Manage: If you manage something such a as a business, an organization, or a system, you are responsible for organizing it and seeing that the right things are done. You have the power to make decisions, but you may nee the co-operation of other people. ( Mr. Smith manages the 400 acre dairy farm with the help of five men). RECOMMENDED URLS A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/don/don.html http://www.foreignword.com/ BANKING Cash Short: (efectivo faltante en caja): cuenta del libro mayor general donde se asientan los faltantes en efectivo de los cajeros. Summarizing entry: (asiento de totalización): entrada en forma de diario escrita debajo del pie de las columnas del diario para indicar la igualdad entre los créditos y los débitos.

02/2004
CONFUSABLE WORDS: base - basis Base: The base of an object is its lowest part, where it begins, or where it touches the ground or a surface. ( We reached the base of the volcano). The base of a system of ideas or a subject of study is the foundation from which other ideas or more advanced studies are developed. ( Marx came to describe the economy as a base, or structure, upon which a superstructure was erected consisting of such elements as law, politics, etc.). Basis: The basis of or for something is the central and most important part of or it, from which it has been or can be further developed. ( The court is quite satisfied that there is no basis for these criticisms). RECOMMENDED URLS A large variety of Glossary and Acronym links pertaining to electricity and electronics http://www.iserv.net/~alexx/glossary.htm Derecho Penal http://premium.caribe.net/~israpaal/penal.htm BANKING Gravy: (dinero conseguido ilegalmente, soborno político). Dinero recibido en exceso a lo anticipado; dinero ganado fácilmente generalmente por medios ilegales. Green power: ( poder verde) poder adquisitivo del dinero. A WORD A DAY ..., KEEPS INGNORANCE AWAY!!!! forfend: *1: to ward off : prevent 2: to protect : preserve *My roommate claims that the best way to forfend a nasty cold is to chew garlic. watershed:n 1: a dividing ridge between two drainage areas 2: the region or area drained by a particular body of water *3: turning point *Last weekend’s victory was a watershed for our team, marking the end of a long losing streak. hark back: v 1: to turn back to an earlier topic or circumstance *2: to go back to something as an origin or source *The restaurant’s art-deco interior harks back to the Paris of the 1920s. memonic: adj : assisting or designed to assist memory Our music teacher taught us the mnemonic sentence “Every good boy does fine” to help us remember the of the lines of the treble staff.
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conundrum: n 1: a riddle whose answer is or involves a pun *2: an intricate and difficult problem *Technology presents us with a challenging conundrum since it has the potential to be destructive as well as beneficial. welkin: n 1a: the vault of the sky : firmament b: the celestial abode of God or the gods : heaven *2: the upper atmosphere *We wondered if the balloon would disappear into the welkin or float across the sea to a faraway land. crucible: n 1: a heat-resisting container 2: a severe test *3: a place or situation in which concentrated forces interact to cause change or development *In the mid-1950s Alabama was the crucible of the civil rights movement, in large part due to Rosa Parks and her refusal to give up her bus seat. akimbo: adj or adv *1: having the hand on the hip and the elbow turned outward 2: set in a bent position *The boys knew they were in trouble when they saw Aunt Alice standing in the doorway, a scowl on her face and her arms akimbo.

03/2004
CONFUSABLE WORDS: capacity - capability Capacity: The capacity of something is the amount that it can hold or produce. (The pipeline has a capacity or 1.2 million barrels a day). A person’s capacity is their ability to do something well. ( If a man is self-employed, he can adjust his performance to his capacities). Capability: The capability of a country, machine or person is their ability to do a particular thing. ( Every advance in medical capabilities is an increase in our moral responsibility). RECOMMENDED URLS Glossary of English terms concerning American education http://www.kbr.be/fulbright/studus/glossary/ http://www.edvpackaging.com/english/default.htm FINANCE NASDAQ: National Association of Securities Dealers Automatic Quotation System ( Sistema automático de cotizaciones de la Asociación Nacional de Agentes de Bolsa). Sistema computarizado donde los gentes / corredores ingresan sus precios internos para que accedan sus pares a fin de realizar transacciones. Debenture: (debenture) bono garantizado por el crédito general de la empresa, sin respaldo especifico.

Un Articulo Interesante Las lenguas del mundo, una especie en peligro Por Julián Povedano*
Para sobrevivir en el tiempo, las lenguas necesitan por lo menos 100.000 hablantes. En la actualidad se estima que existen unas 6.800 lenguas en el planeta, según afirma UNESCO, la mitad de las cuales son habladas por comunidades menores de 2.500 personas. Aunque varían en matices, las proyecciones dan a entender que la extinción de lenguas, para finales del presente siglo, podría alcanzar niveles de catástrofe. Si bien es cierto que, desde el principio de los tiempos, las lenguas nacen y mueren, y son miles las que caen en el olvido, su extinción nunca había experimentado la velocidad que alcanza en la actualidad. Una velocidad que provocará que, según el Worldwatch Institute, entre el 50 y el 90% de las lenguas del mundo se pierdan para a finales de este siglo. Para algunos, esta extinción es semejante al de la extinción de especies, la extinción de formas de vivir, la extinción de culturas. La guerra y los genocidios, los desastres naturales, la extinción de idiomas poco utilizados por la adopción de lenguas dominantes, como el chino y el ruso, y las prohibiciones que sobre ellas aplican ciertos gobiernos, han contribuido al desuso de numerosas lenguas. Otros, como el profesor Ladefoged, entienden que la razón para esta acelerada extinción, además de en el sistema
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económico, las políticas gubernamentales y los sistemas de enseñanza, la encontramos, sobre todo, en los medios de comunicación masiva, que las abandonan en favor de los idiomas más difundidos a escala planetaria. En la actualidad, tan sólo 100 siberianos hablan el udihe; el número de hablantes de arikapu ha descendido a menos de seis personas; en el año 2001, la señora Marie Smith, que ya contaba con 83 años de edad, era la única hablante de eyak, un lenguaje nativo de Alaska y, en 1992, la muerte de un granjero turco señaló el fin del ubykh, un idioma de la región del Cáucaso que tenía el récord de consonantes: 81. Una desgracia, como el terremoto que afectó el oeste de la India a finales del siglo XX, puede provocar estragos en el porcentaje de hablantes de una lengua. En el sismo, murieron unos 30.000 hablantes de kutchi, de los 800.000 que lo conocían. En buena medida, la desaparición de lenguas se da dentro del movimiento hacia la uniformidad cultural que ha traído consigo la globalización. El valor como agentes de la diversidad y la diferenciación que poseen todas las lenguas es de gran importancia. Por ello, para que no se pierda, existe una contrapartida o reacción al proceso uniformador: en la actualidad, algunas lenguas están volviendo, o si se quiere, resucitando. En 1983, los hawaianos re-introdujeron en sus escuelas el nativo aha punana leo que casi se había extinguido -sus hablantes no llegan al millar- después de que Estados Unidos, tras anexionar el país en 1898, prohibiera su enseñanza y en la actualidad entre 7 y 10 mil hawaianos hablan su lengua nativa. Por su parte en Cronwall, Inglaterra, se trata de reavivar el cornish, lengua que se cree murió hacia 1777. Lo mismo está sucediendo con antiguas lenguas mayas en México, en tanto que el hebreo evolucionó, en el siglo XX, de lengua escrita a idioma nacional, hablado por unos cinco millones de personas. Otras iniciativas pretenden revivir el galés, el navajo, el maorí y diversas lenguas nativas de Botswana. Esta restauración de idiomas casi desaparecidos no hace más que afirmar la característica principal de la lengua, la de distinguir a unos hablantes de otros, la voluntad de diferenciarse que tienen las comunidades. Si bien el mito bíblico achaca la diversidad de las lenguas a un castigo, lo cierto es que, cuantas más lenguas contenga el mundo, más rico será, más fuerte y más complejo.
* Periodista FUENTE:www.websolidarios.org

04/2004
CONFUSABLE WORDS: fragile - frail Fragile: Delicate things that are easily broken or damaged can be described as fragile. ( She poured tea into cups as thin and fragile as magnolia petals). Fragile is sometimes used to describe people. If someone feels fragile, they feel week, for example because they are ill or because they have drunk too much alcohol. ( Ted looks pale and fragile today). Frail: a frail person is weak and in poor health. ( Her head trembled on her frail neck). RECOMMENDED URLS http://traduccion.rediris.es/ URLs de GLOSARIOS Varios de Carlos Ben Ari-Héctor M. Gayón: http://www.spanish-translation.com/language.htm BUSINESS WORDS Exworks: Franco fabrica Dormant company: Empresa inactiva Management Control: Control de gestión Wash Sale: Venta ficticia. A WORD A DAY ... KEEPS IGNORANCE AWAY!!!!! bona fides n 1: good faith : sincerity 2: evidence of one’s good faith or genuineness *3: evidence of one’s qualifications or achievements * The professor’s bona fides include numerous publications in scholarly journals. syncretic adj : characterized or brought about by the combination of different forms of belief or practice
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Dr. Portman practices a syncretic form of medicine, borrowing from both eastern and western medical traditions. debonair adj *1: suave, urbane 2: lighthearted, nonchalant *Donald, a handsome and debonair bachelor, has become a sought-after guest for dinner parties. chapter and verse n 1: the exact reference or source of information or justification for an assertion *2: full precise information or detail *“Around a campfire one evening I was giving the boys chapter and verse about the staggering losses in the rainforests around the world.” —PAUL QUINNETT, AUDUBON, SEPTEMBER 1985 ineluctable adj : not to be avoided, changed, or resisted : inevitable In classical tragedy, the hero’s flaw often leads him to a disastrous and ineluctable fate. ear candy n : music that is pleasing to listen to but lacks depth “You call our music ‘ear candy,’” said the bandleader, “but it might interest you to know that we’re booked solid for the rest of the year.” jackleg adj 1a: lacking of skill or training : amateur *b: characterized by unscrupulousness, dishonesty, or lack of professional standards 2: makeshift * “Don’t expect me to trust our cigar-chomping jackleg mayor,” snarled Sam. “I know for a fact that he bribed two city council members.” serendipity n : the gift of finding valuable or agreeable things not sought for The fact that the roadside restaurant we selected happened to be the best deal in town was pure serendipity rather than the result of careful planning.

5/2004
CONFUSABLE WORDS: couple – pair Both couple and pair refer to groups of two. If you call two people a couple, you mean that they are married o have a close permanent relationship. You usually use a plural form of a verb with couple. ( In Venice we met a South African couple). The same happens with two partners who dance or do other things together. Two people can also be called a pair, but they may not have a very close relationship. You often use pair in a humorous way or to show disapproval. When pair is used like this, you use a plural form of a verb with it. ( They had always been a devoted pair). Two animal that mate with each other and produce young are called a pair. Two things that match each other, for example shoes or ornaments, are called a pair. When pair is used like this, the verb can be singular or plural. ( She had put on a pair of black shoes). You also talk about a pair of scissors, trousers, or other things made of two matching parts. You use a singular verb. ( Round his neck was a pair of earphones). In conversation, a couple of things or people are two things or people. You use a plural verb with a couple of . (They have been helped by a couple of newspaper reporters). Very often, when people talk about a couple of things or people, they do not mean exactly two of them. They mean at least two but not very many. (They will be coming out in a couple of minutes). RECOMMENDED URLS Glosarios y Diccionarios on line en ingles, francés e italiano en : http://www.glosariosonline.com.ar/main.htm Glossaries by Subject http://www.lai.com/glsubj.html BUSINESS WORDS Maturity matching: calce de plazos, ajuste de plazos ( entre activos y pasivos). Desk officers: Empleados administrativos Deuda incobrable: Bad debt Moratoria fiscal: Tax amnesty
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06/2004

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CONFUSABLE WORDS: salary – wages If you are employed, your employer pays you a salary or wages for doing your job. A salary is the amount of money that someone is paid each year, although they actually get a certain amount each month. In the past, it was only people with professional or non-manual jobs who received salaries A person’s salary is usually aid directly into their bank account or paid to them by cheque. ( Ina good year, a top executive’s bonus can outstrip his annual salary.) Wages are usually paid once a week. In the past, manual and non-skilled workers received wages. Nowadays they may receive either wages or a salary. A person’s wages may be paid to them in cash or by cheque, or the money may be paid directly into their bank account. ( They hated working underground, but the wages seemed high to them). RECOMMENDED URLS Glossary & Terms Know the IPO language http://4ipo.4anything.com/4/0,1001,4318,00.html Glossary Agent™ links are grouped in 18 subject categories: New Listings (12) Accounting, Business, Economics (20) Biometrics, Computers, Internet (15) Building Construction (10) Crime and Fraud (16) Employee Benefits, Healthcare, Human Resources (31) Environment (29) Finance and Investment (24) Fire Prevention (8) Insurance and Surety (45) Law (33) Life Sciences (28) Physical Sciences nd Engineering (20) Reinsurance (14) Risk Management (7) Safety (9) Shipping and Transportation (25) Statistics (8) Weather (15) http://www.insurancetranslation.com/Glossary_Agent/index.htm FRENCH TERMS ANDEXPRESSIONS COMMONLYUSED IN ENGLISH Over the years, the English language has borrowed a great number of words and expressions from French. Some of this vocabulary has been so completely absorbed by English that speakers might not realize its origins. Other words and expressions have retained their "Frenchness" - a certain je ne sais quoi which speakers tend to be much more aware of (although this awareness does not usually extend to actually pronouncing the word in French). The following is a list of French terms which are commonly used in English. adieu Literal meaning: until God. Used like "farewell"; when you don't expect to see the person again until God (when you die and go to Heaven) agent provocateur Literal meaning: provocative agent . A person who attempts to provoke suspected individuals or groups into committing unlawful acts aide-de-camp Literal meaning: camp assistant A military officer who serves as a personal assistant to a higher-ranking officer aide-mémoire Literal meaning: memory aid 1. Position paper 2. Something that acts as an aid to memory, such as crib notes or a mnemonic devices à la carte Literal meaning: on the menu*. French restaurants usually offer a menu with choices for each of the several courses at a fixed price. If you want something else (a side order), you order from the carte. *Note that menu is a false cognate in French and English. à la mode Literal meaning: in fashion, style In English, this means "with ice cream" - apparently someone decided that having ice cream on pie was the fashionable way to eat it. (to be continued...) WORLD MAP OF TIME ZONES http://www.worldtimezone.com Time is important in any kind of business. Go to World Map of Time Zones ( http://www.worldtimezone.com/ ), and you'll find the answers you need. You can view a world time map, individual country maps, a map of countries that use Daylight Saving Time, and a listing of curHuergo 349 Piso 3 B– C1426BQE –Buenos Aires Tel.: 00-54-11- 4771-4386 / 4772-0769 / Contáctenos en: info@avtuition.com.ar
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07/2004

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rent times in every country of the world. You can view a map showing where it's night and day across the globe right now.

CONFUSABLE WORDS: alternately – alternatively You use alternately to say that two actions or processes keep happening regularly after each other. ( Each piece of material is washed alternately in soft water and coconut oil). You use alternatively to give a different explanation from one that has just been mentioned, or to suggest a different course of action. ( Or alternatively was he short of cash because he had never been to the Rosses’ house at all? RECOMMENDED URLS

http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/9276/9276.html?k=tnavx325x9276 DICCIONARIOS ESPECIALIZADOS Y GLOSARIOS EN VARIOS IDIOMAS http://www.el-castellano.com/dicciona.html FRENCH TERMS ANDEXPRESSIONS COMMONLYUSED IN ENGLISH ( cont.) amour-propre Literal meaning: self love, self respect Aperitif Literal meaning: cocktail . From Latin, "to open" après-ski Literal meaning: after skiing The French term actually refers to snow boots, but the literal translation of the term is what is meant in English, as in "après-ski" social events. à propos (de) Literal meaning: on the subject of In French, à propos must be followed by the reposition de. In English, there are four ways to use apropos (we leave out the accent and the space): 1. Adjective - appropriate, to the point: "That's true, but it's not apropos." 2. Adverb - At an appropriate time, opportunely: "Fortunately, he arrived apropos." 3. Adverb/Interjection - by the way, incidentally: "Apropos, what happened yesterday?" 4. Preposition (may or may not be followed by of) - with regard to, speaking of: "Apropos our meeting, I'll be late"; "He told a funny story apropos of the new president." art déco Literal meaning: decorative art. Short for art décoratif (to be continued...) Posted on Tue, Feb. 17, 2004 OF THE PEOPLE: Speaking for tongues… BY JIM RAGSDALE Pioneer Press Irene Toro-Martinez learned Spanish at home and is studying German. Molly Brookfield's mother is fluent in French and is working on Spanish. Getinet Kidanemariam is fluent in Amharic, the official language of his native Ethiopia. All three described their language skills in English, the lingua franca of the Capitol rotunda, where they appeared Monday to promote linguistic pluralism as a learning tool and as an entree into the global village. "Monolingualism is curable," read one of the signs held by Irene and Molly, 16-year-old juniors at St. Paul Central High School. Instruction in what used to be called "foreign'' languages is available in Minnesota schools, and a number of magnet-school offerings are based on language immersion. But in the shift from the old Profile of Learning to new statewide graduation standards, world languages were not included as
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core academic standards. Language advocates fear that means these classes will be considered "extras'' that can be trimmed when budgets are tight. The appearance of parents, teachers and students at the Capitol was aimed at enshrining world languages as a core requirement — not a frill — in Minnesota's K-12 classrooms. Bills sponsored by Rep. Mindy Greiling, DFL-Roseville, and Sen. Sandra Pappas, DFL-St. Paul, would make world languages a statewide academic standard. "We have a global society," Greiling said. "We have jobs going over to India because they speak perfect English. But we're never going to have international jobs outsourced to us, because we only speak English." But in a year when the focus is on adopting contentious science and social studies standards, it will be a tough sell to put German, French, Dutch, Spanish and Mandarin on the legislative agenda. Department of Education Commissioner Cheri Pierson Yecke is focusing on basic academic areas and wants districts to take the lead in deciding what classes to add, said her spokesman, Bill Walsh. Rep. Barb Sykora, R-Excelsior, who chairs the House Education Policy Committee, said districts are required to offer at least one language as an elective, but students are not required to take it to graduate. Some districts, she noted, may impose language requirements of their own. "The question is, how many mandates should we have?" Sykora asked. At least one more, say those who view languages as a window on the world and a priority for education. Carol Ann Dahlberg of Moorhead, a national consultant on language instruction, came to the Capitol to argue for a language requirement as a critical learning tool, particularly in the early grades. "The real rationale is what it does for the learner," she said. Vicki Nolan, who teaches Spanish to K-6 students at Valley Crossing Community School in Woodbury, said her youngest students intuitively pick up phrases such as "¿Como estas?" without translating into "How are you?" "They just know '¿Como estas?' " Nolan said. Molly Brookfield said she found her high school Spanish helpful when she traveled to Europe with her parents. She said she hopes to study Spanish in college, but she does not sound worried about whether it helps her in her career. "I love the language so much," she said. http://www.twincities.com/mld/twincities/news/7968634.htm

08/2004
CONFUSABLE WORDS: forget – leave behind If you forget something such as your keys, you do not remember to take them with you when you go somewhere. If you forget to do something such as buy some milk, you do not remember to do it. ( take your raincoat. You forgot it). If you leave something behind, you do not bring it with you. You leave it where it is either because you decide not to take it or because you do not remember to take it. ( Feeling in his pockets he found his wallet was not here; he must have left it behind at the pub). RECOMMENDED URLS SITIO PARA AVERIGUAR EL TIEMPO EN TODO EL MUNDO - ¡¡¡¡¡EXCELENTE !!!!! http://english.wunderground.com/cgi-bin/findweather/getForecast?query=europe FRENCH TERMS ANDEXPRESSIONS COMMONLYUSED IN ENGLISH ( cont.) attaché Literal meaning: attached. A person assigned to a diplomatic post au fait Literal meaning: conversant, informed Au fait is used in British English to mean "familiar" or "conversant": She's not really au fait with my ideas. au gratin Literal meaning: with gratings. In French, au gratin refers to anything that is grated and put on top of a dish, like breadcrumbs or cheese. In English, au gratin means "with cheese." au jus
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Literal meaning: in the juice. Served with the meat's natural juices. au naturel Literal meaning: in reality, unseasoned . In this case naturel is a semi-false cognate. In French, au naturel can mean either "in reality" or the literal meaning of "unseasoned" (in cooking). In English, we picked up the latter, less common usage and use it figuratively, to mean natural, untouched, pure, real. au pair Literal meaning: at par . A person who works for a family (cleaning and/or teaching the children) in exchange for room and board avant-garde Literal meaning: before guard. Innovative, especially in the arts avoirdupois Literal meaning: to have weight. This word has a very interesting etymology. The words avoir du poids are French, but the expression itself is English: the words were (in a nutshell) imported into English from Old French, strung together, and then the new term, which referred to commodities sold by weight, was exported back to French in the 15th century. Today it is an informal, general term for weight. bête noire Literal meaning: black beast. Similar to a pet peeve: something that is particularly distasteful or difficult and to be avoided. billet-doux Literal meaning: sweet note, Love letter Blond, blonde Literal meaning: fair-haired. This is the only adjective in English which agrees in gender with the person it modifies: blond is for a man and blonde for a woman. Note that these can also be nouns. El español como recurso económico Por Marcela Valente (Interpress Service) Tres universidades de Argentina formaron un consorcio para evaluar y certificar el dominio de la lengua española de extranjeros no hispanohablantes, con aval del Ministerio de Educación, un paso que abre la puerta al desarrollo del turismo, la enseñanza y el negocio editorial, entre otros campos. Una de las mentoras del proyecto, la decana de la Facultad de Lenguas de la Universidad de Córdoba, en el norte del país, Cristina Elge, dijo a IPS que los primeros exámenes se tomarán en noviembre en Argentina, pero la cancillería ya adelantó que se incorporarán luego instituciones en Brasil, Estados Unidos y China. La idea de formar un consorcio académico evaluador surgió en 2001 entre las tres casas de altos estudios más antiguas del país: la Universidad de Buenos Aires, la de Córdoba y la del Litoral, en el nororiente de Argentina. «Mucha gente que tenía el conocimiento del español se acercaba para ver si podíamos tomar un examen y certificarla», relató Elge Cuando las bases del proyecto tuvieron aval del Ministerio de Educación y de la cancillería, la depreciación monetaria de 2002 creó la demanda. «La devaluación hizo que muchos europeos, canadienses y estadounidenses cambiaran España por Argentina como destino elegido para aprender el español», comentó la decana. El Ministerio de Educación estimó que en 2003 llegaron a Argentina más de 40.000 estudiantes extranjeros para aprender la lengua española. Si bien el pasaje hasta este país sudamericano resulta más caro por la distancia, el costo de vida y el valor de los cursos son mucho más bajos medidos en dólares, sin que mengüe la calidad del aprendizaje. Para hacer el proceso más atractivo y académicamente válido, faltaba la certificación, que muchos adquirían presentando exámenes ante instituciones de enseñanza de España. Esa nación europea, madre de la lengua que habla Hispanoamérica, mantiene el liderazgo en enseñanza y evaluación del español para extranjeros. El Instituto Cervantes, dependiente del Ministerio de Educación de España, elabora cursos para sus sedes en 40 países, y la Universidad de Salamanca se encarga de evaluar los exámenes y certificar el conocimiento. Por esta tarea, la Universidad cobra entre 60 y 80 dólares según el nivel del conocimiento a examinar. Los estudiantes extranjeros se inscriben, pagan el derecho de examen, y rinden sus conocimientos ante evaluadores del Instituto Cervantes o de otros organismos asociados. La Universidad de Salamanca corrige las pruebas y otorga los certificados conocidos por la sigla
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DELE (Diploma de Español como Lengua Extranjera). En América Latina, solo la Universidad de México alcanzó un desarrollo similar, según explicó Elge. «En Sudamérica somos los primeros», destacó. La institución mexicana otorga el EPLE (Examen de Posesión de la Lengua Española) que vale para el trabajo profesional y para la incorporación a la universidad no hispanohablantes. Pero mediante un convenio con la Universidad de Salamanca, el certificado de cada uno se convalida en el otro país. En Argentina, donde el certificado aún carece de nombre, se enseña «la variante argentina culta» del español, explicó Elge. No obstante, el criterio para certificar será más amplio, permitiendo la incorporación de otras variedades. El certificado se exigirá a los extranjeros para aspirar a posgrados, un requisito común en Brasil con el portugués, pero que en Argentina hasta ahora no existe. El mecanismo de certificación más conocido fue el creado para el idioma inglés, controlado por la Universidad de Cambridge, en Gran Bretaña. Allí la enseñanza de la lengua inglesa factura más que la industria automotriz, según un estudio publicado en 2002 en uno de los «Cuadernos Cervantes, la Revista del Español en el Mundo». Las ganancias no provienen solo de los precios de los exámenes, sino de los paquetes de turismo ideados para «sumergirse» en la lengua, la edición de libros, casetes, disquetes y vídeos, entre otros aspectos del negocio lingüístico. La lengua de Cervantes, oficial en más de 20 países, es el idioma materno de unos 400 millones de personas, y otros 100 millones lo hablan como segunda lengua, de acuerdo a una investigación realizada por la Universidad de México. A fines de comunicación internacional, el español es el segundo idioma del mundo después del inglés. Pero en cantidad de hablantes se ubica cuarto después del mandarín (que lo hablan 1.000 millones de personas en China), el inglés (500 millones), y el hindi (480 millones de hindúes). La diferencia entre la cantidad de personas de habla inglesa y de hispanohablantes no es grande. Sin embargo, en comparación con el enorme desarrollo de la industria editorial y las tecnologías de la enseñanza del inglés, el negocio del español está todavía en estadio incipiente. «Imagínese lo que significaría para nosotros», dijo Elge al referirse a la posibilidad de tomar exámenes de español en Brasil, Estados Unidos y China y corregirlos en Argentina. A través de la cancillería, el asunto ya viaja y se trata en cada una de las misiones diplomáticas comerciales que emprende el gobierno. La Facultad de Lenguas de la Universidad de Córdoba, que dirige Elge, tiene distintas carreras para la enseñanza del inglés, el alemán, el italiano, el francés, el portugués y el castellano, pero dirigidas a estudiantes argentinos. No obstante, en los años 80 comenzó a desarrollar cursos de enseñanza del español para extranjeros. Debido a esa experiencia, desde este año incorporó la Licenciatura y el Profesorado de Español como Lengua Extranjera, una carrera con dos títulos posibles que es única en el país, orientada específicamente a formar docentes especializados. De allí la participación activa de la Universidad en la creación del consorcio. La decana explicó que por el momento el programa se financia a través del Estado, pero en cuanto las universidades comiencen a cobrar aranceles de examen, aún no establecidos, el proyecto se autofinanciará y dejará buenos recursos a los centros académicos. «Lo económico no es lo que nos motiva, nos apasiona el desafío intelectual, pero tampoco podemos desdeñar el hecho de que para sobrevivir, a veces las universidades debemos actuar como empresas», admitió. El certificado permitirá además que Argentina adquiera peso internacional en la enseñanza del español, y será una fuente de ingresos para el turismo, la industria editorial, el desarrollo de programas de computación específicos, y otras técnicas vinculadas al aprendizaje, pronosticó la decana.

09/2004
CONFUSABLE WORDS: principle – principal A principle is a rule that someone has to guide their behavior or a rule which explains how something works or is organized. Principle is a noun. (John is a man of high principles). Principal means firs in order or importance. For example, our principal reason for doing something is your main or most important reason. Principal is an adjective. ( Chamberlain consulted his principal
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colleagues). Principal can also be used as a noun. A principal is a person who runs a school or college ( They arranged with the principal of her school to take time off). RECOMMENDED URLS National Association of Judiciary Interpreters and Translators http://www.najit.org/links.shtml DICTIONARIES AND GLOSSARIES / LIBRARIES & INFORMATION DATABASES http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/mmaloof/links.htm FRENCH TERMS ANDEXPRESSIONS COMMONLYUSED IN ENGLISH ( cont.) bon appétit Literal meaning: good appetite. The closest English equivalent is "Enjoy your meal." bon vivant Literal meaning: good "liver". Someone who lives well, who knows how to enjoy life. bon voyage Literal meaning: good trip. English has "Have a good trip," but Bon voyage is more elegant. brunette Literal meaning: small, dark-haired female. The French word brun, dark-haired, is what English really means by "brunette." The -ette suffix indicates that the subject is small and female. carte blanche Literal meaning: blank card. Free hand, ability to do whatever you want/need cerise Literal meaning: cherry. The French word for the fruit gives us the English word for the color. c'est la vie Literal meaning: that's life. Same meaning and usage in both languages chaise longue Literal meaning: long chair. In English, this is often mistakenly written as "chaise lounge" - which actually makes perfect sense. chargé d'affaires Literal meaning: charged with business.A substitute or replacement diplomat cheval-de-frise Literal meaning: Frisian horse. Barbed wire, spikes, or broken glass attached to wood or masonry and used to block access cheval glace Literal meaning: horse mirror. A long mirror set into a moveable frame chic Literal meaning: stylish. Chic sounds more chic than "stylish." coup de grâce Literal meaning: mercy blow. Deathblow, final blow, decisive stroke coup d'état Literal meaning: state blow. Overthrow of the government crème de cacao Literal meaning: cream of cacao. Chocolate-flavored liqueur crème de la crème Literal meaning: cream of the cream. Synonymous with the English expression "cream of the crop" – refers to the best of the best. crème de menthe Literal meaning: cream of mint. Mint-flavored liqueur crème fraîche Literal meaning: fresh cream. This is a funny term. Despite its meaning, crème fraîche is in fact slightly fermented, thickened cream. critique Literal meaning: critical, judgment. Critique is an adjective and noun in French, but a noun and verb in English; it refers to a critical review of something or the act of performing such a review. cuisine
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Literal meaning: kitchen, food style. In English, cuisine refers only to a particular type of food/cooking, such as French cuisine, Southern cuisine, etc. cul-de-sac Literal meaning: bottom of the bag. Dead-end street. (to be continued) Speaking of tongues http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/02/27/1077676965961.html 28-2-04 English is under pressure as the dominant world language of the future. Deborah Smith reports. It has been easy for native English speakers to become complacent. Isn't their language dominant in commerce, science and global relations? Aren't there hundreds of millions of people trying to master the language? All true. But in a few decades today's young people could be wishing they had learnt Mandarin, Hindi or Arabic, when these become the world's most common native tongues. The number of people growing up speaking English as a first language is in sharp decline, a new report says. And there's a sting to its popularity as a second language. The main impact of English in future will be to spawn generations of bilingual and multilingual people, says a leading British linguist, Dr David Graddol. And monolingual English speakers will find it difficult to participate in societies where multilingual people switch languages for routine tasks, he says. Graddol, a lecturer at the British Open University and a director of the publisher English Company, describes the present as an extraordinary moment in the history of language, predicting we are headed for "decades of rapid, and perhaps disorienting change, after which a new linguistic world order will emerge". By 2050, only 5 per cent of people will be native English speakers, down from about 7 per cent now and 9 per cent 50 years ago, Graddol says in an article published yesterday in the journal Science. Chinese will top the language table, with English dropping to fourth, behind Hindi and Arabic, and just ahead of Spanish. Rushing up behind will be Bengali, Tamil and Malay, the languages growing most rapidly at present. While a dozen or so languages jostle for the top spots, there will be decimation at the bottom. Up to 90 per cent of the 6000 smaller languages spoken today - mostly older rural tongues - are expected to become extinct in a century. "We may now be losing a language every day," he says. HOW we got to this point - even how we evolved the gift of the gab - is also becoming clearer under the gaze of science. Evidence is growing that the first language humans spoke may have been based on the clicking and rapid sucking noises now used to communicate by only 120,000 people in Africa. Studies of the evolution of languages suggest that clicks have deep roots, going back at least 10,000 years. Genetic studies of people also indicate click-speaking populations have a common ancestor who lived about 50,000 years ago, according to other reports in the journal. From one mother tongue many were born, as people colonised different places on the globe. Some languages, like Japanese and Icelandic, have been stable for centuries. Others like English have changed over centuries. The reasons can be as mundane as a mixed marriage. New research, for example, suggests that the transformation in English in the 11th and 12th century was sparked by Viking men living with Anglo-Saxon women. Global communication systems now make invasions old hat. To see evolution in action it is necessary only to watch Indian MTV, where a hybrid mix of English and Hindi is spoken. And while standards of written English used to be maintained by "linguistic gatekeepers" such as sub-editors, new technology and the fact that anyone can publish a magazine or contribute to a website, mean written English is now much more like the spoken word, says Graddol. Professor David Hall, head of linguistics at Macquarie University, says Graddol's research on the future of English is having a big influence on the way it is taught. The expectation that a student should aspire to speak as well as a native is under challenge. "Most dialogues in English are between two non-native speakers," Hall says. Someone learning English in Japan, for instance, is more likely to be speaking to another new to English than speaking to a native English speaker. English, along with computer skills, has become such a mainstream skill that in Asia, employers expect English to be spoken, so that Mandarin Chinese will become the new "must learn" language in the next decade, Graddol says. Hall says Australia has a big advantage in adjusting to the new world linguistic order, with so many migrants fluent in other languages. "They're a great resource".
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Young Australians should reflect on their geographic position, he says. As well as Chinese and Spanish, they should consider learning the rapidly growing languages of the neighbourhood, such as Malay, Japanese, Korean and Thai.

CONFUSABLE WORDS: serial - series You use both serial and series to talk about a ser of programmes for radio or television or asset of pieces of writing printed in different editions of a magazine or newspaper. A serial is a fictional story which is divided into parts. For example, a novel can be divided into parts and shown on television as a serial. (The novel has recently been dramatized a television serial). A series is a set of related programmes or pieces of writing. A series may be fictional, but each part is a complete story in itself. Many series are not fictional: for example a wildlife series on television isa set of programmes about nature. Note that the plural of series is also series. (a comedy series). RECOMMENDED URLS Dictionaries Varios Idiomas y temas http://www-math.uni-paderborn.de/dictionaries/Dictionaries.html http://www.ncta.org/html/archtop.html FRENCH TERMS ANDEXPRESSIONS COMMONLYUSED IN ENGLISH ( cont.) debutante Literal meaning: beginner. In French, débutante is the feminine form of débutant - beginner (noun) or beginning (adj). In both languages, it also refers to a young girl making her formal debut into society. Interestingly, this usage is not original in French; it was adopted back from English. Décolletage, décolleté Literal meaning: low neckline. lowered neckline. The first is a noun, the second an adjective, but both refer to low necklines on women's clothing. dégustation Literal meaning: tasting. The French word simply refers to the act of tasting, while in English "degustation" is used for a tasting event or party, as in wine or cheese tasting. déjà vu Literal meaning: already seen. This is a grammatical structure in French, as in "Je l'ai déjà vu"=> I've already seen it. It can also disparage a style or technique that has already been done, as in "Son style est déjà vu" => His style is not original. In English, déjà vu refers to the scientific phenomenon of feeling like you have already seen or done something when you're sure that you haven't. demimonde Literal meaning: half world. 1. A marginal or disrespectful group . 2. Prostitutes and/or kept women. demitasse Literal meaning: half cup. Refers to a small cup of espresso or other strong coffee. Démodé Literal meaning: out of fashion. Same meaning in both languages: outmoded, out of fashion. de rigueur Literal meaning: of rigueur. Socially or culturally obligatory. dernier cri Literal meaning: last cry. The newest fashion or trend. de trop Literal meaning: of too much. Excessive, superfluous. double entendre Literal meaning: double hearing. A word play or pun. For example, you're looking at a field of sheep and you say "How are you (ewe)?" du jour Literal meaning: of the day. "Soup du jour" is nothing more than an elegant-sounding version of "soup of the day."
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eau de toilette Literal meaning: toilet water. Toilet here does not refer to a commode; see toilette, below. Eau de toilette is a very weak perfume. encore Literal meaning: again. A simple adverb in French, "encore" in English refers to an additional performance, usually requested with audience applause. enfant terrible Literal meaning: terrible child. Refers to a troublesome or embarrassing person within a group (of artists, thinkers, etc). en garde Literal meaning: on guard. Warning that one should be on his/her guard, ready for an attack (originally in fencing). en masse Literal meaning: in mass. In a group, all together. en route Literal meaning: on route. On the way. en suite Literal meaning: in sequence. Part of a set, together. esprit de corps Literal meaning: group spirit. Similar to team spirit or morale. (to be continued) Doctoral Degrees The doctoral degree is designed to train research scholars and, in many cases, future college and university faculty members. Receipt of a doctoral degree certifies that the student has demonstrated capacity as a trained research scholar in a specific discipline. At the doctoral level, the Ph.D. (doctor of philosophy) is the most common degree awarded in academic disciplines. Other doctoral degrees are awarded primarily in professional fields, such as Education (Ed.D. or Doctor of Education) and Business Administration (D.B.A. or Doctor of Business Administration). Doctoral programs involve advanced coursework, seminars, and the writing of a dissertation that describes the student's own original research, completed under the supervision of a faculty adviser. A comprehensive examination is given, usually after three to five years of study and completion of all coursework, and when the student and adviser agree that the student is ready. This exam is designed to test the student's ability to use knowledge gained through courses and independent study in a creative and original way. Students must demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of their chosen field of study. Successful completion of this examination marks the end of the student's coursework and the beginning of concentration on research. The Ph.D. degree is awarded to those students who complete an original piece of significant research, write a dissertation describing that research, and successfully defend their work before a panel of faculty members who specialize in the discipline. This may take an additional two to three years. To earn a doctoral degree, therefore, may take anywhere from five to eight years beyond the bachelor's degree, depending on the field of study. In the U.S, you will find a variety of nontraditional doctoral programs; these programs might have very different types of requirements from the traditional programs. Prospective students should be sure of what is required to enter any program they are considering, and what is required to obtain the degree. This information is usually available from university catalogs and Web sites or directly from individual departments.

11/2004
CONFUSABLE WORDS: country – nation - state A country is a geographical area recognized as a separate political unit. Most countries have their own independent governments. ( In the last few days there have been riots all round the country). You use nation to refer to a country that has political independence, its own government, and its own
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social structures. Nation is used in a more formal language, and is often used to talk about the people of a country. You do not use nation simply to refer to a place. You use country instead. ( Almost every western nation has had its era of revolution or civil war.). You use state to refer to a country when you are considering it in terms of its political organization and structure. ( The Latin American stares maintained their independence. States ca also be administrative areas within a country. RECOMMENDED URLS http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~ling215/NewWords/page1.html http://www.onelook.com/ FRENCH TERMS ANDEXPRESSIONS COMMONLYUSED IN ENGLISH ( cont.) fait accompli Literal meaning: done deed. Fait accompli seems more fatalistic to me than done deed, which is so factual. faux Literal meaning: false, fake. I once saw an ad for "genuine faux pearls." No worries that those pearls might be real, I guess - you were guaranteed fake ones. :-) faux pas Literal meaning: false step, trip. Something that should not be done, a foolish mistake. femme fatale Literal meaning: deadly woman. An alluring, mysterious woman who seduces men into compromising situations. fiancé Literal meaning: fiancée. engaged person, betrothed. Note that fiancé refers to a man and fiancée to a woman. film noir Literal meaning: black movie. Black is used here in the sense of morbid or depressing, as in black humour. finale Literal meaning: final. In French, this can refer to either the final in sport (e.g., quarter-final, semi-final) or the finale of a play. In English, it can only mean the latter. fin de siècle Literal meaning: end of the century. Hyphenated in English, fin-de-siècle refers to the end of the 19th century. fleur-de-lis, fleur-de-lys Literal meaning: flower of lily. A type of iris or an emblem in the shape of an iris with three petals. folie à deux Literal meaning: craziness for two. Mental disorder which occurs simultaneously in two people with a close relationship or association. force majeure Literal meaning: greater force. Refers to superior/greater force, or to an unexpected or uncontrollable event. gamine Literal meaning: playful,little girl. Refers to an impish or playful girl/woman. gauche Literal meaning: left, awkward. Tactless, lacking social grace. genre Literal meaning: type. Used mostly in art and film - "I really like this genre..." haute couture Literal meaning: high sewing. High-class, fancy (and expensive) clothing styles. haute cuisine Literal meaning: high cooking. High-class, fancy (and expensive) cooking or food. hors de combat
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Literal meaning: out of combat. Out of action. hors d'oeuvre Literal meaning: outside of work. An appetizer. Oeuvre here refers to the main work (course), so hors d'oeuvre simply means something besides the main course. idée fixe Literal meaning: set idea. Fixation, obsession. je ne sais quoi Literal meaning: I don't know what. Used to indicate a "certain something," as in "I really like Ann. She has a certain je ne sais quoi that I find very appealing." joie de vivre Literal meaning: joy of living. The quality in people who live life to the fullest. laissez-faire Literal meaning: let it be. A policy of non-interference. A WORD A DAY... KEEPS IGNORANCE AWAY!! Dunkirk n 1: a retreat to avoid total defeat *2: a crisis situation that requires a desperate last effort to forestall certain failure *Legislators feared a recession, and they hoped that if that economic Dunkirk struck they would be able to find a quick solution to avert financial disaster. Garrison finish n: a finish in which the winner comes from behind at the end The spectators leaped to their feet as the gray colt raced from the back of the pack, passed the leader, and came in first in a breathtaking Garrison finish. small beer n 1: weak or inferior beer *2: something of small importance : trivia *The misspelling of my name in the graduation program was small beer compared with the same misspelling on my diploma. flummox v: to confuse On our way back to our hotel, we took a wrong turn somewhere and got completely flummoxed among the narrow alleys, all of which began to look the same. quixotic adj *1: foolishly impractical especially in the pursuit of ideals 2: capricious, unpredictable *Sean went off into the Alaskan wilderness with a quixotic plan to be totally self-reliant but ended up being rescued by an Inuit family.

12/2004
CONFUSABLE WORDS: please, thank you, thanks You say please when you are politely asking for something or asking someone to do something. (Can I have my book back please?). You also use please when accepting an offer in a polite way. (Would you like a cup of tea? – Yes, please.) You say thank you or thanks to show that you are grateful for something that someone has given you or done for you. Thanks is more informal than thank you. (Thank you for a delicious lunch). You also say thank you or thanks when accepting an offer, because you are grateful for the offer. (Help yourself to sugar. – Thanks). You say no, thank you or no, thanks when you are refusing an offer in a polite way. (Would you like some milk? – No thanks / thank you). You can also refuse an offer by using thank you or thanks with a phrase such as “I am all right or I’m fine.” NB: Note that you do not use “ Thank you “ or “ Thanks” on its own to refuse an offer. RECOMMENDED URLS
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Universidad de Oviedo: ETS Ingenieros de Minas: http://www.etsimo.uniovi.es/links/idiomas.html The Phrase Finder: phrases, sayings, quotes and clichés http://phrases.shu.ac.uk/ Dictionaries: http://stommel.tamu.edu/~baum/hyperref.html#dictionaries NEWSPAPERS.COM: http://www.newspapers.com FRENCH TERMS ANDEXPRESSIONS COMMONLYUSED IN ENGLISH (cont.) maître d', maître d'hôtel Literal meaning: master of, master of hotel . The former is more common in English, which is strange since it is incomplete: "The 'master of' will show you to your table." mal de mer Literal meaning: sickness of sea. Seasickness matinée Literal meaning: morning. In English, refers to the day's first showing of a movie or play. Can also refer to a midday romp with one's lover. mot juste Literal meaning: right word. Exactly the right word or expression. nom de plume Literal meaning: pen name. No longer used in French. née Literal meaning: born. Used in genealogy to refer to a woman's maiden name: Anne Miller née (or nee) Smith. nouveau riche Literal meaning: new rich. Disparaging term for someone who has recently come into money. papier mâché Literal meaning: mashed paper. Used for art par excellence Literal meaning: by excellence. Quintessential, preeminent, the best of the best petite Literal meaning: small, short. It may sound chic, but petit is simply the feminine French adjective "short." petit-four Literal meaning: little oven Small dessert, especially cake pièce de résistance Literal meaning: piece of stamina. In French, this originally referred to the main course - the test of your stomach's stamina. In both languages, it now refers to an outstanding accomplishment or the final part of something - a project, a meal, etc. pied-à-terre Literal meaning: foot on ground. A temporary or secondary place of residence. protégé Literal meaning: protected. Someone whose training is sponsored by an influential person. raison d'être Literal meaning: reason for being. Purpose, justification for existing rendez-vous Literal meaning: go to. In French, this refers to a date or an appointment (literally, it is the verb se rendre - to go - in the imperative); in English we can use it as a noun or a verb (let's rendez-vous at 8pm). repartee Literal meaning: quick, accurate response. The French repartie gives us the English "repartee," with the same meaning of a swift, witty, and "right on" retort. risqué Literal meaning: risked. Suggestive, overly provocative roman-fleuve Literal meaning: novel river. A long, multi-volume novel which presents the history of several generations of a family or community. In both French and English, saga tends to be used more. rouge
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Literal meaning: red. The English refers to a reddish cosmetic or metal/glass-polishing powder, and can be a noun or a verb. RSVP Literal meaning: respond please. This abbreviation stands for Répondez, s'il vous plaît, which means that "Please RSVP" is redundant. sang-froid Literal meaning: cold blood. The ability to maintain one's composure. sans Literal meaning: without. Used mainly in academia, although it's also seen in the font style "sans serif" => without decorative flourishes. savoir-faire Literal meaning: knowing how to do. Synonymous with tact or social grace. soi-disant Literal meaning: self saying. What one claims about oneself; so-called, alleged soigné Literal meaning: taken care of. 1. Sophisticated, elegant, fashionable. 2. Well-groomed, polished, refined. soirée Literal meaning: evening. In English, refers to an elegant party. soupçon Literal meaning: suspicion. Used figuratively like hint: There's just a soupçon of garlic in the soup. souvenir Literal meaning: memory, keepsake. A memento tableau vivant Literal meaning: living picture. A scene made up of silent, motionless actors table d'hôte Literal meaning: host table. 1. A table for all guests to sit together . 2. A fixed-price meal with multiple courses. tête-à-tête Literal meaning: head to head. A private talk or visit with another person toilette Literal meaning: toilet. In French, this refers both to the toilet itself and anything related to toiletries; thus the expression "to do one's toilette" - brush hair, do makeup, etc. See eau de toilette, above. touché Literal meaning: touched. Originally used in fencing, now equivalent to "you got me." tour de force Literal meaning: turn of strength. Something which takes a great deal of strength or skill to accomplish. trompe l'oeil Literal meaning: trick the eye. A painting style which uses perspective to trick the eye into thinking it is real. In French, trompe l'oeil can also refer in general to artifice and trickery. vis-à-vis (de) Literal meaning: face to face. In French, vis-à-vis must be followed by the preposition de. Used in English to mean "compared to" or "in relation with": His feelings vis-à-vis my ideas are irrelevant. vol-au-vent Literal meaning: flight of the wind. In both French and English, a vol-au-vent is a very light pastry shell filled with meat or fish with sauce. French has also given English scores of words in the domains of ballet and cooking. The literal meanings of the French words are (in parentheses). Ballet terms: barre (bar), chaîné (chained), chassé (chased), développé (developed), effacé (shaded), pas de deux (two step), pirouette (turn), plié (bent), relevé (lifted).... Cooking terms: blanch (from blanchir => to bleach), sauté (fried over high heat), fondue (melted), purée (crushed), flambée (burned).... (The end.)

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¿Cuántas veces hemos oído en la radio, en la televisión, en una clase, en un discurso, en el autobús, en la oficina o en casa expresiones y palabras que nos suenan fatal? ¿Cuántas veces nos hemos preguntado cómo es posible que se hable tan mal, que se maltrate nuestra lengua española con tal impunidad? ¿Cuántas veces cometemos errores y no lo sabemos y cuando no estamos seguros en donde buscar resolver tantas dudas? No se pierdan este sitio en la red... ¡se sorprenderan!

http://cvc.cervantes.es/alhabla/museo_horrores/museo_001.htm Indice de temas:
A nivel de Duodécimo/decimosegundo/doceavo Superlativo Dar un giro de 360 grados Se baraja la hipótesis Acuerdos puntuales Deber/deber de Álgido Porque/por que/porqué/por qué Dequeísmo/queísmo Uso de las letras mayúsculas Nominar, nominación, nominado Aun/aún En loor de multitudes Destornillarse de risa Camisa a rayas, cocina a gas Adelante/delante Lívido Enfrentar/enfrentarse Así mismo, asimismo y a sí mismo Acentuación de las palabras compuestas *Dijistes, *vinistes Éste, este, esto Alegréme o me alegré Detrás de mí/*detrás mío Accesible/asequible En breves minutos/Tras largas horas Acentuación de monosílabos: ¿fue o fué? *Habían muchas personas Halla, haya, aya Cualesquiera/*cualquieras Ortografía de la letra j: ¿garage o garaje? Leísmo, laísmo y loísmo Cuanto más/*contra más Por el contrario/*por contra Imperativo ¿A Coruña o La Coruña? ¿London o Londres?
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Training & Translations

¿Impreso o imprimido? ¿Freído o frito? *En base a ¿Guion o guión? Remarcar ¿Cayóse o cayose? Deleznable y despreciable Israelí e israelita Interfecto Inicializar ¿Insalud o Insálud? A las doce del mediodía/A las doce de la medianoche ¿3 de enero de 2000/3 de enero del 2000? *Afrentar muchas dificultades Jugar un papel importante Policía de Denver: «No cruses la línea» ¿Policía local o Policía Local? ¿«Informar de que» o «Informar que»?

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Training & Translations

I Ti (que no tí) ¿Hábitat o hábitats para el plural? Otra vez sobre «A las doce del mediodía»/«A las doce de la media noche» Sino y si no... Agua en el agua *Élite o elite De los sus ojos Adonde, a donde, adónde Inflación de corrección Prever es ver con antelación Oír o escuchar ¿Puede un futbolista romperse un tobillo ajeno?
Source: Cobuild Collins – confusbale words y varios.

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