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Coverage: I. Cellular Transport II. ADP to ATP III. Leaf Anatomy IV. Photosynthesis I. Cellular Transport Types of Cellular Transport 1. Diffusion concentration of a solution: MASS of solute (g) VOLUME of solution (L) solution: • 2≤ substances evenly mixed • molecules move constantly • more from a high concentration to lesser concentrated area (DIFFUSION) c/e of diffusion • substances move across cell membrane (no energy required) • equilibrium is reached (solute concentration – same) • organisms obtain oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide of cells 2. Protein-Mediated passive transport simple • unassisted diffusion of a specific solute through a transport protein • substances can cross anywhere across the membrane • solute’s net movement is towards the low concentration facilitated • membrane proteins facilitate ir help the diffusion of glucose across the membrane • net movement occurs when there is a higher concentration on one side

High K+ 3. higher solute • HYPOTONIC • below strength. equal solute ADP to ATP Adenosine Triphosphate • 3 phosphate groups • ribose sugar • adenine base • basic energy source of cells TYPES OF NUTRITION Autotrophic – organisms that make their own food II. .active • substances move from low to high Na+-K+ Pump (sodium-potassium) • animal cell • requires energy to move ions against the forces of diffusion • low NA+. lower solute • ISOTONIC • below strength. Bulk Transports endocytosis • taking in materials • PHAGOCYTOSIS – cell eating • PINOCYTOSIS – cell drinking • pocket forms a vacuole exocytosis • removing materials • vacuole membrane fuses with cell membrane (combines) 4. Osmosis • diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane • water will cross the membrane until solute concentrations are equal on both sides • direction determined by difference in total solute concentration • TONICITY • the ability if a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water • depends on relative concentration of solute on either sides of the membrane • types: • HYPERTONIC • above strength.

Leaf Anatomy function of the leaf: • facilitate photosynthesis • contain chlorophyll • obtain carbon dioxide and water • get rid of oxygen produced • captures sunlight • export glucose produced to other parts of the plant internal anatomy • epidermal layers – prevents exessive water loss • cuticle – covers the epidermis and helps prevent water loss • stoma – allows gas exchange between the internal part of the leaf and its environment • guard cells – regulate stoma shape and changes pore size. which helps regulate movement of water and gases into and out of the leaf • xylem – transports water and mineral salts absorbed by the root • phloem – transports organic products of photosynthesis away from the leaf • veins – contain both thick-walled xylem vessels .Heterotrophic – organisms that obtain energy from foods they consume Adenosine Diphosphate • 2 phosphate groups III.

a mixture of different wavelengths of light Plants gather energy pigments – light absorbing molecules chlorophyll absorbs blue-violet and red light best. travels to the earth in the form of light. Photosynthesis .Jan Ingenhousz – plants need sunlight to make oxygen Photosythesis Equation 6CO2 + 12H20  (light) C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O Light and Pigments The sun: main source of energy for light on earth.a natural process wherein plants use sunlight energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbihydrates History . part of the plant’s vascular tissue • mesophyll – where photosynthesis in the lead occurs .and thinner-walled phloem.Jan Van Helmont – plants get most mass from water .SPONGY – also has chloroplasts but the main role is to increase surface area for gaseous exchange IV.Joseph Priestley – plants release oxygen .PALISADE – contains lots of chloroplasts to receive maximum amount of sunlight .Aristotle – plants require food . reflecting green Chloroplasts – absorbs light – has chlorophyll – FUNCTION: organelle of photosynthesis – : converts carbon dioxide to carbohydrates – STRUCTURE: 5-10 um long – : made up of 3 types of membrane bounded by outer and inner and thylakoid – INSIDE THE CHLOROPLASTS – STROMA: fluid substance surrounding grana (stack of thylakoids) – OUTER MEMBRANE: freely permeable – GRANUM: contain clusters of chlorophyll and other pigments and proteins – PHOTOSYSTEMS: capture sunlight energy – INNER MEMBRANE: contains many transporters that regulate the passage of sugars and proteins in and out of the .

+ H+  NADPH w/ e. carrier)  2e. cell LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION: (in the thylakoid) .in the chlorophyll  NADP+ (spec.chloroplasts AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS – the light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy (provide ATP & NADPH) – the calvin cycle makes sugar from CO2 – ATP generated by the light reactions provide the energy for sugar synthesis – the NADPH produced by the light reactions provides the electrons for the conversion of CO2 to glucose CONVERSION of NADP+ to NADPH sunlight  e.

LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION – happens in the stroma and doesn’t require light – uses ATP and NADPH to produce glucose – named after the American scientists Melvin Calvin CALVIN CYCLE STAGES – Carbon Fixation – 6 CO2 molecules + 6 5-C molecules = 12 3-C molecules – conversion of CO2 – 6-Carbon Sugar Produced – 5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated – 10 3-C molecules are converted back to 6 5-C molecules + CO2 molecules CO2 + RUBP (connected by RUBISCO)  3-PGA 3-PGA + ATP + NADPH  G3P .

001% (hypotonic) Xylem and Phloem affects the thickness of a plant leaf – the more nutrients.Factors affecting Photosynthesis – amount of water – light intensity – carbon dioxide concentration – temperature THINGS THAT ARE EXPECTED TO COME OUT IN THE LT Autotrophic activity – converts CO2 and H2O into complex energyrich molecules Photosynthesis waste – Oxygen. which would cause the cell to burst?  0. Sugar Breaks down high-energy bonds in ATP – hydrolysis Light Dependent Reaction is energy created for ATP synthesis – electron transport Exergonic – receives / stores energy Endergonic – gives off energy If a olant cell has a solute concentration of 0.08%. the thicker Glucose transported by phloem Water transported by xylem NADPH Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Hydrogen .

Salonga .By Frederick Ian D.