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277 479

AFCRL-62-341

P

R

PART I

--

**STUDIES IN IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION
**

The Exact Earth-Flattening Procedure in Ionospheric Propagation Problems by M. Katzin PART II and B. Y.-C. Koo

--

VLF Signal Enhancements and HF Fadeouts During Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances by M. Katzin

Final Report on Contract AF19(604)-7233 Project 5631 Task 563109 Prepared for ELECTRONICS RESEARCH DIRECTORATE AIR FORCE CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH LABORATORIES OFFICE OF AEROSPACE RESEARCH UNITED STATES AIR FORCE

BEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS

**Report No. CRC-7233-1 15 April 1962
**

ELECTROMAGNETIC RESEARCH CORPORATION

500 COLLEGE AVENUE

S2-

COLLEGE PARK, MD.

I

AFCRL-62-341

0

STUDIES IN IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION

PART I -The Exact Earth-Flattening Procedure in Ionospheric Propagation Problems

by

M. Katzin and B. Y.-C. Koo

PART II

--

**VLF Signal Enhancements and HF Fadeouts .During
**

Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances

by

M. Katzin

Final Report on

Contract AF19(604)-7233 Project 5631 Task 563109 Prepared for ELECTRONICS RESEARCH DIRECTORATE AIR FORCE CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH IABORATORIES OFFICE OF AEROSPACE RESEARCH UNITED STATES AIR FORCE BEDFORD, MASSA1CHUSETTS

ELECTROMAGNETIC RESEARCH CORPORATION

5001 COLLEGE AVENUE

COLLEGE PARK, MO.

Report No. ORC-7233-1 15 April 1962

.. .Requests foT additional copies by Agencies of the Department of Defense..C. and other Government agencies should be directed to the.. Department of Comerce Office of Technical Services Washington 25. their contractors. D... Armed Services Technical Information Agency Arlington Hall Station Arlington 12. Virginia Department of Defense contractors must be established for ASTIA service or have their "need-to-know" certified by the cognizant military agency of their project or contract. All other persons and organization should apply to th U.S.

in t..3pherica.NG ROCEDURE IN IONOSPHRC PROPAGATION.THE MXAT EARTH-FLATTNI. of ixon-spheri. da i prz4 spherical Han. of sJhe:CIC3L cas "lie -.he -s . Ani ir4Tpro-ved method o.C. obtaining thi-e zercs oZ. 1The~ C.-e . tt . rla r.. these functions is derived w'hich is niot of asyrartoic clhaacter.funec!-io± ard ts.eloped fo-r an isotropic spherically-stratified atmosphere. ThOBDiMS The exact earth-f-L-atterdng procedure previous ly dev.e tha zeroz7 of -ile -cad. for dealina witb pr oms Solationo for tin anglar ftinr_.-ion as a o h ~m A outcn. In the latter case.al fuan.s of Bess-Fel ftcnctaoni.e t it s-as '1e. frm which may be derived either a rlay-optical series or a normal rlodE series..functi-on of D.r t-e J-ti) c-f ICIZI-fooall f bci . the ri~ i..± cr.tI DI as an -Mae t~jse c.derfoimid by. A nph-3-ctdal geoiLetry is Jinvestigated as a ba.2&.alloed S :in-. is extendnd to the c:ase of a srpherical earth and atmosphere eniveloped by a sharp1y bounded ionorsphere. a1 stratifica4 J cvi.L f~ -U'cat: T nce-::: tions being infliaiite d~stance to radius. sui of +be aci'. i~ m --n tezz- -f ox.. the normal modes involve the normnalized spherical Hankel Punction and its deivative.blem is formulated as an integral representation. The general solution of' the pro.nyb bne pc Atdu...relcpad 7or 'he .nite sex3.CiV-C.a-_e f:cnsJ.'.

is understandable on the basis of a two-laye' This absence of correlation D-regiono The relative intensifications of the two D-regions will depend on the spectral distribution of hard X-rays in the 1-10 A range emf.tted during a flare. On the other hand. which should result in a decrease in tive conductivity of the layer if quently.I PART II VLF ENHANCEWNTS AND HF FAIDEOUTS DURING SUDDFN IONOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES ABSTRACT Simultaneous observations Of short-wave fade-outs of a 13o5-Mo/s signal and sudden signal enhancements of a 31o15-kc/s signal over substantially the same transatlantic path of approximately 5400 km show no evident correlation between the magnitudes of the two effects of the SID. it the ionization gradient remains the same. This reduced height causes reflection to take place at a the effecConse- level of higher collision frequency. an adequate explanation of the mechanism of the v-i-f enhancement is not available on the basis of present knowledge° Phase measurements show that a definite decrease in height of the lower boundaiy of the D-region is caused by the flare. no correlation should result between the two effects. appears that an increase in the shapness of the lower boundary of required during the onset of a solar flare The mechanism by the D-region is which this takes place needs to be determined 0 iv . absorption is Since the Increase in h-f the svm of the increases in the two r-egions.. while the v-l-f enhancement -s occasioned only by the changes at the lower level. which can be expected to vary from flare to flare.

2 2.PART I iii ABSTRACT - PART II PART I iv 1.1 4.1 2. 2.1 Short Distance Characteristics 33 36 37 IV .2 Formulation of the Problem The Angular Function T The Radial Function U 22 22 23 24 3. 4. RESULTS DISCUSSION 31 32 4.3 4.1 3.Table of Contents Page ABSTRACT .3 2°4 2 5 Formulation of the Problem The Angular Fmction T The Radial Function U Evaluation of the Integral Representation The Complax Zeros of u ( 2 ) z) 1 2 3 6 9 13 16 3. SUMARY REFERECES PART 11 28 29 1 2o INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTION OF MEASUREMENTS 30 31 3. INTRODUCTION SPHERICALLY-STRATIFIED IONOSPHERE 2.2. NON-SPHERICALLY STRATIFIED IONOSPHERE 3.2 H-f Effects V-l-f Effects 4.

2 Z3.Eate i4.4.'IGURES 1 -- 50 52 26 (PART II) 58 . 6. Eclipse Effects !4 3 D-Layez Friduction and Structure 42.1 Absence of Correlation Between Magpitudes of SWF and SSE 4.3 4.4 The Dio-Layer Model Bracewell's Exhaustion Region Ionizution Mechanisms 43 44 4 46 Comparison With SID Results 4. OCOVIUSIONS RIELI RAPHY ..71 vi .2 4.2 MechamrLsms Associated With SSE 47 47 5.4.1 647.23 4 'oyag Distance Characteristics SID ]Pfects 39 41 42 43 ~4..

it appeared desirable to investigate whether the exact earth-f-lattsaing procedure could improve ionospheric propagation analysis. the extension of this theory to take frao. In particular it was shown that the differential equation for the height-gain function in the usual earth-flattening approximation was equivalent to a small. ThMs formulation led to the realization of the physical nature of the approximations introduced by the usual earth-flattening procedure. arbitraX7 angles to the earth's magnetic field.3.be important heights involved (in wavelengths) may be conside. atc. magneto-ionic splitting and propagation at.ably g: .ter Conaeqaexutly. coupling between modes. involving complex layer distributions. change in the refractive index veiation with height. but should not be of great consequence in problems of tropospheric propagationIn the case of ionospheric p~opagation.tWive index (non-horizortal geomet-.t of the contract.: ied out in Sec. This is one ob ective of the research conducted under this 2 Ln additional objective is pa:i. for never will be capable of a complete self-contatae: *Numbers in brackets refer to the corresponding numbers in the References on po 29° . INTRODUCTION In an earlier paper Cl]*. The subject of ionospheric propagation.PART X THEXACT EARTH-FLTTENING PRO0DURE IN IONOSPHAIC PROPAGATION PROBLEMS 1. In other words.--eatmento Consequently..y is considezedo This is n'to account lateral variations of the reFor this purpose a spheroidal atLifcation). and is accomplished in See. t. an exact earth-flattening procedure was given for propagation in an inhomogeneous atmosphere over a spherical earth.-oximationo or deviation increases with height. encompassea many ramifications which probably t. ca. the physical problem is The amount of this change changed somewhat by the earth-flattening app.

however. This assumption is the one usually made in study- ing v-i-f ionospheric propagation. for example. will be given in procedure. 2 . it is a form adapted to direct introduction of the earth-flattening possible to formulate separatecorresponding the ly the cases of vertical electric and vertical magnetic dipole sources. Scheikunoff [4]). It is then logical to consider only a vertical dipole source. In each case. For this purpose the ionosphere will be considered to be sharply bounded and of uiform electrical properties. since this is the only effective form of radiator at these frequencies. Actually this Hertz vector (within an appropriate mltiplying factor) is nothing more th&w the radial component of the electric (magnetic) field in the case of the radial electric (magnetic) dipole source. For plane geometry.purposes of the present study we shall adopt an often-used idealization of the ionosphere in order to confine attention to the specific objectives stated above. a rigorous formulation of the spherical This formulation problem (with a shorp ionosphere boundary) will be sketched here. electric and magnetic modes are coupled in the ionosphere. so that the results will be of chief interest in this frequency range. various field components are derivable from a Hertz vector whose direction is radial. For completeness. since all other components are In the derivable from the radial components (see. respectively. SPH IGALLY-STRATIFIED IONOSPHME A rigorous formulation of the field due to a vertical electric or magnetic dipole in an inhomogeneous isotropic atmosphere over a spherical earth was given by Friedman [2]. In the isotropic case treated by Friedman. 2. anisotropic case. this was extended by Wait [3] to include the essential mixed polarization effects due to the anisotropy of a sharply bounded ionosphere. to vertically and horizontally polarized fields.

The ionosphere will introduce magneto-ionic splitting. the boundaries of the earth and ionosphere.1 Formulation of the Problem The geometry of the problem is (infinitesimal) length Z and current I is shown in Fig. excited by dipole source. will give rise to reflected components at. Consideration of the physics of the problem will assist a proper formulation.so that the problem must be formulated in terms of mixed components from the outset. I . in turn. the primary field due to the source will give rise to a field which has a polarization determined by the direction of the source current. A vertical dipole of located at R = b. so that new 3 . 2. - - Earth Fig. Thus. This primary field. with concentric sharplybounded spherical ionosphere. earth and ionosphere being at R = a and R = h.Geometr7 of spherical earth. 1. respectively. the boundaries of Ionosphere Air Vertical Dipole-.

in general. Then the corresponding fields are derivable fro the equations E. 3 (2. Consider first the electric component primary and a secondary field Ie =nj 11e and write it as the sum of a + n. while 11 arises from reflection 3 at the boundaries. respectively.2) Now put I1I is stimulated by the vertical source current.-k R(PI +P) + ' grad [~R(P +P~ (2-4) providing that P. will differ in amplitude and phase. and the subscripts e and m refer to electric and magnetic modes.polarization components will arise there. (2. The two components.6) and P is a solution of the homogeneous equation VaP + kP 3 = 0. is a solution of the inhomogeneous reduced wave equation V7-2P + kp ' k W (2.7) 4 . From these facts it is clear that a combination of electric and magnetic Hertz vectors must be used for derivation of the fields. so that we must represent the radial Hertz vector by a column matrix of the form where JR is the unit radial vector..

which as yet are arbitrary.rtiie of (2.ch x are the separation c. e the right-hand side of (2. and write thb. the solutions of (2. U.to Its an integer of (2.rsn. is zero everywhere outside the point (b. (R)V() (2. (2. (2. including.0.+ k P.11) + e Ati R ) 2 u 0 (2.tely will be fixed by the bounda-j ._ 0. separates into the equations 2 d2'T + cot (2 9) then JW +(.8). -rvE .-s of s end m.8) Sin. complex values 4 take m. Hence we can separate P.= 0. in the form RF = (2.onditio-se (2. phtcn I. solutions of the corresponding homogeneous equation V 2 P. T .9) T(e) U. and p.6) can.9) are characterized by different %alu.13) in the form . in v.6). .! . stw-ts.0). Sj $) (R-b). respectively. possibly.13) s and ah.ror t. The current density Ji -maybe related' to the dipole moment I by integrating over the source region: ll so that dv Jjj7JRksiflf i 8 ded~fdR.2-periodiclty in cf... be assembled from.6). and V are functions only of 8: R.12) SRz ~ d42X + Yr2'I in 2.10) where T.First consider (2. T=O. and The various solutions of ultim.

11) for m = 0 may be written as T= Za.16) where T is a solution of (2.17) where n-1 in which Z (sS) is a cylinder function.14).2 The Annalar Function T in [1] it was shown that a solution of (2. so that R . (2.15) where the amplitude function A(s) and the path C iu the complex s-plane are as yet unspecified.19) 6 . and a. 2.11) for m = 0 is TT. ~A )TOV.11). In general. It can be shown that A(s) = s and f= a goC f .9) with 2ic-periodicity in 9 may be obtained from the representation RP. (2.% nuo (2.s). C will extend over an infinite range. and Vm is given by (2. provided that T(O) = 1. (2.18) is lei = 2.6) around an infinitesimal region enclosing the dipole source. f sTU. V. Introducing the new independent variable x = se (2. U1 is a solution of (2. o= 'sO so that this covers a sector greater than ± m/2. (R)V.Consequently all solutions of (2. seP"3Tn(. we must choose the cylinder function to be the BAssel function J. ds. 1 4q)As. = 1.17) have the property T(O) = 1 as required.. We now extend this type of solution to the case m j O.(sO). Consequently the required solution of (2. A(s) and C y be determined by integrating (2.18) It may be shown that a lower bound for the absolute convergence of (2. Xn order that (2.12).

Cx).21) of the form % =. IA: By equating coefficients of like powers of a. (2.) = o. x)] = Zn CM.11) becomes We write (2.[i(m=+l)Z-x~z=.22) the E being the Bernouilli numbers.] By introducing the function Cm. The second equation then becomes L(y 2 ) =a(xZ+m 2 Zi) = a.1".23) we obtain I.-) %1(f~ (2.and denoting the dependent variable by y. where Zm is any cylinder function. Assuming a solution of (2.. (Z.. -j 's.25) which has the property L [C. (2. A solution of the first equation is 7o = ZS(x).n (X) = X"Z.. L (Is=) = ai.Nx tj'+ m2 t.20) in the form L-(-) + -XL ( - ( V- - o a where o-L = '* BF/(Zp.27) 7 .o). we obtain the system of equations L(.21) (2.. (2. n (X)i (2o26) (2..

.+ P. x .=.r (2.kaO A10 (Se (2.o-C .31) and (2-32) to eliminate powers of x on the right-hand side.I4IM~ padJ (2. Cnn.n a:'e eavily obtained from the recursion formulas for the cylinder functions: X =. ]o Now using the property (2. (58)..35) S . T= #.ao v (2029) Hence the solution of (2.. By equating coefficients of like orders of the function Cmn on the two sides of tWis equation. j 2.. Cm/. the solution of this equation is seen to be . iszO "2..(2.) X21.30) The following recursion formulas for Cm.32) If we substitute (2.n. D (Zp +l)m m+Zp.)Cm. and use (2.21) should be expressible in the form Lj = ZA. (2-31) (2. we obtain the recursion formula De CPL~l.28) By induction.11) is T ZA. the required solution of (2.34) Consequently.23). (59)". we obtain ( +m 0 ItI ( D p where Ao = I. we infer that =..() = ZAn (S6Znm+n .30) into (2. where C-) (m-p)!M+n+) p != (2033) = C.25) becomes L(y2) = xj=(m1l)C=.AP C.27).= (mt.

(50? . 2. (2-36) where Ao = 1 and An is given by the (2.9) is R[P.) d5. 56d-.34). U. and note from (2.The advantage of using an expansion for T in terms of Bessel functions. For this purpose both the electric and magnetic components of L] will be required. 9 .37) (A2 3 in view of the fact that the integrand is an even function of so becomes ® RP. Z M~O ' n 00(-O . s d This form.) U. is to be fixed by the boundary conditions.= P. IA.. is that a more accurate calculation is possible than by the use of the asymptotic expansion for the latter functions.. The integral along the positive real s-axis in (2. integral corresponding to Hz ( 6e-) make the substitution s'= se " In the r . +. The function U. s sds Then (2. (60) 3 co (.11) and (2. is adaptable to evaluation by residues o: by stationary phase.36) (2.3 The Radial lumctit U With T as given by (2.35) the solution of (2. depending on whether a normal mode representation.36) may be transformed into an integral along the entire real axis in the following way: Write JTn 4"s (69J] = J" (W-mn . Ha) (s8) cos (ni +-Y. or a representation in terms of rays is desired. see _. These require that the tangential electric and magnetic fields be continuous at R = a and R = h. instead of the standard expression in terns of the associated Legendre functions..12) that T and U are even functions of s. whereupon the integral for that term becomes 1 1 ".Y. =A.

2. We then pick the two independent solutions of (2. in (2.O.Hence we now consider the magnetic component n. respectively.. 40 cos(mtY.12) to correspond to upgoing and downgoing waves. Then P3 satisfies the homogeneous equation (2. f.. (Sef Rw(e4) The constants c and I are to be determined by the boundary conditions at R = a Corresponding to the pysical picture of reflection at the boundaries. and denote these by U.9) and (2.(se". f 88'A.. (s.) maO . n = 1.41) Solutions of (2. (2. 'r"PP+ grad a (Rz)]. .1).38) VaP + kzPszO.44) n = TnUnVn.42) (2.36) as follows: RP. lead directly to the statements TI = T2 = T .39) may be written in a form similar to (2. coS(mT47'mn)U 5ds. vI = V = VS.(2) and U1 (') for U2 and U3 . being independent of 8 and q). The boundary conditions.. and write 2 ~=kPAp 3 . RP 3 and R = h. A similar choice is made The total field in the various regions then can be derived from a radial P function which has the matrix form R[P] in which R R P (2. 2 10 .4+3) ftI± TA. we expect a mixture of upgoing and downgoing waves in the region a<R<h. (2. The corresponding fields than are derivable from the equations Em .)Usds.Hn = (2.3.40) (2.39) ourt ( P5 ).

46) el and tpare the reflection coefficients for vertical and horizontal Then polarization. At the ionosphere the reflection coefficient is a tensor [e co that f. C2 (2.. respectively. 1%)(h).49b) U2 * UO 'ba o*R<h. + P.. e . Stu)+ C b4I'h. where u (I) represents a downgoing wave and U( 2) an upgoing wave. oXR( b..LZ= K9 Zirkt K while U1 itself is continuous at R = b. R I Rub-& . If we denote the two independent solutions of this equation by u(1) and U (2) . The radial functions U2 . Us satisfy the same type of differential equation as U1. i. (2 .ell [ (h) i'X ". J U21'Ch = [ h +%). (2.Now we put U1 = UL( 1 ) + UJ(2).)] + eLsiU (h). (2...12). (2. 2 us = u2() + u ( ). . then we may write in the various height regions = U. L.. at R = b we have the discontinuity condition for the first derivative of U1 in terms of the dipole moment L2] dU. (2. respectively. U21hjj Finally.49c) .47) ) US'.49a) (2. (2045) u = U3") + US(S)$ s and introduce the reflection coefficient at the ground f where 1.e..=elz (&).48) U3(h). U1.

.S.t) - . (2..51b) .51d) . ~b + Sg u'~ '(b) + K.. (2-51g) where "(h)(5 I t/Cu)(b) (2. t 0"a *€=). (2.. 4/1= .52d) M = p . 14.el *.. Uol 0<R<h..) 4 ea .50f) (20.Ozu -{ (h) (2. OxiWb)=4i'(b) + (2.- UW'M=)(b)I J1K u)b). . 46.' MMA. (2. a K/r 0i.51a) I =.'d 14 - M . . (2.I -. They are given by V.) e. 12 .50g) The seven equations (2o50a-g) are sufficient to determine the seven constants '91.50a) eU UIOW/uCt)().49d) The boundary conditions then yield 62/A ae.US = f. (2..e. LIL' + g. £[p( (2-500) 6at.50d) .54 6.

40).k .5).49). (2. Since the coefficients in the integrand (?h - ) involve the y-functions defined above.56) With those functions inserted in (2.c) (kR) "( H. where P = kk. from which the fields may be evaluated by (2. (2. 2.e. = ' s) '€(kR).37). We now evaluate the form of the radial functions u(I) and u42 ) 0 These are solutions of U. the integrand has poles at zeros of ths denominator in these ratios. which are ratios that are functions of a. on the other hand.43) give the values for RP in the space aR<_h. type of solution in order to bring out the fact that the approximations usually made actually change the physical problem from that of a homogeneous atmosphere to that of a slightly inhomogeneous atmosphere. the result is obtained as We shall investigate the latter a sum of normal modes.4 Evaluation of the InteR niMpresentation Two different methods are available for evaluating the integral expressions for RP. (2°55) (2+ 4 )IM (2. the result may be expressed as a sum of rays reflected alternately a number of times from the ionosphere and the ground.4). and (2. if we deform the integrand from the original contour along the real s-axis into the appropriate 13 . By the method of stationary phase.54 u respectivey.42).). the expressions (2. or waveguide-type waves.4]. Consequently. (2. (2. (2.+ (k = - SANti O (2°3 The solutions of this equaticm corresponding to downward and upward waves are the normalized spherical Hankel functions [5J 1.primes denoting R-derivatives evaluated at the argument. By the method of residues.

can be expressed in terms of the two limiting cases spheric case. Poles The principal poles of inThe investigation of these The poles is a separate problem in its own right which we shall not go into here. tively. 2. the other hand. is equivalent to neglecting this integral. points at s = This can be seen from (2. terest in determining the normal modes are those of M. on integral and has shown that it is negligible in practical cases. This has branch ±i The integrand vanishes at infinite values of s in the lower half-plane. p.44) has an integral representation vdich can be assembled frmi (2°37). the integral may be evaluated in terms of the singularities of the integrand in that half-planeo In addition to the poles just mentioned. is zero. Consequently the integration path is deformed into the contour shown in Fig. of the integrand are those of the functions e. but his procedure. (2. in effect. similar to the way in which Bremer [6) treated the tropoand u (N. In the case of a perfectly-conducting ground the integral vanishes altogether. andem= a . Friedman [2] has discussed the importance of the branch-cut Wait [3j. 14 . since e. attempts to avoid the branch-cut integral by making a double traverse in the lower half-plane. plus an integral around a branch cut along the negative imaginary axis from -i/2. This integral represents the effect of the currents which penetrate into the ground.II half of the complex plane. and thus is easentially a part of the ground-wave field. The integral then is the negative sum of the residues at the poles in the lower half-plane. The matrix A[P] in (2.43) by using the U-functions given in (2. there is also a branch point where the order of the spherical Hankel functions..%h and M. poles of pi j.42) and (2. respec- These can be determined from the zeros of t(h) Thus we consider the method used for the determination of these zeros. ultimately can be expressed in terms of y-functions and the properties of the reflecting medium.49).56).

Plcne Fig: 2 -Ink eg.s.-ation Ccnto-u: in s-plane .

. Since F"(w.2.-zcos we have .W. (2. procedure is to write The Nm)(. By truncating the Taylor's series expansion of F(w) at the third derivative term. 0 and draw the contour W so as to pass through the two points (stationary points) 2 at which FI(w) = 0.O.) . wo =/29 and F(wo ) = 0. F'(wo ) = -i(z-p) F" (wo ) = iz° Consequently. we obtain F(w) 0 F(we) + (w-w.) + (Tw") F. and are usually expressed in terms of Airy functions.±r (2..57) 0.).du expand the exponent F(w) in a Tay1or's series about the point where F'(w) e W& a pw1/)dwW. F'(w. or Hankel functions of order one-third.. upon putting w-w = u. shifted to the right by x/2o of variables t A simple change (zp) - (258) 16 ..5?) becomes o where the contour U2 is merely W.5 The Complex Zeros of u (2) (z) The zeros of u (2 ) and U( 2 ) # are the same as those of Hp( 2 ) and Hp() These are found by the Debye method of steepest descent.

we obtain 12z) Hz "- e-/1 I..59) may be expressed in terms of the Airy Functions. or Mdified Henkel Functions of order one-third [7]. 3.24)7q-7rVA. Using the notation for the latter.61) is equivalent to a change in the physical problem.ed in [7]) give. It was pointed out in [1] that the approximation (2. The integral in (2. in first approximation. 3 Then from (2.results in In/" '' 6 4ee ] d"ta: (2.plane LI Fig. the zeros of RpC2 )(z) and of hp(2 )(z).60) t.- l a() Consequently the zeros of hg(i) (tabulat.12). This is immediately evident from the fact that equation (2 62) bp(2 )(z) it a solution of (2.jr h2 (2.59) where the contour L2 in the t-plune is shown in Fig. while h2 (r) is a soluticn of Stoke ' O.55) - Contour for Mdified Hankel Functions (2061) Z (. e. 17 .

Stokes2 equation d z.(R) V(V). and q are constants. k must be s function of Y which . the radial equation becomes 2 a4U.9) by writing P1 in the form P. In order to arrive at this solution. = T (e)U.63) that q - (2. It is evident from (2. however. we obtain.I The physical problem corresponding to (2. finally. + a solution of which -'s . whereby the radial equation becomes d2J iu + k2.5 Now by introducing the transformation q=a log(RIC.64) 2/a in order to where k. if we put 52 crLik.).61) may be found as follows: We first siparate (2.& Ua 1 r/ ' + (ke ')- (263) dq2 where To reduce this to Stokes" equation. satisfy the equation for small In this case. putting Uo = uo e we obtain d2U'--"O . we must have k~ze = ' / 11 = k&(1 +j). + _L~ 22/ sU Next.

except that Ao = 1.65) If we put Rt' then we have a+ H = (i + . corresponding to Stokes' equation. one may follow a procedure due to Olver [8] and Chester. whereby a change of variable is introduced so that F(w) in (2. decreases monotonically with increasing height H above the ground level a.67) Z POZO and integrating (2.= --(-W) in _-Z (Z-$IIIW-_ F(w) = .59): t le.65). dw 0 +tz 7j. is.(2.II satisfies (2. an asymptotic expansion is obtained in terms of h 2 () and h. t+ '" Then (2. whereas the original problem dealt with a constant refractive index. which occurs at 19 .' f()tA. In terms of the variable R.57) becomes precisely the exponent in the integral of (2. and Ursell [9].. and Em involve.67) has a radius of convergence which is limited by the next zero of F (w). 2 To obtain a higher order approximation for the zeros of E (s (z).+h'(4 IB (2.+_0.68) n which the coefficients A.66) termwise. inverse fractional powers of .(V) 3 Hp (z)'. this requires that k have the form 0_0_______(I+ ______(R __toq* (2. in general. Friedman. The above procedure is asymptotic because the series expansion (2.64).57) becomes By expanding R in a double series of the form Tr 9 qmtta~c'". Thus the refractive index (2.

(Z) where Z . Next we write e 1~w = e.) being polynomials in x of degree m/2 or less.) and B(.-s ' (p/z).)} (2. and f£ (iz/gr A24 F(")w n! t. bin V".68). The integral (2. An alternative evaluation of (2-57) which is not of asymptotic character may be developed. for given z.69) I+ f MRS ~ m z) Am(.I + .) I z =C i* V&'/6Z' T/.d.*+t/3e . differ 20 .(2. Then hp (Z) " p (. while the interval of integration extends to infinity.57) then becomes I V &.I w -. where i and t are given by (2 0 58). however. e eI and expand e in the absolutely convergent series M Mao M1 wn 90 =r"t-Lm PWt .fI{() + a-.69) that the zeros of HW (z).6 f d.70) It is evident from (2. We write This does not appear to have been reported previously F(w) = t * t s+at.a Termwise integration then yields an expression of identically the same form as (2. h 2 (g) + 3(g) h )-.

From (2. ) end a.which we denote by =4Z * So "1" -0 so that V. Then by (2.69) (2. Then from (2.71): (i"+ + + . corresponds to a value of r. is small compared to go.. -r "} Consequently we obtain 11 +q The value of 1. then may be This is a series in EV whose coefficients are known..slightly from the zeros of b2 (g).72) T.)h...3 h ().69) we then find (2. h in Taylor's series about to. which as yet is unknown.(r.o We now expand o.+r. obtained by successive approximations.) t . by. where g is related to z and p by (2-58)o In order to find the values of p for which Hp" (z) is zero.ha'==(.72) and (2.&0. .73).71) H(a (z) - '6 so h" i 0. so that h2 (go) = 0.) {. . (C') We denote this zero 2) The value of p corresponding to go is near a zero of H( (z). 21 . and put p = - qo (2. ioeo. we can proceed as follows: Denote the zeros of 'N() bylgo.73) H 'z)= =. and make use of (2.. H(2 (z)= 0.58). (2.

we obtain I The required zeros of e Irt. these are 22 . we consider the case of a spheroidal geometry. the earth-ionosphere region was assumed to be spherically symetrical (so-called "horizontally-stratified" medium). there are situations of practical interest where the reflecting layers are tilted with respect to the horizontal. where the earth and ionosphere are coordinate surfaces of a family of spheroids. This situation is not strictly true. For example. (z) then are p= o-q* (2. The detailed results obtainable by this procedure will be reserved for a later investigation. 3.70). in general. 3. either oblate or prolate in form. For the oblate spheroid.l Formulation of the Proble The reduced wave equation VZP "t P may be separated in spheroidal coordinates into radial and angular differential equations as in the spherical case. 4. so that the above type of analysis is an idealization which should be considered as only a first approximation to the true state of affairs. NON-SPHERICALLY STRATIFIED IONOSPHERE In the treatment in Sec. We give below the extension of the exact earthilattening procedure to this non-spherical goometry. In order to introduce a form of non-spherical stratification which may be applicable to such situations. 2.74) These likewise are the zeros of the modified spherical Hankel function N2 (%) given by (2.

+coshF. as in Sec.coss9C0p.2.(ki+ 2 -f + U =0.(k' fsire r)1V= 0. -sz + '-\T -o(31) (+ coordinates where f is the semi-focal distance.ie e. Introducing the new indepen- dent variable x = s&. and a typical space point has the rectangular x . the second equation of (3.cp j5 .+ Moii 6) + so-2 = 3.2 32 for which a typical space point has the rectangular coordinates K -f ih F.~r vs)] LL sa C. since a comparison of the corresponding equations of (3.se = f e_ We shall treat the oblate case in detail. 3.l) and (3.5CzA) I C'CIXXI+Of r 5 23 . 2.2 The Angular Function T We consider first the angular function T.& -l'ftr Is. C05 V = f Cosh go (P lh The corresponding equations of the prolate spheroid are d2(U ATtcote IM + F(T k2f5a - 2~. I'm 9 W4 I Y af 51VI Z h4 51. 2 dT ot& dOT .2) shows that a change from (3o1) to (3.2) can be effected by simple transformations.1) becomes dTT -t Is aa ay Te 2 This may be written as L(~T4jT' L(7 .LT+ "' a ri r lct(.

obtainable from the re:didues of the integral in the spherical case. Our aim will Then Ia to obtain a solution of this equation similar h.35) is direct.3).4 ven by the recursion foiriula I. we shal IL seek solutions of the radial equation similar 124 . Z a. wave. which Satisfies the first equation of (3. term bThis term has th 4 s avre p owe r o f x a s t he ( w+ we can immediately write the .4) as T. 2. fields will be obtaiiable in terms of an (2. Con s equ en t l y £l.im e d i a t e ly pr e c ed i ng it i in (3 . (3. ultimately may be based first on the zeros of the function U wbl ch represents an upgoing:.b . . We !4hall be interested in to that found in Sec.6) on te (34) is similar in form i o (2. (310 303 The Radial Function U We now consider the risdial function U. b)I' p gl-.3.iution of (3.21).. integral representation of the fo -mgiven in the normal mode solution.4 ) .. Consequently. where the coefficients .8) OL"II +- T. A * )'L+4 (30 9) The:..1). and its derivative. which i{ representation.eJfore the form of solution gLve which thus has the solution in (2. 9'&/ !(305) (3.36). These residues. (L a .y applicable to (3. F#4bP1KA . and differs fr~xn it only in the presence right-hand side of the iditiona. are n4d An'P. l).

(3o15) primes denoting derivatives with respect to s. we put z = kR9 (3. The radial equation in question is a+ ta. 4 &L '3.+ .R as f-*Oo Hence we are . 4+z Mr.to those given in (2. R. (3.ZZ(3.~h4ALe+3 j We seek to cast this into a form which resembles the spherical equation.12) Then (3.a L -Z! -+ I Ou/ - ) 0.13) becomes U.17) in the form S-+ 1/ ZN.55) for the spherical ease.16) then is replaced by (3. we put .ed to introduce the change of independent variable f cosh C and the now dependent variable u= RU.16) VOY+ -s9 * -L ) L(0-)-") + SL e + 3 Cae-e)e 0.+ (e ) x.14) a = kf.54) and (2. and then will investigate their complex zeros as a function of order.t 25 .11) becomes dI9L + + [kR -1 + 3-3 Next. (3o17) We now rearrange (3. (U11 We first note that the transition to the spherical ease is effected by allowing fcoshC -*. whereupon (3. To eliminate the first-derivative term.

and By in (3. These are two simultaneous equations which comprise recurrence relations for the If we choose Ao = 1. solutions of the equation would be the normalized spherical Hankel functions given by (2.. +0 a .55). and equating coefficients of (Z) on both sides of the equation. but we shall find it more convenient to deduce directly a special form which is suitable for the normal mode problem. we obtain the two equations 1 . for example.4- it 10( ]A. Solutions of the radial equation as a series of solutions of the spherical Bessel differential equation are available in the literature (see. Z. a = 0)... and *- (3.20).=_Y (3.22) 4V52. + coefficients A.e.18) -'[+(3o19) If the right-band side of (3. [ I __ 1 + -VA.[%r*B where Bo = 00 equation for /j to terms containing only /k and like powers of 1. [10]). Hence we seek a similar solution to (3. cients are Zv(2V+1 (?.is a solution of the normalized spherical Bessel equation L(*) = 0 and Substituting (3. The form of (3.6 isZa soBtyno ..0V.54) and (2.18) were zero (i. reducing by means of the differential .18) suggests a series solution in a/zo formed in the form Such a solution may be f.I or L 0-) where L~ t- (3.20) and 40 wheres. then the first few coeffi- A 40 39 M4 4aL 26 ..18).= _ a).18).20) into (3.21) (3.

( ZV&e4 5'/ fcqhsC) + 16(aohs 1(6)].respectively. (24)-% it'/& (3. we obtain (1) Upi (m) a (24) i.Thus combining (3.wclk4.(.28) into (3. Introducing (3.70).27) and (3. 27 .23) 6(a) =(3.).27) h~(z - 24)~ZI.7) (3. as follows: hp From this. we am replace h( (z) by a suitable sum of h.().20) and (3.ca) + s where w al~) VV a) o)jcx.) by o (() and 6.5. (3.).~F~~ - f7~' PI~'~J a~s + o(6) +(3-28) where use has been made of (2.70) were found may be applied directly to (3.) * A )Wx )03 (3. ()hpN + 26(m) h m.15) of the foz u(z) . the only change required being the replacement of c((*) and P~(r. we have found a solution of (3.62) to eliminate h2 (.* Al er50 B" £1 (9)h('. 2.25) In Order to conform to the type of integral representation given for the spherical case in See.) and z [.16). we choose the function tto be the normalized spherical Hsakel function 4" or he Then in finding the normal mode solution for the spheroidal problem we are led to a determination of the zeros of the function cz Sec.26) We can reduce this problem to cue of' exactly the same kind as solved in From (2.(3.30) Consequently the procedure by which the zeros of (2.29).26).29) where a~'~ (3. 2.29) now is of the same form as (2.

The developments for the spheroidal case are pursued in a way similar to that for the spherical geometry. may be extended to the case of a spherical earth and atmosphere enveloped by a sharply bounded ionosphere. It is shown that the zeros of the radial function as a function of order. In order to deal with problems of non-spherical stratification. from which may be derived either a ray-optical series or a normal mode series. the normal modes involve the normal- ized spherical Hankel function and its derivative. and carried out in detail for the oblate spheroid. which are required in the normal mode solution. developed in Li] for an isotropic spherically-stratified atmosphere.4. the coefficients of these functions being infinite series in terms of powers of the ratio of semi-focal distance to radius. SUMMIARY In this report we have shown how the exact earth-flattening procedure. In the latter case. may be found by the same procedure that was developed for the spherical case. a spheroidal geometry is investigated. . An improved method of obtain- ing the oeros of these functions is derived which is not of asymptotic character. The general solution of the problem is formulated as an integral representation. The radial function is expressed as a sum of the solution of the normalized spherical Bessel equation and its derivative. Solutions for the angular function are found in the form of an infinite series of Bessel functions of the same type as tound for the spherical case.

328-367. Stanford. Radio Propagation. Vol.REFERENCES Li] B. 29 . NBS . R. on Pure and App. pp.D. 197-199. 1960. [6] H. Harvard Univ. Calif. Jan. 2. "Spheroidal Wave Functions". "The Asymptotic Expansion of Bessel Functions of Large Order". 1. New York. No.-C. Elsevier Publishing Coo. J. Wait. 1949. "Microwave Transmission". Roy. Comm. [8] F. [2] B. 2/3.. 1945.. 61-64. Phil.Do Radio Propagation... Ursell. Katzin. pp. Schelkunoff. Bremer. Press. pp. 53. "Tables of the Modified Hankel Functions of Order One-Third and of Their Derivatives". 1957. Vol0 IV. [5] So A. Inc. [3] J. Trans. Friedman. Phil.-Feb. 1952. 64D. Slater. "Propagation in a Non-homogeneous Atmosphere". Math. Vol. Flamer. Vol. No. C. Res. No. Olver. Stanford Univ. 317-350. "Terrestrial Propagation of Very-Low-Frequency Radio Waves A Theoretical Investigation". Chester. Soco. "An Exact Earth-Flattening Procedure in Propagation Around a Sphere". pp. pp. p. 1. 599-611. Dec 1954. Jour. 1942. 247. NBS . 64D. Soc. Friedman and F. Mass. Series A. 8. 153-204. "Terrestrial Radio Waves". New York. New York. Cambridge.. "Advanced Antenna Theory". t7] The Staff of the Computation Laboratory. "An Extension of the Method of Steepest Descents". Koo and M.. Jour. Vol.. Inc. W. PrOo. Press. Inc. pp. John Wiley & Sons. March-April 1960o [4] J. B. Camb. 0 [9] C. [10] C. Res.. 1957. McGraw-Hill Book Co°. 1951.

investigated in which drastically affects high-frequency communireported by Mogel [l]* and later Dellinger sunnarized the various phenomena This phenomenon was first detail by Dellinger [2). that frequencies from 27 to 40 kc/a showed the sudden increase. associated with the SID and concluded that the disturbance must be caused by solar ultraviolet radiation. 52.I PART II VLF ENHANCBeGNTS AND HF FADEOUTS DURING SUDDEN IONOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES One of the spectacular phenomena of the ionosphere is the sudden ionospheric disturbance (SID). Later. Budden and Ratcliffe [4] reported that measurements at Cambridge component of the downcoming They concluded of the phase of the abnormal (horizontally-polarized) waves from GER on 16 kc/s showed an anomaly at times of h-f fade-out. this effect being most evident as a decrease in reflection height They did not observe "any clear indication of a change in reflected Bureau [5] then pointed wave amplitude at the time of the phase anomalies" (SPA). that an SID "has a marked effect at the level of reflection of the low-frequency waves (70 kin). of the waves". 30 . quencies. but on 12 kc/s the effect was rarely observed. They reported is One of the associated phenomena occurs on very low fre- this phenomenon that forms the subject matter of the present that atmospherics from all directions were reinforced simultaneously. Bureau and Mairs [3] reported that abrupt short-wave fade-outs (denoted by SWF hereafter) usually were accompanied by simultaneous sudden increases in the strength of atmospherics received on very low frequencies (vlf). and it study. In 1936. *Numbers in brackets refer to the corresponding references in the Bibliography on p. cation circuits.

and. which had accompany- been shown to produce SEA. 1940.e results. since this signal traversed appro:imately the same path. 1 31. whether any quantitative correlation existed between the v-i-f and h-f The experimental phase of the investigation was completed in but has effects of the SID. not been published. also produced similar enhancement of v-i-f radio signals. For comparison of the v-i-f SSE withi SWF) the signal eeceived from GLH (13. Inc. to record GLC (31o15 kc/s). After several months' observations of the signal from SAQ (17o2 kc/s). RESULTS Sample records of a simultaneous SWF and SSE are reproduced in Figs. with negati. and a preliminary report of the results wae presented in 1947 (6]. ing over the period 31 October 1938 to 25 June :940. . and respect to ionospheric layer to discuss the implications of these results witk structure and the modifications produced therein by the SID mechanism. if so. and continuous The recording of this signal was being carried out at Riverhead fon other purpoes . extend- signal enhancements (SSE) of GLO. 3. great circle path length was about 5400 km Botb the GIA and the GLE equipments were calibrated at least once each day br means of standard signal generators. The purpose of this report is to present the essential results obtained. 2o DESCRIPTION OF MEASUREMENTS The measurements reported here were zaCe at the Riverhead transcontinental receiving station of RCA Conunications. observations were continued.53 Mc/s) was selected. the equipment was set up Some of the subsequent S1F were accompanied by sudden Consequently.I out that his observations on the sudden enhancament of atmospherics (SEA) ing SID showed that such increases were not obsWerved below about 17 kc/so An investigation was undertaken in 1938 to determine whether SID.

In general. DISCUSION In the years since the observations described above were completed.and 2. 3 shows histograms of the number of coincidences between SWF of GLH and SSE of GLC during the period of the observations. so that the proba- bility of a v-i-f enhancement is very high if the h-f effect is pronoucedo Fig. Fig 4 shows similar histograms of the number of GLH fades of intensity classi0 fied as fimoderate" or greater and GLC enhancements which occurred during the same period of observation.3 db) on GLC. for example. the recovery was more rapid for the h-f signal. 5 shows that in no case was the GLC increase as great as that of the GLH decrease. respectively. 4. and then a gradual recovery. The points are plotted with the increase in GLC signal (in decibels) as abscissa and the corresponding decrease (in decibels) of the GLH signal as ordinate. (57. These records are rather typical of the data obtained. The largest GLC increase (14. the deepest fade of GT. change. and that no evident correlation between the magnitudes of the two effects exists. solar 32 . was Conversely. the characteristic behavior was a rather sharp initial Invariably. although the magnitudes of the signal change varied rather widely from one event to the next.1 db).5 db) was accompanied by only a small increase (2. and of GLH SIF over a longer period 0 Coincidences were observed only during the daylight hours when the h-f fades were more numerous. followed by a trough (or crest).H associated with only a moderate fade on GLH. Examination of Fig. This shows a high degree of correlation. Points with an upward arrow attached correspond to complete fade-out of the GLH signal. a considerable body of information has accumulated concerning SID effects. 5 represents a test to determine whether any correlation exists between the amplitude ranges of the v-i-f and h-f signals during an SID. Fig.

it is necessary to examine the absorption and reflection processes. since it varied in a regular manner with solar zenith angle. A plausible qualitative explanatio at an early date: for the h-f and v-i-f effects was advanced The h-f waves are reflected by the E. In order to bring this out. however.I phenomena. and ionospheric structure. It is of interest. on the other however. and that it must take place in a layer below the reflecting 33 .and/or F-layers. have not been published previously. In particular. undergo a waveguide type of propagation between the conducting earth and the conducting D-region. but will give rise to increased absorption of h-f waves passing through the D-regiono It will be shown below that the above qualitative explanation must be modified and made more precise in order to fit the observations. examine the results obtained in the light of present-day knowledge. and on the layer structure and responsive mechanisms in the upper atmosphere. it will appear that a sharpening of the lower boundary of the D-region must result from the flare. absorption. the attenuation depending on the conductivity of the guide "walls". 4. which take place as a result of a solar flare. Since an enhancement of D-region ionization should increase the "wall" conductivity. this will reduce the attenuation of v-i-f waves. it appears that these results have important implications on the type of solar event which causes the SID. takes place mainly in the intermediate D-region hand. Observations of the type presented above. V-i-f waves.1 H-f Effects Appleton and Piggott (7i have made a comprehez sive study of h-f absorption at vertical incidence during a period extending over a sunspot cycle 0 They found that absorption was definitely under solar control. as well as the changes in ionospheric layer characteristics. They showed that the bulk of the absorption is of the non-deviative type. therefore. to In particular.

Furthermore.sign for the extraordinary wave. the absorption is the same for reflection from either layer (apart from the period when the frequency is in the neighborhood of fE when additional deviative absorption takes place). which they identify with the D-regiono The evidence which led Appleton and Piggott to the above conclusions was obtained from three types of behavior: (1) The diurnal variations of absorption for two different frequencies. depending on whether 34 . in a region where the refractive index is substantially unity). they showed that the absorbing region cannot be merely the lower portion of the E-region. but must be an independent ionized region. and the + sign is for the ordinary wave. For non-deviative absorption (ioe. in a region of ionization density N and collision frequency v. so that it is the ordinary wave which then is measured. the .. (2) For a frequency whose reflection level shifts during the day from the F-layer to the E-layer. under conditions where the quasilongitudinal approximation holds. Appleton [8] gave for the absorption coefficient r. where wL is the magnitude of the longitudinal component of the angular gyro frequency.I level of the E-region. It can be seen that the dependence of r on the collision frequency v tends to a proportionality to either v or l/v. (3) The variation of absorption with frequency can be explained only on the assumption that the same medium is responsible for absorption over the entire frequency range. The absorption of the ordinary wave is appreciably less than that of the extraordinary wave when w/wL is not too large. have substantially the same dependence on the solar zenith angle. or to a sporadic 3-layer. one of which is reflected by the E-layer and the other by the F-layer.

Taylor F10] found values from 0o7 to 1. Information regarding the electron production and removal processes in the absorbing region can be derived from a atudy of the dependence of absorption on the solar zenith angle X. In the former case. Appleton and Piggott thus placed an upper limit for v of 2o107 /sec in the absorbing D-region. X. n = 1. This is shown by Fig.1. Appleton and Piggott [7] found a winter anomaly. Appleton and Piggott showed that the frequency dependence of in the total absorption (as measured by an effective reflection coefficient) is very good agreement with (2).30.4 to 1. attachment). n = 1. 6.. which depends on the rate and process by which free electrons disappear (e. 35 . Thus ft follows that V2<<(w + wL)2 throughout the absorbing region. (3) For a Chapman layer (constant scale height the recombination coefficient is where n depends on the ionosphere model. In particular. the integrated absorption at vertical incidence for a wave which penetrates the absorbing region and is reflected (with negligible deviative absorption) at a higher level then is given by an expression of the form t o 4ds a A (w + wo F) (2) where A is a constant and F(X) is a function of the solar zenith angle.5.0 Nicolet [9] showed that a region of mounting temperature with height would have a lower value of n than one of constant temperatureo The experimental values cf n determined by Appletcn and Piggott range from about 0. Furthermore.g. the theoretical relation bhows that the effective reflection coefficient p depends on X in a relation of the form 11109 P1 4c (C01Xr. while if proportional to the ambient pressure. and recombination coefficient).I v2 is small or large compared with (w + wL) 2 . the absorption in winter being distinctly higher than for the same zenith angle at other seasons. recombination.

numerical procedures have been introduced to handle more general situations. More recently. It should be pointed out that Appleton and Piggott's findings relate to normal h-f absorption. but results are available only for a limited number of combinations of parameters. Our present knowledge of D-region structure has been promoted by studies of the propagation characteristics of v-i-f waves. and that the height region wherein the additional absorption during SID occurs cannot be localized from their measurements.2 V-i-f Effects Although the main features of h-f absorption are fairly well understood. definitely show that the absorbing layer is not of the Chapman type (for . the types of variation described hold substantially for an oblique path of constant length. This necessitates full wave An analytical theory. this is not the case for v-l-f waves. and then only for the case of a vertical magnetic field or of vertical propagation. 36 . which is made complicated by the anisotropy of the medium. 4. These characteristics will be sumarised here in order to provide a background for the subsequent discussion of D-region mechanisms. Since the path length through the absorbing region increases as the secant of the angle of incidence on the absorbing layer.The experimental values. The above studies of ionospheric absorption have been concerned chiefly with vertically incident waves. although not completely understandable on the basis of present theoretical knowledge.which n = 1. The requisite theory is much more complicated.5). since variations in the properties of the important regions of the ionosphere take place in a distance comparable with a wavelength. theory has been worked out only for special variations of electron density and critical frequency with height. and suggest that the region has a positive temperature gradient.

Measurements at a frequency of 16 kc/s. corresponding to an angle of incidence on the ionosphere of about 650. show that a distinct change in the character of the sky wave takes place in the neighborhood of 400 kin. Variations in reifection height with time can be deduced from measureFor this ntenna ments of the phase variation of the sky wave at a given receiving point. These measurements have been made at various distances extending out to about 1000 km. for example. and also by measuring the phase difference between ground and sky waves for different frequencies. amplitude.2. Consequently it will be convenient to discuss the short and long distance measurements separately. apparent height of reflection is deduced from observation of the amplitude pattern versus distance produced by interference between the ground and sky waves. 4. Observations of the change in phase of the sky wave are especially useful in testing solar control of the reflecting medium.Although some measurements of layer height have been made at very low frequencies with pulse techniques (Brown and Watts [1].1 Short Distance Characteristics The measurements at short distances may be sunarized as follows: (a) Relection Hight Typical results of the phase lag of the sky wave relative to 37 . the most extensive and detailed studies have been carried out on c-w transmissions. Helliwell [12]. purpose the sky wave is isolated from the ground wave by means of a special arrangement. and polarization. principally by English workers [14-22]. The phase The depends on the length of the transmission path and the height of reflection. and then the modifications observed during SID. The printipal characteristics of the ionospherically propagated wave (the so-called "sky wave") are its phase. the Pennsylvania State University group [13]).

The diurnal variation of the component p125 called the "conversion coefficient". however. I which reduces to sac X for X less than about 85o 73 t 2 km. 7. England are shown in Fig. on 43 kc/s. Iheight vs. t A. with greater variability at the higher frequencies. however. a mean value is 5..5 + 0. is not explainable on the basis of a Chapman layer. 8 shows curves of The apparent heights at Values of A(t) run I I noon and night near Cambridge.t og [C. 10. The height of reflection shows marked solar control during the day. log [Ch(x)] curve would be the scale height. the components p22 and P12 of the tensor reflection coefficient [see Part I. the slope A(t) of the Fig. and Ch(X) is the Chapman function.8 t 0. and its seasonal variation in I8 . is shown in Fig. This variation of A(t). (b) Polarization For short distances of 100-300 km.I I the ground wave are shoun in Fig.1 km.1 kim. It should be noted that the descent from the night-time height starts at a time very close to ground sunrise at the midpath point. On 30 kc/s. nearly all observations show that the sky wave on all frequencies from 16-150 kc/s is approximately circularly polarized with a left-handed sense of rotation same through an SID.h (01. iand at 70 kc/s a-ound 3 kim. in accordance with the relation h a h. = (4) An average value of ho is where ho is the value corresponding to X 0. po 11] are approximately equal. which is a reasonable value for the scale height onsequently this result was used for some time to infer that the reflecting layer was of the Chapman type. The polarization remains the (c) 4pJ4 e In view of the approximately circular polarization of the sky wave. 90 around 6 kim. 4. ho and A(t) at 16 kc/s through the course of the year If reflection took place from a Chapman layer.

for different seasons. 4. 15. (3) phase variations at 16 kc/s and lower frequencies in connection with basic studies of navigation systems. but will also include some deductions made from observations over distances of several thousands of kilometers. 12 shows the frequency trend of P12 Figs. measurements near vertical incidence. respectively. and (4) observations of the v-l-f spectral characteristics of atmospherics. in sumaer and winter. (1) 16 kc/s observations at 540 kin.2. These principally cover distances of about 400-950 ka. and distances up to 950 kin. for a 39 . It is evident that the daily amplitude variation is distinctly different from the daily height variation at short distances.Fig. for a frequency of 16 kc/s.) The drop in amplitude begins at a solar zenith angle of close to 980. with no apparent This agrees within a few kilometers with the variation of height with frequency. These have been derived from four sources. small ripples in the winter daytime curve are considered as probably being due to a two-hop wave.2 Lon& Distanoe Characteristics The characteristics inferred from measurements over longer distances will be . The diurnal-variation of reflection height is illustrated by Fig. 11. It is seen that a pre-sunrise drop and post-sunset rise (The in amplitude takes place. (2) a series of observations over the Decca navigation chain at frequencies from 70 to about 130 kc/a.miarised in this section. 13 and 14 show the diurnal variation of pI2 on 16 and 70 kc/s. Fig. with an essentially constant level during the day. (a) Reflection Height The reflection heights determined fra pattern fit the ground interference in with a reflection height of 70 ± 2 km at midday.

respectively. Pierce [23] reported a normal diurnal phase variation at 16 kc/s of 200P ± 300 over a 5200 im path. 7. round to For 16 kc/s) Bain. This is shown in Figo 16. Heritage. In fact. increase of about 2:1 takes place between summer and winter. This is completely different from the diurnal variation at vertical incidence shown in Fig. while Casselman. the sunrise drop in height being substantially complete at midpath around sunrise. and to the amplitude behavior at short distances. for which it was assumed that the nighttime height was 90 km. This represents a change from the short distance measurements. This is similar to the behavior of the reflection height shown in Fig. coefficient with distance. compared to vertical incidence values of 015 and 0050. but smaller values at increasing frequency. Weekes and Stuart This shows an increasing reflection Also. 18. (c) Amplitude The reflection coefficient at oblique incidence is be greater than at vertical incidence. 10o Similar types of variation were observed at higher frequencies. From measurements of v-i-f transmissions on available frequencies analyzed by IA . which gave the polarization as approximately circular.. et al 119] found a value of 0. (b) Polarization Measurements of the polarization of the sky wave showed this to be linear at about 450 to the vertical. For higher frequencies. frequency of 16 kc/s. and Tibbals [24] measured a diurnal change of about 3500 + 300 at 12. and 0°55 at night.27 at summer midday. 15.2 kc/s over a 4000 km path. Again. The drop in amplitude around sunrise is shown in Fig. an (21] obtained the results shown in Fig° 17. the height variation is very much like the amplitude variation near vertical incidence shown in Fig. smaller values of reflection coefficient are found at the higher frequencies.

relative change in amplitude is The roughly proportional to the decrease in reflection height. 21 for 16 ke/s. for example. height. 19. combined with observations of the spectrum of individual atmospherics. The phase change associated with the reduction in height of reflection decreases with increasing frequency. at 70 kc/a than at higher frequencies. 4.2. frequency curve shown in Fig. of importance 3. 20(a). as shown by Fig. The amplitude near vertical incidence suffers a decrease during an SID. during an SID. [27]. undergo a drastic change at oblique incidence associated with the longer ranges (>500 ka). The above characteristics. it appears that the amplitude Imcrease may be a maximum for frequencies around 30 kc/s. Chapman and Macario [26] deduced the attenuation vs. accompanied a solar flare of importance 2+. This Is illustrated by Fig. observed near vertical incidence.I I Eckersley [25). 20(b). as shown in Fig. Fig. . In general. jPierce i4 [23] showed an example of a phase advance at 16 kc/s over a 5200 1m path This SID. 22 shows an example of the relative phase and amplitude changes observed at a distance of about 900 km during an SID. while the amplitude increases markedly. the change in amplitude being greater at higher frequencies. a change both in phase and amplitude of the sky wave is The change in phase corresponds to a decrease in reflection associated with an SID. This change in phase appears to be a very sensitive way to detect flares Near vertical incidence.3 This shows a minimum around 15 ke/s. The amount of this increase is greater. the decrease in reflection height is substantially the same for frequencies in the range 16-135 kc/s. From observations of SEA. and a maximum around 2 kc/so SIRggeg The effects of SID associated with solar flares have been observed both at the short and long distances used to obtain the results discussed above.

and becomes less for higher frequencies.l-f wave propagation. the low-frequency cutoff of the ionospheric waveguide was tion was raised.6 km. On the other hand.4 Eclipse Effects Observations of the phase of the sky wave on 16 kc/s at steep incidence were made during a partial solar eclipse by Bracewell [311 Although the 42 . or No amplitude equivalent to a reduction in height of reflection of about 9 km. -_equency et al [29. The progressively greater at higher frequencies. while the sky wave amplitude increases markedly. so that the frequency of minimum attenuaAlso.30] showed that an SID shifted the spectrum of atmospherics upwards.I A phase advance of 1000 was observed.2. Pierce suggested that the primary physical phenomenon produced by the SID might be a steepening of the ionization gradient. however. the decrease proportional to the decrease in reflection height. raised. corresponding to a height change of about 1. in reflection height is less for higher frequencies.SID. Near vertical incidence the reduction in reflection height appears to be substantially independent of frequency. This increase. At oblique incidence. while the amplitude change is amount of this decrease is a decrease. during a 3. accompanying a 2 flare. This is half the normal diurnal change. corresponding to a decrease in height of the reflecting region. while the amplitude increased considerably. be by a factor of about 100. change was observed. which may be by a factor of 5 or more. Gardner [28] and Obayashi. the SID produces a reduction in reflection height and a change in amplitude of the sky wave. with an accompanying reduction in the phase lag at reflection. To sumarize the SID effects observed on v-. appears to be a maximum at frequencies around 30 kc/s. a 60 kc/s signal over the same path experienced a phase advance of only 700. 4. and roughly At 100 kc/s the decrease may on the other hand.

I

I

greatest eclipsed area was only 0.3 of the solar disk, a definite phase anomaly was found, as shown in Fig. 23. shape of the obscured area curve. From this result, Bracewell deduced that the relaxation time of the reflecting region probably did not exceed 6 minutes. change about 35 degrees Furthermore, the magnitude of the phase The form can be seen to agree roughly with the

represented an increase in height of reflection of

about 1 km, while for a Chapman layer a change of only about 0.2 km would be expected. 4.3 D-Lay'er Production and Structure A proper interpretation of SID effects on ionospheric propagation ultimately requires a knowledge of the composition of the ionizing agents, and of the reactions which lead to the prevailing ionization densities. some of the pertinent available information will be suarized. 4.3.1 The Two-Layer Model In order to explain the diurnal phase and amplitude variations In this Section,

discussed in Sec. 4.2.1 and 4.2.2, Bracewell and Bain [32] proposed an ionospheric model containing a two-layer D-region. The height of the upper layer, which they

denoted by Da, was supposed to be under solar control in accordance with the formula

h = 72 + 5.5 log sec x km.

This is shown by the upper curve in Fig. 24,

(5)

Below this layer, a layer denoted by

D4 was postulated to exist, with height variations as shown in the lower part of Fig. 24. The upper layer was supposed to be the reflecting layer for 16 kc/s waves

at steep incidence, while the lower layer was considered to be responsible for absorption of the waves. At sufficiently glancing incidence, however, reflection

would take place at the lower layer. Bracewell and Bain based their two-layer model entirely on the observations of

43

I

16 kc/s propagation at short and medium distances. They gave no suggestions as to the mechanisms by which these two layers could be formed. 4°3.2 Bracewp1ls Exhaustion Region In order to explain the observed type of solar flare and eclipse effects on the D-region, Bracewell

L31]

postulated the existence of a so-called

"exhaustion region", in which the ionizable constituent exists in a small concentration. With respect to a two-layer D-region, this mechanism was supposed to take

place in the upper region, denoted by Da in Seco 4o3olo Bracewell showed that an exhaustion region would explain the amount of change in reflection height, observed during a partial solar eclipse, whereas a mucn smaller change would result from a Chapman region. He. also showed that an exhaustion

region would produce h-f absorption whose variation with cosX agreed in general with experimental observations. Bracewell also showed that the characteristics of an exhaustion region would explain satisfactorily the observed reductions in reflection height during solar flares. For example, a reduction of 15 km in height would require an increase in However, no attempt

intensity of the incident ionizing radiation by a factor of 15.

was made to deduce the accompanying effect on the amplitude of v-I-f waes° 403o3 Ionization Mechanisms The existence of several separate mechanisms for the formation of ionization in the D-region has been brought out in the last 'ecad.e o7 soo Brown

and Petrie L32]., pursuing a suggestion attributed 'o Ratcliffe, have evaluated the role of photodetachment of electrons from Oj icnso ment of an electron to a neutral oxygen moleculea This ion, formed by the attachstarts building up in corcentration The nighttime

arcund sunset, resulting in the disappearance cf the normual D-layero

level of ionization below the E-layar is maintained by cosmic rays, which vary in

l4

I

intensity with latitude. Visible light, extending down into the infrared, can

supply the energy required to break up the attachment, and thus liberate free electrons* Since visible light can reach the altitudes >50 km appreciably before

ground sunrise, electrons released by the photodetachment process build up D-layer ionization appreciably before sunrise. Brown and Petrie (33], and Moler [34]

showe, that this explained satisfactorily the pre-sunrise drop in amplitude discussed in Sec. 4.2.1. Aiken L35] verified the fact that a two-layer D-region

would be produced at sunrise, the lower layer being due to cosmic rays, and the upper layer to photoionization of nitric oxide by Lymanradiation0 Thus, in the

two-layer model of Bracewell and Bain discussed in Sec. 4.3.1, these mechanisms would account for the layers D* and Da, respectively. Nicolet and Aikin [36], in a discussion of the formation of the D-region, pointed out the following mechanisms of ionization which are possible at levels

below 85 kn:

(1) X-rays of X < 10 A;

(2)

(3) (4) (5)

**Lyman-a radiation (0 = 1215.7A);
**

Ultraviolet radiation, X > 1800 A; Cosmic rays; Photodetachment by visible radiation.

The normal E-layer, which is ascribed to the combined affect of soft X-rays in the range 30-100 A and ultraviolet radiation (Lyman-p) is penetrated by cosmic rays, ultraviolet radiation of X > 1800 A, Lyman-a and hard X-rays (X < 10 A), Of these, cosmic rays and hard X-rays are capable of ionizing all atmospheric

constituents.

In addition, Lyman-a, due to a narrow window in 02 absorption at the A minor constituent, NO (l1 part in 1010

Lyman-a line, can penetrate to low levels.

was proposed by Nicolet [37] as the ionizable constituent responding to Lyman-a to

45

account for the daytime D-layer. In view of the presently-accepted view that the upper part of the D-region, Da, is due to photoionization of NO by Lyman-a, it is tempting to suppose that NO

is the ionizable constituent responsible for the exhaustion region postulated by Bracewell. The concentration of NO has been estimated by Nicolet [381 as about

3 10-10 of the total concentration below about 85 km, or about 105 cm- at 75 km

[36].

In order to give ionization densities to fit

the v-i-f observations, however,

the NO concentration would have to be lower than this by about two orders of magnitude, or about 103 cm-3 at 75 km. Although Bracewell believed the exhaustion region would also explain solar flare effects, this must be rejected on the basis of later evidence. For example.,

Friedman and collaborators [39] observed no large increases in Lyman-c during flares, whereas Bracewell requires a factor of about 15. In a recent report, Chubb,

et al [40] stated that no increase in Lyman-a occurred during a 1+ flare, but X-rays in the range 1-10 A were observed. As mentioned earlier, the solar flare enhance-

ment of ionization has been shown to be explainable by the appearance of hard X-rays in the wavelength rr.nge 1-10 A, which ionize all atmospheric constituents, and can penetrate to low levels because of the low absorption coefficients in this spectral region. The resulting ionization would be even less sharply distributed in height

.-than a Chapman region. 4.4 Comarison With SID Results The two features of the experimental results shown in Fig. 5 which require explanation are the following: (1) (2) The lack of correlation between the magnitudes of SWF and SSE; The mechanism which produces the SE.

It will now be shown that the first is explainable on the basis of D-layer structure

46

to believe. then both the regions of the Da and D layers will be intensified. 4o3o1. It was also stated that such enhancements can be understood in a qualitative way as due to reduced normal-mode attenuation as a result of increased conductivity of the ionosphere. For example. so that the relative increases can be expected to change from flL'e to flare.2 Mechani=m Associated With §§E The observations reported in Seco 3 show that SSE on vlf is one of the phenomena accompanying SID produced by solar flares. the normal-mode theory of propagation is more advantageous than the ray theory. The increase in h-f absorption leading to SWF is the sum of the increases in the two regions. at present. The relative intensifications of these two regions There is no reason will depend on the spectral distribution of the X-radiation. if the flare produces a burst of hard X-rays without any enhancement in Lyman-a radiation. 5 Is understandable within the framework of the two-layer model discussed in Sec. this would result in the absence of any clear-cut statistical correlation between the v-l-f and h-f effects of flares. A number of analytical treatments of this theory have appeared [41-55]. acting as t he upper wall of a waveguide. 4. 47 . It will now be shown that this qualitative explanation cannot be substantiated on the basis of presently accepted ionization processes and present theoretical knowledge concerning v-l-f propagation For the ranges involved in the observations reported here. but that an adequate explanation of the second is not available on the basis of present knowledge. Consequently. 4. since only one mode is effective. while the v-l-f SSE would respond only to changes in the lower layer.and solar flare radiation. D*.1ol Abence of Correlation Between HaVitudes of SWF and SSE The absence of any correlation between SWF and SSE in Fig. that all solar flares have the same spectral distribution.

efforts have tb a directed towards obtaining numerical solutions [56-60o This approach is not rastricted to special needs to be worked height distributions.y Because of the inabil : to produce an t e analytical solution of sufficient generality. The ionospheric parameters then -nter the analysis in an effect}e conductivity wr given by where wN' v. Fig.but none treats the problem in a maufficiently general way to allow definitive conclusions to be drawn pertinent to the present observationao Aalytical solutiona have been obtained only for speci&l distributions of ionizati . iL are the plasmas.'] 6 assumption that the quasi-longit-Ldinal approximation of Booker [ 1] may be used. Cail ulaticcs using uder the further eaes as the height such a model have been made. 40 ..L1t4s from which one must drabI general inferences are rather scanty. Nevertheless. the attenuation decresxes as the ionosphere boundsa7y becomes sharper. so that the rea. by Spies and Wait [5. and longitudinal gyrt angular frequencies. only a rather small nwbe of examples has been worked out.OP density and collision frequency with height. . the attenuation de of the boundary decreases. for a constant collision frequency. A yet. but a very large number of special casil out in order to produce a suffici ently extensive catalog froa. One of the idealizations which reduces greatly the comple dty of the calculations is that of a sharply bounded homogeneous ionospher. collision. respectively. otl er things remaining unchanged. which dductions ofI a general nature can be drawn. Also. 25 (from [53]) shows the attenuation of the first rode i n db/lO00 km s a function of frequency for various ionosphere heights for a value of Wr of 2-105. and fPr special directions of Ubhii earth'a magnetic field (usually taken to be vertiiLL). these tend to show that. amotg others.

is assumed to remain unchanged.3. if For a 50 km path. a solar en- between a quiet sum and a strong flare. in virtue of the approximately exponential increase in critical frequency with such a height decrease. since it is based on the behavior of an idealized sharply bounded ionosphere having 49 . hancement will cause a given ionization density to appear at a lower level. attenuation decrease is the result of a decrease in the grazing angle of the first mode to the ionosphere. semi-quantitative. Thus the qualitative Instead. would be decreased 0 On the basis of Kane's (62] measumment of collision frequency. then the effective conductivity would decrease by a factor of about 2. this decrease in attenuation is based on a custant effective conductivity. The electron density distributions in the D-region shown iA Fig. it must be emphasized. calculated by Nicolet and Aiken [36]. Assiming a value of wL of about 50106 as a representative value for the transatlantic path in the measurements with which we are concerned. is. the effective ionosphere conductivity. v. the value of wr. at most. so that the collision frequency. The above conclusion. about 103 a3 show no appreciable change in shape at a density of Consequently. Wr. 1. 26. but with substantiAlly the same gradient. However. However.2 db. a 15 km height decrease would bring about an increase in v of a factor of 10. Hence one might argue that it is reasonable to suppose that a decrease in attenuation as a result of a decrease of 15 km in reflection height of the same order as that calculated for the sharply bounded ionosphere would occur.I It can be seen from these curves that a reduction of height from 75 to 60 km. the total reduction in attenuation would be about This the height rechiction oourred uniformly over the whole path. would result in a reduction of slightly more than 0.2 db/1000 km for a frequency of 30 kc/s. an appreciable decrease in effective conductivity would result. say. expectation of an enhanced ionospheric conductivity would not be realized.

In other words. for the time being. Again. while the upper layer is due to photoionization of nitric oxide by Lyman-a radiationo Hard X-rays (in the range 1-10 A) emitted by a solar flare 15 .I I "average" properties given by the Nicolet and Aiken results. it appears that the flare must increase the sharpness of the lower boundary. for a sufficiently sharp boundary. then it is necessary to adduce the mechanism which produces this effect. the electron density distributions calculated by Nicolet and Aiken. This would result in a decreased penetration of the waves reflected therefrom. As mentioned above. that an increased sharpness of the lower boundary of the D-layer is required to explain the SSE produced by the flare.5-Mc/s signal and sudden signal enhancements (SSE) of a 31ol5-kc/s signal over substantially the same transatlantic path of approximately 5400 km show no evident correlation between the magnitudes of the two effects of the SID. which are shown in Fig. show no appreciable change in shape at the electron densities required. an increased gradient at these lower heights appears to be required. it must be emphasised that this line of argument is only qualitative. If we grant. in addition to increasing the ionization densities at fall levels in the 1-region. could outweigh the effect of the increased collision frequency encountered at the lowered reflection height. is understandable on the basis of a two-layer D-region8 This absence of correlation The lower layer is produced by cosmic rays. and hence. and that an adequate quantitative theory is needed before a firm conclusion can be reached. CONCLUSIONS Simultaneous observations of short-wave fade-outs (SWF) of a 13. 5. In order to obtain an increased conductivity at the lowered heights due to the onset of a flare. 26.

Since the increase in h-f absorption is the sm of the increases in the two regions.penetrate to the low levels of the D-region and ionize all constituents (principally 02 and NS). distribution varies from flare to flare. no correlation should result between the two effects. while the v-i-f enhancement is occasioned only by the changes at the lower level. Phase measuremets show that a definite decrease in height of the lower boundary of the D-region is caused by the flare. The mechanism by which I | 51 . which should result in a decrease in the effective conductivity of the layer if the ionization gradient remains the same. On the other hand. this takes place needs to be determined. Conse- quectly. an adequate explanation of the mechanism of the v-i-f enhancement is not available on the basis of present knowledge. This reduced height causes reflection to take place at a level of higher collision frequency. The relative intensifications of the two D-regions will depend on the On the assumption that the spectral spectral distribution of the X-radiatioa. it appears that an increase in the sharpness of the lower boundary of the D-region is required during the onset of a solar flare. the relative increases also cm be expected to vary frm flare to flare.

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