ABSTRACT

Most will agree with the statement that Organization Development implies change, and we accepted that improvement in organizational functioning means that change has occurred, then broadly defined, Organization Development means organization change. Not everyone agrees with this statement, and the researcher does not. Improvement in an organization’s way of operation may mean change from one procedure to a better one – such as putting an organization’s payroll procedure onto a computer rather processing checks by hand – but the fundamentals of how problems are solved, how decisions are made, and how people are treated may not have changed at all. This more fundamental aspect of change in the organization and how social power and organizational politics are affecting it was the domain of this research study. There are four primary social-psychological concepts for diagnosing an organization to be effective and efficient; they are norms, values, and rewards. The fourth concept is power, and herein lies the center stage of my study. And the reason for choosing power is both significant and straightforward. Organization Development signifies change, and for change to occur in an organization, power must be exercised. The research study is to understand the nature of power, from both the personal and organizational perspective, and be able to determine, within an organization, specifically Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa, who has power, how power is exercised, and where the leverages v

for change are likely to be, specifically on how to attain organization development in terms of human resource management functions such as; recruitment, placement and involvement, staff development, and motivation. The initial concern of the study was power itself – individual need for power and the consequences of this need on management, sources of power for an individual in a social context, and organizational sources of power. The study considers management, which was define as the exercise of power, and then, who addresses the implications of what power and politics can do in affecting management effectiveness and efficiency at Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa in the attainment of its organizational objectives.

The general problem of this study is to determine the effects of social power and organizational politics in organization development in terms of human resource management functions such as: recruitment and selection, placement and involvement, staff development, and motivation. Specifically, the study wants the following sub-problem to be answered. 1) What is the profile of the respondents in terms of; 1.1} Person-related variables: a) Gender b) Civil Status c) Age 1.2) Professional-related variables: a) Status of appointment vi

b) Length of service c) Highest educational attainment

2). How did the respondents assess the administrators/deans and the use of their social powers aimed to improve organization development: a) Reward power b) Coercive power c) Legitimate power d) Referent power e) Expert power 3). Which of the administrators/deans social powers has the greatest capacity to improve desired organizational outcomes: a) Reward power b) Coercive power c) Legitimate power d) Referent power e) Expert power 4) Is there a significant difference between male and female respondents in their assessment of the aforementioned variables? 5) How did the respondents assess the administrators/deans in their practice of the following systems that affect organizational life: a) Palakasan System b) Padrino System vii

c) Political Affiliation 6) How did the respondents assess the effect of the administrators/deans in their use of Social Powers in improving desired organizational outcomes? 7) Is there a significant relation between the respondent’s assessment of the effects of social powers and organizational politics in organization development? This study focuses its attention on the kind of social power and the indicators of organizational politics being exercised by the administrative and academic personnel, in the furtherance of the educational philosophy and objectives of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa. The study only included as respondents the faculty who in one way are the major component of how social power and politics affects them personally and professionally. Through this study, the faculty will be learning with information on organization development that will serve as a way in providing quality education. For the present Administrators, for this study will be very useful and can be a source of information to evaluate their existing systems and practices and come up with another that is more responsive and effective. Lastly for future researchers, may this study be a source of information in making a future study in organization development. The research paradigm is to show the concept on how social powers namely: rewards, coercive, legitimate, referent, and expert power can affect the effectiveness of organization development in terms of human resource functions of recruitment, placement and involvement of employees, staff development and motivation in an organization. Organizational politics; such as the Palakasan viii

System, the Padrino System and Political Affiliation will also be a major variable that will be significant in the study of organization development plus the fact that all these indicators can be moderated by the person- related variables of the respondents such as gender and age and the professional-related factors such as status of employment, highest educational attainment, and length of years in teaching at the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa.

Hypothesis
Ho There is no significant relation between social powers and organizational politics in the attainment of effective organization development at Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa.

Ho

There is no significant difference between the respondent’s assessments of the effects social power and organizational politics in organization development.

The study made use of the descriptive method of research. A Descriptive study is an inquiry into the nature of an unknown phenomenon or the occurrence of an event. It does not explain relationship but seeks knowledge for better understanding of the nature of the subject of the study to serve as basis for some future actions including formulation of hypothesis of relationship. The aim of the descriptive study is to infer to the reference population the findings from a sample. ix

The research design describes what the study has done to answer the research questions. The study used the descriptive correlation survey. This is a study that shows the difference between two or more variables, that is, how a variable varies with another. Since the present research is a status study, the correlation survey was the most appropriate method to use in gathering data. This research study was conducted within the confines of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa that is located at National Bilibid Reservation, Poblacion, Muntinlupa City. The respondents of the study were the faculty members of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa. Muntinlupa City. The data collection was purposive sampling, a method that involved all the members of the population. Since there are only 0ne hundred and twenty faculty members of our institution that were served with the survey questionnaires, and only one hundred were retrieved or 83.33% of the faculty force were considered as respondent of this study. The study used the survey questionnaire as a research instrument. A questionnaire gathers data faster than other methods which when answered honestly and properly by selected respondents, will supply the necessary information to complete a research study. The questionnaires were distributed to all faculty members of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa, and One hundred filled questionnaires were retrieved. The content of the questionnaires was focus on how social power and

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organizational politics that could affect the organization development of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa as a basis for policy direction. After presenting the analysis and interpreting the data gathered through the use of statistical tools, the following findings were arrived at: a. Among the Social Powers which has the great capacity to affect organizational outcomes. 1.1 Reward Power 1.2 Coercive Power 1.3 Legitimate Power 1.4 Referent Power 1.5 Expert Power Based on the results, it can be perceived that power administrators do not use the reward power bestowed on them. Especially with a weighted mean of 2.41, the administrators never complemented their work in terms of their effectiveness and efficiency. On coercive Power there is a strong argument that the administrators uses coercive power in the organization especially when they are forced to participate actively in any civic affairs sponsored by the city hall and at sometimes at their own discretion. On referent power, the respondents gathered a weighted mean of 3.35, thus they all agree the referent power is being used in our organization especially the appointments of teachers due to political referrals.

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On expert power, the respondents are neutral on how the administrators/deans exercises their rights in leading the institution to academic standards. b. Among the indicators of organizational politics, which one is an effective instrument in acquiring preferred outcome: 2.1 Palakasan System 2.2 Padrino System 2.3 Political System On the Palakasan System, the respondents agree that the majority of the members of the faculty are admitted because they know somebody influential from the organization. While on the Padrino System, the respondents are neutral on the use of “ninong” and “ninang” in the facilitation of their regularization. On political affiliation, the general weighted mean of 3.11 agrees that loadings of subjects per semester depend of how close you are to the administrators/deans. c. And lastly, between social power and organizational politics, which has the great capacity to influence organization development, the one that can greatly influence changes in the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa are social powers wherein it garnered 70% of the respondents who totally agree.

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In the light of the findings arrived, the following conclusions were formulated. The target dimensions of organizational development in Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa that gives an outline, which are not mutually exclusive and distinct from each other. Complicated and high falluting department objectives can be restructured that will help in the realization of organizational goals. It should involve as many groups as possible through their representatives including the studentry. The involvement of these representatives by

management in the goaling process helps insure its members identify themselves with the organization. Thus, they would cooperate in the achievement of the objectives, which they help formulate. The organigram or table of organizations is usually the most visible written output of the organizing or re-organizing the structure. Span of control, height and width of the organization, centralization of decision making are some symbols depicting to a great extent the presence or absence of authority in the organization. Change in individuals’ duties, responsibilities, roles functions due to change in structure is evidenced from their behavior. Although structure includes three components; authority, abilities and skills, and rewards, the last two are better placed under the category of people in terms of how organizational development can be used in changing them and the facility and difficulty by which they can be changed. Duties, responsibilities, roles and functions are important components of positions, which are structured under authority. Content includes the material dimensions used by the organization to achieve its goals. In the business setting these consist of funds, facilities, xiii

equipment, markets, products, services. In schools, the curriculum is a good example. Technology, another component for organizational development, answers how jobs are better done. Developing and refining new ways, means, procedure of producing goods, products, services, are a continuous process. The most difficult target for organizational development is people. Due to their very nature of complexity and intricacy, this dimension is most elusive and challenging to deal with. It takes more time, effort and competence to know and understand people and more so to develop them in the image for which they can be useful to the organization. The latter has its own role, which can be accomplished by people who share with it the same values, interests and aspirations. By the same token, people would want the organization to share with them its joys, worries and commitments. Because of the symbiotic role of people development, the dimension of people comes most problematic in organizational development. Based on the conclusion, the following recommendations are being presented by the researcher.

1. Assume a customer or beneficiary orientation 2. Integrate the three critical elements of effective performance in the organization: strategy, structures, and spirit of service

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3. Enable the individual human worker or manager to be productive in work and achieving in his personal life as a worker or professional by taking total responsibility for results. 4. Translate the task of self-responsible performance into organizational structures that promote a responsible work behavior. 5. Use co-creation (participative approach) for peak performance and work commitment. 6. Promote the development of enabling skills as well as make the enabling leader, the model or ideal of leadership. 7. Use developmental tools appropriate to our Filipino culture.

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