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1)CAPITAL MARKET: MEANING

Capital Market is one of the significant aspect of every financial market. Hence it is necessary to study its correct meaning. Broadly speaking the capital market is a market for financial assets which have a long or indefinite maturity. Unlike money market instruments the capital market intruments become mature for the period above one year. It is an institutional arrangement to borrow and lend money for a longer period of time. It consists of financial institutions like IDBI, ICICI, UTI, LIC, etc. These institutions play the role of lenders in the capital market. Business units and corporate are the borrowers in the capital market. Capital market involves various instruments which can be used for financial transactions. Capital market provides long term debt and equity finance for the government and the corporate sector. Capital market can be classified into primary and secondary markets. The primary market is a market for new shares, where as in the secondary market the existing securities are traded. Capital market institutions provide rupee loans, foreign exchange loans, consultancy services and underwriting.
FUNCTIONS OF CAPITAL MARKET

1. Mobilization of Savings : Capital market is an important source for mobilizing idle savings from the economy. It mobilizes funds from people for further investments in the productive channels of an economy. In that sense it activate the ideal monetary resources and puts them in proper investments. 2. Capital Formation : Capital market helps in capital formation. Capital formation is net addition to the existing stock of capital in the economy. Through mobilization of ideal resources it generates savings; the mobilized savings are made available to various segments such as agriculture, industry, etc. This helps in increasing capital formation. 3. Provision of Investment Avenue : Capital market raises resources for longer periods of time. Thus it provides an investment avenue for people who wish to invest resources for a long period of time. It provides suitable interest rate returns also to investors. Instruments such as bonds, equities, units of mutual funds, insurance policies, etc. definitely provides diverse investment avenue for the public. 4. Speed up Economic Growth and Development : Capital market enhances production and productivity in the national economy. As it makes funds available for long period of time, the financial requirements of business houses are met by the capital market. It helps in research and development. This helps in, increasing production and productivity in economy by generation of employment and development of infrastructure. 5. Proper Regulation of Funds : Capital markets not only helps in fund mobilization, but it also helps in proper allocation of these resources. It can have regulation over the resources so that it can direct funds in a qualitative manner. 6. Service Provision : As an important financial set up capital market provides various types of services. It includes long term and medium term loans to industry, underwriting services, consultancy services, export finance, etc. These services help the manufacturing sector in a large spectrum.

7. Continuous Availability of Funds : Capital market is place where the investment avenue is continuously available for long term investment. This is a liquid market as it makes fund available on continues basis. Both buyers and seller can easily buy and sell securities as they are continuously available. Basically capital market transactions are related to the stock exchanges. Thus marketability in the capital market becomes easy. IMPORTANCE OF CAPITAL MARKET: Pooling the capital resources and developing enterprise investors Solve the problem of paucity of funds Mobilize the small and scattered savings Growth of joint stock business Provide a number of profitable investment opportunities for a small savers Classification of capital market: Industrial securities market Government security market Long term market

Industrial securities market 1. Primary market 2. Secondary market Primary market Provide the channel for sale of new securities Provide opportunity to issue of securities Govt as well as corporate to raise resources to meet their requirement investment and discharge some obligation

Secondary market It refers to a market where securities are traded after being initially offered to the public in the primary market. majority of the trading is done in the secondary market comprises of equity markets and debt markets

Products in the secondary market 1)Equity shares2) Preference shares3)debentures4)bonds5)treasury bills Long term loan market 1)Term loans market2)Mortgages market3)financial guarantees market 2)TYPES OF INVESTMENT Financial Instruments Equities : Equities are a type of security that represents the ownership in a company. Equities are traded (bought and sold) in stock markets. Alternatively, they can be purchased via the Initial Public Offering (IPO) route, i.e. directly from the company. Investing in equities is a good longterm investment option as the returns on equities over a long time horizon are generally higher than most other investment avenues. However, along with the possibility of greater returns comes greater risk. Mutual funds : A mutual fund allows a group of people to pool their money together and have it professionally managed, in keeping with a predetermined investment objective. This investment avenue is popular because of its cost-efficiency, risk-diversification, professional management and sound regulation. You can invest as little as Rs. 1,000 per month in a mutual fund. There are various general and thematic mutual funds to choose from and the risk and return possibilities vary accordingly. Bonds : Bonds are fixed income instruments which are issued for the purpose of raising capital. Both private entities, such as companies, financial institutions, and the central or state government and other government institutions use this instrument as a means of garnering funds. Bonds issued by the Government carry the lowest level of risk but could deliver fair returns. Deposits : Investing in bank or post-office deposits is a very common way of securing surplus funds. These instruments are at the low end of the risk-return spectrum. Cash equivalents : These are relatively safe and highly liquid investment options. Treasury bills and money market funds are cash equivalents. Non-financial Instruments Real estate : With the ever-increasing cost of land, real estate has come up as a profitable investment proposition. Gold : The yellow metal is a preferred investment option, particularly when markets are volatile. Today, beyond physical gold, a number of products which derive their value from the price of gold are available for investment. These include gold futures and gold exchange traded funds.