AD 277 479


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277 479



The Exact Earth-Flattening Procedure in Ionospheric Propagation Problems by M. Katzin PART II and B. Y.-C. Koo


VLF Signal Enhancements and HF Fadeouts During Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances by M. Katzin


Report No. CRC-7233-1 15 April 1962




PART I -The Exact Earth-Flattening Procedure in Ionospheric Propagation Problems

M. Katzin and B. Y.-C. Koo



VLF Signal Enhancements and HF Fadeouts .During
Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances

M. Katzin

Final Report on



Report No. ORC-7233-1 15 April 1962

. All other persons and organization should apply to th U. their contractors.S.. and other Government agencies should be directed to the. Armed Services Technical Information Agency Arlington Hall Station Arlington 12.Requests foT additional copies by Agencies of the Department of Defense.. D. ... Virginia Department of Defense contractors must be established for ASTIA service or have their "need-to-know" certified by the cognizant military agency of their project or contract. Department of Comerce Office of Technical Services Washington 25..C.

tt .. da i prz4 spherical Han.CiV-C. i~ m --n tezz- -f ox.-ion as a o h ~m A outcn.'. sui of +be aci'.alloed S :in-. the ri~ i.e tha zeroz7 of -ile -cad.s of Bess-Fel ftcnctaoni. Ani ir4Tpro-ved method o.derfoimid by.± cr.2&.3pherica. is extendnd to the c:ase of a srpherical earth and atmosphere eniveloped by a sharp1y bounded ionorsphere.tI DI as an -Mae t~jse c.nyb bne pc Atdu.. A nph-3-ctdal geoiLetry is Jinvestigated as a ba. In the latter case.r t-e J-ti) c-f ICIZI-fooall f bci .nite sex3.eloped fo-r an isotropic spherically-stratified atmosphere.blem is formulated as an integral representation. frm which may be derived either a rlay-optical series or a normal rlodE series. these functions is derived w'hich is niot of asyrartoic clhaacter.in t. The general solution of' the pro.-e ...relcpad 7or 'he .THE MXAT EARTH-FLATTNI.. obtaining thi-e zercs oZ. the normal modes involve the normnalized spherical Hankel Punction and its deivative. for dealina witb pr oms Solationo for tin anglar ftinr_.al fuan. a1 stratifica4 J cvi. 1The~ C..NG ROCEDURE IN IONOSPHRC PROPAGATION. rla r. of sJhe:CIC3L cas "lie -.C.functi-on of D. ThOBDiMS The exact earth-f-L-atterdng procedure previous ly dev.L f~ -U'cat: T nce-::: tions being infliaiite d~stance to radius.e t it s-as '1e.a-_e f:cnsJ.funec!-io± ard ts.. of ixon-spheri.he -s .

. absorption is Since the Increase in h-f the svm of the increases in the two r-egions. appears that an increase in the shapness of the lower boundary of required during the onset of a solar flare The mechanism by the D-region is which this takes place needs to be determined 0 iv . This reduced height causes reflection to take place at a the effecConse- level of higher collision frequency. while the v-l-f enhancement -s occasioned only by the changes at the lower level. an adequate explanation of the mechanism of the v-i-f enhancement is not available on the basis of present knowledge° Phase measurements show that a definite decrease in height of the lower boundaiy of the D-region is caused by the flare. which should result in a decrease in tive conductivity of the layer if quently. On the other hand.I PART II VLF ENHANCEWNTS AND HF FAIDEOUTS DURING SUDDFN IONOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES ABSTRACT Simultaneous observations Of short-wave fade-outs of a 13o5-Mo/s signal and sudden signal enhancements of a 31o15-kc/s signal over substantially the same transatlantic path of approximately 5400 km show no evident correlation between the magnitudes of the two effects of the SID. is understandable on the basis of a two-laye' This absence of correlation D-regiono The relative intensifications of the two D-regions will depend on the spectral distribution of hard X-rays in the 1-10 A range emf. which can be expected to vary from flare to flare. no correlation should result between the two effects.tted during a flare. it the ionization gradient remains the same.

1 3. RESULTS DISCUSSION 31 32 4.3 4.1 Short Distance Characteristics 33 36 37 IV .2 H-f Effects V-l-f Effects 4.1 2. SUMARY REFERECES PART 11 28 29 1 2o INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTION OF MEASUREMENTS 30 31 3. 4. INTRODUCTION SPHERICALLY-STRATIFIED IONOSPHERE 2. NON-SPHERICALLY STRATIFIED IONOSPHERE 3.1 4. 2.2 Formulation of the Problem The Angular Function T The Radial Function U 22 22 23 24 3.2 2.3 2°4 2 5 Formulation of the Problem The Angular Fmction T The Radial Function U Evaluation of the Integral Representation The Complax Zeros of u ( 2 ) z) 1 2 3 6 9 13 16 3.PART I iii ABSTRACT - PART II PART I iv 1.Table of Contents Page ABSTRACT .2.

4 The Dio-Layer Model Bracewell's Exhaustion Region Ionizution Mechanisms 43 44 4 46 Comparison With SID Results 4.Eate i4.1 647.3 4. Eclipse Effects !4 3 D-Layez Friduction and Structure 42.'IGURES 1 -- 50 52 26 (PART II) 58 .23 4 'oyag Distance Characteristics SID ]Pfects 39 41 42 43 ~4..71 vi .2 4.1 Absence of Correlation Between Magpitudes of SWF and SSE 4. OCOVIUSIONS RIELI RAPHY .2 MechamrLsms Associated With SSE 47 47 5.4. 6..2 Z3.4.

ably g: .PART X THEXACT EARTH-FLTTENING PRO0DURE IN IONOSPHAIC PROPAGATION PROBLEMS 1.-oximationo or deviation increases with height.--eatmento Consequently. In other words. atc. coupling between modes.y is considezedo This is n'to account lateral variations of the reFor this purpose a spheroidal atLifcation).t of the contract. ThMs formulation led to the realization of the physical nature of the approximations introduced by the usual earth-flattening procedure.ter Conaeqaexutly.: ied out in Sec.tWive index (non-horizortal geomet-.. but should not be of great consequence in problems of tropospheric propagationIn the case of ionospheric p~opagation. The subject of ionospheric propagation.be important heights involved (in wavelengths) may be conside. it appeared desirable to investigate whether the exact earth-f-lattsaing procedure could improve ionospheric propagation analysis. involving complex layer distributions.3. encompassea many ramifications which probably t. arbitraX7 angles to the earth's magnetic field. the extension of this theory to take frao. the physical problem is The amount of this change changed somewhat by the earth-flattening app. t. magneto-ionic splitting and propagation at. change in the refractive index veiation with height. an exact earth-flattening procedure was given for propagation in an inhomogeneous atmosphere over a spherical earth. for never will be capable of a complete self-contatae: *Numbers in brackets refer to the corresponding numbers in the References on po 29° . In particular it was shown that the differential equation for the height-gain function in the usual earth-flattening approximation was equivalent to a small. This is one ob ective of the research conducted under this 2 Ln additional objective is pa:i. ca. and is accomplished in See. INTRODUCTION In an earlier paper Cl]*.

For plane geometry. various field components are derivable from a Hertz vector whose direction is radial. for example. 2 .purposes of the present study we shall adopt an often-used idealization of the ionosphere in order to confine attention to the specific objectives stated above. since this is the only effective form of radiator at these frequencies. this was extended by Wait [3] to include the essential mixed polarization effects due to the anisotropy of a sharply bounded ionosphere. so that the results will be of chief interest in this frequency range. For completeness. since all other components are In the derivable from the radial components (see. respectively. For this purpose the ionosphere will be considered to be sharply bounded and of uiform electrical properties. however. a rigorous formulation of the spherical This formulation problem (with a shorp ionosphere boundary) will be sketched here. 2. it is a form adapted to direct introduction of the earth-flattening possible to formulate separatecorresponding the ly the cases of vertical electric and vertical magnetic dipole sources. Scheikunoff [4]). SPH IGALLY-STRATIFIED IONOSPHME A rigorous formulation of the field due to a vertical electric or magnetic dipole in an inhomogeneous isotropic atmosphere over a spherical earth was given by Friedman [2]. electric and magnetic modes are coupled in the ionosphere. In each case. It is then logical to consider only a vertical dipole source. will be given in procedure. Actually this Hertz vector (within an appropriate mltiplying factor) is nothing more th&w the radial component of the electric (magnetic) field in the case of the radial electric (magnetic) dipole source. to vertically and horizontally polarized fields. In the isotropic case treated by Friedman. This assumption is the one usually made in study- ing v-i-f ionospheric propagation. anisotropic case.

Consideration of the physics of the problem will assist a proper formulation. 2. respectively. the boundaries of the earth and ionosphere. 1. excited by dipole source. will give rise to reflected components at. earth and ionosphere being at R = a and R = h. in turn.Geometr7 of spherical earth. so that new 3 .so that the problem must be formulated in terms of mixed components from the outset. The ionosphere will introduce magneto-ionic splitting. - - Earth Fig. This primary field. the boundaries of Ionosphere Air Vertical Dipole-. Thus. with concentric sharplybounded spherical ionosphere.1 Formulation of the Problem The geometry of the problem is (infinitesimal) length Z and current I is shown in Fig. the primary field due to the source will give rise to a field which has a polarization determined by the direction of the source current. A vertical dipole of located at R = b. I .

3 (2.polarization components will arise there. From these facts it is clear that a combination of electric and magnetic Hertz vectors must be used for derivation of the fields.-k R(PI +P) + ' grad [~R(P +P~ (2-4) providing that P. respectively.7) 4 .6) and P is a solution of the homogeneous equation VaP + kP 3 = 0. The two components.. Then the corresponding fields are derivable fro the equations E. and the subscripts e and m refer to electric and magnetic modes. in general. (2.2) Now put I1I is stimulated by the vertical source current. so that we must represent the radial Hertz vector by a column matrix of the form where JR is the unit radial vector. will differ in amplitude and phase. while 11 arises from reflection 3 at the boundaries. Consider first the electric component primary and a secondary field Ie =nj 11e and write it as the sum of a + n. is a solution of the inhomogeneous reduced wave equation V7-2P + kp ' k W (2.

ror t.10) where T. (R)V() (2.6). e the right-hand side of (2.onditio-se (2.0). solutions of the corresponding homogeneous equation V 2 P.9) are characterized by different %alu. U. which as yet are arbitrary.13) in the form .rsn.6). and The various solutions of ultim. phtcn I.12) SRz ~ d42X + Yr2'I in 2.tely will be fixed by the bounda-j . possibly._ 0. T .ch x are the separation c.8). The current density Ji -maybe related' to the dipole moment I by integrating over the source region: ll so that dv Jjj7JRksiflf i 8 ded~fdR.rtiie of (2. and V are functions only of 8: R. respectively. in v.to Its an integer of (2.= 0.8) Sin. separates into the equations 2 d2'T + cot (2 9) then JW +(. Sj $) (R-b).First consider (2.. and p. -rvE . (2. be assembled from. is zero everywhere outside the point (b.! .11) + e Ati R ) 2 u 0 (2. T=O. the solutions of (2.0. stw-ts.13) s and ah.6) can.. in the form RF = (2.9) T(e) U.2-periodiclty in cf. complex values 4 take m. including.-s of s end m.+ k P. Hence we can separate P. (2. . and write thb.

2 The Annalar Function T in [1] it was shown that a solution of (2. so that R .11). (R)V. o= 'sO so that this covers a sector greater than ± m/2. (2.(sO).12).16) where T is a solution of (2.19) 6 . 2. Introducing the new independent variable x = se (2.Consequently all solutions of (2. ds.17) where n-1 in which Z (sS) is a cylinder function. (2.% nuo (2. and a. We now extend this type of solution to the case m j O. 1 4q)As. provided that T(O) = 1. f sTU. A(s) and C y be determined by integrating (2.18) is lei = 2. In general. (2. Xn order that (2. we must choose the cylinder function to be the BAssel function J.14). V. It can be shown that A(s) = s and f= a goC f . ~A )TOV.18) It may be shown that a lower bound for the absolute convergence of (2..9) with 2ic-periodicity in 9 may be obtained from the representation RP. seP"3Tn(.15) where the amplitude function A(s) and the path C iu the complex s-plane are as yet unspecified.11) for m = 0 is TT. and Vm is given by (2.11) for m = 0 may be written as T= Za. C will extend over an infinite range.6) around an infinitesimal region enclosing the dipole source.17) have the property T(O) = 1 as required. = 1. Consequently the required solution of (2.s). U1 is a solution of (2.

o). -j 's. IA: By equating coefficients of like powers of a. The second equation then becomes L(y 2 ) =a(xZ+m 2 Zi) = a.) = o.n (X) = X"Z. (Z.20) in the form L-(-) + -XL ( - ( V- - o a where o-L = '* BF/(Zp.27) 7 . (2.-) %1(f~ (2.22) the E being the Bernouilli numbers.. we obtain the system of equations L(. (2. L (Is=) = ai. (2.[i(m=+l)Z-x~z=.] By introducing the function Cm.23) we obtain I. x)] = Zn CM.21) (2. n (X)i (2o26) (2.Nx tj'+ m2 t.. where Zm is any cylinder function...1". A solution of the first equation is 7o = ZS(x). Assuming a solution of (2..11) becomes We write (2. Cx).21) of the form % =.and denoting the dependent variable by y.25) which has the property L [C.

the solution of this equation is seen to be .n.23). (58).32) If we substitute (2. By equating coefficients of like orders of the function Cmn on the two sides of tWis equation. Cm/.. where C-) (m-p)!M+n+) p != (2033) = C.25) becomes L(y2) = xj=(m1l)C=. we infer that =.(2.= (mt.I4IM~ padJ (2..)Cm.34) Consequently.31) and (2-32) to eliminate powers of x on the right-hand side...27). and use (2. ]o Now using the property (2.30) into (2. x .r (2.30) The following recursion formulas for Cm.) X21. iszO "2.+ P.21) should be expressible in the form Lj = ZA.ao v (2029) Hence the solution of (2. D (Zp +l)m m+Zp.kaO A10 (Se (2. (59)".11) is T ZA.() = ZAn (S6Znm+n .n a:'e eavily obtained from the recursion formulas for the cylinder functions: X =. j 2.o-C .35) S . we obtain the recursion formula De CPL~l. (2-31) (2.AP C.=. Cnn... the required solution of (2. T= #. we obtain ( +m 0 ItI ( D p where Ao = I.28) By induction.

and note from (2.= P.36) may be transformed into an integral along the entire real axis in the following way: Write JTn 4"s (69J] = J" (W-mn . Ha) (s8) cos (ni +-Y. 2. is adaptable to evaluation by residues o: by stationary phase. (50? . =A.) d5. 56d-. is to be fixed by the boundary conditions.36) (2.37) (A2 3 in view of the fact that the integrand is an even function of so becomes ® RP. These require that the tangential electric and magnetic fields be continuous at R = a and R = h..The advantage of using an expansion for T in terms of Bessel functions. For this purpose both the electric and magnetic components of L] will be required..12) that T and U are even functions of s. 9 . (2-36) where Ao = 1 and An is given by the (2. depending on whether a normal mode representation. Z M~O ' n 00(-O .35) the solution of (2. integral corresponding to Hz ( 6e-) make the substitution s'= se " In the r . or a representation in terms of rays is desired.9) is R[P. s d This form. IA. The integral along the positive real s-axis in (2. (60) 3 co (.. is that a more accurate calculation is possible than by the use of the asymptotic expansion for the latter functions.34).Y. s sds Then (2. whereupon the integral for that term becomes 1 1 ". see _. U. The function U. instead of the standard expression in terns of the associated Legendre functions. +.11) and (2.3 The Radial lumctit U With T as given by (2.) U.

. in (2.. vI = V = VS. f. f 88'A.44) n = TnUnVn. and denote these by U.42) (2.. The boundary conditions. (Sef Rw(e4) The constants c and I are to be determined by the boundary conditions at R = a Corresponding to the pysical picture of reflection at the boundaries.41) Solutions of (2. We then pick the two independent solutions of (2.(se".) maO .1).Hn = (2.)Usds.9) and (2.38) VaP + kzPszO. being independent of 8 and q). n = 1. lead directly to the statements TI = T2 = T . RP 3 and R = h.12) to correspond to upgoing and downgoing waves. 2 10 . and write 2 ~=kPAp 3 .36) as follows: RP.. (s. respectively. (2. coS(mT47'mn)U 5ds. (2.4+3) ftI± TA.O. Then P3 satisfies the homogeneous equation (2. 'r"PP+ grad a (Rz)]. we expect a mixture of upgoing and downgoing waves in the region a<R<h.3. The corresponding fields than are derivable from the equations Em .39) ourt ( P5 ).Hence we now consider the magnetic component n. A similar choice is made The total field in the various regions then can be derived from a radial P function which has the matrix form R[P] in which R R P (2.39) may be written in a form similar to (2.2.40) (2. 40 cos(mtY..(2) and U1 (') for U2 and U3 .

(2 .. respectively.48) U3(h). . Us satisfy the same type of differential equation as U1.Now we put U1 = UL( 1 ) + UJ(2). At the ionosphere the reflection coefficient is a tensor [e co that f. (2. e .e.46) el and tpare the reflection coefficients for vertical and horizontal Then polarization.)] + eLsiU (h). (2.49c) . then we may write in the various height regions = U. at R = b we have the discontinuity condition for the first derivative of U1 in terms of the dipole moment L2] dU. respectively. If we denote the two independent solutions of this equation by u(1) and U (2) . (2045) u = U3") + US(S)$ s and introduce the reflection coefficient at the ground f where 1.. R I Rub-& .=elz (&). (2. 2 us = u2() + u ( ).49a) (2.ell [ (h) i'X ".. C2 (2. where u (I) represents a downgoing wave and U( 2) an upgoing wave. Stu)+ C b4I'h..LZ= K9 Zirkt K while U1 itself is continuous at R = b. + P.. J U21'Ch = [ h +%).47) ) US'. The radial functions U2 . U21hjj Finally. i.49b) U2 * UO 'ba o*R<h.. U1. L.. oXR( b. (2. 1%)(h).12).

'd 14 - M . t 0"a *€=). Uol 0<R<h.) 4 ea . LIL' + g. ~b + Sg u'~ '(b) + K.t) - . 12 . (2. (2.el *.' MMA.e. (2.S.. (2.Ozu -{ (h) (2. . 46.- UW'M=)(b)I J1K u)b).US = f.50f) (20..52d) M = p . They are given by V. .54 6. (2-51g) where "(h)(5 I t/Cu)(b) (2.I -..50g) The seven equations (2o50a-g) are sufficient to determine the seven constants '91. 4/1= .) e... 14.49d) The boundary conditions then yield 62/A ae.50d) .51b) .51d) . .51a) I =. a K/r 0i..50a) eU UIOW/uCt)(). £[p( (2-500) 6at. OxiWb)=4i'(b) + (2. (2.

4].5). = ' s) '€(kR).54 u respectivey.49).40).4 Evaluation of the InteR niMpresentation Two different methods are available for evaluating the integral expressions for RP. Since the coefficients in the integrand (?h - ) involve the y-functions defined above. the result may be expressed as a sum of rays reflected alternately a number of times from the ionosphere and the ground.primes denoting R-derivatives evaluated at the argument. By the method of residues. (2.k . Consequently.37).43) give the values for RP in the space aR<_h. (2.). By the method of stationary phase. the expressions (2.42). type of solution in order to bring out the fact that the approximations usually made actually change the physical problem from that of a homogeneous atmosphere to that of a slightly inhomogeneous atmosphere. and (2. (2.c) (kR) "( H. on the other hand. from which the fields may be evaluated by (2. We now evaluate the form of the radial functions u(I) and u42 ) 0 These are solutions of U. the result is obtained as We shall investigate the latter a sum of normal modes. (2. 2.4). if we deform the integrand from the original contour along the real s-axis into the appropriate 13 . or waveguide-type waves. the integrand has poles at zeros of ths denominator in these ratios.e. (2°55) (2+ 4 )IM (2.+ (k = - SANti O (2°3 The solutions of this equaticm corresponding to downward and upward waves are the normalized spherical Hankel functions [5J 1. (2.56) With those functions inserted in (2. which are ratios that are functions of a. where P = kk.

49).42) and (2.. p. there is also a branch point where the order of the spherical Hankel functions. This integral represents the effect of the currents which penetrate into the ground. is zero. This has branch ±i The integrand vanishes at infinite values of s in the lower half-plane. tively. poles of pi j. terest in determining the normal modes are those of M. respec- These can be determined from the zeros of t(h) Thus we consider the method used for the determination of these zeros.44) has an integral representation vdich can be assembled frmi (2°37). is equivalent to neglecting this integral.56). andem= a . (2. of the integrand are those of the functions e. The matrix A[P] in (2. 14 . Friedman [2] has discussed the importance of the branch-cut Wait [3j. in effect. since e. 2. and thus is easentially a part of the ground-wave field. similar to the way in which Bremer [6) treated the tropoand u (N. on integral and has shown that it is negligible in practical cases. but his procedure. In the case of a perfectly-conducting ground the integral vanishes altogether. Consequently the integration path is deformed into the contour shown in Fig. ultimately can be expressed in terms of y-functions and the properties of the reflecting medium. attempts to avoid the branch-cut integral by making a double traverse in the lower half-plane.II half of the complex plane.43) by using the U-functions given in (2. the other hand. can be expressed in terms of the two limiting cases spheric case. the integral may be evaluated in terms of the singularities of the integrand in that half-planeo In addition to the poles just mentioned.%h and M. points at s = This can be seen from (2. plus an integral around a branch cut along the negative imaginary axis from -i/2. Poles The principal poles of inThe investigation of these The poles is a separate problem in its own right which we shall not go into here. The integral then is the negative sum of the residues at the poles in the lower half-plane.

Plcne Fig: 2 -Ink eg.-ation Ccnto-u: in s-plane .s.

. wo =/29 and F(wo ) = 0.-zcos we have . By truncating the Taylor's series expansion of F(w) at the third derivative term. (2. and are usually expressed in terms of Airy functions. upon putting w-w = u. or Hankel functions of order one-third.) + (Tw") F.O. F'(wo ) = -i(z-p) F" (wo ) = iz° Consequently.57) 0. we obtain F(w) 0 F(we) + (w-w.2..5 The Complex Zeros of u (2) (z) The zeros of u (2 ) and U( 2 ) # are the same as those of Hp( 2 ) and Hp() These are found by the Debye method of steepest descent.. Since F"(w. shifted to the right by x/2o of variables t A simple change (zp) - (258) 16 .du expand the exponent F(w) in a Tay1or's series about the point where F'(w) e W& a pw1/)dwW.±r (2.W.) .). 0 and draw the contour W so as to pass through the two points (stationary points) 2 at which FI(w) = 0.5?) becomes o where the contour U2 is merely W. F'(w.. procedure is to write The Nm)(.

55) - Contour for Mdified Hankel Functions (2061) Z (. or Mdified Henkel Functions of order one-third [7].- l a() Consequently the zeros of hg(i) (tabulat. the zeros of RpC2 )(z) and of hp(2 )(z). while h2 (r) is a soluticn of Stoke ' O. 3 Then from (2. e.61) is equivalent to a change in the physical problem. Using the notation for the latter.ed in [7]) give.jr h2 (2. 17 .60) t. It was pointed out in [1] that the approximation (2. we obtain 12z) Hz "- e-/1 I.12).59) may be expressed in terms of the Airy Functions.plane LI Fig..24)7q-7rVA.59) where the contour L2 in the t-plune is shown in Fig. This is immediately evident from the fact that equation (2 62) bp(2 )(z) it a solution of (2. The integral in (2. in first approximation.results in In/" '' 6 4ee ] d"ta: (2. 3.

5 Now by introducing the transformation q=a log(RIC. In order to arrive at this solution. + _L~ 22/ sU Next. Stokes2 equation d z. whereby the radial equation becomes d2J iu + k2. however. + a solution of which -'s . finally.(R) V(V).64) 2/a in order to where k.61) may be found as follows: We first siparate (2.9) by writing P1 in the form P.). k must be s function of Y which . if we put 52 crLik. satisfy the equation for small In this case.I The physical problem corresponding to (2. It is evident from (2. putting Uo = uo e we obtain d2U'--"O .63) that q - (2. we obtain.& Ua 1 r/ ' + (ke ')- (263) dq2 where To reduce this to Stokes" equation. the radial equation becomes 2 a4U. we must have k~ze = ' / 11 = k&(1 +j). = T (e)U. and q are constants.

67) has a radius of convergence which is limited by the next zero of F (w).+h'(4 IB (2.67) Z POZO and integrating (2. whereby a change of variable is introduced so that F(w) in (2. 2 To obtain a higher order approximation for the zeros of E (s (z). an asymptotic expansion is obtained in terms of h 2 () and h..59): t le.= --(-W) in _-Z (Z-$IIIW-_ F(w) = .65). and Em involve.II satisfies (2. inverse fractional powers of . t+ '" Then (2.68) n which the coefficients A. which occurs at 19 . this requires that k have the form 0_0_______(I+ ______(R __toq* (2. except that Ao = 1.64).57) becomes precisely the exponent in the integral of (2.66) termwise. one may follow a procedure due to Olver [8] and Chester. decreases monotonically with increasing height H above the ground level a. and Ursell [9].(V) 3 Hp (z)'.(2. Thus the refractive index (2.65) If we put Rt' then we have a+ H = (i + . Friedman.+_0. in general.57) becomes By expanding R in a double series of the form Tr 9 qmtta~c'". dw 0 +tz 7j. whereas the original problem dealt with a constant refractive index. The above procedure is asymptotic because the series expansion (2. In terms of the variable R.' f()tA. is. corresponding to Stokes' equation.

e eI and expand e in the absolutely convergent series M Mao M1 wn 90 =r"t-Lm PWt . differ 20 .-s ' (p/z).*+t/3e .) I z =C i* V&'/6Z' T/. An alternative evaluation of (2-57) which is not of asymptotic character may be developed. while the interval of integration extends to infinity. (Z) where Z .69) that the zeros of HW (z).57) then becomes I V &.I w -. Then hp (Z) " p (.)} (2.) and B(.d. h 2 (g) + 3(g) h )-. and f£ (iz/gr A24 F(")w n! t.fI{() + a-. Next we write e 1~w = e.I + . bin V".(2.a Termwise integration then yields an expression of identically the same form as (2. for given z. however.) being polynomials in x of degree m/2 or less.68).69) I+ f MRS ~ m z) Am(.70) It is evident from (2. We write This does not appear to have been reported previously F(w) = t * t s+at.6 f d. where i and t are given by (2 0 58). The integral (2.

and put p = - qo (2..72) T. ) end a.3 h ().ha'==(. Then by (2. by.(r.73) H 'z)= =. and make use of (2. ioeo.which we denote by =4Z * So "1" -0 so that V. . (2. Then from (2.71): (i"+ + + . corresponds to a value of r. 21 .+r.71) H(a (z) - '6 so h" i 0. (C') We denote this zero 2) The value of p corresponding to go is near a zero of H( (z). is small compared to go.58).) {.69) we then find (2.73).. where g is related to z and p by (2-58)o In order to find the values of p for which Hp" (z) is zero.) t ..72) and (2.. obtained by successive approximations. H(2 (z)= 0. then may be This is a series in EV whose coefficients are known. -r "} Consequently we obtain 11 +q The value of 1. so that h2 (go) = 0.)h. which as yet is unknown. .69) (2.&0.slightly from the zeros of b2 (g).o We now expand o. h in Taylor's series about to. we can proceed as follows: Denote the zeros of 'N() bylgo. From (2..

these are 22 .we obtain I The required zeros of e Irt. 3. (z) then are p= o-q* (2. either oblate or prolate in form. The detailed results obtainable by this procedure will be reserved for a later investigation.74) These likewise are the zeros of the modified spherical Hankel function N2 (%) given by (2. This situation is not strictly true. For example. the earth-ionosphere region was assumed to be spherically symetrical (so-called "horizontally-stratified" medium).l Formulation of the Proble The reduced wave equation VZP "t P may be separated in spheroidal coordinates into radial and angular differential equations as in the spherical case. so that the above type of analysis is an idealization which should be considered as only a first approximation to the true state of affairs. For the oblate spheroid. where the earth and ionosphere are coordinate surfaces of a family of spheroids. In order to introduce a form of non-spherical stratification which may be applicable to such situations. there are situations of practical interest where the reflecting layers are tilted with respect to the horizontal. we consider the case of a spheroidal geometry. in general. NON-SPHERICALLY STRATIFIED IONOSPHERE In the treatment in Sec.70). 2. We give below the extension of the exact earthilattening procedure to this non-spherical goometry. 3. 4.

2 dT ot& dOT .5CzA) I C'CIXXI+Of r 5 23 .~r vs)] LL sa C. the second equation of (3.cp j5 . as in Sec.+ Moii 6) + so-2 = 3.ie e.+coshF.se = f e_ We shall treat the oblate case in detail. C05 V = f Cosh go (P lh The corresponding equations of the prolate spheroid are d2(U ATtcote IM + F(T k2f5a - 2~.& -l'ftr Is.1) becomes dTT -t Is aa ay Te 2 This may be written as L(~T4jT' L(7 . 3.(ki+ 2 -f + U =0. since a comparison of the corresponding equations of (3. and a typical space point has the rectangular x . 2. I'm 9 W4 I Y af 51VI Z h4 51.coss9C0p.(k' fsire r)1V= 0.2) can be effected by simple transformations. -sz + '-\T -o(31) (+ coordinates where f is the semi-focal distance.2 32 for which a typical space point has the rectangular coordinates K -f ih F.2 The Angular Function T We consider first the angular function T.l) and (3.2) shows that a change from (3o1) to (3.LT+ "' a ri r lct(.2. Introducing the new indepen- dent variable x = s&.

These residues. ultimately may be based first on the zeros of the function U wbl ch represents an upgoing:.im e d i a t e ly pr e c ed i ng it i in (3 . and differs fr~xn it only in the presence right-hand side of the iditiona.3). (310 303 The Radial Function U We now consider the risdial function U. (3. where the coefficients .y applicable to (3. fields will be obtaiiable in terms of an (2. l). 9'&/ !(305) (3. Our aim will Then Ia to obtain a solution of this equation similar h. b)I' p gl-.1). are n4d An'P.iution of (3.36).6) on te (34) is similar in form i o (2. which Satisfies the first equation of (3. obtainable from the re:didues of the integral in the spherical case. 2. . and its derivative.21).. Consequently.b .4 ) ... which i{ representation.4) as T. F#4bP1KA . wave. We !4hall be interested in to that found in Sec. integral representation of the fo -mgiven in the normal mode solution.8) OL"II +- T.eJfore the form of solution gLve which thus has the solution in (2. (L a .35) is direct. A * )'L+4 (30 9) The:. we shal IL seek solutions of the radial equation similar 124 .3. Con s equ en t l y £l. Z a.4 ven by the recursion foiriula I. term bThis term has th 4 s avre p owe r o f x a s t he ( w+ we can immediately write the .

ZZ(3.R as f-*Oo Hence we are .13) becomes U.a L -Z! -+ I Ou/ - ) 0. 4 &L '3. and then will investigate their complex zeros as a function of order.14) a = kf.ed to introduce the change of independent variable f cosh C and the now dependent variable u= RU. To eliminate the first-derivative term.~h4ALe+3 j We seek to cast this into a form which resembles the spherical equation. (3o17) We now rearrange (3. 4+z Mr. we put z = kR9 (3.12) Then (3.55) for the spherical ease.to those given in (2. (3.+ . we put . R. (U11 We first note that the transition to the spherical ease is effected by allowing fcoshC -*.16) VOY+ -s9 * -L ) L(0-)-") + SL e + 3 Cae-e)e 0.t 25 . whereupon (3. (3o15) primes denoting derivatives with respect to s.16) then is replaced by (3.54) and (2.17) in the form S-+ 1/ ZN.11) becomes dI9L + + [kR -1 + 3-3 Next.+ (e ) x. The radial equation in question is a+ ta.

I or L 0-) where L~ t- (3.55).18). These are two simultaneous equations which comprise recurrence relations for the If we choose Ao = 1.4- it 10( ]A.54) and (2. The form of (3.21) (3.18) suggests a series solution in a/zo formed in the form Such a solution may be f.=_Y (3.18) -'[+(3o19) If the right-band side of (3.20) into (3. a = 0)..= _ a).20). we obtain the two equations 1 . for example.[%r*B where Bo = 00 equation for /j to terms containing only /k and like powers of 1. cients are Zv(2V+1 (?. [10]).22) 4V52. Z. but we shall find it more convenient to deduce directly a special form which is suitable for the normal mode problem.. + coefficients A. reducing by means of the differential .e. and equating coefficients of (Z) on both sides of the equation.6 isZa soBtyno . then the first few coeffi- A 40 39 M4 4aL 26 .20) and 40 wheres.. and By in (3.18) were zero (i... +0 a . solutions of the equation would be the normalized spherical Hankel functions given by (2.18).is a solution of the normalized spherical Bessel equation L(*) = 0 and Substituting (3. Solutions of the radial equation as a series of solutions of the spherical Bessel differential equation are available in the literature (see. and *- (3. Hence we seek a similar solution to (3. [ I __ 1 + -VA.0V.

wclk4.26) We can reduce this problem to cue of' exactly the same kind as solved in From (2.30) Consequently the procedure by which the zeros of (2.) by o (() and 6.26). we am replace h( (z) by a suitable sum of h. we obtain (1) Upi (m) a (24) i. as follows: hp From this.29) where a~'~ (3. we have found a solution of (3. 2.ca) + s where w al~) VV a) o)jcx. ()hpN + 26(m) h m.(3.28) into (3.) * A )Wx )03 (3. (3. (24)-% it'/& (3. 27 .29) now is of the same form as (2.15) of the foz u(z) .70). 2.16).70) were found may be applied directly to (3.62) to eliminate h2 (.23) 6(a) =(3. the only change required being the replacement of c((*) and P~(r.27) h~(z - 24)~ZI.( ZV&e4 5'/ fcqhsC) + 16(aohs 1(6)].25) In Order to conform to the type of integral representation given for the spherical case in See. Introducing (3.(.* Al er50 B" £1 (9)h('.~F~~ - f7~' PI~'~J a~s + o(6) +(3-28) where use has been made of (2.20) and (3.().29).27) and (3.5.) and z [.Thus combining (3.respectively.).7) (3. we choose the function tto be the normalized spherical Hsakel function 4" or he Then in finding the normal mode solution for the spheroidal problem we are led to a determination of the zeros of the function cz Sec.).

In order to deal with problems of non-spherical stratification. the coefficients of these functions being infinite series in terms of powers of the ratio of semi-focal distance to radius. SUMMIARY In this report we have shown how the exact earth-flattening procedure. a spheroidal geometry is investigated. developed in Li] for an isotropic spherically-stratified atmosphere. The radial function is expressed as a sum of the solution of the normalized spherical Bessel equation and its derivative. . An improved method of obtain- ing the oeros of these functions is derived which is not of asymptotic character. The general solution of the problem is formulated as an integral representation. Solutions for the angular function are found in the form of an infinite series of Bessel functions of the same type as tound for the spherical case. The developments for the spheroidal case are pursued in a way similar to that for the spherical geometry. which are required in the normal mode solution.4. from which may be derived either a ray-optical series or a normal mode series. In the latter case. the normal modes involve the normal- ized spherical Hankel function and its derivative. may be extended to the case of a spherical earth and atmosphere enveloped by a sharply bounded ionosphere. It is shown that the zeros of the radial function as a function of order. and carried out in detail for the oblate spheroid. may be found by the same procedure that was developed for the spherical case.

Trans. [6] H. 64D. 61-64. "Terrestrial Propagation of Very-Low-Frequency Radio Waves A Theoretical Investigation". 1. Phil. Roy. Jan.. Elsevier Publishing Coo. pp. Mass. B. Press. 1942. C. Radio Propagation. Vol. "Terrestrial Radio Waves". "Propagation in a Non-homogeneous Atmosphere". 8. Stanford.D. Harvard Univ.. Series A. Schelkunoff. Slater. Inc. PrOo. pp. [3] J. 1957. R. pp. "Tables of the Modified Hankel Functions of Order One-Third and of Their Derivatives". Cambridge. No. John Wiley & Sons. Vol. "Microwave Transmission". 0 [9] C. Calif. "An Exact Earth-Flattening Procedure in Propagation Around a Sphere". 1952. Dec 1954. Stanford Univ. NBS . p. March-April 1960o [4] J. Soco. pp. 153-204. 1960. Press. Phil. 2. Wait. Jour.Do Radio Propagation. Friedman and F. No. Soc.. 328-367. 247.. 2/3. "The Asymptotic Expansion of Bessel Functions of Large Order". t7] The Staff of the Computation Laboratory. New York. 1951. Vol. 1949.REFERENCES Li] B. Jour.-Feb. Camb. Vol. Res. Inc. W. Friedman. "Spheroidal Wave Functions".-C. pp. 64D. Res. New York. "Advanced Antenna Theory". 53. 317-350. Olver. Math.. 599-611.. Inc. 1957. [2] B. 1. Katzin. Flamer. Comm. [5] So A. 1945. New York. NBS . Vol0 IV. Bremer.. Chester. 197-199. on Pure and App. No. [10] C. [8] F. 29 . Ursell. pp. J. Koo and M. McGraw-Hill Book Co°.. "An Extension of the Method of Steepest Descents".

but on 12 kc/s the effect was rarely observed. cation circuits.I PART II VLF ENHANCBeGNTS AND HF FADEOUTS DURING SUDDEN IONOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES One of the spectacular phenomena of the ionosphere is the sudden ionospheric disturbance (SID). this effect being most evident as a decrease in reflection height They did not observe "any clear indication of a change in reflected Bureau [5] then pointed wave amplitude at the time of the phase anomalies" (SPA). of the waves". Budden and Ratcliffe [4] reported that measurements at Cambridge component of the downcoming They concluded of the phase of the abnormal (horizontally-polarized) waves from GER on 16 kc/s showed an anomaly at times of h-f fade-out. that frequencies from 27 to 40 kc/a showed the sudden increase. In 1936. *Numbers in brackets refer to the corresponding references in the Bibliography on p. 52. associated with the SID and concluded that the disturbance must be caused by solar ultraviolet radiation. They reported is One of the associated phenomena occurs on very low fre- this phenomenon that forms the subject matter of the present that atmospherics from all directions were reinforced simultaneously. that an SID "has a marked effect at the level of reflection of the low-frequency waves (70 kin). and it study. quencies. investigated in which drastically affects high-frequency communireported by Mogel [l]* and later Dellinger sunnarized the various phenomena This phenomenon was first detail by Dellinger [2). Bureau and Mairs [3] reported that abrupt short-wave fade-outs (denoted by SWF hereafter) usually were accompanied by simultaneous sudden increases in the strength of atmospherics received on very low frequencies (vlf). Later. 30 .

ing over the period 31 October 1938 to 25 June :940. not been published. Inc. 1940. which had accompany- been shown to produce SEA.I out that his observations on the sudden enhancament of atmospherics (SEA) ing SID showed that such increases were not obsWerved below about 17 kc/so An investigation was undertaken in 1938 to determine whether SID. great circle path length was about 5400 km Botb the GIA and the GLE equipments were calibrated at least once each day br means of standard signal generators. and. to record GLC (31o15 kc/s). whether any quantitative correlation existed between the v-i-f and h-f The experimental phase of the investigation was completed in but has effects of the SID.e results. and continuous The recording of this signal was being carried out at Riverhead fon other purpoes . extend- signal enhancements (SSE) of GLO. since this signal traversed appro:imately the same path.53 Mc/s) was selected. observations were continued. 2o DESCRIPTION OF MEASUREMENTS The measurements reported here were zaCe at the Riverhead transcontinental receiving station of RCA Conunications. . with negati. 3. also produced similar enhancement of v-i-f radio signals. 1 31. and respect to ionospheric layer to discuss the implications of these results witk structure and the modifications produced therein by the SID mechanism. RESULTS Sample records of a simultaneous SWF and SSE are reproduced in Figs. After several months' observations of the signal from SAQ (17o2 kc/s). the equipment was set up Some of the subsequent S1F were accompanied by sudden Consequently. and a preliminary report of the results wae presented in 1947 (6]. For comparison of the v-i-f SSE withi SWF) the signal eeceived from GLH (13. The purpose of this report is to present the essential results obtained. if so.

5 shows that in no case was the GLC increase as great as that of the GLH decrease. so that the proba- bility of a v-i-f enhancement is very high if the h-f effect is pronoucedo Fig. DISCUSION In the years since the observations described above were completed. The points are plotted with the increase in GLC signal (in decibels) as abscissa and the corresponding decrease (in decibels) of the GLH signal as ordinate. the characteristic behavior was a rather sharp initial Invariably.H associated with only a moderate fade on GLH. Fig 4 shows similar histograms of the number of GLH fades of intensity classi0 fied as fimoderate" or greater and GLC enhancements which occurred during the same period of observation. and that no evident correlation between the magnitudes of the two effects exists. (57. and then a gradual recovery. 5 represents a test to determine whether any correlation exists between the amplitude ranges of the v-i-f and h-f signals during an SID. solar 32 . respectively. a considerable body of information has accumulated concerning SID effects. the deepest fade of GT. change.3 db) on GLC. for example.1 db). The largest GLC increase (14. In general. Examination of Fig. and of GLH SIF over a longer period 0 Coincidences were observed only during the daylight hours when the h-f fades were more numerous. the recovery was more rapid for the h-f signal. 4. Points with an upward arrow attached correspond to complete fade-out of the GLH signal. although the magnitudes of the signal change varied rather widely from one event to the next. 3 shows histograms of the number of coincidences between SWF of GLH and SSE of GLC during the period of the observations. These records are rather typical of the data obtained. was Conversely. Fig. This shows a high degree of correlation.5 db) was accompanied by only a small increase (2. followed by a trough (or crest).and 2.

on the other however. and that it must take place in a layer below the reflecting 33 . V-i-f waves. however. and ionospheric structure. absorption. takes place mainly in the intermediate D-region hand.I phenomena. Observations of the type presented above. it appears that these results have important implications on the type of solar event which causes the SID.1 H-f Effects Appleton and Piggott (7i have made a comprehez sive study of h-f absorption at vertical incidence during a period extending over a sunspot cycle 0 They found that absorption was definitely under solar control. the attenuation depending on the conductivity of the guide "walls".and/or F-layers. but will give rise to increased absorption of h-f waves passing through the D-regiono It will be shown below that the above qualitative explanation must be modified and made more precise in order to fit the observations. as well as the changes in ionospheric layer characteristics. and on the layer structure and responsive mechanisms in the upper atmosphere. Since an enhancement of D-region ionization should increase the "wall" conductivity. this will reduce the attenuation of v-i-f waves. to In particular. They showed that the bulk of the absorption is of the non-deviative type. undergo a waveguide type of propagation between the conducting earth and the conducting D-region. have not been published previously. therefore. it is necessary to examine the absorption and reflection processes. since it varied in a regular manner with solar zenith angle. which take place as a result of a solar flare. In order to bring this out. In particular. 4. it will appear that a sharpening of the lower boundary of the D-region must result from the flare. A plausible qualitative explanatio at an early date: for the h-f and v-i-f effects was advanced The h-f waves are reflected by the E. examine the results obtained in the light of present-day knowledge. It is of interest.

and the + sign is for the ordinary wave. one of which is reflected by the E-layer and the other by the F-layer. the absorption is the same for reflection from either layer (apart from the period when the frequency is in the neighborhood of fE when additional deviative absorption takes place)..sign for the extraordinary wave. Appleton [8] gave for the absorption coefficient r. they showed that the absorbing region cannot be merely the lower portion of the E-region.I level of the E-region. depending on whether 34 . under conditions where the quasilongitudinal approximation holds. so that it is the ordinary wave which then is measured. Furthermore. (3) The variation of absorption with frequency can be explained only on the assumption that the same medium is responsible for absorption over the entire frequency range. where wL is the magnitude of the longitudinal component of the angular gyro frequency. but must be an independent ionized region. in a region of ionization density N and collision frequency v. For non-deviative absorption (ioe. which they identify with the D-regiono The evidence which led Appleton and Piggott to the above conclusions was obtained from three types of behavior: (1) The diurnal variations of absorption for two different frequencies. It can be seen that the dependence of r on the collision frequency v tends to a proportionality to either v or l/v. or to a sporadic 3-layer. the . (2) For a frequency whose reflection level shifts during the day from the F-layer to the E-layer. have substantially the same dependence on the solar zenith angle. in a region where the refractive index is substantially unity). The absorption of the ordinary wave is appreciably less than that of the extraordinary wave when w/wL is not too large.

Information regarding the electron production and removal processes in the absorbing region can be derived from a atudy of the dependence of absorption on the solar zenith angle X.30. Appleton and Piggott showed that the frequency dependence of in the total absorption (as measured by an effective reflection coefficient) is very good agreement with (2).I v2 is small or large compared with (w + wL) 2 . In particular. which depends on the rate and process by which free electrons disappear (e. (3) For a Chapman layer (constant scale height the recombination coefficient is where n depends on the ionosphere model. Taylor F10] found values from 0o7 to 1. This is shown by Fig.4 to 1. the absorption in winter being distinctly higher than for the same zenith angle at other seasons.g. n = 1.0 Nicolet [9] showed that a region of mounting temperature with height would have a lower value of n than one of constant temperatureo The experimental values cf n determined by Appletcn and Piggott range from about 0. Appleton and Piggott thus placed an upper limit for v of 2o107 /sec in the absorbing D-region. Thus ft follows that V2<<(w + wL)2 throughout the absorbing region.5. and recombination coefficient). X. attachment). the integrated absorption at vertical incidence for a wave which penetrates the absorbing region and is reflected (with negligible deviative absorption) at a higher level then is given by an expression of the form t o 4ds a A (w + wo F) (2) where A is a constant and F(X) is a function of the solar zenith angle. recombination. n = 1. 35 . Appleton and Piggott [7] found a winter anomaly.1. the theoretical relation bhows that the effective reflection coefficient p depends on X in a relation of the form 11109 P1 4c (C01Xr. 6. In the former case.. Furthermore. while if proportional to the ambient pressure.

Since the path length through the absorbing region increases as the secant of the angle of incidence on the absorbing layer.2 V-i-f Effects Although the main features of h-f absorption are fairly well understood. 4. the types of variation described hold substantially for an oblique path of constant length. Our present knowledge of D-region structure has been promoted by studies of the propagation characteristics of v-i-f waves.5). The above studies of ionospheric absorption have been concerned chiefly with vertically incident waves. although not completely understandable on the basis of present theoretical knowledge. since variations in the properties of the important regions of the ionosphere take place in a distance comparable with a wavelength. The requisite theory is much more complicated. and suggest that the region has a positive temperature gradient. definitely show that the absorbing layer is not of the Chapman type (for .which n = 1. which is made complicated by the anisotropy of the medium. These characteristics will be sumarised here in order to provide a background for the subsequent discussion of D-region mechanisms. and that the height region wherein the additional absorption during SID occurs cannot be localized from their measurements. and then only for the case of a vertical magnetic field or of vertical propagation. 36 . It should be pointed out that Appleton and Piggott's findings relate to normal h-f absorption. theory has been worked out only for special variations of electron density and critical frequency with height. More recently. numerical procedures have been introduced to handle more general situations. This necessitates full wave An analytical theory. but results are available only for a limited number of combinations of parameters.The experimental values. this is not the case for v-l-f waves.

principally by English workers [14-22]. The phase The depends on the length of the transmission path and the height of reflection. 4. the Pennsylvania State University group [13]). Variations in reifection height with time can be deduced from measureFor this ntenna ments of the phase variation of the sky wave at a given receiving point. Consequently it will be convenient to discuss the short and long distance measurements separately. apparent height of reflection is deduced from observation of the amplitude pattern versus distance produced by interference between the ground and sky waves. and also by measuring the phase difference between ground and sky waves for different frequencies.Although some measurements of layer height have been made at very low frequencies with pulse techniques (Brown and Watts [1]. purpose the sky wave is isolated from the ground wave by means of a special arrangement. for example. show that a distinct change in the character of the sky wave takes place in the neighborhood of 400 kin. and polarization. Helliwell [12]. and then the modifications observed during SID. corresponding to an angle of incidence on the ionosphere of about 650. Measurements at a frequency of 16 kc/s. These measurements have been made at various distances extending out to about 1000 km.2. Observations of the change in phase of the sky wave are especially useful in testing solar control of the reflecting medium. The printipal characteristics of the ionospherically propagated wave (the so-called "sky wave") are its phase. the most extensive and detailed studies have been carried out on c-w transmissions.1 Short Distance Characteristics The measurements at short distances may be sunarized as follows: (a) Relection Hight Typical results of the phase lag of the sky wave relative to 37 . amplitude.

4. (b) Polarization For short distances of 100-300 km. 7.I I the ground wave are shoun in Fig.8 t 0. Iheight vs. On 30 kc/s. which is a reasonable value for the scale height onsequently this result was used for some time to infer that the reflecting layer was of the Chapman type. po 11] are approximately equal. on 43 kc/s. The height of reflection shows marked solar control during the day. is shown in Fig. = (4) An average value of ho is where ho is the value corresponding to X 0. 10.. however. in accordance with the relation h a h. the slope A(t) of the Fig. a mean value is 5. the components p22 and P12 of the tensor reflection coefficient [see Part I. is not explainable on the basis of a Chapman layer.1 kim. It should be noted that the descent from the night-time height starts at a time very close to ground sunrise at the midpath point. ho and A(t) at 16 kc/s through the course of the year If reflection took place from a Chapman layer. The polarization remains the (c) 4pJ4 e In view of the approximately circular polarization of the sky wave. and its seasonal variation in I8 .t og [C. however. t A. with greater variability at the higher frequencies. and Ch(X) is the Chapman function.1 km. England are shown in Fig. nearly all observations show that the sky wave on all frequencies from 16-150 kc/s is approximately circularly polarized with a left-handed sense of rotation same through an SID.5 + 0. log [Ch(x)] curve would be the scale height. The diurnal variation of the component p125 called the "conversion coefficient". I which reduces to sac X for X less than about 85o 73 t 2 km. 8 shows curves of The apparent heights at Values of A(t) run I I noon and night near Cambridge.h (01. This variation of A(t). iand at 70 kc/s a-ound 3 kim. 90 around 6 kim.

4. measurements near vertical incidence. 11.Fig. and (4) observations of the v-l-f spectral characteristics of atmospherics. The diurnal-variation of reflection height is illustrated by Fig.miarised in this section. small ripples in the winter daytime curve are considered as probably being due to a two-hop wave. (1) 16 kc/s observations at 540 kin. (2) a series of observations over the Decca navigation chain at frequencies from 70 to about 130 kc/a. Fig. 15. 13 and 14 show the diurnal variation of pI2 on 16 and 70 kc/s. These have been derived from four sources. and distances up to 950 kin. respectively. with no apparent This agrees within a few kilometers with the variation of height with frequency. These principally cover distances of about 400-950 ka. in sumaer and winter. for different seasons.2.2 Lon& Distanoe Characteristics The characteristics inferred from measurements over longer distances will be . but will also include some deductions made from observations over distances of several thousands of kilometers. It is seen that a pre-sunrise drop and post-sunset rise (The in amplitude takes place.) The drop in amplitude begins at a solar zenith angle of close to 980. (3) phase variations at 16 kc/s and lower frequencies in connection with basic studies of navigation systems. 12 shows the frequency trend of P12 Figs. for a frequency of 16 kc/s. for a 39 . It is evident that the daily amplitude variation is distinctly different from the daily height variation at short distances. with an essentially constant level during the day. (a) Reflection Height The reflection heights determined fra pattern fit the ground interference in with a reflection height of 70 ± 2 km at midday.

and Tibbals [24] measured a diurnal change of about 3500 + 300 at 12. respectively. This represents a change from the short distance measurements. (c) Amplitude The reflection coefficient at oblique incidence is be greater than at vertical incidence. coefficient with distance. frequency of 16 kc/s. The drop in amplitude around sunrise is shown in Fig.27 at summer midday. but smaller values at increasing frequency. compared to vertical incidence values of 015 and 0050. the height variation is very much like the amplitude variation near vertical incidence shown in Fig. (b) Polarization Measurements of the polarization of the sky wave showed this to be linear at about 450 to the vertical. and 0°55 at night. smaller values of reflection coefficient are found at the higher frequencies. for which it was assumed that the nighttime height was 90 km. the sunrise drop in height being substantially complete at midpath around sunrise. an (21] obtained the results shown in Fig° 17. This is similar to the behavior of the reflection height shown in Fig. This is completely different from the diurnal variation at vertical incidence shown in Fig. 18. which gave the polarization as approximately circular. 15. 7.. et al 119] found a value of 0. while Casselman. From measurements of v-i-f transmissions on available frequencies analyzed by IA . In fact. and to the amplitude behavior at short distances. round to For 16 kc/s) Bain. For higher frequencies. Again. Weekes and Stuart This shows an increasing reflection Also. increase of about 2:1 takes place between summer and winter. Heritage. 10o Similar types of variation were observed at higher frequencies. This is shown in Figo 16. Pierce [23] reported a normal diurnal phase variation at 16 kc/s of 200P ± 300 over a 5200 im path.2 kc/s over a 4000 km path.

22 shows an example of the relative phase and amplitude changes observed at a distance of about 900 km during an SID. for example.3 This shows a minimum around 15 ke/s. The above characteristics. The phase change associated with the reduction in height of reflection decreases with increasing frequency. 19. [27]. combined with observations of the spectrum of individual atmospherics. From observations of SEA. of importance 3. accompanied a solar flare of importance 2+. as shown by Fig. relative change in amplitude is The roughly proportional to the decrease in reflection height. This Is illustrated by Fig. as shown in Fig. the change in amplitude being greater at higher frequencies. 21 for 16 ke/s. observed near vertical incidence. 20(a). . Fig. during an SID. undergo a drastic change at oblique incidence associated with the longer ranges (>500 ka). the decrease in reflection height is substantially the same for frequencies in the range 16-135 kc/s. at 70 kc/a than at higher frequencies.2. height. Chapman and Macario [26] deduced the attenuation vs. 20(b). frequency curve shown in Fig.I I Eckersley [25). 4. and a maximum around 2 kc/so SIRggeg The effects of SID associated with solar flares have been observed both at the short and long distances used to obtain the results discussed above. jPierce i4 [23] showed an example of a phase advance at 16 kc/s over a 5200 1m path This SID. The amplitude near vertical incidence suffers a decrease during an SID. The amount of this increase is greater. it appears that the amplitude Imcrease may be a maximum for frequencies around 30 kc/s. In general. while the amplitude increases markedly. This change in phase appears to be a very sensitive way to detect flares Near vertical incidence. a change both in phase and amplitude of the sky wave is The change in phase corresponds to a decrease in reflection associated with an SID.

2. Pierce suggested that the primary physical phenomenon produced by the SID might be a steepening of the ionization gradient. or No amplitude equivalent to a reduction in height of reflection of about 9 km. in reflection height is less for higher frequencies. during a 3. so that the frequency of minimum attenuaAlso. the SID produces a reduction in reflection height and a change in amplitude of the sky wave. 4. This increase.I A phase advance of 1000 was observed. At oblique incidence. appears to be a maximum at frequencies around 30 kc/s. and becomes less for higher frequencies. be by a factor of about 100. -_equency et al [29. To sumarize the SID effects observed on v-. a 60 kc/s signal over the same path experienced a phase advance of only 700. which may be by a factor of 5 or more. Gardner [28] and Obayashi. with an accompanying reduction in the phase lag at reflection. raised. while the sky wave amplitude increases markedly. On the other hand. while the amplitude change is amount of this decrease is a decrease. The progressively greater at higher frequencies.l-f wave propagation. the decrease proportional to the decrease in reflection height. while the amplitude increased considerably.SID. the low-frequency cutoff of the ionospheric waveguide was tion was raised.4 Eclipse Effects Observations of the phase of the sky wave on 16 kc/s at steep incidence were made during a partial solar eclipse by Bracewell [311 Although the 42 . Near vertical incidence the reduction in reflection height appears to be substantially independent of frequency. This is half the normal diurnal change.30] showed that an SID shifted the spectrum of atmospherics upwards. however.6 km. accompanying a 2 flare. and roughly At 100 kc/s the decrease may on the other hand. change was observed. corresponding to a decrease in height of the reflecting region. corresponding to a height change of about 1.


greatest eclipsed area was only 0.3 of the solar disk, a definite phase anomaly was found, as shown in Fig. 23. shape of the obscured area curve. From this result, Bracewell deduced that the relaxation time of the reflecting region probably did not exceed 6 minutes. change about 35 degrees Furthermore, the magnitude of the phase The form can be seen to agree roughly with the

represented an increase in height of reflection of

about 1 km, while for a Chapman layer a change of only about 0.2 km would be expected. 4.3 D-Lay'er Production and Structure A proper interpretation of SID effects on ionospheric propagation ultimately requires a knowledge of the composition of the ionizing agents, and of the reactions which lead to the prevailing ionization densities. some of the pertinent available information will be suarized. 4.3.1 The Two-Layer Model In order to explain the diurnal phase and amplitude variations In this Section,

discussed in Sec. 4.2.1 and 4.2.2, Bracewell and Bain [32] proposed an ionospheric model containing a two-layer D-region. The height of the upper layer, which they

denoted by Da, was supposed to be under solar control in accordance with the formula

h = 72 + 5.5 log sec x km.
This is shown by the upper curve in Fig. 24,


Below this layer, a layer denoted by

D4 was postulated to exist, with height variations as shown in the lower part of Fig. 24. The upper layer was supposed to be the reflecting layer for 16 kc/s waves

at steep incidence, while the lower layer was considered to be responsible for absorption of the waves. At sufficiently glancing incidence, however, reflection

would take place at the lower layer. Bracewell and Bain based their two-layer model entirely on the observations of


16 kc/s propagation at short and medium distances. They gave no suggestions as to the mechanisms by which these two layers could be formed. 4°3.2 Bracewp1ls Exhaustion Region In order to explain the observed type of solar flare and eclipse effects on the D-region, Bracewell


postulated the existence of a so-called

"exhaustion region", in which the ionizable constituent exists in a small concentration. With respect to a two-layer D-region, this mechanism was supposed to take

place in the upper region, denoted by Da in Seco 4o3olo Bracewell showed that an exhaustion region would explain the amount of change in reflection height, observed during a partial solar eclipse, whereas a mucn smaller change would result from a Chapman region. He. also showed that an exhaustion

region would produce h-f absorption whose variation with cosX agreed in general with experimental observations. Bracewell also showed that the characteristics of an exhaustion region would explain satisfactorily the observed reductions in reflection height during solar flares. For example, a reduction of 15 km in height would require an increase in However, no attempt

intensity of the incident ionizing radiation by a factor of 15.

was made to deduce the accompanying effect on the amplitude of v-I-f waes° 403o3 Ionization Mechanisms The existence of several separate mechanisms for the formation of ionization in the D-region has been brought out in the last 'ecad.e o7 soo Brown

and Petrie L32]., pursuing a suggestion attributed 'o Ratcliffe, have evaluated the role of photodetachment of electrons from Oj icnso ment of an electron to a neutral oxygen moleculea This ion, formed by the attachstarts building up in corcentration The nighttime

arcund sunset, resulting in the disappearance cf the normual D-layero

level of ionization below the E-layar is maintained by cosmic rays, which vary in


intensity with latitude. Visible light, extending down into the infrared, can

supply the energy required to break up the attachment, and thus liberate free electrons* Since visible light can reach the altitudes >50 km appreciably before

ground sunrise, electrons released by the photodetachment process build up D-layer ionization appreciably before sunrise. Brown and Petrie (33], and Moler [34]

showe, that this explained satisfactorily the pre-sunrise drop in amplitude discussed in Sec. 4.2.1. Aiken L35] verified the fact that a two-layer D-region

would be produced at sunrise, the lower layer being due to cosmic rays, and the upper layer to photoionization of nitric oxide by Lymanradiation0 Thus, in the

two-layer model of Bracewell and Bain discussed in Sec. 4.3.1, these mechanisms would account for the layers D* and Da, respectively. Nicolet and Aikin [36], in a discussion of the formation of the D-region, pointed out the following mechanisms of ionization which are possible at levels

below 85 kn:
(1) X-rays of X < 10 A;

(3) (4) (5)

Lyman-a radiation (0 = 1215.7A);
Ultraviolet radiation, X > 1800 A; Cosmic rays; Photodetachment by visible radiation.

The normal E-layer, which is ascribed to the combined affect of soft X-rays in the range 30-100 A and ultraviolet radiation (Lyman-p) is penetrated by cosmic rays, ultraviolet radiation of X > 1800 A, Lyman-a and hard X-rays (X < 10 A), Of these, cosmic rays and hard X-rays are capable of ionizing all atmospheric


In addition, Lyman-a, due to a narrow window in 02 absorption at the A minor constituent, NO (l1 part in 1010

Lyman-a line, can penetrate to low levels.

was proposed by Nicolet [37] as the ionizable constituent responding to Lyman-a to


account for the daytime D-layer. In view of the presently-accepted view that the upper part of the D-region, Da, is due to photoionization of NO by Lyman-a, it is tempting to suppose that NO

is the ionizable constituent responsible for the exhaustion region postulated by Bracewell. The concentration of NO has been estimated by Nicolet [381 as about

3 10-10 of the total concentration below about 85 km, or about 105 cm- at 75 km


In order to give ionization densities to fit

the v-i-f observations, however,

the NO concentration would have to be lower than this by about two orders of magnitude, or about 103 cm-3 at 75 km. Although Bracewell believed the exhaustion region would also explain solar flare effects, this must be rejected on the basis of later evidence. For example.,

Friedman and collaborators [39] observed no large increases in Lyman-c during flares, whereas Bracewell requires a factor of about 15. In a recent report, Chubb,

et al [40] stated that no increase in Lyman-a occurred during a 1+ flare, but X-rays in the range 1-10 A were observed. As mentioned earlier, the solar flare enhance-

ment of ionization has been shown to be explainable by the appearance of hard X-rays in the wavelength rr.nge 1-10 A, which ionize all atmospheric constituents, and can penetrate to low levels because of the low absorption coefficients in this spectral region. The resulting ionization would be even less sharply distributed in height

.-than a Chapman region. 4.4 Comarison With SID Results The two features of the experimental results shown in Fig. 5 which require explanation are the following: (1) (2) The lack of correlation between the magnitudes of SWF and SSE; The mechanism which produces the SE.

It will now be shown that the first is explainable on the basis of D-layer structure


but that an adequate explanation of the second is not available on the basis of present knowledge. The increase in h-f absorption leading to SWF is the sum of the increases in the two regions. to believe. the normal-mode theory of propagation is more advantageous than the ray theory. Consequently. this would result in the absence of any clear-cut statistical correlation between the v-l-f and h-f effects of flares. 4. D*. so that the relative increases can be expected to change from flL'e to flare. 5 Is understandable within the framework of the two-layer model discussed in Sec. It will now be shown that this qualitative explanation cannot be substantiated on the basis of presently accepted ionization processes and present theoretical knowledge concerning v-l-f propagation For the ranges involved in the observations reported here. at present.1ol Abence of Correlation Between HaVitudes of SWF and SSE The absence of any correlation between SWF and SSE in Fig.2 Mechani=m Associated With §§E The observations reported in Seco 3 show that SSE on vlf is one of the phenomena accompanying SID produced by solar flares. then both the regions of the Da and D layers will be intensified. For example. The relative intensifications of these two regions There is no reason will depend on the spectral distribution of the X-radiation. that all solar flares have the same spectral distribution. while the v-l-f SSE would respond only to changes in the lower layer. A number of analytical treatments of this theory have appeared [41-55]. acting as t he upper wall of a waveguide. It was also stated that such enhancements can be understood in a qualitative way as due to reduced normal-mode attenuation as a result of increased conductivity of the ionosphere. since only one mode is effective. 4o3o1. 47 . if the flare produces a burst of hard X-rays without any enhancement in Lyman-a radiation. 4.and solar flare radiation.

Cail ulaticcs using uder the further eaes as the height such a model have been made. so that the rea. and longitudinal gyrt angular frequencies. otl er things remaining unchanged. 40 . the attenuation decresxes as the ionosphere boundsa7y becomes sharper. iL are the plasmas. and fPr special directions of Ubhii earth'a magnetic field (usually taken to be vertiiLL). Also. The ionospheric parameters then -nter the analysis in an effect}e conductivity wr given by where wN' v. Nevertheless. the attenuation de of the boundary decreases.y Because of the inabil : to produce an t e analytical solution of sufficient generality. amotg others. these tend to show that. Fig.OP density and collision frequency with height. collision. respectively. for a constant collision frequency.'] 6 assumption that the quasi-longit-Ldinal approximation of Booker [ 1] may be used. 25 (from [53]) shows the attenuation of the first rode i n db/lO00 km s a function of frequency for various ionosphere heights for a value of Wr of 2-105. only a rather small nwbe of examples has been worked out. One of the idealizations which reduces greatly the comple dty of the calculations is that of a sharply bounded homogeneous ionospher. . which dductions ofI a general nature can be drawn. by Spies and Wait [5.. but a very large number of special casil out in order to produce a suffici ently extensive catalog froa. A yet. efforts have tb a directed towards obtaining numerical solutions [56-60o This approach is not rastricted to special needs to be worked height distributions.but none treats the problem in a maufficiently general way to allow definitive conclusions to be drawn pertinent to the present observationao Aalytical solutiona have been obtained only for speci&l distributions of ionizati .L1t4s from which one must drabI general inferences are rather scanty.

is. The electron density distributions in the D-region shown iA Fig.I It can be seen from these curves that a reduction of height from 75 to 60 km. a 15 km height decrease would bring about an increase in v of a factor of 10. expectation of an enhanced ionospheric conductivity would not be realized.2 db/1000 km for a frequency of 30 kc/s. since it is based on the behavior of an idealized sharply bounded ionosphere having 49 . then the effective conductivity would decrease by a factor of about 2. an appreciable decrease in effective conductivity would result. Assiming a value of wL of about 50106 as a representative value for the transatlantic path in the measurements with which we are concerned. a solar en- between a quiet sum and a strong flare. say.3. attenuation decrease is the result of a decrease in the grazing angle of the first mode to the ionosphere. hancement will cause a given ionization density to appear at a lower level. However.2 db. in virtue of the approximately exponential increase in critical frequency with such a height decrease. calculated by Nicolet and Aiken [36]. 1. so that the collision frequency. the effective ionosphere conductivity. Hence one might argue that it is reasonable to suppose that a decrease in attenuation as a result of a decrease of 15 km in reflection height of the same order as that calculated for the sharply bounded ionosphere would occur. is assumed to remain unchanged. semi-quantitative. the total reduction in attenuation would be about This the height rechiction oourred uniformly over the whole path. the value of wr. at most. However. The above conclusion. would result in a reduction of slightly more than 0. Wr. Thus the qualitative Instead. it must be emphasized. but with substantiAlly the same gradient. 26. would be decreased 0 On the basis of Kane's (62] measumment of collision frequency. this decrease in attenuation is based on a custant effective conductivity. about 103 a3 show no appreciable change in shape at a density of Consequently. if For a 50 km path. v.

in addition to increasing the ionization densities at fall levels in the 1-region. for the time being. and that an adequate quantitative theory is needed before a firm conclusion can be reached. As mentioned above. CONCLUSIONS Simultaneous observations of short-wave fade-outs (SWF) of a 13. which are shown in Fig.5-Mc/s signal and sudden signal enhancements (SSE) of a 31ol5-kc/s signal over substantially the same transatlantic path of approximately 5400 km show no evident correlation between the magnitudes of the two effects of the SID. while the upper layer is due to photoionization of nitric oxide by Lyman-a radiationo Hard X-rays (in the range 1-10 A) emitted by a solar flare 15 . it appears that the flare must increase the sharpness of the lower boundary. This would result in a decreased penetration of the waves reflected therefrom. If we grant. In other words. that an increased sharpness of the lower boundary of the D-layer is required to explain the SSE produced by the flare. 5. Again. 26. and hence. it must be emphasised that this line of argument is only qualitative. an increased gradient at these lower heights appears to be required. In order to obtain an increased conductivity at the lowered heights due to the onset of a flare.I I "average" properties given by the Nicolet and Aiken results. then it is necessary to adduce the mechanism which produces this effect. the electron density distributions calculated by Nicolet and Aiken. is understandable on the basis of a two-layer D-region8 This absence of correlation The lower layer is produced by cosmic rays. show no appreciable change in shape at the electron densities required. could outweigh the effect of the increased collision frequency encountered at the lowered reflection height. for a sufficiently sharp boundary.

Since the increase in h-f absorption is the sm of the increases in the two regions. Phase measuremets show that a definite decrease in height of the lower boundary of the D-region is caused by the flare. distribution varies from flare to flare. The relative intensifications of the two D-regions will depend on the On the assumption that the spectral spectral distribution of the X-radiatioa. this takes place needs to be determined.penetrate to the low levels of the D-region and ionize all constituents (principally 02 and NS). The mechanism by which I | 51 . On the other hand. Conse- quectly. no correlation should result between the two effects. the relative increases also cm be expected to vary frm flare to flare. which should result in a decrease in the effective conductivity of the layer if the ionization gradient remains the same. it appears that an increase in the sharpness of the lower boundary of the D-region is required during the onset of a solar flare. This reduced height causes reflection to take place at a level of higher collision frequency. an adequate explanation of the mechanism of the v-i-f enhancement is not available on the basis of present knowledge. while the v-i-f enhancement is occasioned only by the changes at the lower level.

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0 0. - l 0 00) CQ 0 ti 17r A00 3Ab r 0d0C) Iq Jd58 . ICd 0 0 .

1 '4 HN 4 0 bD 010000 'loll d V0 59 .*W'V 9.

- - -~ ~~ J 7 COINCIDENCES . 60 .. 3--Histogram of GLH fades.. o1NOV. and off coincidences between GLH fades and GLO enhancements. . . - ~~~~ - - - - -. -4--r 05 06 0708 0910 11 12 1514 15 1617 IS81920 2122 2324 01 020304 05 UNIVERSAL TIME Fig.-ti. ~-AUG. . BETWEEN GLH FADES and GLC it ENHANCEMENTS . *r 1938-JUNEI194 I - *NUMBER -- OF GLH FADES 1936-JUNE 1940..

4-Histograms of GLO enhancements and GLH fades of intensity "moderate" or greater. during common operating periods.10Z L NACMNS CD z 060 8 la 9t 07080910If 12 131415 16 171IS1920 21 22 2324 0102 0304 05 UNIVERSAL TIME Fig. 61 .

__ U U) C.) U) V 0 .) 0 4-.H0 0 0 * -I 1VNOIS H-19 NI 3SV383G S13681330l 62 ..

00 1. 0 0 00 63 .* C 1 C. .

.1-ira PI aito o n16k/.90 400_ _ _ __ _ _ A__ _ _ 0-- x *X -70 FES APR AM UIS OCT OC Fig.3[ J40-1 OL-r 0 0600 ita 24. x Obeazoaa min 1948 e 0 Obewvatom made to 1949. 0.4 . 9-.2-5Jly ovrincofcsi 98 * .0 Fi. Seasonal variation of the apparent height of reflection' at 'night (upper curve) and at local noon~ (lower curve).

. 11-The seasonal varnuon ot 01 observed on a I4ii. epuobeeevailam mae&R i~ 1% 00Ppeaaoeraomad . 01 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct No Fiji.00- 0.jRepreents 00 Sammer noon.e.4 a 0- ~0 1 0 0 ic1z 1 1Frequency. 12T11c variation of conversion coefficient 0~ L2With Fic.Ngt1. an ur~r limit when measurementp am confused by aime 65. . 16 kc/s for midnight (upper curve) and midday (lower oie) ox Winter night.IU23 frequenWinfer different season's.4.

x-x t At 71 ki. S X 04 0-2 0 Ln 2O 40 60 0 10 0 000 0100 020 GAI 030 000 00 Distiicefromsendr~ki vrosdi~stance from !* . n :11car Sib L Fig. 1949. in sunLwbr. 66 . 0000lp 010 0200n 0300' ob400ton (a) At 7114 kC/l 0uin 00.sin surmer.rise at the mid-point of the path. xx~xx The &now inicate All obirTd resultsat 7114 kcis. 1'At 70 -9 kc/s. At M58. The arrow indicates the time of ground snrise at the mid-point of the pith. in summetr. in winter.4 0 0) 6"~ 75 on e/ atugus. 0-6 C . .. h ie fgu . -V --A At 127 -5kc/sin summper.199 -At 83 kc/s. aqadover seven days in July. inaprn hih frelcin ear surise. (b) AtIs We. (e) At 1133Itch.1kcs.- t ender.

67 .x Fm(QqVcNCV %LOW .TAIL 0SILAT0YV with freuen~cy.

. 68a0* . 0 7 * *0 0 C) *I0 0 -9- +C * r un a 0 0 r -L - - -L 0 x -001 ~ 0 0 0400 ..0 volsjOK.II C.

7T1.I II d . 5- I I I I I I I I l h I~cee. s . 4The diurnal height variations of tho layers Da and DP.l Nex/num rnib S 07 N Fit.4. 23-.Eclipse anomaly obtained by subtracting mean of control days from eclipse day. hi 69 .

... T. . / 70- .. * 1"0 FREQEN7.. i2 ' Py f* 105< Xi Wit :4. 7.4 7. ~t< .

Very quI "ma 2 Quiet sun 65-/ 5 3 Lightly disfurlb 4 Disturbed sun 5.h height for various solar conditions. 2 6--Vmriatton or electron concentration vit. 71 .I I I I t I S I I 0 REGION AND SOLAR ACTIVITY 0 12 3 4 6 75 - X 1. Specil events 6 Strong flares 6 0 1011 L0 4 loll ELECTRON CONCENTRATION (cm' 3 ) F14g.

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