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Journal of Engineering for Industry, Trans. ASME, Vol. 84, August, 1962 Paper No.

61-WA-llS

W. J. O'DONNELL
Associate Engineer, Westinghouse Bettis

AtomicPower laboratory, Pittsburgh,Pa. Assoc.Mem.ASME

Design of Perforated Plates

1

B. F. LANGER
Consulting Engineer,WestinghouseBettis AtomicPower laboratory, Pittsburgh,Pa. FellowASME

This paper describes a method for calculating stresses and deflections in perJorated plates with a triangular penetration pattern. The method is based partly on theory and partly on experiment. Average ligament stresses are obtained from purely theoretical considerations but e.tfective elastic constants and peak stresses are derived from strain measurements and photoelast-ic tests. Acceptable limits for pressure stresses and thermal stresses in heat-exchanger tube sheets are also proposed.

Introduction
calculation of stresses in perforated plates is a subject which has received considerable attention as a result of the widespread use of flat tube sheets in heat-exchange equipment. Major contributions have been made by Horvay [1, 2],2 Malkin [3], Gardner [4, 5, 6], Duncan [7], Miller [8], Galletly and Snow [9], and Salerno and Mahoney [10]. Most of the published work has been limited to perforations arranged in an equilateral triangular pattern, and the present paper is no exception. The Pressure Vessel Research Committee of the Welding Research Council is currently sponsoring work on square patterns of holes but no results are available as yet. Most heat-exchanger tube sheets are designed to meet the standards set by the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association [11]. In these TEMA standards the thickness required to resist shear depends on the ligament efficiency of the perforations, but the thickness required to resist bending is independent of ligament efficiency. S This does not mean, of course, that bending stress is not affected by ligament efficiency; it does mean, however, that all tube sheets designed to TEMA standards are designed to be safe with the minimum allowable ligament ef-

TIm

ficiency of 20 per cent, as specified in Par. R-2.5 of reference [11]. 'When service conditions are usually severe or when the utmost is desired in reliability and optimum design, stresses should be calculated in detail and realistic allowable stress values should be set. It is the realization of this fact that led to the previous work and the work described in this paper. Most of the proposed methods for analyzing perforated plates have involved the concept of an "equivalent" solid plate [3, 4]. In one method the equivalent solid plate has the same dimensions as the actual plate but its flexural rigidity is reduced by a factor called its defleetion efficiency. In another method the equivalent plate is also the same as the solid plate, but it has fictitious elastic constants E* and p* in place of the actual constants of the material E and P. The latter concept is used in this paper.

General ofAnalysis Method

The general method of evaluating stresses and deflections in a perforated plate having a triangular penetration pattern is: Step 1. Calculate the nominal bending and membrane stresses and deflections of an equivalent solid plate having the effective modified elastic constants E* and p* and the same dimensions as the perforated plate. 1 This work is part of a dissertation suhmitted by W. J. O'Donnell Step 2. Calculate physically meaningful perforated-plate stress to the University of Pittsburgh in partial fulfillment of the requirevalues from the nominal stress values in the equivalent solid plate ments for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. from Step 1. Deflections of the perforated plate are the same as 2 Numbers in brackets designate References at end of paper. the deflections of the equivalent solid plate. 3 See, for example, reference [11],paragraphs R-7.122 and R-7.123. Contributed by the Petroleum Division for presentation at the "Yhen the perforated plate is part of a structure, as in the case Winter Annual Meeting, New York, N. Y., November 26-December of a heat exchanger, Step 1 is accomplished using classical 1, 1961, of THE AMERICAN SOCIETY lvIECHANICAL OF ENGINEERS. structural-analysis methods. A study of the effective elastic conManuscript received at ASME Headquarters, July 26, 1961. Paper stants for use in Step 1 is contained herein, and values based on No. 61-WA-115.

----Nomenclature-----------------------------Material Properties D* E* H3/12 (1 - p*2), effective flexural rigidity of perforated plate, lb-in. E elastic modulus of solid material, psi E* effective elastic modulus of perforated material, psi Sm - allowable membrane stress intensity of material, psi p Poisson's ratio of material, dimensionless p* effective Poisson's ratio for perforated material, dimensionless Pp Poisson's ratio of plastic-model material, dimensionless Pp * effective elastic modulus of perforated plastic models, dimensionless OiT thermal expansion coefficient, in/in deg F Co-ordinatesand Dimensions l' = radial distance of ligament from center of circular perforated plate, in.
X, Y,Z

b 2h 2hmin

p

H
Stresses
U

co-ordinates shown in Figs. 7 and 8, in. width of plate rim, Fig. 13, in. minimum ligament width, Fig. 6, in. minimum ligament width for thin ligament at misdrilled holes, in. outside radius of plate rim, Fig. 13, in. distance between center lines of perforations, Fig. 6', in. radius of perforations, Fig. 6, in. plate thickness, in.

T'

(TO

radial and tangential stresses in equivalent solid circular plate, psi 0' r or 0'0, whichever has largest absolute value, psi stresses in minimum ligament section, Fig. 7, psi
(Continued on
lIe.Tt

paoe)

Discussion on this paper will be accepted at ASME Headquarters until January 10, 1962

dimensionless angular orientation of ligament. the calculated pressure stresses at the center of the tube sheet would be low. psi (dimensionless) Kr K". psi transverse shear stress averaged through depth of plate. However. Ku Y Others value given in Fig. Subsequent tests were run to evaluate the effect of the material Poisson's ratio on the values for the effective elastic constants. the measured local stresses agreed closely "ith those calculated using the stress-ratio factors obtained by Sampson. 13 value given in Fig. Sampson Effective Elastic Constants The Sampson experimental values of the effective elastic constants for both plane stress and bending loads were obtained in tests on rectangular coupons at the ~T estinghouse Research Laboratories. Fig. Fig. it is important that they be evaluated properly. 14 normal force carried uy ligament. If effective elastic constants (particularly E*) which are too low are used in the analysis. lb/in. as well as in the perforated plate itself. 6 Experimental Sampson plane stress []3]. Fig. The best estimates of p* and E*. as a plate in bending gets thicker. 10 Kn = value given in Fig. psi maximum local stress. All of the theoretieal values for E* and p* were intended to apply only to those perforated materials having ligaments thinner than those usually found in tube sheets.experimcntal results by Sampson are recommended. These values were found to differ quite markedly from the theoretical values. moment carried by ligament. corrected for conby Salerno and Mahoney [10]. modified Horvay bending. Methods of evaluating average and peak ligament stresscs for Step 2 of the analysis are developed and appropriate design limits are recommended for these values. 14. 6. Horvay recommends his theory only for ligament efficienciesless than 20 per cent. 5 Theoretical modified Malkin bending corrected for strained warping by Salerno and Mahoney [10]. in-lb/in. the theoretical rotation at the periphery of the tube sheet due to pressure loads across the tube sheet will be greater than the actual rotation. the amount of rotation at the periphery of a steam-generator tube sheet depends on the relative rigidity or the tube sheet with respect to the rest of the heat exchanger. Correspondingly. the values used for the effective elastic constants will affect calculated stresses in the remainder of the structure. COIl- Effective Elastic Constants for Perforated Plates When a perforated plate is used as a part of a redundant structure. the calculated stresses. and bending constants were obtained by applying pure bending loads. 15 value given in Fig. the Sampson effective elastic constants are considered to be the most accurate for use in design calculations. the ----N0 menclature'---------------------------i1:u 0"11' T1/X' ur. due to a pressure drop across the tube sheet.. Taking the tube sheet to be too flexible causes calculated thermal-stress values in the tube sheet and in the remainder of the heat exchanger to be below the actual stress values. radians <: <: 2 Transactions of the AS M IE .]2 (Jrim (jeer F 11 111 U"max Seer P I1P Tp Ts TIl Tc Stress Multipliers f3 If K value given in Fig.uo stresses averaged through depth of plate. The plates were made of plastic (p = 0. psi pressure drop across tube-sheet. Malkin bending [3]. deg F temperature of hot side of tube sheet. surface. lb/in. i. p = 0.5. Consequently. Hence. deg F (jr/(jO or (jO/(jr whichever gives -1 f3 1.. psi temperature at primary tube-sheet. 10 for {3= 0 valuegiveninFig. psi nominal bending plus membrane stress at inside of rim. The measured deflections agreed best with those calculated using the effective elastic constants obtained experimentally by Sampson. Moreover. ]5]. The validity of the general method of using effective elastic constants and stress multipliers to calculate stresses and deflections in tube sheets was checked by Leven in tests on perforated circular plates [14. deg F temperature of cold side of tube sheet. 7 Experimental Sampson bending [13].e. if an effective elastie modulus which is too high is used in the analysis. Plate deflections were measured and ligament stress variations along radial sections were obtained. The Sampson effective elastic constants for relatively thin plates in bending differ significantly from those in plane stress. psi maximum principal stress basecI on average stresses across minimum ligament section. psi stress intensity based on stresses averaged across minimum ligament section at plate surface.th the tube sheet would be lower than the actual stresses.5) and were simply supported and uniformly loaded. deg F temperature at secondary tube-sheet surface. Five of the best known sets of values have been obtained from theoretical considerations and two have been obtained experimentally: 1 Theoretical 2 Theoretical 3 Theoretical strained warping 4 Theoretical Horvay plane stress [1]. 6. For example. The test specimens were made of plastic material. This can be seen from fig. tensile or compressive loads as opposed to bending. Many different sets of effective elastic constants for perforated materials having a triangular penetration pattern have been proposed. 29 of reference [12]. For example. Since stresses in these areas are usually among the highest stresses in a heat exchanger. psi stress intensity based on stresses averaged across minimum ligament section and through depth of plate. in the head and shell at their junction ". Fig. Fig. the stress gradient through the depth gets smaller and it is reasonable to expect that a very thick plate would not be affected appreciably by the small stress gradient in the thickness direction. 7. shear force carried by ligament. Fig. pressure on plate surface under consirleration. rather than the highest or lowest estimates should be used. From the foregoing discussion it may be concluded that it is not possible to insure conservatism in heat-exchanger or tube-sheet stress calculations by assuming effective elastic constants which are known to be either too high or too low. 6. Plane-stress constants were obtained by applying uniaxial tensile loads. The "plane-stress" constants apply to loads in the plane of the perforated plate. The calculated stresses at the periphery will then be lower than the actual stresses. Horvay bending [2]. The results give support to the validity of the Sampson experimental method of determining the effective elastic constants using perforated rectangular coupons subject to uniaxial loads. A method of evaluating the acceptability of misplaced holes is also given. 14. If the tube sheet is taken to be too rigid.

5 10 I . Fig. I I= H ~EPTH PITCH I OF IpLATE' I I' WIDTH I I 0.. 3 shows the bending constants at Hill = 7 plotted with the uniaxial plane-stress constants..3 PLANE STRESS '" h R = 1 3 '\ "tJ" II h R 0..6 0.-Lr PLANE STRESS I / tf li - o 0.••.4 0. This was accomplished by measuring HIR> Journal of Engineering for Indllstry 3 .4 E*/E 0. Note the rather abrupt transition in the E* IE-values that occur in the vicinity of H IR = 4. Fig...5) over a wide range of ligament efficiencies under bending and plane-stress loads. however.5 values for the effective elastic constants for a plate in bending should approach the plane stress values as the plate gets thick.1 H 2R 2h = = = I DEPTH OF PLATE PATTERN PITCH OF TRIANGULAR HOLE MINIMUM LIGAMENT WIDTH o I I I I I I 2 I I 4 H/R I 6 I I I 8 10 20 of a plate I I I 0. Fortunately. He then proceeded to evaluate the effect of material Poisson's ratio on the effective elastic constants.6 0.8 I 2 4 6 8 10 20 40 I 60 80100 H/R Fig.* and /Iv *) vary with the orientation of the load with respect to the hole pattern. The impracticality of factoring this anisotropic behavior into the analysis is immediately evident.5 1- ~ 0. and values must be used which represent the approximate Poisson's effect in all directions. -=< I- 1\ 0.3 II -. This is not considered to be a serious problem.h rI V / 0.' Variation of Sampson effective Poisson's ratio of solid material) elastic modulus with depth in bending (vp = 0.6 v* 0. it would be inconvenient to use one set of elastic constants for bending loads and another set for in-plane loads. 2 Variation of Sampson effective = Poisson's ratio of solid material) Poisson's ratio with a depth of a plate in bending (vp = 0.. 3). and Fig. Accordingly.6 I I I I I I I I 0.4 ~~ ..4 h R = 4"--"" I . Obviously.0. Sampson evaluated the effective elastic constants for perforated plastic materials (/lp = 0.8 I 40 60 80100 Fig.2 0.2 0... the plane-stress constants appear to be the most acceptable values for plates having a relative thicknes8 4.8 2R 2h = = OF TRIANGULAR LIGAMENT HOLE PATTERN MINIMUM 0. this is not necessary as long as the plate is thicker than about twice the pitch of the perforations (Hill> 4) and this situation occurs in most heavy-duty heat-exchange equipment which requires the refined analysis described here.2 ~ R . The effective elastic cOllstants in bending for H IR > 4 do not differ greatly from the plane-stress values...--.. This appears to be what might be interpreted as a transition region between "thick" and "thin" perforated plates.2 . 2 shows the same variation for /1*.1. = 4 ""'. Notice that the uniaxial plane-stress values of effective Poisson's ratios (/1". and partly because these differences do 1I0thave a large effeet on the calculated stresses. respectively. 1 shows the variation of E* with the relative thickness of a plate in bending.r. 0.. partly because the principal strel:iSes are generally not oriented in the directions resulting in the largest differences between the effective Poisson's ratios (the x and ydirections. in Fig.

In order to Wffening Effect of Tubes When tubes are rolled or welded into a tube sheet.3 0. the values given in Fig. For tube sheets. consideration must also be given to distortion of the holes which may cause leakage around the tube. those which are required to satisfy the simple laws of equilibrium of internal and external forces. These values are also given in Fig. 5 instead of the constants measured by Sampson (which depend on the type of loading. 5. The specimen had a relative thickness in the range of "thick plates" (H IR = 7).5 <l .4343(VpIV-11 (Lnh/R+2.2 0.iencywas calculated on the basis of the OD of the tubes.0 h/R Effect of material Poisson's on effective Poisson's ratio v* 0 0. Primary stresses. on a steam generator which had seen considerable service.5) was used to modify the Sampson plane-stress II*-values obtained in tests on plastic specimens in order to obtain corresponding values applicable to metal plates. when the hole size was taken as the ID rather than the OD of the tubes [16]. Hence. should be the ones most severely limited.0 1.15 0. The corresponding relation between p* for steels (II = 0.50. The effective elastic-madulus ratios E* I E were found to be unaffected by changes in the Poisson's ratio of the material. Hence.1 Fig.80.7 olYo o 0 o-x ~2h 2R 0.7 ~ 0. very little residual compression is required in the tube wall to make it follow the strains in the drilled hole.9 vt 6 vp = POISSON'S v* 6v 0.3 w 0. LoJ u 0. The peak stress in a perforated plate is not necessarily the most significant one..3) and IIp* for plastic (lip = 0.3 are recommended for use in design calculations.1 E*/E 0. In some strain-gage tests by A. This relation is given in Fig.. it is necessary to decide which stresses are significant and. loadings subsequent to the initial loading will produce strains within the elastic limit. those which are only required to accommodate to an imposed strain pattern (e.8 0. thermal expansion) can be allowed to go higher than primary stresses. 4. direction of loading.3026l+lr' RATIOS FOR PLASTIC(v:O. and are consequently not self-limiting.91. correlations were established on an empirical basis to estimate values of the effective elastic constants for any material and for any ligament efficiency.1 0. always arises regarding the degree to which the tubes increase the stiffness of the plate.91.2 LIGAMENT 0... These values are given in Fig. The smallest ligament efficiency of the coupons tested by Sampson was 15 per cent.3 0.. this empirical relation is 7 per cent. very good correlation was obtained between calculated and measured sti'esses when full credit was taken for the tube wall in the caleulations. 3.15 0. and for plane-stress loads as well as bending loads.4 EFFICIENCY.ress theory of failure is recommended.70. The maximum deviation of any of the aluminum-bar test points from.. consequently. it can be shown that sinee the membrane stresses in the tube sheet are usually low.4 0. V> 0.2 0. it is not always conservative to assume either a maximum or a minimum value for the stiffness. The error in stress values calculated using the general effective elastic constants given in Fig. as discussed previously.1 0.2 1. Hence.5 * I 0. The largest error in the maximum local stresses or in the maximum average ligament stresses that are limited by the design criteria recommended herein for any type or direction of loading and any plate thickness (HIR > 4) was found to be 8 per cent. taken from Fig. Furthermore.. should be calculated and limited in order to assure an adequate design.9 1..3 0.. As mentioned previously. They can be used for both plane stress and bending loads in the plate.6 : POISSON'S Z 0 u U IV> 0. Lohmeier. Fig. Z <l •.60.327) in pure bending.6 0. ll. of the 'Vestinghouse Steam Division.4 .5 RATIOS FOR METALS V> •. Peak stresses in localized regions are of interest only if they are repeated often enough to produce fatigue. the Sampson plane-stress values of E* IE.5 0. If the latter are kept lower than twice the yield strength. the question 4 Transactions of the AS !ViE .5 0. Proposed Stress Limits Before proceeding to the detailed calculation of stresses.1. Based on these test values. 5. the measured stresses due to pressure loading averaged about 75 per cent lower than the calculated values. The resulting values of 11* for II = 0. Secondary stresscs. that is.6 0.4 0. Further confirmatory tests are planned. the authors believe that it is a strong indication. and the thickness of the plate) was evaluated.2 0.!!I'I 0. While this one test cannot be considered as conclusive evidence.4 w LoJ 0. are recommended for use in design calculations. The use of the maximum-shear theory of failure rather than the m(lximum-st. the test values obtained from this specimen are felt to be applicable in the entire range of parameters (HIR > 4).g. Therefore the authors tentatively recommend that fuJI credit be taken for the tube-wall thickness.J ""*.8 p*: WHERE: vt[O.0 LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY h/R ratio II ~ Ill..0 0. 3 Comporison of Sompson effective elostic constants for bending and plane stress the effective elastic constants of an aluminum specimen (II = 0."0.70. 5 ~hould not be extrapolated much below this value. When the ligament effic.

This stress is analogous to the average stress intensity in the shell of a pressure vessel under internal pressure and." or more briefly.9 1.7 0.6 0. If a high stress occurs in a single ligament due to a misdrilled hole.2 h/R. be subject to fatigue evaluation.4 0.he Code are t.han 1.-J W W en 0. calculated stresses are expressed in terms of two times the maximum slWar stress.e. (ii) The stress intensity based on stresses averaged across the minimum ligament section but not through the thickness of the plate should be limited to prevent excessive deflection.80. which is the largest algebraic difference between any"two of the three principal stresses. 2 Isolated or Thin Ligament. This quantity is called the "equivalent intensity of combined stress.. (The quest. In t. it can safely be allowed to reach a value of 1. as described in [17].1./ 0.15 0. (a) llfechanical Loads (i.5. lJ.) Let us call thi~ basic st. since the limit-design factors for flat plates are greater t.ress intensity allowance Sm. w 0.4 for perforated 0. This stress is the sum of membrane plus bending effects and. 0.3 0.. the stress intensity based on average stresses in the ligament cross seet-ion should be limited to 3 S".9 0. the allowable stresses do not exceed 5/8 of the yield strength of a ferrous material or 2/3 of Journal of Engineering tor Industry 5 . the foregoing limits may be relaxed.1 o 0.2 E*/E I- u W lJ.0 plates LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY Fig. and peak stresses must.he same as the allowable stress values in t. still.ion of whether or not the values in t.7 I- H /R 4 0 0. 5 Effective elastic constants make allowable shear-stress values comparable to the more familiar tensile values. (b) Combined ilfechani-eal and Thermal Loads: (i) The stress intensity based on stresses averaged across the minimum ligament section but not through the depth should be limited to 3 Sm. consequently.he 1959 Code.he ASME Boiler Code.6 u I. For combined pressure and thermal loads.8 H (/) = THICKNESS OF > j:! (/) z u z 0. of course. pressure loads but not thermal loads): (i) The stress intensity based on stresses averaged across the minimum ligament section and through the thickness of the plate should be limited to prevent stretching of the plate.. (ii) The peak stress intensity at any point due to any loading should be limited by cumuintivc fatigue considerations. should be limited to a value about t. the "stress intensity.3 D*/D 0.0 0.oo conservative for vessels which are analyzed carefully for high stress is beyond the scope of this paper.5 <t > 0." The following stress limits are proposed: 1 Typical Ligament in a Uniform Pattern the yield strength of a nonferrous material.5 0.5 Sm.he 1959 edition of t.

Therefore. Yielding would tend to produce a uniform distribution of stress across the minimum ligament sections. As a result. Hence.·.7l"/2)]R cos (I/. 8(b). called rrerr (3) Peak. the problem of evaluating loads in the minimum ligament sections becomes statically determinate. This can be seen by considering the equilibrium of an arbitrary cut at the surface. the average stresses in a ligament at any arbitrary angle I/.7l"/2) (2) + 2[rro Hence. . stresses and deflections of a solid plate having the effective elastic properties of the perforated material are evaluated.)R cos I/. are derived in this section from purely theoretical considerations. 8(a). limited by the design criteria suggested in the foregoing. The average stresses acting on an element at a surface of the plate are shown in Fig. the stress field in an equivalent solid plate is the same as the stress field in the perforated plate on the same macroscopic scale for which the effective elastic constants were evaluated. Under these conditions.[rr cos2 I/. 6.Vg = - 1 flL -IL Tyz dx 2h = - R h [(rrT - rro) sin I/. the rate of change of the tangential and radial stresses with radial position in the equivalent solid plate (given by classical circular-plate theory) is small relative to the perforations. . Since the orientation of the cut is arbitrary.] (4) In order to specify completely the state of stress in a minimum ligament section and to evaluate the ligament stress intensities (maximum-shear stresses) that are limited by the design criterion. . no net moment is supported by the cut section.7)are given by 1 flL -IL 2h rr dx = . 7 Stresses in a typical ligament 6 Transactions of the AS M [ . in this analysis a three-dimensional element. Fig. one can assume that there exists only a negligible variation of load from any ligament to its adjacent parallel ligaments. 9. 6.From the foregoing we see that three stress intensities should be calculated: (1) Average in ligament cross section. the moments in the minimum ligament sections M· must be zero. are then given by F = 2(rrT cos I/. subject to the average shear and tensile stresses in the minimum ligament section. The three-dimensional Mohr circle based on these average stresses.ality condition of the stress field in the equivalent solid plate. There is a unique state of stress within a body having a given set of elastic properties and subject to a particular load.th the principal directions of the equivalent solid plate stresses rrT and rro (as shown in Fig . cos 1/. Analysis of Average Ligament Stress Intensities at Surfaces of Plate Having the principal stresses lIT and rro at either surface of the equivalent solid plate.e. The accuracy of simplifying assumptions used in the analysis is examined using photoelastic test results. called rrmax Analysis of Ligament Stress Intensities Expressions for the average ligament stress intensities. y R h + IIO sin2 1/. + 2[lIo cos (I/. is analyzed in order to evaluate the average stress intensities which are limited by the proposed design criterion. The resultant load carried by the ligaments must be equal to the resultant load carried by the equivalent solid plate. The loads carried by the ligaments. Hence. Hence. .7l"/2) (1) v = 2(rrT sin I/. assuming zero transverSe stress rrx. Hence. there are no sidesway bending moments in the minimum ligament sections. i. The stress field in the equivalent solid plate is given by rrT and rro where the radial and tangential directions are principal directions in the equivalent solid plate. The analytical results are simplified and presented in a form suitable for design calculations. something must be known about the stresses transverse to th" ligament at the minimum ligament section rrx' A three-dimensional view of a ligament is shown in Fig. In the concept of an equivalent solid plate.. is shown in Fig.. and for any ligament orientation in the stress field. This stress field must be carried by the minimum ligament sections.. or at any arbitrary depth of the plate. Since there is no variation of stress from hole to hole. it is apparent that the sidesway moments III are zero in all minimum ligament sections.7l"/2)]R cos (I/.] (3) T and (Tyz). called Serr (2) Average across ligament width at plate surface. . the resultant loads carried by ligaments (at any arbitrary depth in the tube sheet) at any particular location must be equal to the resultant of the load carried by the equivalent solid plate. The Mohr circle. as considered herein. sin (I/. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The analysis is quite general and can be used for any biall. given by equations (3) and (4). 6 Loads aeling on a typical seelion Fig.)R cos I/. In perforated plates such as tube sheets. . the perforations and ligaments are quite small relative to the over-all dimensions of the plate itself. This is the basis of the analytical approach presented herein.

The significance of this important assumption will be explained subsequently. 8 Three-dimensional stresses . For purposes of this analysis.he plane of t. based on the average value of the stresses across the minimum ligament section. at either surface of the plate. this stress is usually small.e because t. sin2 if. is also shown for the plane of maximum shear. ACTUAL STRESSES IN PLANE OF TUBE SHEET ACTUAL STRESSES IN PRINCIPAL TRANSVERSE PLANES CALCULATED STRESSES IN PLANE OF TUBE SHEET ASSUMING PLANE STRESS The comparable expression for the stress intensity (twice the maximum shear stress) in the minimum ligament section is given by tT \ \ \ ( O. will always be equal to or greater than the correct value of the stress intensity in that plane. where (J"cff is the stress intensity limited by the design criterion. as shown in Fig. Moreover. When these stresses have the same sign.he difference between any other principal stresses.ween the maximum principal st.DIMENSIONAL VIEW OF LIGAMENT (e) AVERAGE STRESSES DEPTH AVERAGED (0) THROUGH Fig. 9. Thc Z-dircction stress due to pressure acting at the surface of a plate is attenuated a short distance from the surface in the manner of a bearing stress. based on stresses averaged across the minimum ligament section. 9 Three-dimensional Mohr circle for stresses averaged minimum ligament section at su. even at the center of the ligament.he plate calculated by . + (O"T - 0"0)2 COS2 if..:face of perforated plate across --- :::-- plane stress. Photoelastic tests [18] have shown that the average transverse stress usually has the same sign as the average longitudinal stress.z I x I \ I (b) AVERAGE STRESSES AT PRIMARY SURFACE OR SECONDARY I A / // / ". + 0"0 sin 2 2 if. the calculated value of the stress intensity in the plane of the plate.'t"yx) "- (CTX.o the plat. Equation (6) gives the stress intensity based on the average stress across any particular minimum ligament section for any ligament orientation if. although this stress should be considered in the fatigue analysis of local peak stresses. However. \ \ ./ " 3. it need not be considered in the average stress-intensity limitations because the latter are only intended to prevent excessiveyielding and deformation. J'h} (5) Journal of Engineering for Industry 7 . The corresponding maximum principal stress.er t.han t. The maximum shear can then be found by rotat. Obviously. the transverse stresses 0" x will be taken equal to zero..ing the element in the principal plane perpendicular t. the maximum shear st.he difference bet. This is illustrated in Fig. Consider the significance of assuming a zero transverse stress at the minimum ligament section. Hence."yX)-Fig. 9.resses in t. the transverse stress must be zero at the edges of the minimum ligament section.ress and the zero Z-direction stress' is great. is given by ~ {O"r h cos21/. There are conditions for which the maximum shear does not occur in the plane of the plate. This happens when the minimum principal stress in the plane of the plate has the same sign as the maximum principal stress in that plane (the transverse shear stresses being zero at the surfaces).

equation (6).ase (found by rotating the element as previously described) acts on a plane at 45 deg to the plane of the plate.er of a symmetriC<'1. From equation (4). 6 a.2 j-(T. the maximum error in the calculated stress-intensity values is probably no greater in a metal plate than the error evaluated herein from photo elastic tests on plastic models. Consequently. even though the latter does not occur in the plane of the p1a. Inay be simplified further for design calculations by consiaering the symmetry of the hexagonal array of neighboring holes surrounding the typical hole. The K-values for equation (8). it may be worth while to evaluate ligament stresses individually when the limiting value given by equation (8) occurs at the periphery of a plate having a small number of holes. Fig. given in Fig. fJ 1 1 for isotropic loads 0 for uniaxial loads = -1 for pure shear = = Equation (7). which gives the maximum average ligament stress intensity in a stress field of biaxiality fJ.(TO + (T02) sin 2if. Near the cent. at least two of the ligaments surrounding the typical hole pattern will be at most 30 deg rotated from that orientation which would produce the maximum stress intensity in the minimum ligament section. Equation (6) gives the stress in a ligament having an arbitrary angular orientation if. for tube-sheet design calculations without introducing undue conservatism. For a plate having a ligament efficiency of 50 per cent and a minimum ligament width of 0. the actual stress distribution in the ligaments also being shifted ±60 deg. The maximum shear stress in this ('. These equations can be written as functions of the biaxiality ratio fJ = (T. It is apparent that the same stress distributions would result if the orientation of the ligaments were shifted ±60 deg in the equivalent solid-plate stress field. 10. substitute the values of (T.te is isotropic. Analysis of ligament Stress Intensities Averaged Through Depth of Plate The value of (T. was used to find the orientation if. At the edge of a circular plate. However. are always equal to. cos if. the stress field is very nearly isotropic and the orientation of a particular ligament does not affect the stresses in that ligament appreciably. written in terms of fJ. however. it may be overly conservative for plates having a small number of holes. Hence. depend on the biaxiality of the stress field and vary with radial location in the plate. At the center of a circular perforated plate the stress field in the equivalent solid p1a. was evaluated. 10 reciprocal of ligament efficiency. (For example. !":ither than for isolated ligaments. or greater than.. The significance of this error was evaluated by making use of measured values of the transverse stress CJ'" obtained photoelastically by Sampson [18]. sin if. there are no shear stresses Ty" acting at the minimum ligament section. maximized \\ith respect.. to angular orientation in the stress field.25 in. As previously pointed out.. encompassing the entire range of possible orientations. the theoretical approach used herein gives the exact values of average stress intensities in ligaments near the center of a circular perforated plate regardless of the magnitude of the transverse stresses in the minimum ligament sections.5 was used in the photoelastic tests and the resulting transverse stresses were probably higher than they would be for metals. equation (6). whichever has the largest absolute value. or (To. then (T. The resulting expression should be used to obtain stress inteusities for typical ligaments in a uniform pattern. This orientation was then used in equation (6) to evaluate the corresponding value of the average stress intensity. From these considerations.te. Near the periphery of a plate such as a tube sheet which contains a large number of holes. the average shear stress in the plane of the plate due to membrane 8 Transactions of the AS M E . high stresses may exist under any biaxiality conditions. vary from one side of the plate to the other and will depend on the radial location in the plate. The equation for the average stress intensity in the minimum ligament section. as indicated by equation (4). For many of these conditions. and (TOat the surface of the plate into equation (8). The resulting stress intensities will. Moreover. The equation for the average stress intensity across the minimum ligament section. 9. it is not necessary to write equations for the shear stresses in planes other than the plane of the plate. for any ligament effieiency and any biaxiality condition. + 002 - sin3 if. epoxy resin having a Poisson's ratio of 0. = -3000 psi and /(T. the stresses near the center of the plate do not depend on the angular orientation of the ligament because the stress field is isotropic. the maximum shear stress occurs in thc plane of the plate. can be maximized with respect to if. provided that zero transverse stress (T" is assumed at the minimum ligament sections. Hence. it is apparent that the expression for tbe stress intensity. These errors might tend to be greater for bending loads on relatively thin plates than for the tensile loads used in the photoelastic tests. equation (6). Hence. The error for a perforated plate under tensile loading having a ligament efficiency of 25 per cent and a minimwn ligament width of 0. This error increases with increasing ligament efficiencies. the maximum error was found to be 5 per cent. averaged through the depth of a plate at any location is equal to the value of 00 averaged through the depth at that location. Hence. The maximum error for any biaxiality condition and any orientation of the ligament in the stress field was fOlIDdto be less than 3 per cent. The resulting values are given by: (8) where (T off = K R/h ligament stress intensity based on stresses averaged across minimum ligament section at either plate surface value given in Fig. these average values do not vary with location in a symmetrically loaded circular plate because they are produced by membrane-type loads. = -3000 psi and (To = 2500 psi. of course./ (To or (To/a" whichever gives -1 ~ fJ ~ l. the angular orientation of the hole patterns "ith respect to the radii of the plate varies gradually around the periphery.j = 3000 psi) stresses at either surface of equivalent solid plate obtained from Step 1 of analysis To calculate ligament stress intensities based on stresses averaged across the \\idth of the ligament but not through the depth of the plate. then gives values which are higher than the actual values for many ligament orientations because of the assumption of zero transverse stress in the ligaments. as illustrated in Fig. However.5 in.assuming plane stresl'. The expression for the orientation which gives the maximum skess intensity is given by (Tr' cos3 if. the actual maximum shear stresses in any other plane. Since equation (8) was developed by maximizing the stress intensity with respect to the angular orientation of the ligament. cos 2l/J = 0 (7) From equations (6) and (7) it is possible to evaluate ligament stress intensities. 9. The theoretical expression for the maximum shear stress assuming plane stress in the minimum ligament section then gives the correct value for the actual maximum shear stress. + (0. This can be seen by again considering the aet-ual three-dimensionrL! Mohr circle. as shown in Fig.lly loaded circular plate. if (T.

4 +0.2 1.8 -0. 8(c) shows an element subject to the shear and tensile stresses averaged across the minimum ligament section and averaged through the depth of the plate. Fig.4 w a::: 1.2 +0.7 CT.= CTror CT8(WHICHEVER HAS THE LARGEST ABSOLUTE VALUE) !:: 1. The three-dimensionai Mohr circle based on these stress values is shown in Fig. 11.8 .1 1.0.8 r- u ~ 1. (as previously discussed).. The average stress intensity in a ligament at any radial distance r from the center of the plate is given by Self = h - STRESSES STRESSES IN PRINCIPAL IN OTHER PLANE OF MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS PRINCIPAL PLANES R [(APr)' -- H + (iTr)2 J'/' (ma.K 2.'I: with = radius . to outermost lIgament) r (9) where AP iTr pressure drop across plate Fig.2 0 + 0. it is apparent that the maximum shear stress -due to membrane loads can be found by rotating an '~lement in the principal plane subject to the transverse shear Til'.0 RATIO ligaments (3.0 . Since the transverse stress in the ligament iTz has the same sign as the longitudinal stress iT.4 .1.5 1.3 I00 ~ 1.0 0. The transverse shear stress averaged through the depth T lI' varies linearly with radial location rin a circular plate. 11 Three-dimensional Mohr circle for stresses averaged minimum ligament section and averaged through depth of plate across r = radial distance of ligament from center of plate = iTo stresses averaged through depth of equivalent solid H plate thickness of plate Peak Stresses in Perforated Plates Maximwn local stresses due to all loads (mechanicltl and thermal) are also limited by the suggested design criteria of this paper. A minor correction was made on these multipliers to account for the nonlinearity of the stress dis- Journal of Engineering for Industry 9 .8 + 1. 10 BIAXIALITY Stress intensities in perforated-plate loads TliZ is zero at the mllllmum ligament sections. These stresses can be evaluated from the known stresses in the equivalent solid plate using the stress multipliers obtained photoelastically by Sampson.0.6 (J) z w I- >- {3 = CT or CT r 8 CT CT r 8 WHERE -I ~ {3:s I z 00 00 1.6 + 0.0 1.6 -0. Fig.9 a::: 0 CTeff = AVERAGE STRESS INTENSITY MINIMUM LIGAMENT SECTION CTr8CT8=STRESSES IN EQUIVALENT SOLID PLATE IN 1.

H~A~(/3 = -. 10 Transactions of the UME ..5 0. as well as pressure stresses. .0 LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY Maximum local stresses in perforated plotes tribution through the thickness of the coupons used by Sampson..... but may be approximated by the expression (11 ) where (Jrim where (J1 (Jr Y P or (Jo (whichever has the largest absolute value) value given in Fig.... with radiallocation in the plate. 12 0. These peak stresses appear to be due to the influence of the rim and cannot be calculated by equation (10). Pho- (Jrim is evaluated in Step 1 of the general analytical approach... .•... '" 1\ \ etC) 000 q~ I 2h I I 2R T I : \ I S.... ..9 1. The maximum stress for any particular thermal or pressure load is then given by the relation: (10) toelastic tests on tube-sheet models have revealed the existence of high local stresses at the perforations adjacent to the rim (15]. '\.1 0.•. 13 [(r All thermally induced maximum local stresses.. 0.. T ~UNI~XI~L /' ../ "..•.---- . I I I ..••... ~ .') I I t. 5 Reference [191.3 0. 12 pressure acting on surface nominal bending plus membrane stress at inside of rim value given in Fig. '\..2 h/R.4 0. >08 6 4 2 """-. \~ /\URf '\. figs... 13 were derived from known values of stress concentration in a bar with a semicircular notch5 and were checked against the photoelastic results of Sampson and Leven. The multipliers Yare functions of the biaxiality of the stress field in the equivalent solid-plate fJ = (Jr/(Jo or (Jo/(Jr (whichever gives -1 ~ fJ ~). ..' The values given by equation (10) are the peak stresses throughout the perforated portion of the plate.70. Most perforated circular plates have unperforated rims.. The Kr-values in Fig.<SO~ROPIC STRESS({3=1) ~ .•.'""" " " .. •••• -. ~ 0""'-- "~ ".S~R~S~(f3=~) . 15..6 0.30 28 26 24 22 ~20 )( 1\ I CTr CTmax = Y CTI II I I I I I \ a \ \ CT 1 \ \ \ = smESSES IN EQUIVALENT SOLID PLATE ~ = CTr OR CTe (WHICHEVER HAS THE ~ LARGEST ABSOLUTE VALUE) CT8 f3 = -0"8 ORCT CTr ~ WHERE-I < f3 < I r fir - - \ \ 0 b E 18 16 14 12 10 .. 1\ \ \ \ \ i 0 ~ 0:: en en 0:: w .•.80.•.. - o 0.. the rim being treated as a plate or ring depending on its dimensions.. must be considered in the cumulative fatigue limitations on the values of (Jm.•. This ratio varies...15 Fig. .•....85..-/ I I I I I I I f I -. '\..•. of course.35. .•••. and 86.

0 .5 o z 2.. Since these increases occur only at thin ligaments in nominally uniform patterns. The difference in temperature hetween the primary and secondary sides of the tube sheet occurs very near the secondary surface. 14 were derived from known values of stress concentration in a bar with a row of semicircular notches. Transverse shear loads as well as loads in the plane of the tube sheet contribute to the stress intensity based on stresses averaged Stresses In the case of a U-tube type steam generator. The limited stress intensity in a particular out-of-tolerance ligament can then be evaluat-ed by substituting the smallest ligament G The stresses at the edges of the holes adjacent to the unper- Reference [191.02 . at secondary tube-sheet surface. Credit may be taken for the temperature drop in the thermal boundary layer at the secondary side of the tube sheet when this drop can be evaluated. a: ~2.7 "- . 14.05 .0- ~o- :...30 . 13 Peak stresses at perforations adjacent to rim 1.25 b .6 ~ w ~ If) 1. deg F 0 for Temperature Drop Across Diametral Lane of U-Tube Type Evaluation of Acceptability of Improperly Drilled Holes The presence of a particular out-of-tolerance thin ligament will result in increased peak stresses and increased ligament stress intensities.. - . 1. the entire difference between the primary and secondary fluid bulk temperatures does not contribute to the skin effect..35 .1618 Evaluation of Special Cases of Thermally Induced Stresses in Tube Sheets In heat exchangers.. and 32...15 .9 "\ UNOM 0:: w a: f(J) ti 1.9 2. 12 effective elastic modulus for tube sheet plate. and large thermal stresses may arise because of a temperature difference between these sides.•.2 a '" 2.10 . it would be extremely difficult to evaluate the effect of load redistribution caused by the existence of a particular ligament being thinner than average.•. 20.12 .. can be approximated by assuming a linear temperature drop across the diametrallane: KDEaT(TH([max 7'.60 per cent.14 . . figs. . .3 - r-. 2.4 2.1 PI Fig..0 g <l 2.•. EaT(TH-Tc) 2 (1- 0 O"MAX o~ ~oo o ~o ~o_ 0 ~ 50_ -.8 1.2 1. A method which can be used to determine how far a hole can be drilled from its normal position in a hole pattern without exceeding the proposed stress limits is developed in this section. 14 P adjacent to a diametrallane Peak thermal stresses at perforations forated diametrallane. ..6 STRESS 1.28.8 1." o Fig..0 1.20.. the unperforated diametral lane separates the inlet and outlet sides of the tube sheet.4 1. 14 E.. Fig. g22 <l: b 2. the major part of the tube-sheet thickness is at the primary temperature by virtue of the perforations through which the primary fluid passes.1 \ \...20 . deg F metal telnperature..06.8 I . in/in/deg F primary temperature. 21..40 1.04 .) II) 2(1 - (l4) where KD = stress-concentration factor from Fig.8 O'"mox =K rC"'nm 27 26 I I v) I §2.3 \\ \ \ CTNOM . I CTMAX I = I I I KOO"NOM 1Tc j-D-j(!)p I I I 2.I-- .. .6 These values apply over the entire range of ligament efficiencies :::.4 b ~ x <l :.6 b~ •.3. The resulting maximum local stresses in the ligaments of the tube sheet can be approximated by Steam-Generator Tube Sheet. K"E*aT(TH O"max - TJ across the width of the ligament and through the depth of the (13) 2 where K" E* uniaxial (/3 = 0) stress multiplier from Fig.. II = material properties of tube sheet The KD-values given in Fig. resulting in what is commonly called a thermal skin effect.. the stresses in these ligaments are limited by the less restrictive criteria previously described.08 .10 . Stresses due to this effect are given by Thermal "Skin Effect.24 .22 .26 . it must be assumed that there is no redistribution of load to nearby ligaments.. Hence..5 14 1. Because of the thermal film drop. (12) where aT Tp T/ thermal expansion coefficient. To be safe. ~2.0 2.30 . Journal of Engineering for Industry 11 .....

' ( Peak ill ligaments Cyclic thermal (temperature difference across diametral Peak at holes adj:tcent to diametral lane) lane Cumulative fatigue Cumulative fatigue Cumulative fatigue Cumulative fatigue Cumulative fatigue o Equation (8) was obtain cd by maximizing thc stress intensity with respect to the angular orientation of the ligament.0 all loatls (mcchanical alltl thermal) ill tm iso!:J. The maximnm value of this stres>.0. \ -! I I-IIzz --':.6 2. Summary and Conclusions I I I I I I I I I I I o o Q2 Q4 Q6 Q8 ID hmln REDUCED LIGAMENT WIDTH -h-" NORMAL LIGAMENT WIDTH fig. 12 The K". as expected. The resulting stress value is limited to 3 S"" The ma).4 0.. 12 TransacHons of the AS M E ..4 3.-v:tlue givcn in Fig.tedor thin ligament in a nominally uniform pattcrn are limitlxl by fatigue considerations in the same manner as the peak stresses ill a typical ligament in a uniform pattern.8 0. The maximum increase in local stresses occurred when the hole wa~ displaced at 30 deg to the line of hole centers.I \ . The limited stress values are summarized in the following table for a nominal ligament in a uniform pattern..:ined pressure thermal Cyclic pressure thermal and and I 1 Stress intensity ( Average across ligament at either surface of plate Average across ligament and through thickness Average across ligament at either surface of plate Peak in ligaments Equation (8)" (9) (8)" (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) Limit 1.3.thin ligament is given by (15) ~~ «<l: ww 0.8 1. was evaluated in photoelastic tests.he largest absolute value) value given in Fig. 2 A complete structural-design criterion for perforated plates is proposed. P Y <Tr or <To (whiehever has t. I I I I I I 1/ Kmh'~"1 Q 11"0\ \ -lI ~ -_. The variation of the increasc in peak stresses \dth Jig:uneut efTiciclll'Ywas foulld (."'- ~ ~ ~ where ~ - <TI . 15 pressure acting on surraee value given in Fig. and the direction of the displacement of the misdrilled hole with respect to the hole pattern.0 2. the maximum loeal st..e K". a more accurate evaluation of this stress intensity. The increase in the Joeal stresses caused by the presenee of a particular out-of-tolerance thin ligamen(. 15 can be used for any ligament efficieney.4 2. . If the plate contains only a small number of holes and if the limiting stresses occur at the periphery of the plate. The inerease in peak stresses was found to be a function of the biaxiality of the stress field. 5. 15 Increase of peak slress due 10 misplaced hole 1 Effeetive elastic constants for both plane stress and bending loads for any plate thickness (H/R > 4) are given in Fig. 8m 38".ress in a. 1.8 I '.0 ::>a: '1\ fi:lo a:z VlVl VlVl 1..2 - '\ 11"1 <.2 1.\ \ . { Peak at perforations adjacent to rim Peak at surface Cyclic thermal skin effect '.2 3.6 f"\ 1\ \~ ZZ 1 1\ wW a: a: 1.0 0.i/lllJlll local stresses tlue (.6 0.58". Load Pressure Coml.\. Using the results for this ease.uJ 2.2 i'-. Equation (6) gives the corresponding stress intensity in a ligament with any angular orientation f.irltensity for all ligaments should be limited as indicated in the table. which takes into account the angular orientation of the ligament may be justified.~ """'" \ width at the misplaced hole into elJuation (9).:lICl "I\~ \ \ -I - ! ~-J O-J IU<l: u:< 2..0 be small.4 1-1VlVl II"-I~ "< .: <<r ""1IJJ.

19. Snow. 1960. "The Plane-Stress Problem of Perforated Plates. C. pp. vol. 19. 58-Met-l. Woinowsky-Krieger. vol. New York. pp. 10 V. TRANS. Load Combined pressure and thermal Cyclic pressure thermal and Stress intensity Avera-ged across ligamen t and through depth Peak in ligaments 3 1. 355-360. A. 1959. 5(." 111eehanics. "Heat Exchanger Tube Sheet Design. 8 K. A Progress Report. 6 K. 1952. 1960. 1959. if S".'xchanger Tube Sheet Design-2. Sampson. circulnr perforated pl:Ltes) thalJ any of the other appro:Lehl~s mentioned herein! For most conventional steam generators. 1960. 1952. 25-33. Sampson at the \Vestinghouse Research Laboratories and by Mr. vVashington 25. Comparison and i\ Codification of Presen t Deflection Theory for Flat Perforated Plates. the design methods descrihed herein require a minimum thickness of 91/.ASME. Leven and R. Peterson. "Notes on a Theoretical Basis for Design of Tube Shects of Triangular Layout. New York. Duncan. 74. available from Office of Technical Services. IVr. Equation Equation (9) with hmiH substituted for h (15) Limit 3S". \Vashington 25. . Novembe'r. TRANS.ASME. References 1 G. Series E.. Gallet!y and D. 18. 7-11. The stress limits proposed. p. The Weldina Joumal. 1952. 2 G. vol. 18 R. 15 i\f.ts. C. 74. S. D. C." Bettis Technical Review. ASME. vol. D. however. i\L Levell." WAPD-DLE-3f9. "Bending of Honeycombs and Perforated Plates. whereas TEMA does not account for thermal loads. E. 11 "Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association.:e. 1959. 9 G. represent only the opinions of the authors.'. To avoid duplication of effort. "Heat Exchanger Tuhe Sheet Design-3. Leven.AS ME. Stresses and ddlec:tiolls caleulated using these values showed better agreement with the test results obtained by Leven (on uniformly loaded.M. 70." . I. A. 5 K. available from Office of Teehnieal Services. in. Department of Commerce. 82.Journal of Applied 111echanics. For example. figs. On the other hand." Proceedings. 19 R." Proc:eerlings." Journal of AP1Jlied 111eehanics. vol." vVAPD-DLE-320. the design basis recommended herein allows a slightly thinner tIl be sheet than does TEMA [11]." IJresented at the ASME Petroleulll Conference. I. April. F. Acknowledgments The design methods proposed on this paper are the culmination of a program sponsored by the Bureau of Ships and co-ordinated by the vVestinghouse Bettis Atomic 1'o"'er Laboratory. HI." second edition. A. September. figs. U-Tube and Bayonet Tube Sheets. i\Jay. 1952. 215-231. 1960. 7 J. l"'inted in U. available from Office of Teehni<. Gardner. Y. TRANS. "Photoe1asti<. Inc. O'Donnell. Sampson. It. N. 13 R. the program was co-ordinated by the authors with a somewhat broader program on stresses in ligaments being sponsored by the Pressure Vessel Research Committee of the vVelding Research Couneil.: Frozen Stress Study of the Effective Elastic Constants of Perforated Materials. 1960. "Design Values fol' Thermal Stress in Ductile iVlaterials. vol. vol. it may be necessary to make design modifications in order to meet the criteria recommended herein. i\fal1OlIcy. C. 122-123. TUANS. pp.. Langer. 52. "The Effect of the Tubes on Stresses and Deflections in U-Tube Steam Generator Tube Steets. "Stress-Concentration Design Factors. Research Supplement. Department of Commerce. The experimental work used as a basis for the proposed design methods was performed by Messrs. L. Gardncr. G." Bettis Technical Review. 60-Pet-16. Horvay. D. 7 See reference [14]." Bettis Technical Review. 1952. July. P. C. I6 W. "The Structural Efficiency of Tube Plates for Heat Exchangers." 111echanies." Welding Research Council Bulletin No. "Photoelastic Analysis of Stresses in Perforated Material Subject to Teusion 01' Beuding.B. TRANS. New York.3 A method of evaluating the acceptability of misdrilled holes is given.. September. 159-lG6. A. in a typiclll high-pressure design where TE:MA requires It minimum tube-sheet thid:ness of 10 in. D. Journal of A1Jplied pp. C. vol. "Photoelastic Determinat. pp. 74. 15. 14 i\if. Gardner. vol. N. 169. vol. 377-385. D. 12 S. vol. Fixed Tube Sheets. Malkin.:al Service. ilIech.24. N. Lohmeier at the vVestinghouse Steam Division. A. 411s-417s. 387-396. vVashington 25. McGraw-Hill Book Company.. Journal oi Engineering for Industry 13 . April. 1 13. vol..iolT of Stresses in Tube Sheets and COlllparison "Tith Calculated Value'S. where severe thermal loads are antieipated. E. 1959. JO'll1"1talof Applied pp. ASME. La. 1958. Tubular Exc:hanger Manufacturers Association. and 25 4 K. "A Heview.20."'ol." fourth edition. available from Offiee of Technical Serviees. The relevant stresses and their proposed limits are given in the following table.ASME. and reference [15]. pp. "I-Ieat E. Departmcnt of eOlTlIlIer<. C. D. pp. 19. is taken as 5/s of the yield strength of the material and full credit is taken for the tubes.. \VAPD-BT-21. Department of Commerce. pp.. 789-810. available from Office of Technical Services. Horvay. Nmv Orleans. lVI. Paper No. 1953. vVAPD-BT-1S. i\liJler. A. 111eeh. 1955. 74. J. \Vashington 25." Jottrual of Applied Jllechanics. E. May. 17 B." John Wiley & Sons. 27. Y. Y. "Some Results on Continuously Drilled Fixed Tube Plates.. simply supported. 1948. "Theory of Plates aud Shells. Timoshenko and S. \Vashington 25. ASi\IE Paper No. "The Design of Tube Plates in Heat Exchangers. "Preliminary Report on Deflection of Tube Shel." TRANS. Salerllo and J. WAPD-BT-18. C. Department of Commerce. 1959. Cumulative fatigue 4 The effective elastie COlJstalJbi and peak stress multipliers recommended herein are based on those obtained experimentally by Sampson.