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Hydrogen sulfide
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox Print/export Languages Bân-lâm-gú Bosanski Български Català Česky Dansk Deutsch Eesti Ελληνικά Español Esperanto Français 한국어 Hrvatski Bahasa Indonesia Íslenska Italiano ‫עברית‬ Latviešu Magyar 1 Properties 2 Production 3 Occurrence 4 Uses 4.1 Production of thioorganic compounds 4.2 Alkali metal sulfides 4.3 Analytical chemistry 4.4 Precursor to metal sulfides 4.5 Miscellaneous applications 5 Removal from fuel gases 5.1 Reaction with iron oxide 5.2 Hydrodesulfurization 6 Safety 7 Toxicity 7.1 Suicides 8 Function in the body 9 Induced hypothermia/suspended animation 10 Participant in the sulfur cycle 11 Mass extinctions 12 See also 13 References 14 Additional resources 15 External links
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Hydrogen sulfide (British English: hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H 2 S. It is a colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs perceptible at concentrations as low as 0.00047 parts per million. It often results from the bacterial breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen, such as in swamps and sewers; this process is commonly known as anaerobic digestion. It also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas, and some well waters. The human body produces small amounts of H 2 S and uses it as a signaling molecule.
Contents

Hydrogen sulfide

Systematic name Hydrogen sulfide[1 ] Other names Dihydrogen monosulfide Dihydrogen sulfide Sewer gas Stink damp Sulfane Sulfurated hydrogen Sulfureted hydrogen Sulfuretted hydrogen Sulfur hydride Identifiers 7783-06-4 402 391 YY9FVM7NSN 231-977-3 1053 C00283

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Hydrogen+sulfide CHEBI:16136 CHEMBL1200739 MX1225000 3535004 303 B01206 Image 1 SMILES InChI Properties
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Properties

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Molecular formula Molar mass Exact mass

H2 S 34.08 g mol−1 33.987720754 g mol-1

Hydrogen sulfide is slightly heavier than air; a mixture of H 2 S and air is explosive. Hydrogen sulfide and oxygen

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_sulfide#Toxicity[10/10/2011 11:04:55 AM]

S38. Reacting metal sulfides with strong acid liberates hydrogen sulfide. Appearance Density Melting point Boiling point Solubility in water Vapor pressure Acidity (pK a ) Basicity (pK b ) Refractive index (n D ) Molecular shape Dipole moment Colorless gas 1. The standard lab preparation is to react ferrous sulfide (FeS) with a strong acid in a Kipp generator. known as sulfhydric acid or hydrosulfuric acid. R26. Metal sulfides often have a dark color. the free encyclopedia Bahasa Melayu Монгол Nederlands 日本語 Polski Português Română Русский Shqip Simple English Slovenčina Српски / Srpski Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски Suomi Svenska Türkçe Українська Tiếng Việt 中 Norsk (bokmål) burn with a blue flame to form sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) and water. S45. This is exploited in the Claus process. Hydrocarbons can replace hydrogen in this process. At high temperature or in the presence of catalysts. 213 K. S36. Hydrogen sulfide reacts with metal ions to form metal sulfides.363 g dm -3 -82 °C. R50 (S1/2). FeS + 2 HCl → FeCl 2 + H 2 S Related compounds Related hydrogen chalcogenides Water Hydrogen Hydrogen Hydrogen Hydrogen selenide telluride polonide disulfide Related compounds Phosphine (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise.wikipedia. hydrogen sulfide acts as a reducing agent. which may be considered the salts of hydrogen sulfide.[3] is initially clear but over time turns cloudy.Hydrogen sulfide . which is natural gas with high content of H 2 S. Hydrogen sulfide is slightly soluble in water and acts as a weak acid. -76 °F 4 g dm -3 (at 20 °C) 1740 kPa (at 21 °C) 7. It can also be produced by reacting hydrogen gas with molten elemental sulfur at about 450 °C.9 in 0.3–46% Hydrogen sulfide is most commonly obtained by its separation from sour gas. sulfur dioxide can be made to react with hydrogen sulfide to form elemental sulfur and water.000644 (0 °C) [2 ] Structure Bent 0.97 D -20. which precipitates out. it explodes. If gaseous hydrogen sulfide is put into contact with concentrated nitric acid. Lead(II) acetate paper is used to detect hydrogen sulfide because it turns grey in the presence of the gas as lead(II) sulfide is produced. data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C. Some ores are sulfides.1 mol/litre solutions at 18 °C) and the sulfide ion S2− (pKa = 11. Hydrogen sulfide reacts with alcohols to form thiols. In general. -116 °F -60 °C. C Hazards EU Index EU classification 016-001-00-4 F+ T+ N R-phrases S-phrases NFPA 704 R12. 100 kPa) Infobox references A less well-known and more convenient alternative is to react aluminium sulfide with water: 6 H 2 O + Al 2 S3 → 3 H 2 S + 2 Al(OH)3 This gas is also produced by heating sulfur with solid organic compounds and by reducing sulfurated organic compounds with hydrogen. This is due to the slow reaction of hydrogen sulfide with the oxygen dissolved in water.org/wiki/Hydrogen_sulfide#Toxicity[10/10/2011 11:04:55 AM] .96). [4] Sulfate-reducing bacteria (resp. S16.003 J K -1 g -1 Thermochemistry Std enthalpy of formation Δ f Ho 298 Specific heat capacity. giving the hydrosulfide ion HS − (pKa = 6. 191 K. S9.Wikipedia.05 6. sulfur-reducing bacteria) generate usable energy under low-oxygen conditions by using sulfates (resp. elemental sulfur) to oxidize organic compounds or hydrogen. the main way to convert hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. yielding elemental sulfur. this produces hydrogen sulfide as a waste product. A solution of hydrogen sulfide in water. http://en.599 kJ mol-1 1.01-0. S61 4 4 0 Production [edit] Autoignition temperature Explosive limits 300 °C 4.95 1.

the free encyclopedia Hydrogen sulfide is also a byproduct of some reactions and caution should be taken when production is likely as exposure can be fatal. For small-scale laboratory use in analytic chemistry. H 2 S arises from virtually anywhere where elemental sulfur comes in contact with organic material. Other anthropogenic sources of hydrogen sulfide include coke ovens.org/wiki/Hydrogen_sulfide#Toxicity[10/10/2011 11:04:55 AM] . gases or waters contaminated by hydrogen sulfide can be cleaned with metal sulfides. hydrogen sulfide was important in analytical chemistry. The components of the resulting precipitate redissolve with some selectivity. In such cases. ozone is often used for its removal. heavy metal (and nonmetal) ions (e.g. For example.wikipedia. and thioglycolic acid. an alternative method uses a filter with manganese dioxide. which are used in the degradation of biopolymers. especially at high temperatures. ethanethiol. the use of thioacetamide has superseded H 2 S as a source of sulfide ions. The resulting H 2 S is converted to elemental sulfur by partial combustion via the Claus process. hydrogen sulfide converts to alkali hydrosulfides such as sodium hydrosulfide and sodium sulfide. The depilation of hides and the delignification of pulp by the Kraft process both are effected by alkali sulfides. i. Both methods oxidize sulfides to much less toxic sulfates. Catalysts used in hydrodesulfurization are routinely activated with hydrogen sulfide. and tanneries. many metal ions react with hydrogen sulfide to give the corresponding metal sulfides.. Alkali metal sulfides [edit] Upon combining with alkali metal bases. These include methanethiol. paper mills (using the sulfate method). Metal parts are sometimes passivated with hydrogen sulfide. Pb(II). In the purification of metal ores by flotation. which is a major source of elemental sulfur. Cu(II).e. Hg(II).Wikipedia. but natural gas can contain up to 90%.[5] Volcanoes and some hot springs (as well as cold springs) emit some H 2 S. Analytical chemistry [edit] For well over a century. in the qualitative inorganic analysis of metal ions. This conversion is widely exploited. caused by volcanic gases Hydrogen sulfide can be present naturally in well water. mineral powders are often treated with hydrogen sulfide to enhance the separation. MS + H 2 O → MO + H 2 S. Uses Production of thioorganic compounds [edit] [edit] Several organosulfur compounds are produced using hydrogen sulfide. and the behavior of metallic catalysts used in other parts of a http://en. Deposit of sulfur on a rock. Precursor to metal sulfides [edit] As indicated above. By far the largest industrial route to H 2 S occurs in petroleum refineries: The hydrodesulfurization process liberates sulfur from petroleum by the action of hydrogen. In these analyses. As(III)) are precipitated from solution upon exposure to H 2 S. where it probably arises via the hydrolysis of sulfide minerals.[citation needed] About 10% of total global emissions of H 2 S is due to human activity.Hydrogen sulfide . Occurrence [edit] Small amounts of hydrogen sulfide occur in crude petroleum.

In order to regenerate iron(III) oxide. are set to alarm at as low as 5 to 10 ppm and to go into high alarm at 15 ppm.Wikipedia. biogas. For safe handling procedures. such as those used by utility. [edit] Safety [edit] Hydrogen sulfide is a highly toxic and flammable gas (flammable range: 4. [7] Toxicity [edit] Hydrogen sulfide is considered a broad-spectrum poison. It forms a complex bond with iron in the mitochondrial cytochrome enzymes. the free encyclopedia refinery is also modified using hydrogen sulfide. The advantage of this system is that it is completely passive during the extraction phase. Since hydrogen sulfide occurs naturally in the body. Being heavier than air. [edit] Removal from fuel gases [edit] Hydrogen sulfide is commonly found in natural gas. injections of sodium nitrite. low levels of hydrogen sulfide may be tolerated indefinitely.Hydrogen sulfide . so potential victims may be unaware of its presence until it is too late. and LPG. it quickly deadens the sense of smell. [6] Hydrodesulfurization Hydrodesulfurization is a more complex method of removing sulfur from fuels. Reaction with iron oxide Fe 2 O 3 (s) + H 2 O(l) + 3 H 2 S(g) → Fe 2 S3 (s) + 4 H 2 O(l) [edit] Gas is pumped through a container of hydrated iron(III) oxide. HBO therapy has anecdotal http://en. flooded with water and aerated. or heavy water. believed to average around 300–350 ppm. administration of bronchodilators to overcome eventual bronchospasm. the container must be taken out of service. it tends to accumulate at the bottom of poorly ventilated spaces. Miscellaneous applications Hydrogen sulfide is used to separate deuterium oxide. and in some cases hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). At some threshold level. the oxidative enzymes become overwhelmed. enzymes exist in the body capable of detoxifying it by oxidation to (harmless) sulfate. The toxicity of H 2 S is comparable with that of hydrogen cyanide.3–46%).org/wiki/Hydrogen_sulfide#Toxicity[10/10/2011 11:04:55 AM] . It can be removed in a number of ways. inhalation of pure oxygen. An interesting diagnostic clue of extreme poisoning by H 2 S is the discoloration of copper coins in the pockets of the victim. although the nervous system is most affected. which combines with hydrogen sulfide. Many personal safety gas detectors. a hydrogen sulfide material safety data sheet (MSDS) should be consulted. 2 Fe 2 S3 (s) + 3 O 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O(l) → 2 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2H2 O(l) + 6 S(s) On completion of the regeneration reaction the container is drained of water and can be returned to service. Treatment involves immediate inhalation of amyl nitrite. sewage and petrochemical workers. meaning that it can poison several different systems in the body. Although very pungent at first. the environment and the gut. thus preventing cellular respiration. from normal water via the Girdler Sulfide process.wikipedia.[8] Hence.

http://en. low-level exposure may result in fatigue. nausea. [14] normally described as resembling "a rotten egg". the free encyclopedia support and remains controversial. It was not considered to be an ideal war gas. [17] Hydrogen sulfide was used by the British as a chemical agent during World War I.[12] These symptoms usually go away in a few weeks. Although respiratory paralysis may be immediate. a hydrogen sulfide explosion in Denver City.Hydrogen sulfide . prompting warnings to those arriving at the site of the suicide. Less than 10 ppm has an exposure limit of 8 hours per day. Chronic exposure to low level H 2 S (around 2 ppm) has been implicated in increased miscarriage and reproductive health issues among Russian and Finnish wood pulp workers. 10–20 ppm is the borderline concentration for eye irritation. on the West Africa coast.Wikipedia. [19] A dump of toxic waste containing hydrogen sulfide is believed to have caused 17 deaths and thousands of illnesses in Abidjan. a caustic. Texas. loss of appetite. even after inhalation of a single breath. was used in a suicide wave in 2008 in Japan. as they received an increase in calls from people wanting to kill themselves during the annual May holiday. [9][10][11] Exposure to lower concentrations can result in eye irritation. and fluid in the lungs. while other gases were in short supply. [13] but the reports have not (as of circa 1995) been replicated. At 100–150 ppm the olfactory nerve is paralyzed after a few inhalations. but. [15][16] 320–530 ppm leads to pulmonary edema with the possibility of death. poor memory. One may die from the second inhalation of the gas. produced by mixing certain household ingredients.org/wiki/Hydrogen_sulfide#Toxicity[10/10/2011 11:04:55 AM] . it was used on two occasions in 1916. 50–100 ppm leads to eye damage.[23][24] Local governments have also initiated campaigns to prevent such suicides. irritability. this phenomenon has occurred in a number of US cities (and in Putney West London. 530–1000 ppm causes strong stimulation of the central nervous system and rapid breathing. often together with awareness of danger. leading to loss of breathing. and the sense of smell disappears. [22] These first responders. 800 ppm is the lethal concentration for 50% of humans for 5 minutes exposure (LC50). the concentration at which 50% of humans can detect the characteristic odor of hydrogen sulfide. Long-term. caused the state legislature to focus on the deadly hazards of the gas.wikipedia. it can also be delayed up to 72 hours. England).[21] As of 2010. such as emergency services workers or family members are at risk of death from inhaling lethal quantities of the gas. 0. and a warning itself may be too late. Concentrations over 1000 ppm cause immediate collapse with loss of breathing. [20] The wave prompted staff at Tokyo's suicide prevention center to set up a special hot line during "Golden Week". These effects are believed to be due to the fact that hydrogen sulfide combines with alkali present in moist surface tissues to form sodium sulfide.00047 ppm is the recognition threshold. or by fire. in the 2006 Côte d'Ivoire toxic waste dump. State Representative E L Short of Tahoka in Lynn County. took the lead in endorsing an investigation by the Texas Railroad Commission and urged that residents be warned "by knocking on doors if necessary" of the imminent danger stemming from the gas. located in Yoakum and Gaines counties. shortness of breath. a sore throat and cough. headaches. [18] In 1975. Suicides [edit] The gas. and dizziness.

Researchers are not clear how the vesselrelaxing responsibilities are shared between nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide. (Mice can fall into a state called clinical torpor when food shortage occurs). H 2 S activates ATP-sensitive potassium channel in smooth muscle cells. Eventually the gas is converted to sulfite in the mitochondria by thiosulfate reductase. The sulfates are excreted in the urine. [34] A similar process known as hibernation occurs naturally in many mammals and also in toads. [29] Induced hypothermia/suspended animation [edit] In 2005. presenting possible new therapy opportunities for erectile dysfunction.Hydrogen sulfide . the free encyclopedia Function in the body [edit] Hydrogen sulfide is produced in small amounts by some cells of the mammalian body and has a number of biological signaling functions. However there exists some evidence to suggest that nitric oxide does most of the vessel-relaxing work in large vessels and hydrogen sulfide is responsible for similar action in smaller blood vessels. hydrogen sulfide is involved in the relaxation of smooth muscle that causes erection of the penis. which would explain the above findings. hypothermia induced by hydrogen sulfide for 48 hours was shown to reduce the extent of brain damage caused by experimental stroke in rats. [27] Due to its effects similar to nitric oxide (without its potential to form peroxides by interacting with superoxide). hydrogen sulfide binds to cytochrome oxidase and thereby prevents oxygen from binding. In 2008. it was shown that mice can be put into a state of suspended animation-like hypothermia by applying a low dosage of hydrogen sulfide (81 ppm H 2 S) in the air. a reaction that could depend on reduction mediated by glutathione. The mice survived this procedure for 6 hours and afterwards showed no negative health consequences.Wikipedia. [27] Hydrogen sulfide is also involved in the disease process of type 1 diabetes. [36] http://en. [33] In 2006 it was shown that the blood pressure of mice treated in this fashion with hydrogen sulfide did not significantly decrease. The beta cells of the pancreas in type 1 diabetes produce an excess of the gas. The breathing rate of the animals sank from 120 to 10 breaths per minute and their temperature fell from 37 °C to just 2 °C above ambient temperature (in effect. [32] In trisomy 21 (the most common form of Down syndrome) the body produces an excess of hydrogen sulfide.[26] which is involved in the formation of memory.[30][31] In Alzheimer's disease the brain's hydrogen sulfide concentration is severely decreased.[29] Like nitric oxide. (Only two other such gases are currently known: nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). where it increases the response of the NMDA receptor and facilitates long term potentiation. and in the conservation of donated organs. [25] The cardioprotective role effect of garlic is caused by catabolism of the polysulfide group in allicin to H 2 S. but not in mice. it could be useful in the emergency management of severely injured patients. If the H 2 Sinduced hibernation can be made to work in humans. they had become cold-blooded). their mechanisms of action are different: while NO activates the enzyme guanylyl cyclase. It acts as a relaxant of smooth muscle and as a vasodilator[25] and is also active in the brain. leading to the death of beta cells and to a reduced production of insulin by those that remain. hydrogen sulfide is now recognized as potentially protecting against cardiovascular disease.) The gas is produced from cysteine by the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. [28] Though both nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide have been shown to relax blood vessels. Animals and humans naturally produce some hydrogen sulfide in their body.org/wiki/Hydrogen_sulfide#Toxicity[10/10/2011 11:04:55 AM] . [35] As mentioned above. which leads to the dramatic slowdown of metabolism. and the sulfite is further oxidized to thiosulfate and sulfate by sulfite oxidase. researchers have proposed that the gas is used to regulate metabolic activity and body temperature.wikipedia.

Other bacteria liberate hydrogen sulfide from sulfur-containing amino acids.. lowering their capacity to absorb oxygen that would otherwise oxidize H 2 S. which warmed the oceans. oxidizing it to elemental sulfur or to sulfate by using dissolved Sludge from a pond. metal oxides (e. leading to the dark color of sludge. sulfur-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria derive energy from oxidizing hydrogen or organic molecules by reducing elemental sulfur or sulfate to hydrogen sulfide. Several groups of bacteria can use hydrogen sulfide as fuel. such as ferrous sulfide FeS.' [39] Participant in the sulfur cycle Main article: Sulfur cycle See also: Sea lettuce Hydrogen sulfide is a central participant in the sulfur cycle. The formation of H 2 S may have been initiated by massive volcanic eruptions. a buildup of hydrogen sulfide in the atmosphere may have caused the Permian-Triassic extinction event 252 million years ago. The increased levels of hydrogen sulfide could have killed oxygen-generating plants as well as depleted the ozone layer. Some of the hydrogen sulfide will react with metal ions in the water to produce metal sulfides.Hydrogen sulfide . this gives rise to the odor of rotten eggs and contributes to the odor of flatulence.org/wiki/Hydrogen_sulfide#Toxicity[10/10/2011 11:04:55 AM] . either. are often black or brown. [41] Organic residues from these extinction boundaries indicate that the oceans were anoxic (oxygendepleted) and had species of shallow plankton that metabolized H 2 S. which emitted carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere. A 2008 study failed to reproduce the effect in pigs. the free encyclopedia Two recent studies cast doubt that the effect can be achieved in larger mammals. thereby producing elemental sulfur.Wikipedia. [edit] In the absence of oxygen. which are not water soluble. at a February 2010 TED conference. Mark Roth announced that hydrogen sulfide induced hypothermia had completed Phase I clinical trials.) Mass extinctions [edit] Hydrogen sulfide has been implicated in some of the several mass extinctions that have occurred in the Earth's past. producing hydrogen sulfide as waste.g.[37] Likewise a paper by Haouzi et al. (In fact. In particular. He estimated that further trials would take 'a few years. this mode of photosynthesis is older than the mode of cyanobacteria. the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur on Earth. These metal sulfides. Fe oxyhydroxides and Mn oxides) or nitrate as oxidant. concluding that the effects seen in mice were not present in larger mammals. Small H 2 S blooms have been detected in modern times in the Dead Sea and in the Atlantic ocean off the coast of Namibia.wikipedia. [41] See also [edit] http://en. noted that there is no induction of hypometabolism in sheep. causing further stress. and plants. which uses water as electron donor and liberates oxygen. [40] The purple sulfur bacteria and the green sulfur bacteria use hydrogen sulfide as electron donor in photosynthesis. eutrophic lakes or dead zones of oceans). As organic matter decays under low-oxygen (or hypoxic) conditions (such as in swamps. sulfate-reducing bacteria will use the sulfates present in the water to oxidize the organic matter. algae. the black color is due to metal sulfides oxygen. [38] However.

Hydrogen sulfide .gc.Wikipedia. Retrieved 2008-07-22.chron. Lifesaver ".. Raffaele De Palmad. Takashi Asada.1073/pnas. doi:10.J. Lin Y-T (1987). Vincenzo Mironeb. Molecular Neurobiology 26 (1): 13–19. T Scott Isbell. ^ "Hydrogen Sulfide . Robert W Mills. M. (November 2007).ca 4. Gloria A. PMID 19255435 31. a new neuromodulator". Retrieved 200807-22. J.com/content/chronicle/nation/h2 6..00324. ^ a b "Toxic Gas. 9. Hideo (2002). "Acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen" . doi:10. ^ Jacques Tournier-Lasserve "Hydrogen Sulfide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Chemical Industry 5. March 2. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Paquet F. Hyperbaric Med 2 (4): 215–221.1080/15563650601118010 . 29. ^ "Hydrogen Sulfide: Potential Help for ED" . Rakesh P Patel. see termiumplus. PMID 16500920 . Singh. Retrieved 2008-07-22. Retrieved 2009-03-14 8. doi:10. PMC 2084282 . Bennett S. M. Bernard N. Eggo (2006). Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. Retrieved 2007-10-20. ^ a b Lefer. ISBN 0-07049439-8 3. David J. PNAS 104 (46): 17907–17908.wikipedia. PMC 2084269 .0807974105 . 2002. Ferdinando Fuscob. McGraw-Hill. J. CJEM 7 (4): 257–61. 12. ^ http://www. Rinard J (May 2007). 27.1051/medsci/20042067697 . ^ H2 S disssolved into water is also known as sulfhydric acid or hydrosulfuric acid . Bibcode 2009PNAS.10417977B . doi:10. "Hydrogen sulfide as a mediator of human corpus cavernosum smooth-muscle relaxation" . Ciro Imbimbob. doi:10. Louis J. March 2010 30. ^ Lewis.10417907L . doi:10. Bibcode 2007PNAS. the free encyclopedia Amine gas treating Sewer gas Induced hypothermia Jenkem Gasotransmitters References 1. ^ Eto. 9th ed. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 45 (4): 420–3.0709010104 . Taniere. Hideo Kimura (2002-05-24). doi:10. PNAS 106 (11): 4513–8. Takao Makifuchi. Ko. Médecine/Sciences: M/S 20 (6–7): 697–700. C.2005 . "Hydrogen Sulfide Material Safety Data Sheet" . ^ Gerasimon G. PMID 17951430 . ^ Hsu P. 10. David W Kraus (2007-1113). ^ Iowa State University. Department of Chemistry MSDS . "A new gaseous signaling molecule emerges: Cardioprotective role of hydrogen sulfide" . "Brain hydrogen sulfide is severely decreased in Alzheimer's disease" . Côté M. The PubChem Project.PubChem Public Chemical Database" . ^ "Burden of the Beasts: Ranchers wonder why Their Livestock Suffer and Die.marcabcoinc. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 (46): 17977–17982.com/page2. ^ S. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 291 (2): G288–G296. P. PMID 15329822 . Poitras J (July 2005). 2.1152/ajpgi. "Sulfidedetoxifying enzymes in the human colon are decreased in cancer and upregulated in differentiation" . ^ Kimura. "Hydrogen sulfide as a neuromodulator". R. http://www. Victor M Darley-Usmar.106. S. Pierre (2004-07). 26." Houston Chronicle. Raffaella Sorrentinoa.html 7. Kunimasa Arima. "Acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning in a dairy farmer" . S. Giuseppe L Squadrito.0705710104 .1016/S0006- http://en. PMID 12392053 .1073/pnas. New [edit] 25. "Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the management of two cases of hydrogen sulfide toxicity from liquid manure" . ^ Pradyot Patnaik.. 11. Ramasamy. doi:10. Musser J. Volumes 1-3. Bibcode 2007PNAS. Li H-W. ^ Belley R. Langman.org/wiki/Hydrogen_sulfide#Toxicity[10/10/2011 11:04:55 AM] . Pasquale Maffiaa.1385/MN:26:1:013 . 2009 32. 28. ISSN 0884-1225 . Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 293 (5): 1485–1488. Retrieved 2008-09-26.4513D . "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic" . PMID 17991773 . Ignarroe und Giuseppe Cirino (2009).1073/pnas. PMID 17486486 . ^ Benavides. Scientific American. PMC 2657379 . "H2 S. ^ Roberta d'Emmanuele di Villa Biancaa. Jeannette E Doeller. PMID 17355683 . ^ a b Kamoun. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. WebMD. Hetal D Patel.

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