A midterm requirement Eng.

3 1st sem 2007-2008

Michelle P. Entienza BSIE-HE/2B

Prof. Recuerdo Lacsamana

I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to the people who took part and extended their hands in making this requirement possible. This paper would not be successful without the help of the following persons. Mr. Recuerdo Lacsamana, professor in English 3, who had motivated and guided not only me but also my classmates in the fulfillment this project. My mother, who had given me her all-out moral, financial, and spiritual support in undertaking this paper work. My classmates, who shared their knowledge, insights, and skills as well. Above all, to our dear Almighty Creator, for giving me the wisdom, knowledge, and understanding in accomplishing this project. Also, for the light of His eternal love and for the wonderful gift of life; for without Him, everything could not have been made possible.

Table of Contents

Title Page……………………………….………………………………………………………………....i Acknowledgement…………….………………………………………………………………………..ii Table of Contents…………………………………………….……………………………………….iii Memorandum……………………………………………………………………………………….……..1 Brochure………………………………………………………………………………………………………5 Manual…………………………………………………………………………………………………………8 Bulletin……………………………………………………………………………………………………..11 Application Letter………………………………………………………………………….…………14 Resume………………………………………………………………………………………………………19 Minutes of Meeting………………………………………………………………………………….…25 Proposal…………………………………………………………………………………………………….30

Memorandum (also more commonly memo) is a brief written record or communication, used in an office, whether business, government, education institution or legal office. The plural form is either memoranda or memorandums. A memo has a specific format but may be specific to a single office, level of government, or other institution. Very specific memoranda in legal settings are Memorandum of Understanding, Memorandum of Agreement, Memorandum of Association, Private Placement Memoranda, and Confidential Offering Memoranda.

A memorandum is written using a specific format, usually a format accepted by the office in which the memorandum is to be used. The usual structure for a memorandum includes some or all of the following:
MEMORANDUM TO: The person receiving the memorandum FROM: The person writing the memorandum DATE: Usually a formal manner of writing the date, for example 20 April 2004 SUBJECT: A short title descriptive of the topic in discussion in the memorandum

Introduction: Explaining why the memorandum has been written and what topic the memorandum will discuss. Body: Discussing the topic in detail--explaining what exactly and itemizing when possible. Organization features of a memorandum tend to vary according to the context. For example, one of the ways to organize a legal memo would feature an organization as follows:
• • • •

Heading A summary of relevant facts A discussion of law relevant to the legal issues, and application of that law to the facts A conclusion that is responsive to the legal issues.

Conclusion: explaining what will or should happen next, when the follow-up will occur and why the date is important.

There are a number of writers in educational settings who give law students, those entering the armed forces, students of journalism, advice on the type of language to be used in memoranda. In summary, the language in memoranda should be:

Directed to your audience - memos are usually directed at decision makers and usually you write for an individual or a group to help them make a decision. To influence decision makers you need to give considerable thought to who they are and what they understand and what powers they have to be able to take action relating to your memo. Simple and direct - complex sentence structure and organization is a sure sign of confusion or a hidden agenda. A well-written memo will state your case in simple steps; even if you have a very complex argument, or the subject is highly technical and you are writing for managers, you need to use the simplest words and state your case in simple sentences. Word choice - often the simpler and more common words are going to get good action. Quasi-technical terms need to be eliminated: so instead of using "facilitate" you could use "help" or "assist", and "indicate" could be simpler with "say" or "show". Clearly assign action and responsibility — bureaucrats are notorious for obscuring responsibility by using words like the imperial "we" or passive voice: e.g. "We have always argued that rapid transit is the best long-run solution to urban transportation problems, given finite energy resource.


SAN FRANCICO BRANCH DATE: TO: FROM: September 10, 2007 Members of Committee IV: Brown, Gray, Roe, Dominguez, and Blair Andrew Williamson, Chairman

SUBJECT: SEPTEMBER MEETING The September meeting will be held in the conference room adjoining my office on Wednesday, September 19, at 2:30 in the afternoon. The attached agenda includes items retained from our last meeting, two that some of you suggested we consider, and an entirely new one, about a possible communication seminar, that I have added. Please let me know if you have items to add to the agenda. Attachment


September 3, 2007 All concerned


1.) Suspension of wash day of students is hereby lifted effective September 4, 2007. However, strict implementation on the wearing of ID and school uniform during Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays should be objective.

2.) For the information and guidance of all concerned.

(signed) GODOFREDO E. GALLEGA, Ph. D President

A brochure or pamphlet is a leaflet advertisement. Brochures may advertise locations, events, hotels, products, services, etc. They are usually succinct in language and eye-catching in design. Direct mail and trade shows are common ways to distribute brochures to introduce a product or service. In hotels and other places that tourists frequent, brochure racks or stands may suggest visits to amusement parks and other points of interest. Two of the most common brochure styles are single sheet and booklet forms. A common single sheet brochure is double-sided (printed on both sides) and folded into thirds. The layout of the brochure will dictate whether an accordion or "Z-fold" method, the "C-fold" method, or another folding arrangement is appropriate. Larger sheets, such as those with detailed maps or expansive photo spreads, are folded into four, five, or six panels. Booklet brochures are made of multiple sheets most often saddle stitched (stapled on the creased edge) or "perfect bound" like a paperback book. Brochures are often printed using four color process on thick gloss paper to give an initial impression of quality. Businesses may turn out small quantities of brochures on a computer printer, but offset printing turns out higher quantities for less cost. Compared with a flyer or handbill, a brochure usually uses higher-quality paper, more color, and is folded Brochure is a fancy booklet that differs from an ordinary booklet in that it is constructed of heavier quality paper, uses extensive color and expensive type, and is generally put together with special care. The name originates from the French verb brocher, meaning "to stitch," indicating a booklet bound by stitching, although today other binding methods are also used. Brochures are frequently part of a retail advertising campaign and are sometimes distributed with the Sunday papers. They are also enclosed in direct mail and considered to be the "workhorse" of the direct-mail package.

Manual man·u·al (măn'yū-əl)
adjective. 1. a. Of or relating to the hands: manual skill. b. Done by, used by, or operated with the hands. c. Employing human rather than mechanical energy: manual labor. 2. Of, relating to, or resembling a small reference book. noun. 1. 2. 3. 4. A small reference book, especially one giving instructions. Music. A keyboard, as of an organ or harpsichord, played with the hands. A machine operated by hand. Prescribed movements in the handling of a weapon, especially a rifle: the manual of arms.

A user guide, also commonly known as a manual, is a technical communication document intended to give assistance to people using a particular system. It is usually written by a technical writer, although user guides could be written by programmers, product or project mangers, or other technical staff, particularly in smaller companies. User guides are most commonly associated with electronic goods, computer hardware and software. Most user guides contain both a written guide and the associated images. In the case of computer applications it is usual to include screenshots of how the program should look, and hardware manuals often include clear, simplified diagrams. The language is written to match up with the intended audience with jargon kept to a minimum or explained thoroughly.

The usual sections of a user manual often include:
• • • • • • •

A preface, containing details of related documents and information on how to best use the user guide A contents page A guide on how to use at least the main functions of the system A troubleshooting section detailing possible errors or problems that may occur along with how to fix them A FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) Where to find further help and contact details A glossary and, for larger documents, an index

Bulletin board
noun 1 . a board for posting notices (as at a school) 2 . a public electronic forum that allows users to post or read messages or to post or download files and that is accessed by computer over a network (as the Internet) 3. a brief account or statement, as of news or events, issued for the information of the public. 4. a pamphlet or monograph summarizing the past achievements, existing conditions, and future plans of a corporation, educational institution, government agency, etc., esp. one cataloging the classes taught at a college or university. 5. an official, special, or scholarly periodical, as of a learned society. A bulletin board (pin board, pin board or notice board in British English) is a place where people can leave public messages, for example, to advertise things to buy or sell, announce events, or provide information. Bulletin boards are often made of a material such as cork to facilitate addition and removal of messages or it can be placed on the computer so people can leave and erase messages for other people to read and see. Bulletin boards are particularly prevalent at universities. Many sport dozens, if not hundreds or thousands of public bulletin boards, used for everything from advertisements by extracurricular groups and local shops to official notices. Dormitory corridors, well-trafficked hallways, lobbies, and freestanding kiosks often have cork boards attached to facilitate the posting of notices. At some universities, lampposts, bollards, trees, and walls often become impromptu postering sites in areas where official boards are sparse in number.

Application Letter
An application letter or letter of application is a letter that is typically used to apply for a job.

An application letter should be written as a standard business letter or personal letter and should not normally exceed one page. In a typical job application situation, the application letter can include attachments that relate directly to the contents of the letter such as: resume, CV, career brief, biography, etc. Application letters are sometimes referred to as cover letters or introduction letters when they are used to apply for a job.

Content: Units of Information to Include

Introduction or Job Sought. State the specific job that you seek (that's the purpose statement) plus briefly indicate academic and work experience that qualifies you for the position (that's the plan of development). Other possible information for this unit of information includes Adapting and using information that you obtained when you researched the company (This strategy can be effective because incorporating such information shows you have investigated the company, thus showing initiative.)

o o

Giving source of your information about job Using legitimate name dropping (Rarely, however, is the person important or influential enough for you to include the name.)

Education. Summarize academic background. Place this information after work or business experience if that experience is stronger than your

educational information.

Work or Business Experience. Summarize pertinent work experience. If you have limited work experience related to your intended career, consider summarizing "dump entry" information. Place this work information after educational summary if you don't have extensive related work experience.

Profile Information ("soft skills" or personal characteristics and qualities). Indicate your qualities and abilities that would enable you to be effective in the position sought. For example, demonstrate with specifics your being able to work with "challenging" personalities.

Additional Information. Enclose your resume and state that you have done so. Enclosed resumes are expected. You may also want to indicate your willingness to provide any additional information wanted (such as complete job descriptions and copies of proposals, research reports, or other documents that you've prepared).

Closing: Interviews and Contact Information. Arrange for an interview (action statement) and provide phone number and email (keep- communication- open).


7 Richmond Drive Southampton SO2 7PQ Ms Pamela Partridge Recruitment Manager Family Ferries Dover D2 7PL 19 November 2004 Dear Ms Partridge I have just seen your advertisement in the Springboard magazine, and I am keen to start my career in the tourist business. I am writing to enquire about suitable vacancies you might have for someone with my qualifications and experience. I enclose a copy of my CV for your interest. Last summer I worked on a campsite in the south of France, where organization, planning, careful attention to detail and customer care were the essential ingredients of a successful and enjoyable summer work experience. I am keen to use these acquired skills in retailing and tourism to take early responsibility and make a career in commercial management. I believe that my skills would be a valuable asset to your company. I hope you find my details of interest and look forward to your response. Yours sincerely, James Worthy

A résumé, also known as a curriculum vitae (CV), is a document containing a summary or listing of relevant job experience and education, usually for the purpose of obtaining an interview when seeking employment. Often the résumé or CV is the first item that a potential employer encounters regarding the job seeker, and therefore a large amount of importance is often ascribed to it. Traditionally, résumés have been, like careers themselves, oriented towards what a person has accomplished thus far. In most contemporary career consulting the trend is to fashion the document towards what that person can accomplish in a particular job. This is sometimes called a "targeted résumé."

Parts of Resume
Contact information Your resume must contain your complete, accurate, and up-to-date contact information including name, address, and phone number. If you include your email, do not include it as a hyperlink (in blue). If you are planning to move or return home, list temporary and permanent information. Education Your degree, major, institution attended and graduation date are essential. This information should appear close to the top of the page. You may include GPA if it is above 3.0. Experience Detailed information about related experiences including place of employment, position held, dates of employment and duties. If you get stuck, check out these samples of TRANSFERABLE SKILLS. Sections to Consider including in your resume (These are just examples, not a comprehensive list)
• • • • • • • • • • •

Skills - computer and others Languages Summary of Qualifications Objective Senior Projects/Presentations Related Coursework Awards/Honors Military Community Involvement Related Experience Student Teaching

• • •

Additional Experience Internships Professional Development

MICHELLE P. ENTIENZA 306 Interior 4 Nadurata St., Grace Park Caloocan City Contact Number: 09205788302 EMPLOYMENT HISTORY: Rhapsody Boutique Sales lady Timog Avenue, Quezon City March 20, 2004-December 22, 2004 PERSONAL INFORMATION: Provincial Address: Birthday: Age: Birthplace: Height: Weight: Religion: Civil Status: Sex: Citizenship: Father’s Name: Occupation: Mother’s Name: Occupation: Bay-ang, Batan, Aklan September 3, 1985 21 yrs. Old Manila 5’2” 98 lbs. Roman Catholic Single Female Filipino Ernesto Entienza (deceased) Madonna Prado Vendor

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND: TERTIARY: Technological University of the Philippines Ayala Blvd., Ermita, Manila Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education -Major in Home Economics 2005-2006 (first semester) Manuel L. Quezon High School Blumentritt, Sta. Cruz, Manila 1998-2002 Consistent Honor Student Bay-ang Elementary School Bay-ang, Batan, Aklan 1992-1998



SPECIAL SKILLS: Poses good communication skills Fluent in English and Tagalog. CHARACTER REFERENCE: Marie Grace C. Reymundo Contact No. (472-64-35) Mark Jason S. Peralta Contact No. (0910-2195489)


Minutes of Meeting
Minutes are the instant written record of a meeting or hearing. They often give an overview of the structure of the meeting, starting with a list of those present, a statement of the various issues before the participants, and each of their responses thereto. They are often created at the moment of the hearing by a typist or court recorder at the meeting, who may record the meeting in shorthand, and then type the minutes and issue them to the participants afterwards. Alternatively, the meeting may be audiorecorded and the minutes typed later. The minutes of certain entities, such as a corporate board of directors, must be kept and are important legal documents.

Public minutes
Most public meetings and governmental hearings follow prescribed rules. Often speakers' words are recorded verbatim, or with only minor paraphrasing, so that every speaker's comments are included. This is generally required at public hearings that are called to address a particular issue, as distinct from other types of public meetings, which may not strictly require verbatim records of all comments made.

What to include
There is considerable debate over what should be included in meeting minutes. Within certain limits, businesses and private organizations may follow whatever rules they choose. Minutes may be as detailed and comprehensive as a transcription, or as short and concise as a bare list of the resolutions adopted or decisions made. While most non-governmental minutes are not in practice seen by the public, many stakeholders find a bare list of decisions to be frustrating, as they want more information about which individuals supported (or did not support) particular issues. However, in a large group that deals with many different issues, it may be very difficult to present a happy middle ground, as people are likely to have slightly different ideas about the tone of any given discussion, or the importance of a specific topic, and so on. Consequently, most organizations go to either extreme, depending primarily on their notion of privacy (speakers may want to ask questions without fear of being perceived as ignorant) and accountability (members may want to know who to blame). In general, if a question is included, you should also include the responses. Commonly though, many minute-takers omit this obvious and essential part of the record.

Generally, minutes begin with the organization name, place, date, list of people present, and the time that the chair called the meeting to order. Minutes then record what actually happens at a meeting, usually in the order that it actually happens, regardless of whether the meeting follows (or ignores) any written agenda. A less often used format may record the actions in the order they occur on the written agenda, regardless of the actual chronology. Since the primary function of minutes is to record the decisions made, any and all official decisions must be included. If a formal motion is made, seconded, passed, or not, then this is recorded. The vote tally may also be included. The part of the minutes dealing with a routine motion might note merely that a particular motion was "moved by Ann, seconded by Bob, and passed unanimously." Where a tally is included, it is sufficient to record the number of people voting for and against a motion (or abstaining), but requests by participants to note their votes by name may be allowed. If a decision is made by roll call vote, then all of the individual votes are often recorded by name. If it is made by consensus without a formal vote, then this fact may be recorded. Tallies may be omitted in some cases (e.g. a minute might read "After voting, the Committee agreed to..."). It is also often common for adherents to the "less is more" approach to include certain facts: for example, that financial reports were presented, or that a legal issue (such as a potential conflict of interest) was discussed, or that a particular aspect of an issue was duly considered, or that a person arrived late (or left early) at a particular time. The minutes may end with a note of the time that the meeting was adjourned. Minutes in businesses and other private organizations are sometimes submitted by and over the name of an officer of the organization (usually the Secretary, and never the typist, even if the typist actually drafted the document) at a subsequent meeting for review. The traditional closing phrase is "Respectfully submitted," (although that phrase is slowly falling out of use) followed by the officer's signature, his or her typed (or printed) name, and his or her title. If the members of the committee or group agree that the written minutes reflect what happened at the meeting, then they are approved, and the fact of their approval is recorded in the minutes of the current meeting. If there are errors or omissions, then the minutes will be re-drafted and submitted again at a later date. Minor changes may be made immediately, and the amended minutes may be approved "as amended." It is normally appropriate to give a draft copy of the minutes to the other members in advance of the meeting so that the meeting need not be delayed while everyone reads and corrects the draft. It is not usually considered appropriate to vote to approve minutes for a meeting which one did not attend. It is also not wise to approve minutes which one has not read.

Case Study Working Group Weekly Meeting Summary
Date: 11/08/01, 11:00 AM Present: Anna, Abena, Anders, Christian, Kristen Agenda: 1. Review database table for case study resources. 2. Discuss research findings and develop working definition of a case study. Brief Minutes: 1. We revisited our research task from our last meeting. We will spend this week researching and reviewing documents and discussing our ideas of "What is a case study?" on the bulletin board. Everyone is expected to be involved in the dialogue and during next week's meeting we will draft a final working definition for the group. We also decided to have Gerard video tape the portion of the meeting during which we discuss the our research and draft the definition. We think that this would be helpful not only as a good fodder for our presentation to the group, but also as an example of how collaborative group work can be enhanced when group members share resources online and use a bulletin board to communicate prior to meeting. Our meeting will be in 204 Butler. 2. Abena will complete the database for Monday and add the PDF articles to it. Throughout the week everyone can add resources and examples to the database. 3. We also discussed the presentation and decided that we needed to outline the goal of our presentation and to focus on the issues that we want to present to the group. We agreed that the basic goal of our presentation was to develop a list of recommendations for developing electronic cases. Topics to in the presentation included:
• •

What is a case study? What are the advantages and disadvantages of online case studies?

It was decided that next week we would decide on 5 topics to focus our research and presentation on and each person will be in charge of one topic. During the following two weeks each person will be responsible for 1) researching their chosen topic, and 2) adding resources and examples to the database that would be helpful for their topic or for the group as a whole. For our following meeting (11/29) each person will be responsible for summarizing their research on their topic and presenting their findings to the group.

3. We have a total of four weeks and only two more group meetings before we are scheduled to present our work to the Center. We decided to schedule the remainder of our time as follows: 11/15/01 meeting
• •

draft working definition divide research focus questions

11/29/01 meeting
• • •

review & share research findings and summaries reflect on our group experience and select important issues to highlight during presentation plan presentation for the following week (no technology??

Tasks for this week:
• • •

Resource Database (Abena) due Monday Research question: What is a case study? Review resources in database and participate in bulletin board discussion throughout week (all)

Agenda for next week: 1. Draft working definition of a case study. 2. Draft group goal for our presentation. 3. Develop list of 5 focused questions to guide research and divide up between group members. NOTE: next week's meeting will be held in 204 Butler.

noun 1. Something that is put forward for consideration: proposition, submission, suggestion. 2. Something offered: bid, offer, proffer, tender

A business proposal is an offering from a seller to a prospective buyer. Proposals can range in size from a one page letter, or price list, to several hundred pages of detailed specifications. In the business sales process, the written proposal is the vehicle that carries the terms of an agreement between buyer and seller, and forms the basis for a subsequent business contract. When a proposed offer is accepted by the buyer, it creates a legally binding document for both parties, buyer and seller. In complex sales situations, the process of selling can take several weeks, or even months, to complete. In some cases, offer and counter offers will go back and forth. The proposal provides a formal way for both sides to communicate in writing during these negotiations. Prospective buyers sometimes issue a Request for Proposals (RFP), or an Invitation for Bids (IFB), to guide the sellers and provide specific information about what products or services they want. These specifications become the customer's requirements, and meeting requirements is a major objective in writing a successful proposal. A properly accomplished proposal will put the buyer's requirements into a context that favors the sellers products and services, educating the prospective client about the full nature of his or her needs and the capabilities of the seller in satisfying those needs. Often, a prospective client may be aware of only a portion of their needs, or they may be unaware of what the market has to offer to meet their needs. A successful proposal is one that results in a sale, where both parties get what they want. This is called a win-win situation.

Basic components of the business proposal 1. An orientation to the sellers capabilities or products 2. A discussion of key issues 3. A description of the sellers offering and related benefits 4. The cost of the offering 5. A schedule for delivery of the products or services 6. Testimonies from owners of products Of course when responding to an RFP or IFB, the format of the proposal is determined mainly by the buyer, and the seller must respond in kind. Because the proposal becomes part of a contract between the buyer and seller, it must be also considered a legal document and may contain elements of their legal agreement, such as penalties for non-delivery or tardiness. The Research Paper The topic you choose for your research paper should be one that you're interested in but do not know a lot about; otherwise, why would you want to research it? It should be accessible to the whole class (including me), not too technical nor too personal, and it should be one that you can find the required number of sources on. You need not continue our emphasis on moral/spiritual issues; however, your paper must be an evaluation (analysis) of your topic. It need not be an argument paper, although by definition argument is evaluative. Finally, you should be able to cover the topic in the limits of the paper: 1200-1400 words. General Guidelines Remember, start with a hypothesis, look for sources, "fine tune" your hypothesis into an evaluative thesis based on your research. By now you should be an expert in doing this. Ask questions such as "How?" "Why?" "What can be done?" I want your analysis, not just a report on what you found. You may choose to write another

argument paper, but you are not required to. Your thesis and topic sentences, as always, must be yours, not your source's. Remember, your margins must be 1/2 inch on top, 1 inch otherwise, no separate title page, and no headings throughout the paper. Do not skip lines between paragraphs.) Whether you quote or not, always you must give credit to your source. If you do quote, make the quotation part of your own sentence. For example: The eminent feminist scholar, Georgia Jones, believes that "the ERA should be revived in the next Congress" (23). (This is a made-up example, of course. As you know, the 23 refers to the page number of the published source the quotation comes from. The full citation would be in your Works Cited list under Jones. Note that you use the present tense for quoting sources.) You need at least one article from a database and one book. A web site can count for only one of your five minimum sources, though you may use more than one authorized web site. Such a web site at the very minimum must be written by an unbiased expert in the field and published by a non-commercial source (no "dot.coms" other than news periodicals, such as latimes.com). Political commentators and blogs are not authorized web sources. The difference between a primary source and a secondary source is that a primary source is what you're writing your paper about. For example, if your topic is the "No Child Left Behind" law or the military's "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy, the law and/or policy itself is a primary source, just as if you're analyzing a film or a book, the film or the book is a primary source.

Biology 131/132 Lab Sample Research Proposal Name: Pledge: Title Flower production in full sun- and shade-grown sunflowers (Helianthus spp.)

Almost all plants are photoautotrophs that use light energy to drive the process of photosynthesis, although the amount of light necessary for normal growth and development vary among species. Shade intolerant plant species have higher light compensation points (LCPs) than shade tolerant plants, which means that they need a greater amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for simple maintenance respiration and growth (Kozlowski et al. 1991). Beaubaire (1997) found that wild ginger (Asarum caudatum), which normally grows in dense carpets in the understory of redwood forests, suffered photoinhibition and high mortality when grown in full sun, while light-demanding cardinal flowers (Lobelia cardinalis) would not grow in less than 70 percent full sun. In general, sexual reproduction requires a large energy investment by the plant which is often dependent upon stored reserves because organs such as flowers and fruits do not photosynthesize (Pearcy et al. 1989). Common sunflowers (Helianthus spp.) are a plant favored by many flower gardeners. Because most residential gardens in Sewanee, Tennessee, are shaded by oak trees, we propose to examine whether a lack of sunlight would greatly reduce flower production by common sunflowers. Because flower production requires a large energy investment by any plant, we will also examine whether mean flower mass per plant decreases as the number of flowers produced on full sunlight-grown plants increases.

1. HO: Sunflowers grown in full sunlight produce the same number of flowers per plant as those grown in shade. HA: Sunflowers grown in full sunlight produce more flowers per plant than those grown in shade. 2. HO: Flower mass of full sun sunflower plants is not a function of the number of flowers produced per plant. HA: Flower mass of full sun sunflower plants decreases as the number of flowers per plant increases.

Hypothesis 1: Dependent variable = flower number (# of flowers produced per plant) Independent variable = sunlight exposure Independent variable treatments = exposure to full sunlight vs. 85% shade Hypothesis 2: Dependent variable = mass (g) of flowers produced on full sun-grown plants Independent variable = number of flowers produced per full sun-grown plants

Experimental Design. To compare flower production between sun- and shade-grown sunflower plants, we will expose ten 4-week old sunflower plants to 8 hours of full sunlight in a greenhouse for a total of 30 days. An equal number of the same variety of sunflower plants will be grown in the same greenhouse under a mesh cloth which permits only 15% PAR emission. We chose 85% shade for this treatment because it approximates the conditions of typical tree-covered gardens of Sewanee residences. Prior to treatment, the plants will be germinated and grown in the same 40% loam potting soil mix and will be watered daily with 500 ml of 0.5 M Hogan’s fertilizer solution to ensure that nutrient deficiencies do not inhibit flowering in either

treatment. After 30 days, we will count the number of flowers on each plant. The flowers will then be excised at the base of the flower head, placed into separate labeled paper bags, and dried at 60 degrees C for 48 hours. The dried flowers from full sun-grown plants will be weighed to quantify mean flower dry mass per sunflower plant. Statistical Analyses. Mean flower number per plant will be analyzed using a onetailed ttest, assuming equal variances, to determine if significant differences exist between sun and shade-grown plants ( = 0.05). Mean flower weight per plant from full sun-grown plants will be used in linear regression analysis to determine if flower mass is a function of the number of flowers on a plant ( = 0.05).

Expected Results
Effect of light level on flower production – The mean number of flowers produced per plant will be significantly higher in sun-grown (mean + std err) than in shade-grown sunflowers (mean + std err) (P = ___, Fig. 1).

Effect of flower production on flower size – Linear regression will show that for sungrown plants, mean flower mass will decrease with increasing number of flowers produced per plant (P = , R2 = , Fig. 2).

Data Record Sheet
NOTE: there is no one fixed design for a data sheet – use your creativity, but strive for clarity and ease-of-use. Your data sheet will be empty until you collect your data, some sample numbers have been inserted here just to give you an idea of how the sheet will be used.

Literature Cited Beaubaire, J. “Sun requirements for wildflower gardens.” http:/www.bbg.org/topics/wildflowers/html. 1997. Kozlowski, T. T.; Kramer, P.J.; Pallardy, S.G. The Physiological Ecology of Woody Plants. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc. 1991. Pearcy, R.W.; Ehleringer, J.; Mooney, H.A.; Rundel, P.W.; Plant Physiological Ecology. Field Methods and Instrumentation. London: Chapman and Hall. 1989.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful