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277 479

AFCRL-62-341

P

R

PART I

--

**STUDIES IN IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION
**

The Exact Earth-Flattening Procedure in Ionospheric Propagation Problems by M. Katzin PART II and B. Y.-C. Koo

--

VLF Signal Enhancements and HF Fadeouts During Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances by M. Katzin

Final Report on Contract AF19(604)-7233 Project 5631 Task 563109 Prepared for ELECTRONICS RESEARCH DIRECTORATE AIR FORCE CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH LABORATORIES OFFICE OF AEROSPACE RESEARCH UNITED STATES AIR FORCE

BEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS

**Report No. CRC-7233-1 15 April 1962
**

ELECTROMAGNETIC RESEARCH CORPORATION

500 COLLEGE AVENUE

S2-

COLLEGE PARK, MD.

I

AFCRL-62-341

0

STUDIES IN IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION

PART I -The Exact Earth-Flattening Procedure in Ionospheric Propagation Problems

by

M. Katzin and B. Y.-C. Koo

PART II

--

**VLF Signal Enhancements and HF Fadeouts .During
**

Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances

by

M. Katzin

Final Report on

Contract AF19(604)-7233 Project 5631 Task 563109 Prepared for ELECTRONICS RESEARCH DIRECTORATE AIR FORCE CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH IABORATORIES OFFICE OF AEROSPACE RESEARCH UNITED STATES AIR FORCE BEDFORD, MASSA1CHUSETTS

ELECTROMAGNETIC RESEARCH CORPORATION

5001 COLLEGE AVENUE

COLLEGE PARK, MO.

Report No. ORC-7233-1 15 April 1962

. D...Requests foT additional copies by Agencies of the Department of Defense. All other persons and organization should apply to th U. and other Government agencies should be directed to the.S. Department of Comerce Office of Technical Services Washington 25... Virginia Department of Defense contractors must be established for ASTIA service or have their "need-to-know" certified by the cognizant military agency of their project or contract. their contractors. ..C. Armed Services Technical Information Agency Arlington Hall Station Arlington 12.

derfoimid by. 1The~ C. a1 stratifica4 J cvi.alloed S :in-. the ri~ i.. for dealina witb pr oms Solationo for tin anglar ftinr_. The general solution of' the pro.in t.NG ROCEDURE IN IONOSPHRC PROPAGATION.blem is formulated as an integral representation.nite sex3.e t it s-as '1e.he -s .L f~ -U'cat: T nce-::: tions being infliaiite d~stance to radius.functi-on of D. is extendnd to the c:ase of a srpherical earth and atmosphere eniveloped by a sharp1y bounded ionorsphere.r t-e J-ti) c-f ICIZI-fooall f bci .-ion as a o h ~m A outcn. tt .'. of ixon-spheri. sui of +be aci'.nyb bne pc Atdu. of sJhe:CIC3L cas "lie -.2&..CiV-C.funec!-io± ard ts. rla r. frm which may be derived either a rlay-optical series or a normal rlodE series..3pherica. i~ m --n tezz- -f ox. A nph-3-ctdal geoiLetry is Jinvestigated as a ba. Ani ir4Tpro-ved method o.al fuan.. these functions is derived w'hich is niot of asyrartoic clhaacter. the normal modes involve the normnalized spherical Hankel Punction and its deivative.. ThOBDiMS The exact earth-f-L-atterdng procedure previous ly dev..s of Bess-Fel ftcnctaoni.-e .THE MXAT EARTH-FLATTNI.eloped fo-r an isotropic spherically-stratified atmosphere.± cr. In the latter case.C..tI DI as an -Mae t~jse c.relcpad 7or 'he .e tha zeroz7 of -ile -cad. da i prz4 spherical Han.a-_e f:cnsJ. obtaining thi-e zercs oZ.

no correlation should result between the two effects. appears that an increase in the shapness of the lower boundary of required during the onset of a solar flare The mechanism by the D-region is which this takes place needs to be determined 0 iv . On the other hand. This reduced height causes reflection to take place at a the effecConse- level of higher collision frequency.tted during a flare. while the v-l-f enhancement -s occasioned only by the changes at the lower level. is understandable on the basis of a two-laye' This absence of correlation D-regiono The relative intensifications of the two D-regions will depend on the spectral distribution of hard X-rays in the 1-10 A range emf. absorption is Since the Increase in h-f the svm of the increases in the two r-egions. which can be expected to vary from flare to flare. an adequate explanation of the mechanism of the v-i-f enhancement is not available on the basis of present knowledge° Phase measurements show that a definite decrease in height of the lower boundaiy of the D-region is caused by the flare.I PART II VLF ENHANCEWNTS AND HF FAIDEOUTS DURING SUDDFN IONOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES ABSTRACT Simultaneous observations Of short-wave fade-outs of a 13o5-Mo/s signal and sudden signal enhancements of a 31o15-kc/s signal over substantially the same transatlantic path of approximately 5400 km show no evident correlation between the magnitudes of the two effects of the SID. it the ionization gradient remains the same. which should result in a decrease in tive conductivity of the layer if quently..

1 4.1 Short Distance Characteristics 33 36 37 IV . RESULTS DISCUSSION 31 32 4.1 3. NON-SPHERICALLY STRATIFIED IONOSPHERE 3.2.3 2°4 2 5 Formulation of the Problem The Angular Fmction T The Radial Function U Evaluation of the Integral Representation The Complax Zeros of u ( 2 ) z) 1 2 3 6 9 13 16 3.2 2.3 4. SUMARY REFERECES PART 11 28 29 1 2o INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTION OF MEASUREMENTS 30 31 3.2 H-f Effects V-l-f Effects 4.2 Formulation of the Problem The Angular Function T The Radial Function U 22 22 23 24 3.Table of Contents Page ABSTRACT . 2. INTRODUCTION SPHERICALLY-STRATIFIED IONOSPHERE 2. 4.PART I iii ABSTRACT - PART II PART I iv 1.1 2.

1 Absence of Correlation Between Magpitudes of SWF and SSE 4..4 The Dio-Layer Model Bracewell's Exhaustion Region Ionizution Mechanisms 43 44 4 46 Comparison With SID Results 4.2 Z3. 6.3 4. OCOVIUSIONS RIELI RAPHY .2 MechamrLsms Associated With SSE 47 47 5..71 vi .4. Eclipse Effects !4 3 D-Layez Friduction and Structure 42.'IGURES 1 -- 50 52 26 (PART II) 58 .Eate i4.2 4.1 647.23 4 'oyag Distance Characteristics SID ]Pfects 39 41 42 43 ~4.4.

magneto-ionic splitting and propagation at.. involving complex layer distributions. encompassea many ramifications which probably t.-oximationo or deviation increases with height.be important heights involved (in wavelengths) may be conside.PART X THEXACT EARTH-FLTTENING PRO0DURE IN IONOSPHAIC PROPAGATION PROBLEMS 1. atc.: ied out in Sec. The subject of ionospheric propagation. but should not be of great consequence in problems of tropospheric propagationIn the case of ionospheric p~opagation. arbitraX7 angles to the earth's magnetic field.3.y is considezedo This is n'to account lateral variations of the reFor this purpose a spheroidal atLifcation). In other words. INTRODUCTION In an earlier paper Cl]*. t. for never will be capable of a complete self-contatae: *Numbers in brackets refer to the corresponding numbers in the References on po 29° . it appeared desirable to investigate whether the exact earth-f-lattsaing procedure could improve ionospheric propagation analysis. In particular it was shown that the differential equation for the height-gain function in the usual earth-flattening approximation was equivalent to a small.--eatmento Consequently. change in the refractive index veiation with height.tWive index (non-horizortal geomet-. This is one ob ective of the research conducted under this 2 Ln additional objective is pa:i. coupling between modes. ca.ably g: . an exact earth-flattening procedure was given for propagation in an inhomogeneous atmosphere over a spherical earth.t of the contract. the physical problem is The amount of this change changed somewhat by the earth-flattening app. and is accomplished in See.ter Conaeqaexutly. the extension of this theory to take frao. ThMs formulation led to the realization of the physical nature of the approximations introduced by the usual earth-flattening procedure.

purposes of the present study we shall adopt an often-used idealization of the ionosphere in order to confine attention to the specific objectives stated above. various field components are derivable from a Hertz vector whose direction is radial. since this is the only effective form of radiator at these frequencies. however. so that the results will be of chief interest in this frequency range. This assumption is the one usually made in study- ing v-i-f ionospheric propagation. For completeness. anisotropic case. electric and magnetic modes are coupled in the ionosphere. SPH IGALLY-STRATIFIED IONOSPHME A rigorous formulation of the field due to a vertical electric or magnetic dipole in an inhomogeneous isotropic atmosphere over a spherical earth was given by Friedman [2]. it is a form adapted to direct introduction of the earth-flattening possible to formulate separatecorresponding the ly the cases of vertical electric and vertical magnetic dipole sources. 2. will be given in procedure. this was extended by Wait [3] to include the essential mixed polarization effects due to the anisotropy of a sharply bounded ionosphere. Actually this Hertz vector (within an appropriate mltiplying factor) is nothing more th&w the radial component of the electric (magnetic) field in the case of the radial electric (magnetic) dipole source. In the isotropic case treated by Friedman. For this purpose the ionosphere will be considered to be sharply bounded and of uiform electrical properties. 2 . In each case. since all other components are In the derivable from the radial components (see. For plane geometry. to vertically and horizontally polarized fields. a rigorous formulation of the spherical This formulation problem (with a shorp ionosphere boundary) will be sketched here. for example. respectively. Scheikunoff [4]). It is then logical to consider only a vertical dipole source.

respectively. earth and ionosphere being at R = a and R = h. 2. excited by dipole source. will give rise to reflected components at.Geometr7 of spherical earth.so that the problem must be formulated in terms of mixed components from the outset. the boundaries of Ionosphere Air Vertical Dipole-.1 Formulation of the Problem The geometry of the problem is (infinitesimal) length Z and current I is shown in Fig. Consideration of the physics of the problem will assist a proper formulation. the primary field due to the source will give rise to a field which has a polarization determined by the direction of the source current. with concentric sharplybounded spherical ionosphere. The ionosphere will introduce magneto-ionic splitting. so that new 3 . Thus. - - Earth Fig. 1. A vertical dipole of located at R = b. the boundaries of the earth and ionosphere. in turn. I . This primary field.

Then the corresponding fields are derivable fro the equations E. will differ in amplitude and phase. 3 (2. in general. so that we must represent the radial Hertz vector by a column matrix of the form where JR is the unit radial vector.polarization components will arise there. respectively. Consider first the electric component primary and a secondary field Ie =nj 11e and write it as the sum of a + n.2) Now put I1I is stimulated by the vertical source current. From these facts it is clear that a combination of electric and magnetic Hertz vectors must be used for derivation of the fields. The two components.7) 4 .-k R(PI +P) + ' grad [~R(P +P~ (2-4) providing that P. (2.. while 11 arises from reflection 3 at the boundaries.6) and P is a solution of the homogeneous equation VaP + kP 3 = 0. and the subscripts e and m refer to electric and magnetic modes. is a solution of the inhomogeneous reduced wave equation V7-2P + kp ' k W (2.

13) s and ah.12) SRz ~ d42X + Yr2'I in 2. and V are functions only of 8: R. (R)V() (2. stw-ts.ror t. U.10) where T.8) Sin.9) are characterized by different %alu. including.! . in v.+ k P.2-periodiclty in cf. respectively. solutions of the corresponding homogeneous equation V 2 P.13) in the form .9) T(e) U.= 0. The current density Ji -maybe related' to the dipole moment I by integrating over the source region: ll so that dv Jjj7JRksiflf i 8 ded~fdR.8).onditio-se (2. (2. Sj $) (R-b). e the right-hand side of (2. T=O. and p. T .. separates into the equations 2 d2'T + cot (2 9) then JW +(.. -rvE .6). the solutions of (2.rtiie of (2. possibly. and write thb. .First consider (2.rsn.to Its an integer of (2. be assembled from.-s of s end m.0. complex values 4 take m. and The various solutions of ultim. is zero everywhere outside the point (b.11) + e Ati R ) 2 u 0 (2. which as yet are arbitrary._ 0.6).6) can.ch x are the separation c.tely will be fixed by the bounda-j . phtcn I. Hence we can separate P. (2.0). in the form RF = (2.

provided that T(O) = 1.14).s). (2. V. (R)V. We now extend this type of solution to the case m j O.6) around an infinitesimal region enclosing the dipole source. 2.2 The Annalar Function T in [1] it was shown that a solution of (2. In general. It can be shown that A(s) = s and f= a goC f . Xn order that (2. we must choose the cylinder function to be the BAssel function J.(sO). = 1.Consequently all solutions of (2.17) where n-1 in which Z (sS) is a cylinder function. ~A )TOV.11). (2.16) where T is a solution of (2..18) is lei = 2.% nuo (2. and Vm is given by (2. and a. o= 'sO so that this covers a sector greater than ± m/2.11) for m = 0 may be written as T= Za. U1 is a solution of (2. Introducing the new independent variable x = se (2. seP"3Tn(.9) with 2ic-periodicity in 9 may be obtained from the representation RP. f sTU.12).17) have the property T(O) = 1 as required. 1 4q)As. (2. C will extend over an infinite range. ds.19) 6 .11) for m = 0 is TT. so that R . Consequently the required solution of (2.18) It may be shown that a lower bound for the absolute convergence of (2.15) where the amplitude function A(s) and the path C iu the complex s-plane are as yet unspecified. A(s) and C y be determined by integrating (2.

(2. IA: By equating coefficients of like powers of a.22) the E being the Bernouilli numbers. where Zm is any cylinder function.] By introducing the function Cm... (2. The second equation then becomes L(y 2 ) =a(xZ+m 2 Zi) = a.25) which has the property L [C.n (X) = X"Z. L (Is=) = ai.20) in the form L-(-) + -XL ( - ( V- - o a where o-L = '* BF/(Zp. A solution of the first equation is 7o = ZS(x).27) 7 .o). (Z.23) we obtain I.[i(m=+l)Z-x~z=.and denoting the dependent variable by y..1"..21) of the form % =. x)] = Zn CM. -j 's. we obtain the system of equations L(.) = o.-) %1(f~ (2. Assuming a solution of (2.11) becomes We write (2.21) (2. Cx).Nx tj'+ m2 t. (2.. n (X)i (2o26) (2.

27). we obtain the recursion formula De CPL~l.31) and (2-32) to eliminate powers of x on the right-hand side.=.35) S .32) If we substitute (2. where C-) (m-p)!M+n+) p != (2033) = C. Cnn. (59)". we obtain ( +m 0 ItI ( D p where Ao = I.n a:'e eavily obtained from the recursion formulas for the cylinder functions: X =. we infer that =. iszO "2.11) is T ZA.34) Consequently.= (mt.ao v (2029) Hence the solution of (2.)Cm. Cm/.n.. the solution of this equation is seen to be . ]o Now using the property (2.kaO A10 (Se (2.21) should be expressible in the form Lj = ZA.() = ZAn (S6Znm+n . D (Zp +l)m m+Zp. the required solution of (2.I4IM~ padJ (2. By equating coefficients of like orders of the function Cmn on the two sides of tWis equation..o-C .23).) X21. x ...AP C.25) becomes L(y2) = xj=(m1l)C=. and use (2.. j 2.30) The following recursion formulas for Cm.. (2-31) (2.30) into (2.r (2. T= #.28) By induction.+ P. (58).(2.

integral corresponding to Hz ( 6e-) make the substitution s'= se " In the r . Z M~O ' n 00(-O .9) is R[P. 56d-. For this purpose both the electric and magnetic components of L] will be required.34). U. is that a more accurate calculation is possible than by the use of the asymptotic expansion for the latter functions. These require that the tangential electric and magnetic fields be continuous at R = a and R = h. Ha) (s8) cos (ni +-Y. The function U. 2.) U.36) (2. IA. depending on whether a normal mode representation. is adaptable to evaluation by residues o: by stationary phase.The advantage of using an expansion for T in terms of Bessel functions.35) the solution of (2. (60) 3 co (.36) may be transformed into an integral along the entire real axis in the following way: Write JTn 4"s (69J] = J" (W-mn .12) that T and U are even functions of s. 9 . s d This form. =A. +.= P.11) and (2. and note from (2. (50? .. see _.37) (A2 3 in view of the fact that the integrand is an even function of so becomes ® RP.Y.) d5.. The integral along the positive real s-axis in (2.3 The Radial lumctit U With T as given by (2. (2-36) where Ao = 1 and An is given by the (2. whereupon the integral for that term becomes 1 1 ".. s sds Then (2. instead of the standard expression in terns of the associated Legendre functions. is to be fixed by the boundary conditions. or a representation in terms of rays is desired.

(2.O.. Then P3 satisfies the homogeneous equation (2. RP 3 and R = h. A similar choice is made The total field in the various regions then can be derived from a radial P function which has the matrix form R[P] in which R R P (2. f 88'A..9) and (2.Hence we now consider the magnetic component n.Hn = (2. and write 2 ~=kPAp 3 . coS(mT47'mn)U 5ds.40) (2. being independent of 8 and q). respectively. and denote these by U.36) as follows: RP.12) to correspond to upgoing and downgoing waves. f. we expect a mixture of upgoing and downgoing waves in the region a<R<h. . (s.38) VaP + kzPszO.(2) and U1 (') for U2 and U3 .) maO .)Usds. vI = V = VS.1).4+3) ftI± TA.. in (2.41) Solutions of (2. (2.39) ourt ( P5 ). n = 1.39) may be written in a form similar to (2.2.42) (2. The corresponding fields than are derivable from the equations Em . The boundary conditions. We then pick the two independent solutions of (2. (Sef Rw(e4) The constants c and I are to be determined by the boundary conditions at R = a Corresponding to the pysical picture of reflection at the boundaries.44) n = TnUnVn.(se". lead directly to the statements TI = T2 = T . 40 cos(mtY. 2 10 .3.. 'r"PP+ grad a (Rz)].

at R = b we have the discontinuity condition for the first derivative of U1 in terms of the dipole moment L2] dU. 2 us = u2() + u ( ).. (2045) u = U3") + US(S)$ s and introduce the reflection coefficient at the ground f where 1. Us satisfy the same type of differential equation as U1..e... L. The radial functions U2 . (2. oXR( b...49b) U2 * UO 'ba o*R<h.46) el and tpare the reflection coefficients for vertical and horizontal Then polarization. . U1. Stu)+ C b4I'h. (2.=elz (&). e . If we denote the two independent solutions of this equation by u(1) and U (2) .47) ) US'.12). J U21'Ch = [ h +%). + P. C2 (2. At the ionosphere the reflection coefficient is a tensor [e co that f. respectively.. (2.49c) .Now we put U1 = UL( 1 ) + UJ(2). R I Rub-& . where u (I) represents a downgoing wave and U( 2) an upgoing wave. i.)] + eLsiU (h).ell [ (h) i'X ". (2. respectively. (2 .LZ= K9 Zirkt K while U1 itself is continuous at R = b. 1%)(h).49a) (2. then we may write in the various height regions = U. U21hjj Finally.48) U3(h).

' MMA. (2.50f) (20.Ozu -{ (h) (2. a K/r 0i.49d) The boundary conditions then yield 62/A ae.I -.e.S... Uol 0<R<h. They are given by V.- UW'M=)(b)I J1K u)b).. £[p( (2-500) 6at. 4/1= . (2-51g) where "(h)(5 I t/Cu)(b) (2. .US = f.50g) The seven equations (2o50a-g) are sufficient to determine the seven constants '91.) 4 ea .54 6.51a) I =. LIL' + g. t 0"a *€=).50d) . (2. ..) e.'d 14 - M . (2.. OxiWb)=4i'(b) + (2.50a) eU UIOW/uCt)(). 14. 46.51d) .el *. (2. ~b + Sg u'~ '(b) + K. .52d) M = p .51b) ..t) - . 12 . (2.

Since the coefficients in the integrand (?h - ) involve the y-functions defined above.+ (k = - SANti O (2°3 The solutions of this equaticm corresponding to downward and upward waves are the normalized spherical Hankel functions [5J 1. where P = kk. (2. (2. if we deform the integrand from the original contour along the real s-axis into the appropriate 13 . (2. and (2.42). We now evaluate the form of the radial functions u(I) and u42 ) 0 These are solutions of U. By the method of residues.43) give the values for RP in the space aR<_h. on the other hand.49). (2.4).k . which are ratios that are functions of a.primes denoting R-derivatives evaluated at the argument. from which the fields may be evaluated by (2.e. the result may be expressed as a sum of rays reflected alternately a number of times from the ionosphere and the ground. By the method of stationary phase.4 Evaluation of the InteR niMpresentation Two different methods are available for evaluating the integral expressions for RP. type of solution in order to bring out the fact that the approximations usually made actually change the physical problem from that of a homogeneous atmosphere to that of a slightly inhomogeneous atmosphere.40).56) With those functions inserted in (2. (2°55) (2+ 4 )IM (2.54 u respectivey. Consequently. or waveguide-type waves. 2.c) (kR) "( H. (2.).5). = ' s) '€(kR). the expressions (2.4]. the result is obtained as We shall investigate the latter a sum of normal modes.37). the integrand has poles at zeros of ths denominator in these ratios.

The integral then is the negative sum of the residues at the poles in the lower half-plane. points at s = This can be seen from (2.%h and M.56). respec- These can be determined from the zeros of t(h) Thus we consider the method used for the determination of these zeros. attempts to avoid the branch-cut integral by making a double traverse in the lower half-plane. similar to the way in which Bremer [6) treated the tropoand u (N. ultimately can be expressed in terms of y-functions and the properties of the reflecting medium. on integral and has shown that it is negligible in practical cases. tively. poles of pi j. is zero. Consequently the integration path is deformed into the contour shown in Fig. there is also a branch point where the order of the spherical Hankel functions. andem= a .49).42) and (2.II half of the complex plane. can be expressed in terms of the two limiting cases spheric case. Poles The principal poles of inThe investigation of these The poles is a separate problem in its own right which we shall not go into here. the integral may be evaluated in terms of the singularities of the integrand in that half-planeo In addition to the poles just mentioned. In the case of a perfectly-conducting ground the integral vanishes altogether. This has branch ±i The integrand vanishes at infinite values of s in the lower half-plane. (2.43) by using the U-functions given in (2. and thus is easentially a part of the ground-wave field. the other hand. plus an integral around a branch cut along the negative imaginary axis from -i/2. 14 . terest in determining the normal modes are those of M. in effect. p. but his procedure. is equivalent to neglecting this integral. The matrix A[P] in (2.. This integral represents the effect of the currents which penetrate into the ground. of the integrand are those of the functions e. 2. since e.44) has an integral representation vdich can be assembled frmi (2°37). Friedman [2] has discussed the importance of the branch-cut Wait [3j.

Plcne Fig: 2 -Ink eg.-ation Ccnto-u: in s-plane .s.

du expand the exponent F(w) in a Tay1or's series about the point where F'(w) e W& a pw1/)dwW.) .. shifted to the right by x/2o of variables t A simple change (zp) - (258) 16 . (2. F'(wo ) = -i(z-p) F" (wo ) = iz° Consequently. 0 and draw the contour W so as to pass through the two points (stationary points) 2 at which FI(w) = 0. and are usually expressed in terms of Airy functions.W..57) 0. procedure is to write The Nm)(.2.5?) becomes o where the contour U2 is merely W. wo =/29 and F(wo ) = 0. upon putting w-w = u.. we obtain F(w) 0 F(we) + (w-w. By truncating the Taylor's series expansion of F(w) at the third derivative term.).O. or Hankel functions of order one-third. F'(w.-zcos we have . Since F"(w.±r (2.5 The Complex Zeros of u (2) (z) The zeros of u (2 ) and U( 2 ) # are the same as those of Hp( 2 ) and Hp() These are found by the Debye method of steepest descent..) + (Tw") F.

in first approximation.59) where the contour L2 in the t-plune is shown in Fig.61) is equivalent to a change in the physical problem. 3 Then from (2..plane LI Fig. e.results in In/" '' 6 4ee ] d"ta: (2. 17 .55) - Contour for Mdified Hankel Functions (2061) Z (. The integral in (2. 3.24)7q-7rVA. the zeros of RpC2 )(z) and of hp(2 )(z). while h2 (r) is a soluticn of Stoke ' O.59) may be expressed in terms of the Airy Functions. It was pointed out in [1] that the approximation (2.ed in [7]) give. Using the notation for the latter.12).- l a() Consequently the zeros of hg(i) (tabulat.jr h2 (2. This is immediately evident from the fact that equation (2 62) bp(2 )(z) it a solution of (2.60) t. or Mdified Henkel Functions of order one-third [7]. we obtain 12z) Hz "- e-/1 I.

k must be s function of Y which . whereby the radial equation becomes d2J iu + k2.64) 2/a in order to where k.61) may be found as follows: We first siparate (2.I The physical problem corresponding to (2.(R) V(V). + _L~ 22/ sU Next. satisfy the equation for small In this case.& Ua 1 r/ ' + (ke ')- (263) dq2 where To reduce this to Stokes" equation. however.). and q are constants. It is evident from (2. we must have k~ze = ' / 11 = k&(1 +j). = T (e)U. + a solution of which -'s . putting Uo = uo e we obtain d2U'--"O .5 Now by introducing the transformation q=a log(RIC. we obtain. finally.9) by writing P1 in the form P.63) that q - (2. Stokes2 equation d z. if we put 52 crLik. the radial equation becomes 2 a4U. In order to arrive at this solution.

whereby a change of variable is introduced so that F(w) in (2.68) n which the coefficients A.65) If we put Rt' then we have a+ H = (i + . Thus the refractive index (2. in general. except that Ao = 1. t+ '" Then (2.(2. 2 To obtain a higher order approximation for the zeros of E (s (z). which occurs at 19 . and Em involve.57) becomes By expanding R in a double series of the form Tr 9 qmtta~c'".(V) 3 Hp (z)'.. decreases monotonically with increasing height H above the ground level a.II satisfies (2. The above procedure is asymptotic because the series expansion (2.+h'(4 IB (2.' f()tA. In terms of the variable R.66) termwise. inverse fractional powers of . one may follow a procedure due to Olver [8] and Chester.+_0. whereas the original problem dealt with a constant refractive index. Friedman.64).67) has a radius of convergence which is limited by the next zero of F (w). this requires that k have the form 0_0_______(I+ ______(R __toq* (2. an asymptotic expansion is obtained in terms of h 2 () and h. corresponding to Stokes' equation. is. dw 0 +tz 7j.59): t le.65). and Ursell [9].= --(-W) in _-Z (Z-$IIIW-_ F(w) = .57) becomes precisely the exponent in the integral of (2.67) Z POZO and integrating (2.

fI{() + a-. Then hp (Z) " p (.(2.) being polynomials in x of degree m/2 or less.)} (2. The integral (2. where i and t are given by (2 0 58).a Termwise integration then yields an expression of identically the same form as (2. h 2 (g) + 3(g) h )-.I w -. We write This does not appear to have been reported previously F(w) = t * t s+at.69) I+ f MRS ~ m z) Am(.*+t/3e .) and B(.6 f d. while the interval of integration extends to infinity. for given z.I + . differ 20 . (Z) where Z .) I z =C i* V&'/6Z' T/.-s ' (p/z). An alternative evaluation of (2-57) which is not of asymptotic character may be developed. Next we write e 1~w = e.57) then becomes I V &.69) that the zeros of HW (z).68). e eI and expand e in the absolutely convergent series M Mao M1 wn 90 =r"t-Lm PWt . bin V". and f£ (iz/gr A24 F(")w n! t.d.70) It is evident from (2. however.

. ) end a.) {. corresponds to a value of r. then may be This is a series in EV whose coefficients are known.71): (i"+ + + .73). by.o We now expand o. and put p = - qo (2. Then from (2.(r. Then by (2.72) and (2. h in Taylor's series about to. ..69) (2.69) we then find (2.slightly from the zeros of b2 (g).)h. -r "} Consequently we obtain 11 +q The value of 1.which we denote by =4Z * So "1" -0 so that V. obtained by successive approximations.ha'==(. which as yet is unknown. where g is related to z and p by (2-58)o In order to find the values of p for which Hp" (z) is zero. (C') We denote this zero 2) The value of p corresponding to go is near a zero of H( (z).) t .73) H 'z)= =. . ioeo.58).&0.. H(2 (z)= 0. From (2.72) T. is small compared to go. and make use of (2. (2.. 21 ..3 h (). so that h2 (go) = 0.+r.71) H(a (z) - '6 so h" i 0. we can proceed as follows: Denote the zeros of 'N() bylgo.

there are situations of practical interest where the reflecting layers are tilted with respect to the horizontal. these are 22 . In order to introduce a form of non-spherical stratification which may be applicable to such situations. We give below the extension of the exact earthilattening procedure to this non-spherical goometry.74) These likewise are the zeros of the modified spherical Hankel function N2 (%) given by (2. 3. in general. 2. we consider the case of a spheroidal geometry. For the oblate spheroid.l Formulation of the Proble The reduced wave equation VZP "t P may be separated in spheroidal coordinates into radial and angular differential equations as in the spherical case. 3. the earth-ionosphere region was assumed to be spherically symetrical (so-called "horizontally-stratified" medium).70). The detailed results obtainable by this procedure will be reserved for a later investigation. For example. NON-SPHERICALLY STRATIFIED IONOSPHERE In the treatment in Sec. where the earth and ionosphere are coordinate surfaces of a family of spheroids. 4. This situation is not strictly true. so that the above type of analysis is an idealization which should be considered as only a first approximation to the true state of affairs. either oblate or prolate in form. (z) then are p= o-q* (2.we obtain I The required zeros of e Irt.

2 dT ot& dOT . 3. the second equation of (3. I'm 9 W4 I Y af 51VI Z h4 51.2 The Angular Function T We consider first the angular function T.2 32 for which a typical space point has the rectangular coordinates K -f ih F. since a comparison of the corresponding equations of (3.coss9C0p.l) and (3. as in Sec.2) can be effected by simple transformations.5CzA) I C'CIXXI+Of r 5 23 . and a typical space point has the rectangular x .& -l'ftr Is. 2.(ki+ 2 -f + U =0.LT+ "' a ri r lct(.1) becomes dTT -t Is aa ay Te 2 This may be written as L(~T4jT' L(7 .+ Moii 6) + so-2 = 3.2.ie e.(k' fsire r)1V= 0. -sz + '-\T -o(31) (+ coordinates where f is the semi-focal distance. Introducing the new indepen- dent variable x = s&.cp j5 .~r vs)] LL sa C.se = f e_ We shall treat the oblate case in detail. C05 V = f Cosh go (P lh The corresponding equations of the prolate spheroid are d2(U ATtcote IM + F(T k2f5a - 2~.2) shows that a change from (3o1) to (3.+coshF.

we shal IL seek solutions of the radial equation similar 124 .y applicable to (3. .4) as T. and differs fr~xn it only in the presence right-hand side of the iditiona.4 ven by the recursion foiriula I. integral representation of the fo -mgiven in the normal mode solution. These residues. 9'&/ !(305) (3. are n4d An'P. b)I' p gl-. ultimately may be based first on the zeros of the function U wbl ch represents an upgoing:. Z a. Con s equ en t l y £l. (310 303 The Radial Function U We now consider the risdial function U. We !4hall be interested in to that found in Sec.36). 2. and its derivative.6) on te (34) is similar in form i o (2.1). Our aim will Then Ia to obtain a solution of this equation similar h... (3. obtainable from the re:didues of the integral in the spherical case.im e d i a t e ly pr e c ed i ng it i in (3 . A * )'L+4 (30 9) The:.. which Satisfies the first equation of (3. Consequently. F#4bP1KA .b .3. fields will be obtaiiable in terms of an (2. which i{ representation. (L a . l).iution of (3. term bThis term has th 4 s avre p owe r o f x a s t he ( w+ we can immediately write the . wave.4 ) . where the coefficients .21).35) is direct.eJfore the form of solution gLve which thus has the solution in (2.3).8) OL"II +- T.

16) then is replaced by (3.13) becomes U.55) for the spherical ease.16) VOY+ -s9 * -L ) L(0-)-") + SL e + 3 Cae-e)e 0.R as f-*Oo Hence we are .ed to introduce the change of independent variable f cosh C and the now dependent variable u= RU.17) in the form S-+ 1/ ZN. (3o15) primes denoting derivatives with respect to s. R.t 25 .14) a = kf. and then will investigate their complex zeros as a function of order. we put z = kR9 (3. we put . To eliminate the first-derivative term. 4+z Mr.ZZ(3.to those given in (2. (3.+ (e ) x.12) Then (3. whereupon (3.+ . 4 &L '3. (3o17) We now rearrange (3.11) becomes dI9L + + [kR -1 + 3-3 Next.54) and (2. (U11 We first note that the transition to the spherical ease is effected by allowing fcoshC -*.~h4ALe+3 j We seek to cast this into a form which resembles the spherical equation. The radial equation in question is a+ ta.a L -Z! -+ I Ou/ - ) 0.

and equating coefficients of (Z) on both sides of the equation.. then the first few coeffi- A 40 39 M4 4aL 26 . +0 a .20). but we shall find it more convenient to deduce directly a special form which is suitable for the normal mode problem.22) 4V52.21) (3.18) suggests a series solution in a/zo formed in the form Such a solution may be f. [10]).55). + coefficients A.18) were zero (i. for example.18)..= _ a).I or L 0-) where L~ t- (3.18) -'[+(3o19) If the right-band side of (3. cients are Zv(2V+1 (?. The form of (3.is a solution of the normalized spherical Bessel equation L(*) = 0 and Substituting (3. Z.54) and (2. and *- (3.20) and 40 wheres. we obtain the two equations 1 . [ I __ 1 + -VA.6 isZa soBtyno .4- it 10( ]A. These are two simultaneous equations which comprise recurrence relations for the If we choose Ao = 1.e. solutions of the equation would be the normalized spherical Hankel functions given by (2... Solutions of the radial equation as a series of solutions of the spherical Bessel differential equation are available in the literature (see. reducing by means of the differential . and By in (3.[%r*B where Bo = 00 equation for /j to terms containing only /k and like powers of 1.=_Y (3. Hence we seek a similar solution to (3.18). a = 0).20) into (3..0V.

23) 6(a) =(3. the only change required being the replacement of c((*) and P~(r.5.26) We can reduce this problem to cue of' exactly the same kind as solved in From (2.).30) Consequently the procedure by which the zeros of (2. 27 .62) to eliminate h2 (.) * A )Wx )03 (3. we have found a solution of (3.27) h~(z - 24)~ZI. we am replace h( (z) by a suitable sum of h.16).) by o (() and 6.) and z [.respectively. Introducing (3.().20) and (3.wclk4.* Al er50 B" £1 (9)h('.70) were found may be applied directly to (3.( ZV&e4 5'/ fcqhsC) + 16(aohs 1(6)].70). we obtain (1) Upi (m) a (24) i.).Thus combining (3.(3.(. as follows: hp From this.29) where a~'~ (3.29) now is of the same form as (2.~F~~ - f7~' PI~'~J a~s + o(6) +(3-28) where use has been made of (2.29).28) into (3. (24)-% it'/& (3.25) In Order to conform to the type of integral representation given for the spherical case in See. ()hpN + 26(m) h m.27) and (3. 2. 2.7) (3. (3.ca) + s where w al~) VV a) o)jcx.26). we choose the function tto be the normalized spherical Hsakel function 4" or he Then in finding the normal mode solution for the spheroidal problem we are led to a determination of the zeros of the function cz Sec.15) of the foz u(z) .

and carried out in detail for the oblate spheroid. Solutions for the angular function are found in the form of an infinite series of Bessel functions of the same type as tound for the spherical case.4. SUMMIARY In this report we have shown how the exact earth-flattening procedure. The radial function is expressed as a sum of the solution of the normalized spherical Bessel equation and its derivative. from which may be derived either a ray-optical series or a normal mode series. An improved method of obtain- ing the oeros of these functions is derived which is not of asymptotic character. which are required in the normal mode solution. In order to deal with problems of non-spherical stratification. In the latter case. a spheroidal geometry is investigated. may be found by the same procedure that was developed for the spherical case. developed in Li] for an isotropic spherically-stratified atmosphere. may be extended to the case of a spherical earth and atmosphere enveloped by a sharply bounded ionosphere. the normal modes involve the normal- ized spherical Hankel function and its derivative. . The developments for the spheroidal case are pursued in a way similar to that for the spherical geometry. The general solution of the problem is formulated as an integral representation. the coefficients of these functions being infinite series in terms of powers of the ratio of semi-focal distance to radius. It is shown that the zeros of the radial function as a function of order.

1. pp. Comm. 1. 599-611. Jour. Elsevier Publishing Coo. Stanford Univ. "Terrestrial Propagation of Very-Low-Frequency Radio Waves A Theoretical Investigation". 153-204. No. Koo and M.-Feb. No. Soc. 1952. NBS . pp. Trans. Ursell.. "Microwave Transmission". p.D.. 2/3. Res. Vol. Wait. 1957. t7] The Staff of the Computation Laboratory. Olver. Vol. [10] C. March-April 1960o [4] J. Jan. McGraw-Hill Book Co°. Radio Propagation. 64D. [6] H.. NBS . Phil. R. Friedman. J. Mass. Roy. 247. Vol. 1945. pp.. pp.. Series A. pp. "Spheroidal Wave Functions". 64D. Schelkunoff. Harvard Univ.. [3] J. Slater. Inc. Dec 1954. Katzin. "Propagation in a Non-homogeneous Atmosphere". 1942. on Pure and App. Press. Inc. Phil. "Tables of the Modified Hankel Functions of Order One-Third and of Their Derivatives". "Terrestrial Radio Waves". W.-C.. 8. PrOo. Math. 29 . "An Extension of the Method of Steepest Descents". "An Exact Earth-Flattening Procedure in Propagation Around a Sphere". 328-367. Stanford. 2. Camb. Res.. Jour. Flamer.REFERENCES Li] B. 197-199. [5] So A. "Advanced Antenna Theory". Press. New York. 1951. Soco. Calif. pp. Vol0 IV. New York. [8] F. C. Chester. 1957. 53. 61-64. 1949. 0 [9] C. Bremer. Friedman and F. B. "The Asymptotic Expansion of Bessel Functions of Large Order". Inc.Do Radio Propagation. New York. John Wiley & Sons. 1960. [2] B. 317-350. Vol. No. Cambridge.

and it study. *Numbers in brackets refer to the corresponding references in the Bibliography on p.I PART II VLF ENHANCBeGNTS AND HF FADEOUTS DURING SUDDEN IONOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES One of the spectacular phenomena of the ionosphere is the sudden ionospheric disturbance (SID). of the waves". cation circuits. Budden and Ratcliffe [4] reported that measurements at Cambridge component of the downcoming They concluded of the phase of the abnormal (horizontally-polarized) waves from GER on 16 kc/s showed an anomaly at times of h-f fade-out. Later. quencies. They reported is One of the associated phenomena occurs on very low fre- this phenomenon that forms the subject matter of the present that atmospherics from all directions were reinforced simultaneously. that frequencies from 27 to 40 kc/a showed the sudden increase. that an SID "has a marked effect at the level of reflection of the low-frequency waves (70 kin). Bureau and Mairs [3] reported that abrupt short-wave fade-outs (denoted by SWF hereafter) usually were accompanied by simultaneous sudden increases in the strength of atmospherics received on very low frequencies (vlf). 52. In 1936. but on 12 kc/s the effect was rarely observed. 30 . investigated in which drastically affects high-frequency communireported by Mogel [l]* and later Dellinger sunnarized the various phenomena This phenomenon was first detail by Dellinger [2). associated with the SID and concluded that the disturbance must be caused by solar ultraviolet radiation. this effect being most evident as a decrease in reflection height They did not observe "any clear indication of a change in reflected Bureau [5] then pointed wave amplitude at the time of the phase anomalies" (SPA).

1940. great circle path length was about 5400 km Botb the GIA and the GLE equipments were calibrated at least once each day br means of standard signal generators. to record GLC (31o15 kc/s). 1 31. 2o DESCRIPTION OF MEASUREMENTS The measurements reported here were zaCe at the Riverhead transcontinental receiving station of RCA Conunications.I out that his observations on the sudden enhancament of atmospherics (SEA) ing SID showed that such increases were not obsWerved below about 17 kc/so An investigation was undertaken in 1938 to determine whether SID. and respect to ionospheric layer to discuss the implications of these results witk structure and the modifications produced therein by the SID mechanism. and a preliminary report of the results wae presented in 1947 (6]. . and. and continuous The recording of this signal was being carried out at Riverhead fon other purpoes . RESULTS Sample records of a simultaneous SWF and SSE are reproduced in Figs. whether any quantitative correlation existed between the v-i-f and h-f The experimental phase of the investigation was completed in but has effects of the SID. if so. also produced similar enhancement of v-i-f radio signals. Inc. After several months' observations of the signal from SAQ (17o2 kc/s). with negati.53 Mc/s) was selected. observations were continued. ing over the period 31 October 1938 to 25 June :940. For comparison of the v-i-f SSE withi SWF) the signal eeceived from GLH (13. The purpose of this report is to present the essential results obtained. not been published.e results. extend- signal enhancements (SSE) of GLO. since this signal traversed appro:imately the same path. the equipment was set up Some of the subsequent S1F were accompanied by sudden Consequently. 3. which had accompany- been shown to produce SEA.

followed by a trough (or crest). Examination of Fig. was Conversely. the deepest fade of GT.3 db) on GLC. a considerable body of information has accumulated concerning SID effects. so that the proba- bility of a v-i-f enhancement is very high if the h-f effect is pronoucedo Fig. This shows a high degree of correlation. 5 represents a test to determine whether any correlation exists between the amplitude ranges of the v-i-f and h-f signals during an SID. the recovery was more rapid for the h-f signal. 4.H associated with only a moderate fade on GLH. These records are rather typical of the data obtained. 3 shows histograms of the number of coincidences between SWF of GLH and SSE of GLC during the period of the observations. and that no evident correlation between the magnitudes of the two effects exists.1 db). DISCUSION In the years since the observations described above were completed. In general. and of GLH SIF over a longer period 0 Coincidences were observed only during the daylight hours when the h-f fades were more numerous. the characteristic behavior was a rather sharp initial Invariably. (57. 5 shows that in no case was the GLC increase as great as that of the GLH decrease. The points are plotted with the increase in GLC signal (in decibels) as abscissa and the corresponding decrease (in decibels) of the GLH signal as ordinate. The largest GLC increase (14. although the magnitudes of the signal change varied rather widely from one event to the next. solar 32 . respectively. Fig 4 shows similar histograms of the number of GLH fades of intensity classi0 fied as fimoderate" or greater and GLC enhancements which occurred during the same period of observation. Fig.5 db) was accompanied by only a small increase (2. change.and 2. for example. and then a gradual recovery. Points with an upward arrow attached correspond to complete fade-out of the GLH signal.

In order to bring this out. therefore. have not been published previously.I phenomena. Since an enhancement of D-region ionization should increase the "wall" conductivity. V-i-f waves. and ionospheric structure. It is of interest. since it varied in a regular manner with solar zenith angle. it will appear that a sharpening of the lower boundary of the D-region must result from the flare. takes place mainly in the intermediate D-region hand.1 H-f Effects Appleton and Piggott (7i have made a comprehez sive study of h-f absorption at vertical incidence during a period extending over a sunspot cycle 0 They found that absorption was definitely under solar control. In particular. on the other however. examine the results obtained in the light of present-day knowledge. absorption. They showed that the bulk of the absorption is of the non-deviative type. and that it must take place in a layer below the reflecting 33 . 4. this will reduce the attenuation of v-i-f waves. and on the layer structure and responsive mechanisms in the upper atmosphere. which take place as a result of a solar flare. but will give rise to increased absorption of h-f waves passing through the D-regiono It will be shown below that the above qualitative explanation must be modified and made more precise in order to fit the observations. as well as the changes in ionospheric layer characteristics. however.and/or F-layers. A plausible qualitative explanatio at an early date: for the h-f and v-i-f effects was advanced The h-f waves are reflected by the E. the attenuation depending on the conductivity of the guide "walls". undergo a waveguide type of propagation between the conducting earth and the conducting D-region. to In particular. Observations of the type presented above. it appears that these results have important implications on the type of solar event which causes the SID. it is necessary to examine the absorption and reflection processes.

For non-deviative absorption (ioe.I level of the E-region. (2) For a frequency whose reflection level shifts during the day from the F-layer to the E-layer. Furthermore. where wL is the magnitude of the longitudinal component of the angular gyro frequency. and the + sign is for the ordinary wave. It can be seen that the dependence of r on the collision frequency v tends to a proportionality to either v or l/v. in a region of ionization density N and collision frequency v. under conditions where the quasilongitudinal approximation holds. in a region where the refractive index is substantially unity). but must be an independent ionized region. the . depending on whether 34 . or to a sporadic 3-layer. have substantially the same dependence on the solar zenith angle. one of which is reflected by the E-layer and the other by the F-layer. The absorption of the ordinary wave is appreciably less than that of the extraordinary wave when w/wL is not too large. Appleton [8] gave for the absorption coefficient r.sign for the extraordinary wave.. so that it is the ordinary wave which then is measured. the absorption is the same for reflection from either layer (apart from the period when the frequency is in the neighborhood of fE when additional deviative absorption takes place). (3) The variation of absorption with frequency can be explained only on the assumption that the same medium is responsible for absorption over the entire frequency range. they showed that the absorbing region cannot be merely the lower portion of the E-region. which they identify with the D-regiono The evidence which led Appleton and Piggott to the above conclusions was obtained from three types of behavior: (1) The diurnal variations of absorption for two different frequencies.

1. n = 1. the integrated absorption at vertical incidence for a wave which penetrates the absorbing region and is reflected (with negligible deviative absorption) at a higher level then is given by an expression of the form t o 4ds a A (w + wo F) (2) where A is a constant and F(X) is a function of the solar zenith angle. attachment). X. Appleton and Piggott thus placed an upper limit for v of 2o107 /sec in the absorbing D-region. while if proportional to the ambient pressure. the theoretical relation bhows that the effective reflection coefficient p depends on X in a relation of the form 11109 P1 4c (C01Xr. (3) For a Chapman layer (constant scale height the recombination coefficient is where n depends on the ionosphere model.g. Appleton and Piggott showed that the frequency dependence of in the total absorption (as measured by an effective reflection coefficient) is very good agreement with (2).30. 6. the absorption in winter being distinctly higher than for the same zenith angle at other seasons. n = 1. Information regarding the electron production and removal processes in the absorbing region can be derived from a atudy of the dependence of absorption on the solar zenith angle X. Furthermore. Appleton and Piggott [7] found a winter anomaly. 35 .. In the former case.I v2 is small or large compared with (w + wL) 2 . In particular. Thus ft follows that V2<<(w + wL)2 throughout the absorbing region.5.4 to 1. and recombination coefficient). Taylor F10] found values from 0o7 to 1. recombination.0 Nicolet [9] showed that a region of mounting temperature with height would have a lower value of n than one of constant temperatureo The experimental values cf n determined by Appletcn and Piggott range from about 0. This is shown by Fig. which depends on the rate and process by which free electrons disappear (e.

This necessitates full wave An analytical theory.The experimental values. It should be pointed out that Appleton and Piggott's findings relate to normal h-f absorption. 4. Since the path length through the absorbing region increases as the secant of the angle of incidence on the absorbing layer. this is not the case for v-l-f waves. since variations in the properties of the important regions of the ionosphere take place in a distance comparable with a wavelength.5). numerical procedures have been introduced to handle more general situations. and suggest that the region has a positive temperature gradient. and then only for the case of a vertical magnetic field or of vertical propagation. These characteristics will be sumarised here in order to provide a background for the subsequent discussion of D-region mechanisms. definitely show that the absorbing layer is not of the Chapman type (for . The requisite theory is much more complicated. More recently. although not completely understandable on the basis of present theoretical knowledge. Our present knowledge of D-region structure has been promoted by studies of the propagation characteristics of v-i-f waves.which n = 1. theory has been worked out only for special variations of electron density and critical frequency with height. which is made complicated by the anisotropy of the medium. the types of variation described hold substantially for an oblique path of constant length.2 V-i-f Effects Although the main features of h-f absorption are fairly well understood. but results are available only for a limited number of combinations of parameters. 36 . and that the height region wherein the additional absorption during SID occurs cannot be localized from their measurements. The above studies of ionospheric absorption have been concerned chiefly with vertically incident waves.

show that a distinct change in the character of the sky wave takes place in the neighborhood of 400 kin. These measurements have been made at various distances extending out to about 1000 km.2. corresponding to an angle of incidence on the ionosphere of about 650. Consequently it will be convenient to discuss the short and long distance measurements separately. Helliwell [12]. principally by English workers [14-22].1 Short Distance Characteristics The measurements at short distances may be sunarized as follows: (a) Relection Hight Typical results of the phase lag of the sky wave relative to 37 .Although some measurements of layer height have been made at very low frequencies with pulse techniques (Brown and Watts [1]. The phase The depends on the length of the transmission path and the height of reflection. amplitude. purpose the sky wave is isolated from the ground wave by means of a special arrangement. the Pennsylvania State University group [13]). for example. the most extensive and detailed studies have been carried out on c-w transmissions. and then the modifications observed during SID. Variations in reifection height with time can be deduced from measureFor this ntenna ments of the phase variation of the sky wave at a given receiving point. apparent height of reflection is deduced from observation of the amplitude pattern versus distance produced by interference between the ground and sky waves. and also by measuring the phase difference between ground and sky waves for different frequencies. Observations of the change in phase of the sky wave are especially useful in testing solar control of the reflecting medium. 4. The printipal characteristics of the ionospherically propagated wave (the so-called "sky wave") are its phase. Measurements at a frequency of 16 kc/s. and polarization.

and Ch(X) is the Chapman function. on 43 kc/s. nearly all observations show that the sky wave on all frequencies from 16-150 kc/s is approximately circularly polarized with a left-handed sense of rotation same through an SID. 90 around 6 kim. 4. the slope A(t) of the Fig. and its seasonal variation in I8 . 8 shows curves of The apparent heights at Values of A(t) run I I noon and night near Cambridge. po 11] are approximately equal.t og [C. The polarization remains the (c) 4pJ4 e In view of the approximately circular polarization of the sky wave. which is a reasonable value for the scale height onsequently this result was used for some time to infer that the reflecting layer was of the Chapman type. a mean value is 5.1 kim. the components p22 and P12 of the tensor reflection coefficient [see Part I.. in accordance with the relation h a h. England are shown in Fig. is shown in Fig.5 + 0. is not explainable on the basis of a Chapman layer. iand at 70 kc/s a-ound 3 kim. 7. ho and A(t) at 16 kc/s through the course of the year If reflection took place from a Chapman layer. however. I which reduces to sac X for X less than about 85o 73 t 2 km.8 t 0. This variation of A(t). t A.1 km.h (01. The height of reflection shows marked solar control during the day. The diurnal variation of the component p125 called the "conversion coefficient". log [Ch(x)] curve would be the scale height. On 30 kc/s. (b) Polarization For short distances of 100-300 km. 10. however. with greater variability at the higher frequencies. It should be noted that the descent from the night-time height starts at a time very close to ground sunrise at the midpath point. Iheight vs. = (4) An average value of ho is where ho is the value corresponding to X 0.I I the ground wave are shoun in Fig.

(2) a series of observations over the Decca navigation chain at frequencies from 70 to about 130 kc/a.miarised in this section. 12 shows the frequency trend of P12 Figs. The diurnal-variation of reflection height is illustrated by Fig. in sumaer and winter.2. Fig. respectively. with an essentially constant level during the day. for a 39 . (a) Reflection Height The reflection heights determined fra pattern fit the ground interference in with a reflection height of 70 ± 2 km at midday. It is evident that the daily amplitude variation is distinctly different from the daily height variation at short distances. but will also include some deductions made from observations over distances of several thousands of kilometers.2 Lon& Distanoe Characteristics The characteristics inferred from measurements over longer distances will be .) The drop in amplitude begins at a solar zenith angle of close to 980. and (4) observations of the v-l-f spectral characteristics of atmospherics. (1) 16 kc/s observations at 540 kin. small ripples in the winter daytime curve are considered as probably being due to a two-hop wave. with no apparent This agrees within a few kilometers with the variation of height with frequency. for a frequency of 16 kc/s. 11. measurements near vertical incidence. 13 and 14 show the diurnal variation of pI2 on 16 and 70 kc/s.Fig. 4. and distances up to 950 kin. (3) phase variations at 16 kc/s and lower frequencies in connection with basic studies of navigation systems. These principally cover distances of about 400-950 ka. It is seen that a pre-sunrise drop and post-sunset rise (The in amplitude takes place. These have been derived from four sources. for different seasons. 15.

Heritage. coefficient with distance. (b) Polarization Measurements of the polarization of the sky wave showed this to be linear at about 450 to the vertical. In fact. This is shown in Figo 16. but smaller values at increasing frequency. and Tibbals [24] measured a diurnal change of about 3500 + 300 at 12. 10o Similar types of variation were observed at higher frequencies. compared to vertical incidence values of 015 and 0050. which gave the polarization as approximately circular. et al 119] found a value of 0. This is similar to the behavior of the reflection height shown in Fig.2 kc/s over a 4000 km path. For higher frequencies.27 at summer midday.. an (21] obtained the results shown in Fig° 17. 15. This is completely different from the diurnal variation at vertical incidence shown in Fig. for which it was assumed that the nighttime height was 90 km. 7. The drop in amplitude around sunrise is shown in Fig. the sunrise drop in height being substantially complete at midpath around sunrise. Weekes and Stuart This shows an increasing reflection Also. increase of about 2:1 takes place between summer and winter. respectively. Again. and to the amplitude behavior at short distances. From measurements of v-i-f transmissions on available frequencies analyzed by IA . 18. smaller values of reflection coefficient are found at the higher frequencies. the height variation is very much like the amplitude variation near vertical incidence shown in Fig. while Casselman. This represents a change from the short distance measurements. round to For 16 kc/s) Bain. frequency of 16 kc/s. (c) Amplitude The reflection coefficient at oblique incidence is be greater than at vertical incidence. Pierce [23] reported a normal diurnal phase variation at 16 kc/s of 200P ± 300 over a 5200 im path. and 0°55 at night.

at 70 kc/a than at higher frequencies.2. relative change in amplitude is The roughly proportional to the decrease in reflection height. 22 shows an example of the relative phase and amplitude changes observed at a distance of about 900 km during an SID. The amplitude near vertical incidence suffers a decrease during an SID. 19. as shown in Fig. accompanied a solar flare of importance 2+. during an SID. 21 for 16 ke/s. while the amplitude increases markedly. From observations of SEA. it appears that the amplitude Imcrease may be a maximum for frequencies around 30 kc/s. 20(a). In general. 4. This change in phase appears to be a very sensitive way to detect flares Near vertical incidence. a change both in phase and amplitude of the sky wave is The change in phase corresponds to a decrease in reflection associated with an SID. Fig. frequency curve shown in Fig.3 This shows a minimum around 15 ke/s. jPierce i4 [23] showed an example of a phase advance at 16 kc/s over a 5200 1m path This SID. of importance 3. observed near vertical incidence. This Is illustrated by Fig. the decrease in reflection height is substantially the same for frequencies in the range 16-135 kc/s. The phase change associated with the reduction in height of reflection decreases with increasing frequency. . The above characteristics. The amount of this increase is greater. undergo a drastic change at oblique incidence associated with the longer ranges (>500 ka).I I Eckersley [25). 20(b). and a maximum around 2 kc/so SIRggeg The effects of SID associated with solar flares have been observed both at the short and long distances used to obtain the results discussed above. [27]. height. Chapman and Macario [26] deduced the attenuation vs. as shown by Fig. the change in amplitude being greater at higher frequencies. combined with observations of the spectrum of individual atmospherics. for example.

This is half the normal diurnal change. On the other hand. be by a factor of about 100. however. a 60 kc/s signal over the same path experienced a phase advance of only 700. while the amplitude increased considerably. while the sky wave amplitude increases markedly. Near vertical incidence the reduction in reflection height appears to be substantially independent of frequency. during a 3. with an accompanying reduction in the phase lag at reflection. so that the frequency of minimum attenuaAlso. Pierce suggested that the primary physical phenomenon produced by the SID might be a steepening of the ionization gradient. appears to be a maximum at frequencies around 30 kc/s.30] showed that an SID shifted the spectrum of atmospherics upwards. the SID produces a reduction in reflection height and a change in amplitude of the sky wave. in reflection height is less for higher frequencies. the low-frequency cutoff of the ionospheric waveguide was tion was raised.4 Eclipse Effects Observations of the phase of the sky wave on 16 kc/s at steep incidence were made during a partial solar eclipse by Bracewell [311 Although the 42 . To sumarize the SID effects observed on v-. accompanying a 2 flare. Gardner [28] and Obayashi. which may be by a factor of 5 or more. or No amplitude equivalent to a reduction in height of reflection of about 9 km.6 km. At oblique incidence.SID.I A phase advance of 1000 was observed. and roughly At 100 kc/s the decrease may on the other hand. 4. change was observed. This increase. the decrease proportional to the decrease in reflection height. corresponding to a decrease in height of the reflecting region.l-f wave propagation. while the amplitude change is amount of this decrease is a decrease. -_equency et al [29. and becomes less for higher frequencies.2. The progressively greater at higher frequencies. raised. corresponding to a height change of about 1.

I

I

greatest eclipsed area was only 0.3 of the solar disk, a definite phase anomaly was found, as shown in Fig. 23. shape of the obscured area curve. From this result, Bracewell deduced that the relaxation time of the reflecting region probably did not exceed 6 minutes. change about 35 degrees Furthermore, the magnitude of the phase The form can be seen to agree roughly with the

represented an increase in height of reflection of

about 1 km, while for a Chapman layer a change of only about 0.2 km would be expected. 4.3 D-Lay'er Production and Structure A proper interpretation of SID effects on ionospheric propagation ultimately requires a knowledge of the composition of the ionizing agents, and of the reactions which lead to the prevailing ionization densities. some of the pertinent available information will be suarized. 4.3.1 The Two-Layer Model In order to explain the diurnal phase and amplitude variations In this Section,

discussed in Sec. 4.2.1 and 4.2.2, Bracewell and Bain [32] proposed an ionospheric model containing a two-layer D-region. The height of the upper layer, which they

denoted by Da, was supposed to be under solar control in accordance with the formula

h = 72 + 5.5 log sec x km.

This is shown by the upper curve in Fig. 24,

(5)

Below this layer, a layer denoted by

D4 was postulated to exist, with height variations as shown in the lower part of Fig. 24. The upper layer was supposed to be the reflecting layer for 16 kc/s waves

at steep incidence, while the lower layer was considered to be responsible for absorption of the waves. At sufficiently glancing incidence, however, reflection

would take place at the lower layer. Bracewell and Bain based their two-layer model entirely on the observations of

43

I

16 kc/s propagation at short and medium distances. They gave no suggestions as to the mechanisms by which these two layers could be formed. 4°3.2 Bracewp1ls Exhaustion Region In order to explain the observed type of solar flare and eclipse effects on the D-region, Bracewell

L31]

postulated the existence of a so-called

"exhaustion region", in which the ionizable constituent exists in a small concentration. With respect to a two-layer D-region, this mechanism was supposed to take

place in the upper region, denoted by Da in Seco 4o3olo Bracewell showed that an exhaustion region would explain the amount of change in reflection height, observed during a partial solar eclipse, whereas a mucn smaller change would result from a Chapman region. He. also showed that an exhaustion

region would produce h-f absorption whose variation with cosX agreed in general with experimental observations. Bracewell also showed that the characteristics of an exhaustion region would explain satisfactorily the observed reductions in reflection height during solar flares. For example, a reduction of 15 km in height would require an increase in However, no attempt

intensity of the incident ionizing radiation by a factor of 15.

was made to deduce the accompanying effect on the amplitude of v-I-f waes° 403o3 Ionization Mechanisms The existence of several separate mechanisms for the formation of ionization in the D-region has been brought out in the last 'ecad.e o7 soo Brown

and Petrie L32]., pursuing a suggestion attributed 'o Ratcliffe, have evaluated the role of photodetachment of electrons from Oj icnso ment of an electron to a neutral oxygen moleculea This ion, formed by the attachstarts building up in corcentration The nighttime

arcund sunset, resulting in the disappearance cf the normual D-layero

level of ionization below the E-layar is maintained by cosmic rays, which vary in

l4

I

intensity with latitude. Visible light, extending down into the infrared, can

supply the energy required to break up the attachment, and thus liberate free electrons* Since visible light can reach the altitudes >50 km appreciably before

ground sunrise, electrons released by the photodetachment process build up D-layer ionization appreciably before sunrise. Brown and Petrie (33], and Moler [34]

showe, that this explained satisfactorily the pre-sunrise drop in amplitude discussed in Sec. 4.2.1. Aiken L35] verified the fact that a two-layer D-region

would be produced at sunrise, the lower layer being due to cosmic rays, and the upper layer to photoionization of nitric oxide by Lymanradiation0 Thus, in the

two-layer model of Bracewell and Bain discussed in Sec. 4.3.1, these mechanisms would account for the layers D* and Da, respectively. Nicolet and Aikin [36], in a discussion of the formation of the D-region, pointed out the following mechanisms of ionization which are possible at levels

below 85 kn:

(1) X-rays of X < 10 A;

(2)

(3) (4) (5)

**Lyman-a radiation (0 = 1215.7A);
**

Ultraviolet radiation, X > 1800 A; Cosmic rays; Photodetachment by visible radiation.

The normal E-layer, which is ascribed to the combined affect of soft X-rays in the range 30-100 A and ultraviolet radiation (Lyman-p) is penetrated by cosmic rays, ultraviolet radiation of X > 1800 A, Lyman-a and hard X-rays (X < 10 A), Of these, cosmic rays and hard X-rays are capable of ionizing all atmospheric

constituents.

In addition, Lyman-a, due to a narrow window in 02 absorption at the A minor constituent, NO (l1 part in 1010

Lyman-a line, can penetrate to low levels.

was proposed by Nicolet [37] as the ionizable constituent responding to Lyman-a to

45

account for the daytime D-layer. In view of the presently-accepted view that the upper part of the D-region, Da, is due to photoionization of NO by Lyman-a, it is tempting to suppose that NO

is the ionizable constituent responsible for the exhaustion region postulated by Bracewell. The concentration of NO has been estimated by Nicolet [381 as about

3 10-10 of the total concentration below about 85 km, or about 105 cm- at 75 km

[36].

In order to give ionization densities to fit

the v-i-f observations, however,

the NO concentration would have to be lower than this by about two orders of magnitude, or about 103 cm-3 at 75 km. Although Bracewell believed the exhaustion region would also explain solar flare effects, this must be rejected on the basis of later evidence. For example.,

Friedman and collaborators [39] observed no large increases in Lyman-c during flares, whereas Bracewell requires a factor of about 15. In a recent report, Chubb,

et al [40] stated that no increase in Lyman-a occurred during a 1+ flare, but X-rays in the range 1-10 A were observed. As mentioned earlier, the solar flare enhance-

ment of ionization has been shown to be explainable by the appearance of hard X-rays in the wavelength rr.nge 1-10 A, which ionize all atmospheric constituents, and can penetrate to low levels because of the low absorption coefficients in this spectral region. The resulting ionization would be even less sharply distributed in height

.-than a Chapman region. 4.4 Comarison With SID Results The two features of the experimental results shown in Fig. 5 which require explanation are the following: (1) (2) The lack of correlation between the magnitudes of SWF and SSE; The mechanism which produces the SE.

It will now be shown that the first is explainable on the basis of D-layer structure

46

4. 47 . acting as t he upper wall of a waveguide.and solar flare radiation. 4o3o1. then both the regions of the Da and D layers will be intensified. For example. 5 Is understandable within the framework of the two-layer model discussed in Sec. since only one mode is effective. The increase in h-f absorption leading to SWF is the sum of the increases in the two regions. but that an adequate explanation of the second is not available on the basis of present knowledge. It was also stated that such enhancements can be understood in a qualitative way as due to reduced normal-mode attenuation as a result of increased conductivity of the ionosphere. that all solar flares have the same spectral distribution.1ol Abence of Correlation Between HaVitudes of SWF and SSE The absence of any correlation between SWF and SSE in Fig. at present. It will now be shown that this qualitative explanation cannot be substantiated on the basis of presently accepted ionization processes and present theoretical knowledge concerning v-l-f propagation For the ranges involved in the observations reported here. The relative intensifications of these two regions There is no reason will depend on the spectral distribution of the X-radiation.2 Mechani=m Associated With §§E The observations reported in Seco 3 show that SSE on vlf is one of the phenomena accompanying SID produced by solar flares. D*. Consequently. A number of analytical treatments of this theory have appeared [41-55]. if the flare produces a burst of hard X-rays without any enhancement in Lyman-a radiation. so that the relative increases can be expected to change from flL'e to flare. while the v-l-f SSE would respond only to changes in the lower layer. the normal-mode theory of propagation is more advantageous than the ray theory. 4. this would result in the absence of any clear-cut statistical correlation between the v-l-f and h-f effects of flares. to believe.

but none treats the problem in a maufficiently general way to allow definitive conclusions to be drawn pertinent to the present observationao Aalytical solutiona have been obtained only for speci&l distributions of ionizati . by Spies and Wait [5. iL are the plasmas. the attenuation decresxes as the ionosphere boundsa7y becomes sharper. One of the idealizations which reduces greatly the comple dty of the calculations is that of a sharply bounded homogeneous ionospher.'] 6 assumption that the quasi-longit-Ldinal approximation of Booker [ 1] may be used. the attenuation de of the boundary decreases. and longitudinal gyrt angular frequencies. which dductions ofI a general nature can be drawn. collision.L1t4s from which one must drabI general inferences are rather scanty. for a constant collision frequency. so that the rea. respectively. Cail ulaticcs using uder the further eaes as the height such a model have been made. Fig. The ionospheric parameters then -nter the analysis in an effect}e conductivity wr given by where wN' v.y Because of the inabil : to produce an t e analytical solution of sufficient generality. only a rather small nwbe of examples has been worked out. amotg others. 40 .. . A yet. these tend to show that. and fPr special directions of Ubhii earth'a magnetic field (usually taken to be vertiiLL). Nevertheless. Also. but a very large number of special casil out in order to produce a suffici ently extensive catalog froa. otl er things remaining unchanged.OP density and collision frequency with height. efforts have tb a directed towards obtaining numerical solutions [56-60o This approach is not rastricted to special needs to be worked height distributions. 25 (from [53]) shows the attenuation of the first rode i n db/lO00 km s a function of frequency for various ionosphere heights for a value of Wr of 2-105.

at most.2 db. hancement will cause a given ionization density to appear at a lower level.I It can be seen from these curves that a reduction of height from 75 to 60 km. a 15 km height decrease would bring about an increase in v of a factor of 10. an appreciable decrease in effective conductivity would result. but with substantiAlly the same gradient. it must be emphasized. However. since it is based on the behavior of an idealized sharply bounded ionosphere having 49 .2 db/1000 km for a frequency of 30 kc/s. in virtue of the approximately exponential increase in critical frequency with such a height decrease. about 103 a3 show no appreciable change in shape at a density of Consequently. would result in a reduction of slightly more than 0. the effective ionosphere conductivity.3. 1. if For a 50 km path. so that the collision frequency. v. However. the total reduction in attenuation would be about This the height rechiction oourred uniformly over the whole path. semi-quantitative. the value of wr. The above conclusion. this decrease in attenuation is based on a custant effective conductivity. is. say. then the effective conductivity would decrease by a factor of about 2. Hence one might argue that it is reasonable to suppose that a decrease in attenuation as a result of a decrease of 15 km in reflection height of the same order as that calculated for the sharply bounded ionosphere would occur. Assiming a value of wL of about 50106 as a representative value for the transatlantic path in the measurements with which we are concerned. The electron density distributions in the D-region shown iA Fig. attenuation decrease is the result of a decrease in the grazing angle of the first mode to the ionosphere. Thus the qualitative Instead. 26. a solar en- between a quiet sum and a strong flare. calculated by Nicolet and Aiken [36]. is assumed to remain unchanged. would be decreased 0 On the basis of Kane's (62] measumment of collision frequency. expectation of an enhanced ionospheric conductivity would not be realized. Wr.

Again. in addition to increasing the ionization densities at fall levels in the 1-region. while the upper layer is due to photoionization of nitric oxide by Lyman-a radiationo Hard X-rays (in the range 1-10 A) emitted by a solar flare 15 . an increased gradient at these lower heights appears to be required. could outweigh the effect of the increased collision frequency encountered at the lowered reflection height. and that an adequate quantitative theory is needed before a firm conclusion can be reached. In order to obtain an increased conductivity at the lowered heights due to the onset of a flare. show no appreciable change in shape at the electron densities required. the electron density distributions calculated by Nicolet and Aiken. 5. is understandable on the basis of a two-layer D-region8 This absence of correlation The lower layer is produced by cosmic rays. which are shown in Fig.5-Mc/s signal and sudden signal enhancements (SSE) of a 31ol5-kc/s signal over substantially the same transatlantic path of approximately 5400 km show no evident correlation between the magnitudes of the two effects of the SID. This would result in a decreased penetration of the waves reflected therefrom. If we grant. for the time being. 26. for a sufficiently sharp boundary. As mentioned above. it must be emphasised that this line of argument is only qualitative. CONCLUSIONS Simultaneous observations of short-wave fade-outs (SWF) of a 13. it appears that the flare must increase the sharpness of the lower boundary. In other words. and hence. then it is necessary to adduce the mechanism which produces this effect. that an increased sharpness of the lower boundary of the D-layer is required to explain the SSE produced by the flare.I I "average" properties given by the Nicolet and Aiken results.

This reduced height causes reflection to take place at a level of higher collision frequency. Since the increase in h-f absorption is the sm of the increases in the two regions. it appears that an increase in the sharpness of the lower boundary of the D-region is required during the onset of a solar flare. an adequate explanation of the mechanism of the v-i-f enhancement is not available on the basis of present knowledge.penetrate to the low levels of the D-region and ionize all constituents (principally 02 and NS). distribution varies from flare to flare. The relative intensifications of the two D-regions will depend on the On the assumption that the spectral spectral distribution of the X-radiatioa. while the v-i-f enhancement is occasioned only by the changes at the lower level. the relative increases also cm be expected to vary frm flare to flare. The mechanism by which I | 51 . On the other hand. no correlation should result between the two effects. this takes place needs to be determined. which should result in a decrease in the effective conductivity of the layer if the ionization gradient remains the same. Phase measuremets show that a definite decrease in height of the lower boundary of the D-region is caused by the flare. Conse- quectly.

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