You are on page 1of 12

SECTION XII.

SPECIFICATIONS Introduction North America Other Standards Beyond Specifications References Introduction The purpose of standard specifications for Ductile Iron castings is to provide a body of information which can be used with confidence by both designer and foundry to select, define and agree upon a set of specific properties which will ensure that the castings meet the intended use of the designer. The use of standard specifications simplifies the purchase of castings from multiple suppliers because it defines a standard casting whose properties meet the designer's needs, regardless of where, or how the castings were produced. Specifications should be chosen carefully and used sparingly to ensure that they adequately define the designer's needs without adding superfluous constraints which needlessly restrict the suppliers' options, complicate the casting process and increase the cost of the casting. It is the responsibility of both the designer and the foundry to be aware of the role and the limitations of specifications and to agree upon a specification that provides the optimum ratio of performance to cost. It is up to the designer to specify a set of properties - mechanical, physical, chemical or dimensional - which best suit the casting to its purpose. Once the specification has been selected, the foundry must ensure that all castings delivered meet or exceed the specification. The raw materials and production methods used by the foundry to provide conforming castings are not normally restricted by the designer or the specification unless the specification includes such instructions, or the designer and foundry agree to append additional instructions to a specification. Such instructions should be used judiciously, because they almost invariably increase the casting cost and restrict the number of foundries which can provide competitive bids.

North America The ASTM has five standards covering Ductile Iron castings. ASTM A 536 is the most frequently used, covering the general engineering grades of Ductile Iron. The other standards cover austenitic and special Ductile Iron applications. The ASTM has issued in 1990 a new specification defining the properties of Austempered Ductile Iron. The SAE standard J434 is commonly used for specifying automotive Ductile Iron castings. In an attempt to create a single, comprehensive system for designating metals and alloys the ASTM and SAE have jointly developed the Unified Numbering System (UNS). While not itself a specification, the UNS designation is gaining some degree of acceptance in North America as a useful means of simplifying and correlating the various existing specifications. The UNS designations for Ductile Irons, crossreferenced to the corresponding ASTM, AMS, SAE and MIL specifications, are shown below.
UNS numbers and corresponding American specifications Standard UNS ASTM A395 ASTM A536 ASTM A476 ASTM A716 AMS SAE J434 MIL-I-24137 DQ & T D4018 D4512 (A) ****** 5315 D5506 5316 F3000 F32800 60-40-18 60-40-18 65-4512 80-5506 80-60-03 Numbers/Grades F32900 F33100 F33101 F33800 F34100

UNS ASTM A439 ASTM A536

F34800

F36200

F43000 F43001 F43002 F43003 D-2 D-2B D-2C C-3

F43004 C-3A

100-7003

120-9002

50 4.00 28. min.00 1.08 Phosphorus. the designer should obtain a complete copy of the current issue from the specifying body to familiarize himself with both the properties specified and the conditions under which they are to be measured.SAE J434 D7003 UNS ASTM A439 ASTM A571 AMS MIL-I-24137 F43005 D-4 F43006 D-5 F43007 F43010 F43020 F43021 D-5B D-2M F43030 5395 (B) (C) Other Standards This section also summarizes the national standards for Ductile Iron for the other major industrialized countries and the international ISO standard.00-2.90 1.00-36.00-32.The Ductile Iron as represented by the test specimens shall conform to the following requiremenets for tensile properties: Tensile strength. Standard specifications for Ductile Iron are normally based on mechanical properties.00 max 0.00 1.00 34.00-24.25 Additions of 0.60 1. min.75 2.00 1.60 1. Not intentionally added.08 B 2.08 2.08 Nickel Chromium A B 18.00 max 0.08 B D-4 D-5 D-5B D-5S 2.70-1.50 1.80 1.00 1.The hardness of the heat-treated Ductile Iron as represented by the test specimens and castings shall be within the following limits: HB.00 max 0. DUCTILE IRON SPECIFICATIONS ASTM A 395 FERRITIC DUCTILE IRON PRESSURE-RETAINING CASTINGS FOR USE AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES This standard specifies chemical.80 1. which are based on composition.25 3.00 0.00-37. % Total carbon.00 28.00 34.60 5. Mechanical property values are given in the units normal to the particular specifying body.00 Silicon Manganese 1. and others valid only within a specific technical or commercial organization. min.80 1.00-32.40 1.00 0. there are also many similarities between specifications.00 1. Mechanical Requirements Element Type D-2 D-2B D-2C D-3 D-3A D-4 D-5 D-5B D-5S .00 18. the EuroNorm standard EN will become increasingly important with the formation of the European Community.00-2.00 max 0.50 o 0. psi (MPa) Elongation in 2 in.00-2. % 3. metric non-SI.00-2. 3000-kgf load 143 to 187 ASTM A439 AUSTENITIC DUCTILE IRON CASTINGS Chemical Requirements Type Element D-2A D-2B D-2C D-3A D-3A Composition.00-22.08 B 2. max.00-3.00-3. physical.00 max 0.00 28.00-36.08 B 2. and its replacement. or 50 mm min.40 1.80-2.50 1.00 0. some national. % Phosphorus.75-2.40 0.00-6.00 34. There are many additional standards for Ductile Iron. psi (MPa) Yield strength.90-5.30 4.08 2. except for those defining austenitic Ductile Iron.08 Hardness: . While each specification may have its own distinguishing characteristics. max 0.50-3. This standard.00 2.00 21. max.0% of molybdenum will increase the mechanical properties above 800 F (425 C).75-4.7 to 1.50-5.08 B 2. Before using any specification. 60 000 (414) 40 000 (276) 18% Total carbon.50-3.50 0. Conversions for SI.25 0.10 max o 2. Chemical Requirements The castings shall conform to the following requirements for chemical composition (Note 3): Physical Requirements Tensile Properties . and hardness requirements.75-2. % Silicon.00-1.50-3.00-22.50-maxB 2. and non-metric units are given at the end of this section to assist in comparing specifications.70-1. max 3.80 1.00 max 0.00-32.

75-4. min..0 7. min. psi Yield strength.0 --30 (207) 30 (201) 30 (207) 20.05 Tensile Requirements Test Coupon Section Thickness Tensile strength. min. ksi (MPa) Yield strength (0.08 0. % Silicon. min. min. % 60 000 414 40 000 276 18 65 000 448 45 000 310 12 Grade Grade Grade 80/55/06 100/70/03 120/90/02 80 000 552 55 000 379 6. MPa Yield strength.0 .0 3 in. min.0 10. min. 3000 kg 65 30 30 121-171 Class 2 60 25 25 111-171 1. or 50mm. max. or 50 mm.0 10 139-202 148-211 121-171 139-202 131-193 202-273 131-185 139-193 131-193 ASTM A 476 DUCTILE IRON CASTINGS FOR PAPER MILL DRYER ROLLS Chemical Requirements The castings shall conform to the following chemical requirements: Total carbon. min. ksi Yield Strength 0.Properties Tensile strength. min. ksi Elongation in 2 in.5-2. % 2. min. min.0 120 000 827 90 000 621 2.5 inclusive. min.0-24. % Brinell Hardness. max. min. min. MPa Elongation in 2 in.0 6. % The castings shall have a carbon equivalent of 3.8 to 4. min. % Phoshorus. min. ksi (MPa) Elongation 2 in. psi Tensile strength. 3. % Sulfur.2 percent offset).0 ASTM A 536 DUCTILE IRON CASTINGS Tensile Requirements Grade Grade 60/40/18 65/45/12 Tensile strength.0 6. 80 60 1. psi Tensile strength. % 60 000 415 42 000 290 10 70 000 485 50 000 345 5 Grade 80/60/03 80 000 555 60 000 415 3 ASTM A 571 AUSTENITIC DUCTILE IRON CASTINGS FOR PRESSURECONTAINING PARTS SUITABLE FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE SERVICE This standard specifies that all castings shall be heat treated by annealing between 1600 and 1800oF for 1 hour per inch of casting section and furnace cooling.2-2. min. 80 60 3. psi Yield strength. min. % Brinell hardness (300 kg) 58 (400) 58 (400) 58 (400) 55 (379) 55 (379) 60 (414) 55 (379) 55 (379) 65 (449) 30 (207) 30 (207) 28 (193) 30 (207) 30 (207) 8. MPa Elongation in 2 in. min.0 100 000 689 70 000 483 3. MPa Yield strength. max.7 A Mechanical Property RequirementsA Class 1 Tensile Strength. ksi Elongation. ksi Yield strength.0 3. Chemical Requirements Element Total carbon Silicon Manganese Nickel Composition. % 1 in.50 3.0 0. min.5 21. or 50 mm.0 Tensile Requirements for Special Applications Grade Grade 60/42/10 70/50/05 Tensile strength.2% (offset).0 20.

. Rm1 min.08 max Charpy V-notch. Min. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Complete specifications may be obtained from: American Society for Testing Materials. F (20 deg. C). ft-lbf min. Proof stress. 1916 Race Street.. average 3 tests min. NOTE: SAE specification for Ductile Iron casting and austempered Ductile Iron casting are currently being revised so they were not available as of the time of this printing. SAE J434 FEB2004 AUTOMOTIVE DUCTILE IRON CASTINGS Yield strength. MPa Ksi 80 550 150 1050 175 1200 200 1400 230 1600 1300 1100 185 850 155 700 125 100 Elongation Percent 10 10 7 7 4 4 1 1 *** *** *** 35 *** 60 25 80 45 100 60 Impact Energy* Joules Ft-lb 75 Hardness BHN** 269-321 269-321 302-363 302-363 341-444 341-444 388-477 388-477 444-555 444-555 Grade 125/80/10 850/550/10 150/100/7 1050/700/7 175/125/4 1200/850/4 200/155/1 1400/1100/1 230/185/1600/1300/* MPa Ksi 125 850 Values obtained using unnotched Charpy bars tested at 72 deg.2 min. Yield Str. Philadelphia. ** Hardness is not a mandatory specification and is shown for information only. Heat-treated condition ASTM A 897 A897 M AUSTEMPERED DUCTILE IRON Min.. 345 East 47th Street. N/mm2 275 ksi Tensile strength. Rpo. Minimum properties are specified by agreement between manufacturer and purchaser. individual test A 15 12 20 15 For castings with sections under 1/4 in. . 90 Elongation % 18 Hardness HBW (Mpa) 143170 (14021667) Structure 58 40 <=20mm 120 Ferrite 450 500 550 700 800 65 73 80 102 116 310 345 380 450 480 45 50 55 65 70 <=20mm <=20mm <=20mm <=20mm 80 54 40 27 60 40 30 20 12 6 4 3 2 156-217 (1530Ferrite-Pearlite 2128) 187-229 (1834Ferrite-Pearlite 2246) 217-269 (2128Pearlite-Ferrite 2638) 241-302 (2363Pearlite 2961) 255-311 (2501Pearlite or Tempered Martensite 3050) Range specified by agreement Tempered Martensite DQ&T A wide variety of properties are possible. NY 10017. PA 19103. The mechanical properties are given for information only. Grade D400 (D4018) D450 (D4512) D500 (D5506) D550 (D5504) D700 (D7003) D800 N/mm2 400 ksi Relative Wall Thickness Charpy Impact Energy Typical Impact Values Joules ft. New York . *** Elongation and impact specifications are not required.90%.-lb.20 max 0. Society of Automotive Engineers Inc. NY 10017. 485 Lexington Ave. * These irons are primarily specified on hardness and structure. it may be desirable to adjust the carbon upwards to a maximum of 2. New York. The values in the table are the average of the three highest of four tested samples.Chromium Phosphorus A 0. **Quenched and tempered grade. hardness to be agreed between supplier and purchaser. Tensile Str.

Hardness HB 341 min. 12 min. 10 min. 1200 min. o C FCD 400-18A Over 30. 1400 min. 5 min. 200 to 330 Mechanical properties of cast-on test sample Chief thickness of Symbol of grade iron casting mm Tensile strength N/mm2 Yield strength N/mm2 Elongation % Charpy absorption energy (Information reference) Test Temp. JAPAN JIS G 5502-1995 SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE IRON CASTINGS Mechanical properties of separately cast test sample Symbol of grade Tensile strength N/mm2 Yield strength N/mm2 Elongation % Charpy absorption energy (Information reference) Test Temp. 600 min. 900 min. 220 min. 2 min. Elongation % 4 min.JAPAN JIS G 5503-1995 AUSTEMPERED SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE IRON CASTINGS Mechanical properties of separately cast test sample Symbol of grade FCAD 900-4 FCAD 900-8 FCAD 1000-5 FCAD 1200-2 FCAD 1400-1 Tensile strength N/mm2 900 min. 18 min. 500 min. 7 min. 370 min. Individual Hardness Matrix value J HB structure 11 min. 1 min. 23 ± 5 -40 ± 2 23 ± 5 -20 ± 2 - Mean value of 3 pieces J 17 min. 700 min. 9 min. Matrix structure Ferrite 130 to 180 140 to 210 150 to 230 170 to 270 180 to 300 Ferrite + pearlite Pearlite + ferrite Pearlite Pearlite or tempered structure FCD 800-2 800 min. 14 min. 700 min. 15 min. 420 min. 60 390 min. 11 min. 600 min. - Hardness HB 150 max. 1100 min. 15 min. 480 min. 12 min. 1000 min. 350 min. 23 ± 5 Mean value of 3 pieces J 14 min. 9 min. 400 min. 120 to 180 Ferrite . 3 min. up to and incl. 22 min. 900 min. 250 min. 2 min. oC FCD 350-22 FCD 350-22L FCD 400-18 FCD 400-18L FCD 400-15 FCD 450-10 FCD 500-7 FCD 600-3 FCD 700-2 450 min. 8 min. - Individual value J 14 min. 320 min. 280 min. Yield strength N/mm2 600 min. 250 min. 401 min.

360 min. 600 min. 2 min. Symbol EN-GJS-350-22-LT1) EN-GJS-350-22-LT EN-GJS-350-22-LT EN-GJS-400-18-LT1) EN-GJS-400-18-LT EN-GJS-400-18-LT EN-GJS-450-15 EN-GJS-450-10 EN-GJS-500-7 EN-GJS-600-3 EN-GJS-700-2 EN-GJS-800-2 EN-GJS-900-2 2) 2) Number EN-JS1015 EN-JS1014 EN-JS1010 EN-JS1025 EN-JS1024 EN-JS1020 EN-JS1030 EN-JS1040 EN-JS1050 EN-JS1060 EN-JS1070 EN-JS1080 EN-JS1090 22 22 22 18 18 18 15 10 7 3 2 2 2 . 12 in. 450 min. 130 to 230 Ferrite + pearlite 420 min. 60 Over 60. up to and incl. 240 min. 12 min. 15 min. 60 Over 60. 200 FCD 400-18AL Over 30. 7 min. 200 FCD 500-7A Over 30. up to and incl. 1 min. 160 to 270 Pearlite + ferrite 550 min. up to and incl. 250 min. up to and incl. 200 370 min. up to and incl. 300 min. 10 min. up to and incl. - - - 370 min. 390 min. up to and incl. 7 min. 390 min. up to and incl. 200 FCD 600-3A Over 30. 12 min. 220 220 220 240 250 250 250 310 320 370 420 480 600 Elongation A % min. 9 min. -20 ± 2 370 min.Over 60. 240 min. 60 Over 60. 350 350 350 400 400 400 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 0. 290 min. 250 min. 60 Over 60. 340 min. 12 min.2% proof stress Rp0. 200 FCD 400-15A Over 30. EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1563 : 1997 SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE CAST IRONS Mechanical properties measured on test pieces machined from separately cast samples Material designation Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 min. 5 min.2 N/mm2 min. up to and incl. 15 min. 240 min.

The values for these maerials apply to castings cast in sand moulds of comparable thermal diffusivity. NOTE 4. the material designation is in accordance with EN 1560. Whatever the method used for obtaining the castings.2 N/mm2 Elongation A % Symbol EN-JS1029 EN-JS1032 . the grades are based on the mechanical properties measured on test pieces taken from samples separately cast in a sand mould or a mould of comparable thermal diffusivity. Subject to amendments to be agreed upon in the order. NOTE 3. (23 ± 5) oC Symbol Number Mean value from 3 tests 17 14 Minimum impact resistance values (in J) At (-20 ± 2) oC Mean value from 3 tests Individual value At (-40 ± 2) oC Mean value from 3 tests Individual value Individual value EN-GJS350-22-Lt1) EN-GJS350-22-Rt2) EN-GJS400-18-Lt1) EN-GJS400-18-Lt2) 1) 2) EN-JS1015 EN-JS1014 EN-JS1025 EN-JS1024 14 11 12 - 9 - 12 - 9 - Lt for low temperature. 22 18 15 22 18 15 22 0. Minimum impact resistance values measured on V-notch test pieces machines from separately cast samples Material designation At room temp. 220 210 200 220 210 200 220 min. 1N/mm2 is equivalent to 1 MPa. EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1563 : 1997 (continued) Mechanical properties measured on test pieces machined from separately cast samples Material designation Relevant wall thickness t mm tensile strength Rm N/mm2 min. the material designation is in accordance with EN 1560. Whatever the method used for obtaining the castings. NOTE 3. NOTE 1. Subject to amendments to be agreed upon in the order. NOTE 1. they can apply to castings obtained by alternative methods.2% proof stress Rp0. they can apply to castings obtained by alternative methods. NOTE 2. the values for these maerials apply to castings cast in sand moulds of comparable thermal diffusivity.1) 2) LT for low temperature. Rt for room temperature. Number EN-GJS-35022U-Lt1) EN-GJS-35022U-Rt2) EN-GJS-350EN-JS1019 t<30 30<t<60 60<t<200 t<30 30<t<60 60<t<200 t<30 350 330 320 350 330 320 350 min. RT for room temperature. the grades are based on the mechanical properties measured on test pieces taken from samples separately cast in a sand mould or a mould of comparable thermal diffusivity. NOTE 2.

NOTE 1. EN-GJS-900-2U EN-JS1122 1) 2) LT for low temperature. 900 480 2 } To be agreed between the manufacturer and the purchaser. EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1563 : 1997 (continued) Material designation Brinell hardness range HB Other properties (for information only) Rm N/mm2 Less than 160 130 to 175 135 to 180 160 to 210 170 to 230 190 to 270 225 to 350 245 to 335 270 to 360 350 400 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 Rp0. 500 450 420 600 600 550 700 700 660 320 300 290 370 360 340 420 400 380 7 7 5 3 2 1 2 2 1 EN-JS1082 EN-GJS-600-3U EN-JS1092 EN-GJS-700-2U EN-JS1102 EN-GJS-800-2U EN-JS1112 800 480 2 } To be agreed between the manufacturer and the purchaser. NOTE 1. Minimum impact resistance values measured on V-notched test pieces machined from cast-on samples . The properties of a cast-on test piece cannot exactly the properties of the casting itself.2 N/mm2 220 250 250 310 320 370 420 480 600 Symbol EN-GJS-HB130 EN-GJS-HB150 EN-GJS-HB155 EN-GJS-HB185 EN-GJS-HB200 EN-GJS-HB230 EN-GJS-HB265 EN-GJS-HB3001) EN-GJS-HB330 1) 1) Number EN-JS2010 EN-JS2020 EN-JS2030 EN-JS2040 EN-JS2050 EN-JS2060 EN-JS2070 EN-JS20801) EN-JS2090 1) EN-GJS-HB300 (EN-JS2080) and EN-GJS2090) are not recommended for thick section castings. NOTE 3. Further values are given in annex D for guidance. The material designation is in accordance with EN 1560. N/mm2 is equivalent to 1 MPa. RT for room temperature. NOTE 2.22U EN-GJS-40018U-LT1) EN-GJS-40018U-RT2) EN-GJS-40018U EN-GJS-40015U EN-GJS-45010U EN-GJS-500-7U EN-JS1049 30<t<60 60<t<200 t<30 30<t<60 60<t<200 t<30 30<t<60 60<t<200 t<30 30<t<60 60<t<200 t<30 30<t<60 60<t<200 t<30 30<t<60 60<t<200 t<30 30<t<60 60<t<200 t<30 30<t<60 60<t<200 t<30 30<t<60 60<t<200 t<30 30<t<60 60<t<200 t<30 30<t<60 60<t<200 330 320 400 390 370 400 390 370 400 390 370 400 390 370 210 200 240 230 220 250 250 240 250 250 240 250 250 240 18 15 18 15 12 18 15 12 18 15 12 15 14 11 EN-JS1059 EN-JS1062 EN-JS1072 EN-JS1132 450 310 10 } To be agreed between the manufacturer and the purchaser. but can be a better approximation than those obtained on a separtely cast sample. 1 N/mm2 is equivalent to 1 MPa.

EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1564 : 1997 AUSTEMPERED DUCTILE CAST IRONS Mechanical properties measured on test pieces machined from separately cast samples. Whatever the method used for obtaining the castings. NOTE 3. The material designation is in accordance with EN 1560.Material designation Relevant wall thickness t Minimum impact resistance values (in J) At room temperature (23+5) oC Mean value from 3 tests Symbol EN-GJS350-22ULT1) EN-GJS350-22URT2) EN-GJS400-18ULT1) EN-GJS400-18URT2) 1) 2) At (-20+2) oC Mean value from 3 tests Individual value At (-40+2) oC Mean value from 3 tests Individual value Individual value Number ENJS1019 mm t<60 60<t<200 12 10 9 7 - ENJS1029 t<60 60<t<200 17 15 14 12 - - ENJS1049 30<t<60 60<t<200 - - 12 10 9 7 - - ENJS1059 30<t<60 60<t<200 14 12 11 9 - - - - LT for low temperature. NOTE 4.2% proof stress Rp0. NOTE 4. RT for room temperature. The material designation is in accordance with EN 1560. Further values are given in annex D for guidance. Subject to amendments to be agreed upon in the order. Hardness range Material designation Brinell hardness range . NOTE 1. 800 1000 1200 1400 0. 1 N/mm2 is equivalent to 1 MPa. 8 5 2 1 NOTE 1. The values for the materials normally apply to castings with thicknesses between 30 mm and 200 mm and with a mass greater than 2000 kg or when the relevant wall thickness may vary between 30 mm and 200 mm. they can apply to castings obtained by alternative methods. NOTE 2.2 N/mm2 min. NOTE 3. The values for the materials apply to castings cast in sand moulds of comparable thermal diffusivity. but can be a better approximation than those obtained on a separately cast sample. 500 700 850 1100 Elongation A % min. NOTE 2. Material designation Symbol EN-GJS-800-8 EN-GJS-1000-5 EN-GJS-1200-2 EN-GJS-1400-1 Number EN-JS1100 EN-JS1110 EN-JS1120 EN-JS1130 Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 min. The properties of a cast-on test piece cannot reflect exactly the properties of the casting itself. the grades are based on the mechanical properties measured on test pieces taken from samples separately cast in a sand mould or a mould of comparable thermal diffusivity. 1 N/mm2 is equivalent to 1 MPa.

0 31.1 35.0 42. HB 200 255 170 230 200 170 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME ELEMENTS Element Aluminum Antimony Symbol Al Sb Atomic Weight 26.0 38.3 Elongation A min.0 38.5 N/mm2 205 205 195 205 205 205 Proof stress Rp0.0 ton/in2 24.321 302 .7 38.0 38.3 13.2 2.2 24.3 12. Grade ASG-2A ASG-2B ASG-3A ASG-4A ASG-5A ASG-6A N/mm2 375 375 375 375 375 410 kgf/m2 38. kgf/m2 21.Symbol EN-GJS-800-8 EN-GJS-1000-5 EN-GJS-1200-2 EN-GJS-1400-1 Number EN-JS1100 EN-JS1110 EN-JS1120 EN-JS1130 HB 260 to 320 300 to 360 340 to 440 380 to 480 NOTE: The material designation is in accordance with EN 1560.0 70.0 ton/in2 24.5 31.7 2 § For information only.0 60.3 13.2 28.0 28. SOUTH AFRICA SABS 936/937 SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE IRON CASTINGS Tensile strength Rm min.0 21. % 8 6 20 10 7 25 Hardness max.477 444 .5 13.8 44.0 21. SOUTH AFRICA AUSTENITIC SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE IRON CASTINGS Tensile strength Rm min.2 24.0 17.3 25.0 42.70 6.0 20. % 17 12 7 4 3 HB <180 <200 §170 240 §210 250 §230 300 §260 330 §Structure Ferrite Ferrite Ferrite & pearlite Pearlite Pearlite Pearlite or temper structure SG80 785 80.0 50.3 13. SOUTH AFRICA SABS 1656 : 1995 AUSTEMPERED DUCTILE IRON CASTINGS Grade Minimum tensile strength Rm MPa 850 1050 1200 1400 1600 Minimum proof stress Rp0.1 44. kgf/m2 25.76 Melting Point o F o C Boiling Point oF Density grs/cc 3272 2516 2.0 50.97 121. Grade SG38 SG42 SG50 SG60 SG70 N/mm2 375 410 490 590 685 kgf/m2 38.2 MPa 550 700 850 1100 1300 Minimum elongation % 10 7 4 1 - Impact strength (energy loss) J 100 80 60 35 - Hardness 1) ADI 850 ADI 1050 ADI 1200 ADI 1400 ADI 1600 1) 269 .2 min.2 39.8 490 50.2 24.2 24.444 388 .0 38.5 Elongation Hardness A min.4 N/mm2 245 275 345 390 440 Proof stress Rp0.2 min.9 ton/in2 16.0 ton/in2 13.2 26.62 1220 1167 660 630 .7 22.555 For information only.0 21.0 21.363 341 .

06 107.36 9.32 54. and non-SI metric units 1 lbf/in2 = 1 psi = 1000 psi = 6.91 63.5749 kgf/mm2 = 2240 lbf/in2 = 1.14 6.09 102.895 N/m2 = 6. SI units.81 2.94 200.57 8.50 0.95 65.82 9.4464 tonf/in2 = 1 MN/m2 = 1 MPa = 0.74 7.7031 kgf/mm2 =0.8067 N/mm2 1 kgf/mm2 = 0.35 0.06 180.88 22.06475 tonf/in2 = 145.00 238.01 58.91 78.12 118.50 19.45 0.87 11.50 4.4 lbf/in2 1 tonf/in2 = 15.85 12.39 232.00 58.94 1930 7.40 CONVERSIONS: English.79 7.53 1.22 6.96 28.85 11.60 6.04 lbf/in2 = 0.13 52.895 MPa = 0.20 8.63 32.00 1.00 10.02 195.70 47.14 50.30 8.99 87.65 1.38 91.1369 kgf-m 1 ft-lbf .90 184.88 127.8 2.444 N/mm2 = 1.82 21.86 12.94 92.41 40.07 16.61 96.24 11.90 8.60 2.50 1.20 55.70 31.55 2.3558 J = 0.30 18.61 204.22 1562 2462 520 4172 610 1564 1427 3326 2696 3542 1982 1945 2795 621 367 1204 2273 -38 4748 2645 2831 111 3224 144 3551 428 2588 1761 207 1472 235 5162 846 578 3353 450 3272 6098 3074 3110 787 3092 850 1350 271 2282 321 851 640 1812 1480 1932 1082 1062 1535 327 186 652 1245 2602 1452 1555 42 1755 62 1882 220 1420 961 97 800 112 2832 451 302 1827 232 1782 3334 1672 1692 419 1682 2084 2732 2642 4622 1408 2522 6512 2552 3992 5252 5972 4259 4712 5430 2948 2437 2007 3452 676 6692 5252 3992 536 7772 1400 4532 1270 4712 3542 1616 2102 832 7412 2534 3002 5432 4100 5432 10526 6332 5432 1661 5252 3.84 207.10197 kgf/mm2 1 ksi 1 N/mm2 = 9.22 6.97 2.08 12.57 197.68 7.94 24.Barium Beryllium Bismuth Boron Cadmium Calcium Carbon Cerium Chromium Cobalt Columbium Copper Gold Iron Lead Lithium Magnesium Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Mickel Palladium Phosphorous Platinum Potassium Rhodium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Tellurium Thallium Thorium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Zinc Zirconium Ba Be Bi B Cd Ca C Ce Cr Co Nb Cu Au Fe Pb Li Mg Mn Hg Mo Ni Pd P Pt K Rh Se Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Te Ti Th Sn Ti W U V Zn Zr 137.69 106.02 209.82 112.50 7.30 4.40 10.55 10.14 8.20 13.23 39.70 5.00 140.63497 tonf/in2 = 1422.

Vol. 1987. Designers should take advantage of these capabilities to obtain assured quality which is superior to that required by specifications. American Society of Automotive Engineers Inc. whose properties either consistently exceed requirements. offer the designer a competitive edge. Volume 01. 1989. . C.1J 1kgf-m = 0. 9th edition.54 . "Ductile Iron.10197 kgf-m = 9.093 2. This inference is incorrect.02.8067J = 7. ( F . H.45 . many foundries have developed the capability to produce castings whose higher quality can be demonstrated statistically.556 SI Units cm2 m2 cm m kg o in2 ft 2 in ft lb. or ranges of properties. Warrendale. 1988.73757 ft-lbf = 0.454 . Through commitments to SPC and continual quality improvement..32) C Beyond Specifications Standards and specifications ensure uniformity and assist both the designer and the foundry in defining the most important properties of the castings. or fall well within specified ranges. inferring that all castings whose properties either exceed the minimum or lie anywhere within the range. most of the specifications identify either minimum properties. I. 15. Ferrous Castings. and high quality castings.305 . American Society for Metals. REFERENCES Annual Book of ASTM Standards. However." Metals Handbook.3068 ft lbf Units English Area Area Length Length Mass Temp o Multiplication Factor 6. Hughes. are equally acceptable. PA.