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SCRUBBERS

Scrubber systems are a diverse group of air pollution control devices that can be used to remove some particulates or gases from industrial exhaust streams. Gas scrubber are cleanings installations in which the gas flow is brought in intensive contact with a substance which as aim to remove gaseous components from the gas to the fluid. Traditionally, the term "scrubber" has referred to pollution control devices that use liquid to wash unwanted pollutants from a gas stream. Recently, the term is also used to describe systems that inject a dry reagent or slurry into a dirty exhaust stream to "wash out" acid gases. Scrubbers are one of the primary devices that control gaseous emissions, especially acid gases. Scrubbers are primarily manufactured in two basic styles – Vertical and Horizontal. 1. Vertical Scrubbers are well suited for handling large liquid slugs, solids and surging flow conditions, in addition, vertical separators require less floor space. In standard vertical up-flow designs, the gas volume is limited due to re-entrainment because of the counter current flow of gas (up) and liquid (down). Vertical units equipped with specially designed vane mist extractors eliminate re-entrainment and have an increased gas capacity. 2. Horizontal Scrubbers are best suited for streams with: high gas / liquid ratios, constant flow and relatively low liquid surging. The gas transit time is increased in horizontal separators thus allowing gravity more time to capture liquid particles.

On the basis of absorbent, Scrubbers are usually of two types

A. Wet scrubbers
The exhaust gases of combustion may contain substances considered harmful to the environment, and the scrubber may remove or neutralize those substances. A wet scrubber is used to clean air, flue gas or other gases of various pollutants and dust particles. Wet scrubbers works via the contact of target compounds or particulate matter with the scrubbing solution. Solutions may simply be water (for dust) or solutions of reagents that specifically target certain compounds. Process exhaust gas can also contain water soluble toxic and/or corrosive gases like hydrogen chloride HCl or ammonia NH3. These can be removed very well by a wet scrubber. Removal efficiency of pollutants is improved by increasing residence time in the scrubber or by the increase of surface area of the scrubber solution by the use of a spray nozzle, packed towers or an aspirator.

it is of course of importance to take into account the technical company aspects. there are a great number of other important parameters needed to reach the successful design of a scrubber. Therefore. unlike the wet scrubber. . Dry scrubbers A dry or semi-dry scrubbing system.B. does not saturate the flue gas stream that is being treated with moisture. In some cases no moisture is added. such as     Amount of air to be extracted Temperature and humidity Composition of the extracted air with the concentrations of the components The desired profit and the conditional emission requirements As well as the technical design criteria. Dry scrubbing systems are used to remove acid gases (such as SO2 and HCl) primarily from combustion sources. while in other only the amount of moisture that can be evaporated in the flue gas without condensing is added. dry scrubbers do generally not have a stack steam plume or wastewater handling/disposal requirements. such as  Investment and company costs  Security of the company and the operational simplicity and  Easy to maintain and durability. Design criteria As well as the solubility and the contact time of a component.

and metal Food and beverage Waste treatment and combustion .Pros and Cons The advantages of gas scrubbing are:      Broad application range Very high disposal output Compact installation and simply in maintenance Relatively simple technology Can serve also as refrigeration for warm gas flows (quencher) The disadvantages of the gas scrubbing are:       Effluent must be treated Water .      Chemical Petrochemical Electro. Application of Scrubbers Scrubbers are liquid and gas contacting equipment used in air pollution control and purification systems.and reactant consumption Frost sensitive Dependent on the place Packing material are for constipation by substance (> possibly sensitive 10 mg/m3) and For fragrance problems frequently pilot tests are required. Scrubbers are widely used in the following industries.

 Slide a flat. a butterfly or ball valve). or spherical surface across an orifice (for example. globe or needle type valve).  Rotate a disc or ellipse about a shaft extending across the diameter of an orifice (for example.5 psi). gate and plug valves). The Advantage    Hi-pressure construction – no regulator.  Move a disc. No mechanical linkages. which are subject to environmental failure.  Move a flexible material into the flow passage (for example. or mechanical switching valve. relief valve. or plug into or against an orifice (for example. Easily adjusted differential trip setpoint (1.5 psi to 14. A multitude of valve types and designs safely accommodate a wide variety of industrial applications. There are four basic types of flow control elements employed in valve design. Major Valves that are part of compression system at different stations are: a) Automatic Station Bypass Valve The “Automatic Station Bypass Valve” module is designed to meet the need to bypass station when no compression is required on the gas or to keep gas flowing in the event of major compressor problems. . cylindrical. A valve controls system or process fluid flow and pressure by performing any of the following functions:      Stopping and starting fluid flow Varying (throttling) the amount of fluid flow Controlling the direction of fluid flow Regulating downstream system or process pressure Relieving component or piping over pressure There are many valve designs and types that satisfy one or more of the functions identified above. diaphragm and pinch valves).VALVES A valve is a mechanical device that controls the flow of fluid and pressure within a system or process.

c) Discharge Fire Gate Valve It is the exit point of gas from the Dry Gas Cooling system. a valve. After this valve gas enters into gas meter station for determining the amount of gas. This valve also plays a role in the purging of compressor at start up time along the loading valve. Actually headers also play a role as a storage pipes so to vent the stored gas in them these valves are used. . Through this valve the gas is entered into the gas scrubber and then into the compressor. most do not have any valve handle or stem. g) Vent Valve This valve is escape route of gas in the case of tripping in the compressor. f) Loading Valve Loading valve is actually a valve on the small diameter line which is in open position at the start for the compressor to purge out and as turbine achieves certain rpm it is closed automatically. Check valves work automatically and most are not controlled by a person or any external control.b) Suction Fire Gate Valve It is the entry valve of gas in the compressor system. which normally allows fluid (liquid or gas) to flow through it in only one direction. accordingly. It is open when the gas is to be compressed. d) Station Blow Down Valve These valves are to blow off the suction and discharge header at once. e) Non Retuning Valve A non-return valve or one-way valve is a mechanical device.

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