特別寄稿「十五代 羽左衛門私考」 Tokubetsu Kikō ‘Jūgo Dai Uzaemon Shikō’ ‘My thoughts about Ichimura Uzaemon XV’; a special

contribution http://i-sys.info/special/hazaemon/hazaemon.html
Translated by Trevor Skingle (2011) See also http://9326.teacup.com/tachibanaya/bbs/t2/



Akiyama Kayo’s father Koizumi Shinzō (小泉信三 -こいずみ しんぞう) was an unequalled Kabuki enthusiast. From an early age he often visited the Kabuki, Bunraku, and Rakugo theatres and occasionally wrote down his personal thoughts about those visits in his personal diary. An economist, whilst writing his literary work he was an active drama critic and was involved in cultural debate, especially with the theatre critic Miyake Shūtarō (三宅周太郎 – みやけ しゅうたろ) and their discussions about the performances of Ichimura Uzaemon XV (十五代市村羽左衛門) were published as a photographic reference (写真参照 shashin sanshō). The connection between Miyake and Koizumi was strengthened when Miyake presented him with an autographed copy of the book with his compliments. As a consequence of the air raids in the last year of the Pacific War (太平洋戦争) Koizumi was wounded. Badly burnt he was confined to bed effectively ending his career. Books were his only consolation then when, in Showa 昭和21年 (1946), the book was published.
Trans note: Koizumi Shinzō http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/小泉信三 Miyake Shūtarō http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/三宅周太郎

‘羽左衛門物語’ Uzaemon Monogatari - Uzaemon’s Story 三宅周太郎著 A book by Miyake Shūtarō Titles omitted 高橋伴子 Takahashi Tomoko Published in 1946

Koizumi lived with and was an inspiration to his daughters who in early days of the Showa era were enriched by the accomplishments of most Japanese culture (Nihon-Bunka - 日本文化) and visited the Kabukiza. Though, according to the recollections of Koizumi Kayo (小泉加代, later Akiyama Kayo), to begin with they were taken to visit the Kabukiza in about Showa 昭和10年 (1935) a present was made to mother and father of a written copy of a book entitled ‘Going to the Kabukiza Theatre soon I hope’, (Sorosoro Kabukiza e Tsurete Itte mo Yoi Darō - ろそろ歌舞伎座へ連れて行っても良いだろう). At that time the theatre was thriving as was Ichimura Uzaemon XV (十五代市村羽左衛門) when Uzaemon was probably in his fifties. Akiyama Kayo (秋山加代) witnessed the accomplishments of those fully developed artistic skills. In those days both daughters, excited, getting by on their pocket money still somehow managed to buy a full boxed collection of what were called publicity photos (bromides - ブロマイド) of entertainers. Some of them were lost during the horrors of the war time period, though Akiyama still collects them now too. At around that time Akiyama started visiting the Kabukiza twice a month, both daytime and evening. Akiyama, having seen the then most up to date actors of the next generation appear, describes here her frequent nostalgic thoughts about Ichimura Uzaemon. (Titles omitted Takahashi Tomoko)

不世出の歌舞伎役者十五代市村羽左衛門の思い出 Fuseishutsu no Kabuki Yakusha Jūgo Dai Ichimura Uzaemon no Omoide Reminiscences of the Extraordinary Kabuki Actor Ichimura Uzaemon XV

‘Extraordinary’, now there’s a phrase. Some famous celebrities like those of the grand champion (横綱 – Yokozuna) Futabayama (双葉山), Kabuki actor Kikugorō VI (六代目菊五郎), Kokontei Shinshō (古今 亭志ん生) with his comic story telling (rakugo -落語) are rare. However, I guess that if I had to state clearly the most likely person who had appeared ‘that was (extraordinary)’ it would clearly be the Kabuki actor Uzaemon who was ‘that one man whose significance intensified’. Kabuki’s Ichimura Uzaemon XV, whose real name was Rokutarō, is that man. That so called expression ‘extraordinary’ is, in the Kojien (広辞苑 – Japanese dictionary), definitively described as ‘to be by far, and to an unbelievable extent, a rarely manifested circumstance in any one generation’. For me such expert skill as was encountered in those performances had arrived. Once in a generation! And that indeed made me understand how worthy that man was. And to imagine how rarely and unlikely it was that such a magnificent personality had emerged in that one generation. Even so, how is it that Uzaemon was but the so called best choice? And anyway, in the circumstances, there was no alternative but that he continued to remain fantastic. In those days we thought ‘this was’ a genuine Japanese man though not from the naturally impressive Japanese Edo ( 江戸) manners. This was an open hearted genuine Japanese man who more than embraced Edo style sophistication.

At the beginning Kabuki was a sight to see. Uzaemon performing about seven times in five roles. I was fascinated, bursting with delight at the appearance of that character Gokanin (a lower ranking Kamakura or Edo vassal) Naojirō, whose nickname is Naozamurai (直侍 - なおざむらい), in ‘A Path in Iriya with Snow at Night’ (Yuki no Yūbe Iriya no Azemichi - 雪暮入谷畦道 - ゆきのゆうべいりやのあぜ みち). In ‘A Path in Iriya with Snow at Night’ the character Michitose (恋人三千歳 - みちとせ) rendezvous with Naojirō (直次郎). The Gokanin Kataoka (片岡) Naojirō is ruined. The Bakufu (幕府), the Shōgun’s police force, control the privileges of Naozamurai who, losing money gambling appears finally to set the pattern of his own destruction. Despite the situation Courtesan Michitose is very supportive of him as he immerses himself in gambling and lives a life of idleness day after day, finally becoming listed as a wanted man. Amidst these circumstances Michitose, her eagerness intensifying, defiantly goes to the rendezvous. She ignores her woman’s sorrow and as Naojirō approaches and they are together on the hanamichi accepts the briefness of their tryst and ponders a lover’s suicide. Because they are continuing with their futile customary elopement as Naojirō, who is being pursued, approaches Michitose starts looking wildly over her shoulder. I was delighted with such an excellent and unexpectedly outstanding and assured performance. The wicked man emotionally toying with Michitose’s growing love was really quite heartrendingly painful. Though as sisters we usually disagreed a lot our feelings were refreshingly in agreement that with refined posture there was no oiliness in the technique, which had tension without any looseness, or with an ankle over a knee or legs poking out (trans note: considered impolite in Japan). A dark complexion, slim yet powerful, with courage and a mature self-confidence, that man’s inner light rose to the surface. As a result everyone was incredibly excited and delighted. This Uzaemon was convincingly emotionally engaging. That day Uzaemon’s other stunning success was the white make up (shironuri - 白塗り); Naojirō’s shironuri was beautiful. About this Naozamurai our fathers, as men, were certainly similarly in undoubted enthusiastic agreement about Uzaemon. Around that time I heard by chance about how Uzaemon’s strong close kinship with France (フランス) came about. Later, after Uzaemon died, I was ‘clearly very upset’ and the drama critics stunned. Even nine years after his death I still regarded him as unerringly beautiful and continued to refuse to believe he was dead. How long I mourned Uzaemon then. He played about sixty roles throughout his life, and was absolutely beautiful.

「与話情浮名横櫛」(よわなさけ うきなの よこぐし)Yowa Nasake Ukina no Yokogushi (Kirare Yosa – Scarface Yosa) 与三郎 Yosaburō

As a youngster I didn’t go the theatre until I was about ten years old, when it boasted more, strongly graded, young actors. There was one whose extraordinary melancholy beauty I could not but help but admire. I remember that with that earlier actor I had never encountered anyone like that before. As one we were quickly captivated with Uzaemon’s voice. A restlessly stirring voice like that once heard is never forgotten. A clearly resonating voice, pausing, exciting, a voice that was tinged with sorrow, an open and natural voice, a gentle voice, it was a voice with good command. And a decent man he was. I knew in about Showa 昭和15年 (1940) what was being said about Uzaemon’s blood ties with Westerners (西洋人 - Seiyōjin). One day on a train I actually saw Uzaemon together with a woman. Though conservative clothes were worn in those days as everyone favoured ‘as Westerners are’ it

was the fashion to have what was called a pompadour hairstyle. As we stepped quietly stepped off the train I was told by my mother ‘that was Uzaemon’s younger sister!’ Aiko (Sekiya - 関屋愛子), at that time the mother of the famous soprano (ソプラノ) singer Sekiya Toshiko (関屋敏子). The impressive Uzaemon, suitably attired in Westerner’s clothes, looked beautifully Japanese.

Sekiya Toshiko (関屋敏子 – granddaughter of Le Gendre through her mother, Uzaemon’s sister, and therefore his niece, born 1904 and committed suicide in 1941. Was married to 柳生五郎 Yagyū Goro (Photo and caption added by Trevor Skingle) http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/関屋敏子

Both Uzaemon and his younger sister Aiko were smartly dressed, though I was exceedingly curious about the reason for their Western style clothes. If I remember correctly in spite of Uzaemon’s blood ties with Westerners from that day on I undeniably daydreamed about him. On my face was a look of astonishment. To be sure, like most other people I didn’t like to stare, however unintentionally. Aiko stood out amongst the subdued Japanese clothing of the men who, forgetting who she was with, looked her over. I could see that there was a general interest among the men who became more animated. The Japanese women then were more subdued and I remembered more about the men whose reactions were obviously more noticeable. There is a book by Satomi Ton (里見敦) entitled ‘The Legend of Uzaemon’ (Uzaemon Densetsu - 羽左 衛門伝説) which is the source of a couple of theories elucidating on Uzaemon’s birth. In Satomi it says that Uzaemon and his younger sister Aiko were seen on the train in clandestine circumstances. When I thought about this I was inspired to read as much as possible about what circumstances they might have been to have been the motivation for such a clandestine event. Later after the Second World War the death of Aiko was announced. My mother asked around about what had happened during the pre-War days, though I guessed that mother already knew. I tried to guess who it had been heard from? Perhaps Satomi Ton was my mother’s older brother and source, a reputable connection that I’d already guessed. Well, according to ‘The Legend of Uzaemon’ his father was the Frenchman (ル・フ ランス人) Le Gendre (ジャンドル). During the Meiji Restoration he served admirably and gallantly in Taiwan. He received special treatment from the Meiji Government. In official papers concerning Le Gendre and the Meiji Government it appears that his name has been transcribed into the Kanji, 李仙 得, a name bestowed on him by the Meiji Emperor.
Trans notes: Satomi Ton (里見敦) http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/里見とん Charles Le Gendre http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Le_Gendre

In my handbag is a copy of ‘Iwanami’s Biographical Dictionary of Westerners’ (Iwanami Seiyōjin Meijiten’ - 岩波西洋人名辞典), published by Iwanami Shoten (岩波書店) which gives an account that agrees with this, as this extract (below) shows. ル・ジャンドル Le Gendre Charles William (nobleman). In Kanji 李仙得、李善得、李聖得 1830~ 99. American soldier and diplomat. Visitor to Japan, employment - diplomatic advisor. Birthplace France, later immigrated to America, naturalised. (synopsis)

Charles William Le Gendre. 1830-1899 ル・ジャンドル 李仙得、李善得、李聖得 Union Army Brevet Brigadier General, United States Civil War, Diplomat (Photo and caption added by Trevor Skingle)

Manchu China, lived near Amoy, America consul, during this period in a new appointment he repeatedly visited Taiwan where at the time there were many historical problems. (synopsis) Japan, around Meiji 明治5年(1872)lived in Tōkyō (東京), American Legation residence, announced at an audience to the State Minister of Foreign Affairs Soejima Tanetomi (副島種臣), earnestly requested twice by Japan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs. From then on was concerned with and participated in a variety of diplomatic issues in Japan. Japan, whilst staying with Matsudaira Shungaku (松平春嶽) had an illegitimate child with Ikeda Ito (池田絲) who he then married, older son and two daughters, young man became Ichimura Uzaemon XV and the grandchild vocalist Sekiya Toshiko. According to Satomi Ton’s ‘The Legend of Uzaemon’ he wrote that the investigation concerning Le Gendre was hindered by obstacles. In about Showa 昭和31年 (1956) the first edition of ‘Iwanami’s Biographical Description of Westerners’ was published. Sometime in the preceding year Showa 昭和 30年 (1955) ‘The Legend of Uzaemon’ was published. If ‘The Legend of Uzaemon’ had not been published the fascinating Uzaemon wouldn’t have been written about. Obstacles in the way of accessing the remaining documents of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs would have ended up with many assumptions being made until, without individual references, the story wouldn’t have been believed. The resulting ‘The Legend of Uzaemon’ has plentiful references as it should. Anyway, more than any other publication Iwanami Shoten’s ‘Iwanami’s Biographical Dictionary of Westerners’ raises such important matters about the star performer Uzaemon. In ‘Iwanami’s Biographical Description of Westerners’ details about Uzaemon’s mother were written down. At the end of the Edo era the Daimyō of Fukui Prefecture (福井) Matsudaira Yoshinaga (松平慶 永) had a daughter out of wedlock called Ito. Ito’s mother was Matsudaira’s chambermaid who gave birth to her master’s child with the help of the nobleman’s wife. There were no difficulties with the birth and the daughter Ito, born out of wedlock, eventually asked permission to end it all by committing suicide. Ito was later placed in the custody of one of Matsudaira’s vassals and grew up in Tōkyō.

松平 慶永 Matsudaira Yoshinaga 1828-1890 幕末の四賢侯の一人 One of the Four Wise Lords of the Bakumatsu 福井藩の大名 – Daimyō of Fukui Domain (Photo and caption added by Trevor Skingle)

Besides that vassal was poverty stricken and the illegitimate daughter actually became a Geisha, a personal choice and status that is greatly admired. As was customary in Japan that Geisha married,

becoming the wife of Charles Le Gendre. Ōkuma Shigenobu(大隈重信 - おおくま しげのぶ), Itō Hirobumi (伊藤博文 - いとう ひろぶみ) and others said they agreed that it was impossible to make someone do that. From then on the likelihood was that a Daimyō’s illegitimate daughter would be married to a legitimately born person, becoming the wife of a Westerner, a position she inevitably rejected. When she was told she said ‘If children are born of that ancestor that child will be killed immediately and suicide will be committed’. However, though there was an intolerable strain, it was a success and the marriage produced three children and though Ito was concerned that they were not considered Japanese Le Gendre was considered to be a nobleman. The threat that any children born would be killed wasn’t carried out. The husband said that in the circumstances entrusting the children to adoption was acceptable. Destiny was to fate one child to become the Kabuki actor Ichimura Kakitsu (市村家橘).

Trans notes: Ōkuma Shigenobu(大隈重信 - おおくま しげのぶ) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ōkuma_Shigenobu Itō Hirobumi (伊藤博文 - いとう ひろぶみ) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Itō_Hirobumi

Ito’s poem remains, and in this interlude her feelings about her situation are heard.

A dagger I acquired is in my handbag (the dagger is carried thinking that suicide is the remedy) Amen to bitterness, I believe my child is left to humble posterity, Left unattended to die, Now serious, I wonder (It seems I am remorseful about the future of this child, I feel upset about this lethal gift) Even if a successful means of farewell is to be by a drawn long sword, My heart shines unceasingly for my dear child (now death’s sleep has come, the unsheathed dagger is put aside, fascinated I laid it down, hesitatingly) Who is to be the child of a neighbour, a high ranking person, Prosperity bestowed on a mother In one’s country Devoted to destiny! (in accepting a successful career, for the sake of destiny, an unsettled mother is respectfully giving a handsome man’s child to one’s country)

ふところ刀を手にしつつ(懐剣を持って自害しようとしている) うらみなむ吾子の末さへ思われて死ぬるいまはのただならぬかな (私を恨むだろうこの子の将来が思われて死のうとしている私は気が動転している) さらばとて太刀ぬきつつもかたへなるいとしき吾子に心ひかるる (さあ死のうと刀を抜いたが傍に寝かした子に心を惹かれてためらわれる) よき人の子となりて世に栄えかし母は御国につくす命ぞ (立派な人の子になって出世しておくれ母はお国のために命を捧げます)
The discourse is truthfully written in colloquial style. Because of the circumstances of the time this poem became an unusual story about an age with which the author is familiar. It’s a fact that this is Ito’s waka and in its entirety this poem allows a proper understanding of and illustrates her true motives. This story was contained in a box of Sekiya Toshiko’s ancestral papers and in spite of her saying ‘after my death definitely burn them ’ as a consequence of her mother’s last will and testament the documents were protected. It was said Satomi Ton petitioned at length to be allowed to see the letters. This did happen and the whole story about Uzaemon’s birth was discovered and became public. As a consequence and playing with fire the hidden poem which had caused so much anxiety was published.

再会のとき Saikai No Toki A Time of Reunion

ありし日の市村羽左衛門氏 - Arishihi no Ichumra Uzaemon shi - Mr Ichimura Uzaemon in the past

During Ichimura Uzaemon’s lifetime About the break-up of the mother and child, a later theatre stage authority would once more experience the circumstances of another encounter. During an appearance on stage of the child actor Takematsu (竹松) he was recognised as Ichimura Rokutarō (市村録太郎) by Ito and Le Gendre. Rokutarō, together with the other actors, remained unflustered by the situation. When he was appearing he also visited Ito’s residence, putting up a smoke screen about his mother’s origins every time she met other young actors in his home. When Kakitsu (家橘), later Uzaemon, was at home with Aiko he said that he realised from the situation that they were really older brother and younger sister. To start with he was prepared to pretend not to recognise the other person. The mother, with her twenty four year old son, and his seventeen year old sister, parent and children, older brother and younger sister, began meeting. Around then Ito’s poem was shared amongst them. The pair of them especially the son became troubled about the poem as they were bound to. Once the meetings between parent and children and older brother and younger sister began it was a fresh start, with the older brother and younger sister becoming close friends, always chatting and getting along, talking about wanting to compose poems.

関屋愛子 Sekiya Aiko (ル・ジャンドル愛子 Le Gendre Aiko) was married to

関屋祐之介 Sekiya Yūnnosuke Businessman (Photos and captions added by Trevor Skingle)

When Uzaemon was about twenty six his father Le Gendre, having returned from Korea, arrived to join them for dinner. That day the increasingly refined Uzaemon patiently regarded his father. Nevertheless on that day they each openly referred to the other as parents and children and older brother and younger sister. As he introduced himself the father excitedly embraced the mother and children and chatted with them, especially about his son who’d had ‘a painful upbringing’, and apologised. Afterwards they chatted about Ito’s regrettable extraordinary suffering , about which he was admonished, and about preventing the suicide. They both agreed that no matter what was happening they absolutely could not imagine the mother’s hopeless suffering with which they consistently sympathised.

十五代 羽左衛門私考 Ichimura Uzaemon XV (ル・ジャンドル録太郎 Le Gendre Rokutarō) as Koganosuke Kiyofune 久我之助清舟 (こがのすけきよふね) from the play Imoseyama Onna Teikin (Imoseyama, an example of womanly virtue) 妹背山婦女庭訓 (from the translator’s collection)

芸者お鯉 Geisha Okoi 1880-1948 Uzaemon’s wife (Photo and caption added by Trevor Skingle)

And then Uzaemon chatted with his father about Le Gendre’s career. His father, uneasy speaking in Japanese, chatted in French. The dialogue of that story was transcribed into a document. There things of significance were written such as, ‘The origin of the Japanese play happened as an accidental development out of a collection of actor’s humble customs. In such ancient customs it wasn’t about the circumstances. In France it’s about artists, about politicians, and the more esteemed wealthy people. For my humble occupation I have no use of expectations. More endeavour and triumph is forgotten. Danjurō (団十郎) and Kikugurō (菊五郎) are hoping for and thinking about big things. However the presence of heaven brings the blessing of ability and beauty and with increasing skilful influence develops into an excellent revival. Arts don’t have a successful selling point, just to have breathed in the silken thread is to have extended one’s own destiny. Naturally excellent all his life his art is effortless for a number of reasons; certainly, Japan’s best is ultimately the most exalted’ Ito’s poem was included, in honour of her child, in ‘The Condition of Beauty’ (Hana no Yo na - 花の様 な). It is said that the mother had great beauty even into old age. It’s also said that the father was remembered with sympathy.

In Meiji 明治30年 (1897) Ito told her husband Le Gendre in gratitude that she was honoured and grateful for an excellent actor’s actor who was dedicated and peerless and that his path was conferred by the practice of following a divine spirit. At a later time Le Gendre secretly said that it went without saying how honestly proud and supportive he felt about Uzaemon. In Meiji 明治32年 (1899), his father Le Gendre suddenly died in Korea. In Taishō 大正2年 (1913) his mother Ito passed away. Uzaemon visited his mother every night while she was sick and dying. When he left her he called her his ‘okkasan’ (おっかさん – a Meiji period term for mum). His mother tenderly called her son ‘botchan’ (坊ちゃん - young master). It would seem that Uzaemon forgot to make arrangements in case of an emergency. The public were told that in the event a female nurse was close by at the time keeping watch.

池田絲 Ikeda Ito 1856 -1913 芸者 Geisha (Photo and caption added by Trevor Skingle)

This is what really happened then. Occasionally talked about by the public it was a curious story if ever there was one. For example, a similar story was known and investigated of how the discovery of the historic ruins of Troy ( トロイ) by Heinrich Schliemann (シュリーマン) began as a result of a dream. The lost chances created by the dreams of others made this story inevitable, that of a sense of someone being connected to a spiritual purpose. Even though details about Uzaemon’s birth were known it could not but be helped that Satomi Ton hoped that the public, in their capacity for decency and inscrutability, could be trusted. During Uzaemon’s lifetime, the issue of an autobiography was occasionally problematic. It was established that at the age of five Kantō Kakitsu became an adopted child, a not unusual event it was said. Uzaemon reported that there was indisputable evidence of his birth. His feelings about the theatre stage were made public all the time and I completely believe it was true that it was this actor’s destiny to become a legend. In Showa 昭和20年 (1945) Uzaemon was evacuated to Yudanaka (湯田中) Onsen (spa) in Nagano Prefecture (長野県) where he suffered a heart attack and suddenly died. The unconditional surrender of that year caused by losing the war was a boundary, a blow to most ‘male history’. This was the case in all my personal affairs without exception. My older brother was killed in action, my father was badly burnt, and my fiancé was detained in a Siberian (シベリヤ) internment camp. Women gathered together silently shoulder to shoulder and it was a very harsh existence in those days. My treasure trove of reminiscences about Kabuki actors remained, and the figure that cast a silhouette in bromide was there. If peace did not exist there wouldn’t have been a story like this, of the growth of what is called the cultural arts.

Until modern times in Japan my father somehow or other managed to truly maintain his health, and keep his beloved Kabuki, Bunraku, Noh and Kyōgen within reach. I think that the extent of the influence of such traditions are important as they really do have great authority. (the end)

略歴 Ryakureki Short CV


かよ)Akiyama Kayo

Born Taisho 11大正11年(1922)、Keio (Private) University, was Councillor to the Crown Prince, born in the Province of Kamakura the eldest daughter of Palace official Koizumi Shinzō (1888 – ’ 1966). In her 50 s she was a writer and the late Mukōda Kuniko (1929-1981) and Empress Michiko’s fashion designer. Her connection with Ueda Itsuko was though the medium of cultural dialogue which began with a written essay. Her books include ‘Chichi Koizumi Shinzō (My father Koizumi Shinzō’ (Co-authored with Tae Kozumi), ‘Kobushi no Hana (Magnolia Flower)’, ’Shikarare Tegami (Letter of Reproval)’, and ’Suki na hito suki na m ono (Love the man love the story)’ all published by Bungeishunju Publishing Company.


うざえもん)Ichimura Uzaemon XV

Born Meiji 明治7年(1874) Birthplace Tōkyō, Kantō Kabuki actor, 4 years old when he was adopted by a neighbour into the Kabuki Bandō lineage. Debuted at 7. Showa 昭和20年(1945)passed away aged 71, the best Tachibanaya (橘屋 – Kabuki Actors Guild), Maegami (前髪 – long forelocks) actor and referred to as the Nimaime (二枚目 – handsome young male lover) of Nimaime, and praised as such. His birth was a mystery. Posthumously it was said he always told that it was boring and personal. Simply the birthplace of a writer with a simple outlook, and that’s the way it mostly remained with the theatre critics including the late Miyake Shūtarō (三宅周太 郎 - みやけ しゅうたろう) and others. ※ Publicity photographs of Ichimura Uzaemon in this document are the property of Akiyama Kayo Reference information: 「日本演劇考察・羽左衛門物語」 ‘ Nihon Engeki Kōsatsu - Uzaemon Monogatari’ (Japanese Stage Investigation – The Story of Uzaemon) 三宅周太郎著 Miyake Shūtarō 「羽左衛門伝説」 ‘Uzaemon Densetsu’ (The Legend of Uzaemon ) 里見敦著 Satomi Ton cho – A book by Satomi Ton 「十五代市村羽左衛門 名優アルバム」 ‘Jūgo Dai Ichimura Uzaemon Meiyū Arubamu’ (An album of the famous actor Ichimura Uzaemon XV) 演劇界別冊 Engeki Kai Bessatsu (The World of the Theatre Supplement)

Translator’s footnote: 十五代 羽左衛門の系図 Ichimura Uzaemon XV’s Family Tree
松平 慶永 Matsudaira Yoshinaga 1828-1890 幕末の四賢侯の一人 One of the Four Wise Lords of the Bakumatsu 福井藩の大名 – Daimyō of Fukui Domain Chambermaid

池田絲 Ikeda Ito 1856 1913

Charles William Le Gendre. 1830-1899 ル・ジャンドル 李仙得、李善得、李聖得 Union Army Brevet Brigadier General, United States Civil War, Diplomat

芸者 Geisha

十五代 羽左衛門私考 Ichimura Uzaemon XV 18741945 (ル・ジャンドル録太郎 Le Gendre Rokutarō)

芸者お鯉 Geisha Okoi 1880-1948

Ai 18781881

Shodai Soke, Azuma School of Dance Revival

Masaya Fujima ? – 1st April 1957. Found dead in his Tokyo home overcome by gas while trying to fix a leaking kitchen stove

Fujima, later Azuma, Harue. Later Azuma Tokuho 1907 – April 1998. IV Iemoto 1933, later in 1942 II Soke, Azuma School of Dance

? Tokuya Azuma VI Iemoto, Azuma School of Dance

関屋祐之介 Sekiya Yūnnosuke Businessman

関屋愛子 Sekiya Aiko 23rd August 1881-1948 (ル・ジャンドル愛子 Le Gendre Aiko)

関屋喜美子 Sekiya Kimiko 野口 Noguchi

関屋敏子 Sekiya Toshiko 1904-1941 Lead soprano, La Scala, Milan

柳生五郎 Yagyū Goro Richard Sorge – Communist Spy

Mistress of

Photographic images published before December 31st 1956, or photographed before 1946 and not published for 10 years thereafter, under jurisdiction of the Government of Japan, are considered to be public domain according to article 23 of old copyright law of Japan and article 2 of supplemental provision of copyright law of Japan

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