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An economic system is the combination of the various agencies, entities (or even sectors as described by some authors) that provide

the economic structure that guides the social community. These agencies are joined by lines of trade and exchange along which goods, money etc are continuously flowing. An example of such a system for a closed economy is shown in the illustration. This affects Production, allocation of economic inputs, distribution of economic outputs, and consumption of goods and services in an economy. It is a set of institutions and their social relations. Alternatively, it is the set of principles by which problems of economics are addressed, such as the economic problem of scarcity through allocation of finite productive resources. An economic system is composed of people, institutions, rules, and relationships. For example, the convention of property, the institution of government, or the employee-employer relationship. Examples of contemporary economic systems include capitalist systems, socialist systems, and mixed economies. Today the world largely operates under a global economic system based on the capitalist mode of production.

political scientists and educationalists to refer to the process of inheriting and disseminating norms. Socialization is thus ‘the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained. the Yanomamö Indians on the border area between Venezuela and Brazil usually train their boys to be tough and aggressive. While much of human personality is the result of our genes. a society develops a culture through a plurality of shared norms. In fact. Socialization. is not a normative term: it describes a process which may or may not affect the reflexive agent. Many sociopolitical theories postulate that socialization provides only a partial explanation for human beliefs and behaviours. The ideal Yanomamö man does not shrink from violence and strong emotions. outcomes. It may provide the individual with the skills and habits necessary for participating within their own society. such as race or economics. social roles. . values. This very likely accounts for much of the difference between the common personality types in one society in comparison to another. and which may or may not lead to desirable. the socialization process can mold it in particular directions by encouraging specific beliefs and attitudes as well as selectively providing experiences. Socialization is important in the process of personality formation. Likewise. Genetic studies have shown that a person's environment interacts with their genotype to influence behavioural outcomes. whilst the linguistic theory of generative grammar demonstrates how something such as the capacity for learning changes throughout one's lifetime. traditions. In contrast. symbols and languages. customs. social psychologists. however. that agents are not 'blank slates' predetermined by their environment. he seeks them out. or 'moral'. Scientific research provides strong evidence that people are shaped by both social influences and their hard-wired biological makeup. Shiite Muslim men of Iran are expected at times to publicly express their religious faith through the emotionally powerful act of self-inflicted pain. customs and ideologies. they avoid them whenever possible. anthropologists. the Semai tribesmen of the central Malay Peninsula of Malaysia typically are gentle people who do not like violent. For instance. Individual views on certain issues. may be socialized (and to that extent normalized) within a society. aggressive individuals. In fact.Socialization (or socialisation) is a term used by sociologists.

and involves smaller changes than those occurring in primary socialization. . socialization was a key idea in the dominant American functionalist tradition of sociology. For example if a child saw his/her mother expressing a discriminatory opinion about a minority group. This reflexive process of both learning and teaching is how cultural and social characteristics attain continuity. Although cultural variability is manifest in the actions. Primary socialization occurs when a child learns the attitudes. then that child may think this behavior is acceptable and could continue to have this opinion about minority groups. values and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture. Secondary socialization Secondary socialization refers to the process of learning what is appropriate behavior as a member of a smaller group within the larger society. Montaigne and Rousseau and he identifies a dictionary entry from 1828 that defines 'socialize' as 'to render social.Theories Socialization is the means by which human infants begin to acquire the skills necessary to perform as a functioning member of their society. However it was the response to a translation of a paper by Georg Simmel that the concept was incorporated into various branches of psychology and anthropology (1968: 31-52). and behaviors of whole social groups (societies). and are the most influential learning processes one can experience. family. Talcott Parsons (Parsons and Bales 1956) and a group of colleagues in the US developed a comprehensive theory of society that responded to the emergence of modernity in which the concept of socialization was a central component. extended family and extended social networks. to make fit for living in society' (1968: 20-1). This expression can only occur after an individual has been socialized by its parents. the most fundamental expression of culture is found at the individual level. eg. customs. Developmental socialization Developmental socialization is the process of learning behavior in a social institution or developing your social skills. In the middle of the 20th century. entering a new profession. relocating to a new environment or society. It is usually associated with teenagers and adults. Clausen claims that theories of socialization are to be found in Plato.

transcending individual human lives and intentions. They also learn about their work group. Organizational socialization Organizational socialization is the process whereby an employee learning the knowledge and skills necessary to assume his or her organizational role.As newcomers become socialized. and social relationships. belief systems. the skills needed to do their job. or coresidence. to moral values. jargon. and procedures. the specific people they work with on a daily basis. and both formal procedures and informal norms. values. and with the making and enforcing of rules governing cooperative human behavior. Institutions are identified with a social purpose and permanence. affinity. occupations. Resocialization refers to the process of discarding former behavior patterns and reflexes accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life. An extreme example would be the process by which a transsexual learns to function socially in a dramatically altered gender a group of people affiliated by consanguinity. sometimes. An example might be the experience of a young man or woman leaving home to join the military. This occurs throughout the human life cycle (Schaefer & Lamm. Types of institution include:  The Family. with the individual experiencing a sharp break with their a collection of cultural systems. or a religious convert internalizing the beliefs and rituals of a new faith. Socialization functions as a control system in that newcomers learn to internalize and obey organizational values and practices. institutions are the structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of a set of individuals within a given human collectivity. Age/Units of socialization In the social sciences. Religion. and worldviews that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and. Resocialization can be an intense experience. In most societies it is the principal institution for the socialization of children. 1992: 113).  . their own role in the organization. culture. and needing to learn and be exposed to radically different norms and values.Anticipatory socialization Anticipatory socialization refers to the processes of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for future positions. they learn about the organization and its history.

but they treated it as a form of specialized education. entities (or even sectors as described by some authors) that provide the economic structure that guides the social community. and religious law – or combinations of these. Penal systems. and values from one generation to another. Peer Group.      Media and socialization Theorists like Parsons and textbook writers like Ely Chinoy (1960) and Harry M. wrote about the importance of inculcating members of the US Coastguard with a set of values to do with responding to commands and acting in unison without question. Economic systems. Legal systems. common the combination of the various the general sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind. Later scholars accused these theorists of socialization of not recognizing the importance of the mass media which. education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge. or physical ability of an individual. or sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts. tended to travel around and interact within the social aggregate Education. They realized that socialization continued in adulthood. In its technical sense. Peer groups are an informal primary group of people who share a similar or equal status and who are usually of roughly the same age.may refer either to the specifically human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication. the mass media were regarded merely as sources of information and entertainment rather than moulders of personality. for are generally based on one of three basic systems: civil a social group consisting of humans. The scientific study of language in any of its senses is called linguistics. skills. Language. by the middle of the twentieth century were becoming more significant as a social force. Johnson (1961) recognized that socialization didn’t stop when childhood ends. There was concern about the link between television and the education and socialization of children – it continues today – but when it came to adults. character. deterring and mitigating crime. Johnson (1961). or to a specific instance of such a system of complex communication. .is the system of practices and institutions of governments directed at upholding social control.

promotion of mistrust. Preparation for bias refers to parenting practices focused on preparing children to be aware of. Researchers have identified five dimensions that commonly appear in the racial socialization literature: cultural socialization. The family is certainly important in reinforcing gender roles. values. The existing literature conceptualizes racial socialization as having multiple dimensions. work and the mass media. Boys learn to be boys and girls learn to be girls. Gender roles are reinforced through "countless subtle and not so subtle ways" (1999:76)." Gender socialization refers to the learning of behavior and attitudes considered appropriate for a given sex. Key examples include the process of resocializing new recruits into the military so that they can operate as soldiers (or. and attitudes of an ethnic group. as members of a cohesive unit) and the reverse process. Racial socialization Racial socialization has been defined as "the developmental processes by which children acquire the behaviors. preparation for bias. but so are one’s friends. This "learning" happens by way of many different agents of socialization. perceptions. in which those who have become accustomed to such roles return to society after military discharge. Promotion of mistrust refers to the parenting practices of socializing children to be wary of people from other races. and cope with. Cultural socialization refers to parenting practices that teach children about their racial history or heritage and is sometimes referred to as pride development.Gender socialization and gender roles Henslin (1999:76) contends that "an important part of socialization is the learning of culturally defined gender roles. and other. egalitarianism. school. Resocialization is defined as radically changing an inmate’s personality by carefully controlling the environment. discrimination. in other words. Also resocialization maybe required for inmates who come out of prison to acclimate themselves back in civilian life("the outside"). Egalitarianism refers to socializing children with the belief that all people are equal and should be treated with a common humanity . and come to see themselves and others as members of the group".

we see that different cultures use different techniques to socialize their children. Initially. In other societies. we enter new statuses and need to learn the appropriate roles for them. For instance. It usually is structured. Formal education is what primarily happens in a classroom. and personality. informal education can occur anywhere. It involves imitation of what others do and say as well as experimentation and repetitive practice of basic skills. This is what happens when children role-play adult interactions in their games. In North America and some other industrialized nations. Early childhood is the period of the most intense and the most crucial socialization. It is also when much of our personality takes shape. However. In all societies. beliefs. however. Those who internalize the norms of society are less likely to break the law or to want radical social changes. Most of the crucial early socialization throughout the world is done informally under the supervision of women and girls. we continue to be socialized throughout our lives. mothers and their female relatives are primarily responsible for socialization. and directed primarily by adult teachers who are professional "knowers. the experience of being raped is likely to cause a woman to be distrustful of others. which is to say that they . baby-sitters are most often teenage girls who live in the neighborhood. If all children receive the same socialization. Deciding what things will be taught and how they are taught is a powerful political tool for controlling people. Later. they are usually under the control of women teachers.How are Children Socialized? Process of Socialization Socialization is a learning process that begins shortly after birth. controlled. it is likely that they will share the same beliefs and expectations. Looking around the world. As we age. There are two broad types of teaching methods--formal and informal. Successful socialization can result in uniformity within a society. there are individuals who do not conform to culturally defined standards of normalcy because they were "abnormally" socialized. It is then that we acquire language and learn the fundamentals of our culture. We also have experiences that teach us lessons and potentially lead us to alter our expectations. they are likely to be older sisters or grandmothers. when children enter the lower school grades. This fact has been a strong motivation for national governments around the world to standardize education and make it compulsory for all children." In contrast.

some are said to have lived in the wild on their own. in some cases this child abandonment was due to the parents' rejection of a child's severe intellectual or physical impairment. such as its fear of or indifference to humans. or wilful abuse. role preparation and performance. It is very difficult to socialize a child who became isolated at a very young age into a relatively normal member of society and such individuals often need close care throughout their lives. These people are usually labeled by their society as deviant or even mentally ill. The impaired ability to learn language after having been isolated for so many years is often attributed to the existence of a critical period for language learning. Goals of Socialization. including occupational roles. have trouble learning to walk upright and display a complete lack of interest in the human activity around them. and taken as evidence in favor of the Critical Period Hypothesis. misfortune. they may be unable to learn to use a toilet. not socialized by adults while they were growing up. the feral child exhibits behaviors (within physical limits) almost entirely like those of the particular care-animal. For example. The Importance of Socialization One of the most common methods used to illustrate the importance of socialization is to draw upon the few unfortunate cases of children who were. Others are alleged to have been brought up by animals. gender roles. They often seem mentally impaired and have almost insurmountable trouble learning a human language. in presenting a new theoretical understanding of socialization. Some feral children have been confined by people (usually their own parents). or what is important. the cultivation of sources of meaning. outlined what he believes to be the three goals of socialization: 1. When completely brought up by non-human animals. Feral children lack the basic social skills which are normally learned in the process of socialization. through neglect. Feral children may have experienced severe child abuse or trauma before being abandoned or running away. and to be lived for . impulse control and the development of a conscience 2.have not internalized the norms of society. Such children are called "feral" or wild. and roles in institutions such as marriage and parenthood 3. valued.

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