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Introduction to tour:
On Wednesday 25 May 2011 we left from university at 8:00am for Sheikhupura by the Sheikhupura road. 1st of all we add diesel in buses at petrol pump. Then we started our journey for Sheikhupura and reached Shahkot at 9:00am. We continue our journey and at least reached in Sheikhupura at 11:00 am.

Visit to Adaptive research complex Sheikhupura:
We reached in adaptive research complex at 10:15 am. The director research farm Rao M. Ashraf. He told us about the purposes of farm.

Purposes of farm:
To spread basic research in whole districts Do survey for verities and farmers fields Provide extension services to farmers Establish trials for 2-3 years for approval of varieties Disseminate the technology to farmers Provide awareness to farmers He told that the 1st project was in 1980 and no new research is done in this institute. It’s only mean to adopt the verities in regional areas. The departments that work in this institute are agronomy, engineering, plant protection, economics and PBG. Research is undergoing in wheat. Rice and vegetables.

Tunnel farm:
The director of tunnel farm M. liaquat told us about the tunnel farming. He told that three types of tunnel farms. a. High tunnels b. Low tunnels c. Intermediate tunnels He told that the main purposes of tunnels to produce the summer vegetables in winters. In Punjab summer vegetables are less and brought from Sindh.

Tunnels operations:
Soil selection Seed selection Farm layout Transplanting of seedlings Irrigation Hanging of plants for providing of space Timely picking of fruits Grading Packing Marketing

Integrated pest management:
A lecture was also given on pests attack on wheat and other field crops. There are some biotic and abiotic factors that affect the population of insects and pests.

Field application is better than foliar spray. Analysis of Organic matter. zigzag spotted)  Crysoprilla cornia Visit to Soil and Water testing laboratory Sheikhupura: After visiting of Adaptive research complex we reached in soil and water testing lab Sheikhupura at 12:15 pm. Test and analysis of soil and water. He said that soil sample test on the basis of Ec. Basmati should transplant late. Dr. He said that NH4NO3 don’t apply because more leaching is occur with this application. Advice to farmers. Establishment 1926 Rice institute 1970 st 1 variety 1933 Purposes of institute: Variety development . He told about soil sample depth and said that take water sample after each 10 feet depth when a pump is installed. apply Zinc 5 Kg/acre and 3 Kg/acre Boron. He said that work is done on rice crop only.  Lady bird beetle (11 spotted. Potassium and Phosphorus. He said no new variety with respect to salinity tolerance and rice is sensitive to salinity not sodicity. He told that total area is 500 acres out of which 70 acres for research and 430 acres are for seed multiplication. SAR and RSC. He also told about new variety basmati-515. SAR and pH while water samples are fit or unfit on the basis of Ec. Visit to rice research institute Kala Shah Kaku: After visiting the lab of Sheikhupura we reached in Rice Research institute at 2:20 pm. Saleem a Plant breeder told about features of institute. He told that. He said that texture is determined by saturation %age the water add in making the past do double that water quantity that will be saturation %age.Control practices of pests: Protect from spray Cultural control Biological control Use of balance fertilizers Predators of aphids. If saturation %age is >50 then clayey texture and if <20 then sandy texture. Fertilizers analysis for fitness. After this we drank bottles and came back from laboratory at 12:45 pm to adaptive research complex. 7 spotted. salinity tolerance and water requirements. Complete analysis of water for fitness. CHEMISTRY and plant protection. After this we reached in seminar room where Mr. After this we left for Rice Research Institute Kala Shah Kaku. He told that a chemist determine the fertilizer requirements. Liaquat an Agri. He said that Urea is applied in split form. Chemist introduce d different department of institute such as PBG. Mr. He told the purposes of lab such as. Rashid Mehmood told us about the lab work. ENTO. AGRONOMY.

After this we went for lunch and did lunch from 4:00 to 5:00 pm and also said Zuhar and Asar prayers. Then we went to Lahore and reached in Lahore at 6:00 pm. Hafizabad. Faisalabad and Nankana sahib. Lahore. Head quarter is in Lahore Regional head quarters are in Peshawar. Functions: Land resource inventories Arial photograph. Quata. Visit to Soil Survey of Pakistan center Lahore: On Thursday 26 May 2011 we reached in soil survey of Pakistan at 9:10 am.Resistance against diseases and pests Suitability for the local areas Quality and quantity maintenance Varieties produced by institute: Total 19 varieties are produced by the institute in which Varieties Basmati-319 Basmati-515 Super basmati Kernel basmati Pak basmati Basmati-198 BASMATI-325 Super basmati1996 Basmati-2000 Shaheen basmati yield 30-40 monds 65-70 monds 65-68 monds 60 monds 50-55 monds 60-65 monds 50-60 monds 66-70 monds 55-60 monds 40-50 monds Districts in which in rice is grow as a regional crop: There are six district in which rice are grown as a regional crop and produce good quality and flavor. Hyderabad and Muzafarabad. Then we did rest for two hours and then did dinner from 9: pm to 10:30 pm. Gujrawala. Sheikhupura. soil survey Land information services Laboratories services Soil reference centre information services Consulting and training services . The head of institute said that two projects are under processes that are National institute for land plan and national institute of research for soil and geomatics. The districts are as follow.

Active participation in soil and soil related GIS and RS c. structure deterioration. National institute for research of soil and geomatics: Objectives: Arranging courses for research organizations Weakness: a.National Agriculture land use: Objectives: Preparation of district wise national plan Purposing necessary changes Identifying potentional crops for waste land Upgrading professional skills Provide legal coverage’s to land use plan Main components: Updation of land resource inventory of Pakistan Land evaluation Preparation of national use plan Preparation of legal network for plan Water logging. Preparation of national land use plan b. contamination with chemicals. sodication. loess. Activities in technology transfer Geomatics: Depend on remote sensing and GIS. Non transfer of modern technology to research workers and end users Remedy for weakness: a. Preparation of 32 reports and 128 maps c. Preparation of national use act Achievements: a. piedmonts and rivers) . Lack of awareness and their proper utilization b. Active participation in soil and soil related activities b. soil erosion. industrial waste water and degradation of land resources. Report writing and maps b. In geomatics following activities are performed. salinization. Major land form Minor land form Land elements Major types of land form in Pakistan: Platues Planes (sand. fertility depletion. Displines of survey Survey and mapping Survey of army camps Survey of infrastructure and crops Land forms of Pakistan: There are three categories of land form. Aims for remedy of these problems: a.

00 RSC <2. d. It is not enough for irrigation and need to make ground water useable for irrigation.50 me/L .50 dS/m SAR <10. Objectives: a. Promoting of low delta crops Use of tensiometer: Tensiometer is use to know the time that is suitable to irrigate the crops. Visit to Directorate of land reclamation Punjab Lahore: After visiting of soil survey of Pakistan center we went to Directorate of land reclamation at 12:00 pm. After this we drank juices and left for DLR at 11:00 am. representing to all types of agro climate zones of province. The head of DLR welcomed us. Industrial and municipal pollution assessment Status of ground water quality profile. The underground water can be used with the following parameters. Use of lysimeter: It is used to know the better use of water by the crops. e. Ec <1. Soil and groundwater monitoring in Chaj Doab Reclamation research stations: Nine reclamation research centers spread all over Punjab. b. To identifying the causes of salinity/sodicity and water logging in Punjab To combat with problems of salinity/sodicity in Punjab To keep vigilant eye on soil degrading To implement and to regulate the reclamation operations To conduct the basic and applied research on soil reclamation and ground water management f. Major Functions of DLR: Ground water monitoring and management On farm reclamation of salt-affected soils Field research at reclamation research stations Monitoring of water sector environmental pollution Command area development of small dams Analysis of soil and water samples and basic research regarding soil water plant relationship. To make best use of underground water for irrigation: The Punjab province receives its share of water from IRSA about 56 million acre feet. c. It is 1st time used in the directorate in 1972. It is made of two words lysi means water and meter means measurement. The more reading of meter show more need of water for crops.Hills/mountains Lakes/wetland In land forms the geology and morphology are study. The researchers of DLR gave us lecture and told about the DLR.

5-4 >4 .5-3 1.25 <2.50 dS/m SAR <10.5-3 >3 >3 SAR <10 <10 <10 >10 RSE me/L <2.5 1.Classification of salt-affected soils: Water quality Good Saline: Marginally saline Saline High saline Saline-Sodic: Marginally Moderately Highly Sodic: Marginally Moderately Highly Sodic Ec dS/m <1.00 RSC <1.5-3 1.5-4 >4 >4 2.25 <2.5-4 >4 >4 Irrigation water criteria for fitness: Ec <1.5 <<2.25 me/L Classification of ground water: .5-3 <3 10-15 10-15 >15 10-15 >15 >15 2.25 1.

Physical methods Chemical methods Biological methods Hydro technical Erector chemical reclamation How to protect the soil from salinity/Sodicity: There are some suggestions that protect the soil from salinity and Sodicity hazardous. e. b. Provide intellectual leadership in the field. Train IPD staff.exchangeable sodium is present that deteriorate the physical and chemical properties of soil 3. Saline-Sodic---------. Unavailability of water due to canal closure. d. e. Damage to utilities and infrastructures.5 Social and Environmental Management Unit: SEMU’s Functions: a. d. f. Social and environmental Issues: Social Issues: Encroachment in irrigation land. FOs. Sodic-------. Saline------. c.Reclamation of saline-Sodic/Sodic soils: Types of salt-affected soils: 1. Deep ploughing in fields Use of organic matter in soils regularly Suitable use of canal irrigation Use gypsum as fertilizers To take care the level of ground water and test of soil annually Type of soils Saline Sodic Saline-Sodic Ec dS/m >4 <4 >4 ESP <15 >15 >15 SAR <13 >13 >13 pHs <8. Communication to all stakeholders and awareness building. c. Develop. .more soluble salts are present that affect crops and other plants adversely 2.5 >8. Environmental data base development and management. disseminate. b. AWBs to utilize guidelines. upgrade and maintain guidelines for assessment of environmental impacts.5 >8. Loss of land and assets. Coordination with other provincial and federal departments.contain both soluble and exchangeable sodium salts Methods of reclamation: a.

In this process the salts will leach down and crop will be good. Environmental issues: Cutting of tress. Noise pollution due to vehicle and machinery. The border security of both sides takes part in the ceremony. We stayed there for about two hours and took bath in pool vigorously. We enjoyed a lot in park. After this we came back at 7:00 pm to Lahore city and . Use of high SAR water: The acid is not suitable for this type of water.Deterioration aesthetic quality. Threat to health. We also ate ice cream there. After this we went to Sozo Water Park and left the Directorate of land reclamation at 2:00 pm. Soil and environmental issues of small dams: Aim of small dams: Small dams are built to capture stream water or runoff in the hilly areas during monsoon to improve the irrigation system of barani areas and to increase the yield per acre. After this we left for Wagha border at 5:00 pm. Embankment construction. People of both sides were raised slogans against each other. Before ceremony both sides security persons do flag march. Visit to Sozo Ware Park Lahore: After visiting of directorate of land reclamation we reached in Sozo Water Park at 3:00 pm. The ceremony was start at 6:30 pm. This water is only reclaiming with calcium source such as gypsum. Contamination of surface and groundwater Damage to flora and fauna. Major proposed actions for small dams: Land Acquisition. The use of acid for this water is not good and gypsum is the only best option to make suitable this water for irrigation. construction of Reservoir and construction of irrigation channels. We also raised slogans against India. Visit to Wagha border Lahore: After visiting of Sozo Water Park we wet to Wagha Border and reached there at 5:45 pm. Use of saline water for crops with some amendments: Use of water having more Ec: If canal water is also available then use alternate irrigation of tubwell and canal irrigation. People were also come from other cities to see the ceremony. Use of High RSC water: This type of water is reclaiming with the help of gypsum or other calcium source. 1st of all we bought tickets of Rs-9900 and entered in park. This was the lecture in directorate and then we did lunch at DLR. When we entered a huge crowed was there on both sides India and Pakistan borders. Dust smoke causing air pollution. Do analysis of water and determine the total amount of gypsum addition in it to make useable for irrigation. We saw the ceremony and did enjoy there. 1st of all we bought tickets for entry.

SAR. Ec. SAR and Ec Ec <4 >4 <4 >4 SAR <13 <13 >13 >13 Status Non saline-non Sodic Saline Sodic Saline-Sodic Phosphorus and Potassium status of soil: Phosphorus <3. cations and anions are determined in water samples. Visit to Directorate Soil Fertility Institute for Research Punjab Lahore: On Friday 27th of May 2011 we reached in soil fertility institute for research at 9:10 am.said Magrib prayer. Phosphorus. After dinner we went to Gaddafi Stadium where we ate ice cream and stayed there about one hour. Heavy metals and cheleated products are also analyzed. organic matter. Criterias of soil: pH. Texture. Potassium. Soil analysis: pH. Cl. RSC. Then we went to liberty market for dinner and did dinner from 8:00 to 10:00 pm in liberty market. Fertilizers analysis: All major. and all micronutrients are analyses here in soil samples.5 ppm 3.1-14 14-21 >21 Potassium <40 ppm 41-80 81-180 181-280 >280 Soil status Very low Low Medium Adequate High Critical limits of micronutrients: Micronutrients Critical limits . micro and basic nutrients are analyzed. The director of the directorate gave us a lecture and told about the activities performed in the institute. Then we came back to hostels at 12:00 am. Water analysis: Ec. He told about the analysis of soil and water that are done in the institute.6-7 7.

Ec SAR RSC me/L Status <1000 <6 <1.25-2. Irrigation water criteria: Ec. Sheikhupura. Enrich soil with proper fertilizers in balance amount. Fertilizers analysis: These analyses are conduct for various purposes such as. Nankana sahib and Okara. Do regular test of soil and water and also fertilizers. Sheikhupura.0 Laboratories: Laboratories are present in Lahore.5 <1. Farm advisory Fertilizers control order Research samples are analyzed Laboratory instruments: Fume hood Nitrogen distillation unit Spectrophotometer Flame photometer Atomic absorption spectrophotometer Inductive couple plasma (ICP) Gas chromatography (GC) High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Field wing: pH 7-7.2 <1.51-8. kasur.50 Unfit Research projects in districts: Lahore.50 Marginally fit >1250 >10 >2. SAR and RSC are the Criterias of irrigation water.51 Status No alkaline Alkaline Sodic Causes of low fertilizer use efficiency: Low organic matter Calcareousness High pH Unsurplus use of fertilizers Poor agronomic practices Message: Balance fertilizer should be a good tool for better production.50 7.Zn Cu Fe Mn <1 ppm <.25 Fit 1001-1250 6-10 1.50 >8. kasur and Okara. . The P efficiency in soil is only 10-25 % while the efficiency of Nitrogen is 30-40 %.

rice and wheat. We get much knowledge from Mr.Utilization of crop residues should do and addition of gypsum in Sodic soils and in brackish water. After field visit we came back at sitting place and did lunch there. After this the Mr. The following process in which a verity is produce. Shamsher. We left the Auriga company field at 2:00 pm. He told that Auriga-101 of wheat variety has a potentional of 90 monds/acre. The head of company Mr. HPLC and GC: More accurately analyzed the samples while gas chromatography is not so much accurate in performance. This was the last visiting station of our tour. nitrogen is used as a carrier. Rizwan told about the progress of company and introduced many varieties of crops. Fertilizer lab: In fertilizer lab the tests of N. Shamsher welcomed us. Mr. He told that Auriga-101 top the whole province with 36 monds/acre yield and the wheat variety of Auriga also give the maximum yield as compare to other varieties. Mr. We take rest for few seconds and then visit the fields and saw the different projects that were under process. Shamsher gave us lecture and told the performance of company. He told how they produce the varieties of different crops. The tests are done for the following purposes. This was a brief introduction of Auriga Company. Nitrogen and carbon gases are used in it. 4-5 hours light supply should provide when analysis is continue. And to get maximum yield apply a urea bag for 10 monds yield. Laboratory visits: Chemistry lab: Emission spectroscope: This instrument can determined 21 elements at a time and give reading in 40 seconds. Rs-10000 per sample for registration is charged. cotton. In chemistry lab the soil and water samples are analyzed for salinity and Sodicity assessment. The variety of a crop is produced in 6-7 years. . The variety of rice also gives maximum yield. After this we were ready to come back Faisalabad. 1st of all hybridization Emasculation Do pollination Do selection of superior traits Make crossing of different males and females plant Make again selection of superior plants Revise the process up to 7 years unless a superior variety is produced We visit the fields of maize.P and K is done. Rizwan a plant breeder told about the work that is done on farm. He told that the company was established in 2003 and produces up to 10 varieties of different crops. Claim test Quality monitor Registration Visit to Auriga group of componies Lahore: After visiting of directorate of soil fertility we reached in Auriga at 11:50 pm.

Thanks. This was our north Punjab visit from 25th May to 27th May 2011. We drank water there and reached to Faisalabad at 4:00 pm and to University at 4:15 pm.Back from Lahore to Faisalabad: After visiting of Auriga Company we started our journey back to Faisalabad. . We choose the Murkhunda and Nankana road and reached in Bucheki at 3:00 pm and to Jaranwala at 3:30 pm.