23 Different Points of Views of the Words Adon, Adonai, Adoni in Psalms 110:1,4 & other Verses

Compiled by Mario A Olcese

1) .From http://www.thebookwurm.com/ps110n.htm:
The LORD {Jehovah} said unto my Lord {Adoni}, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. Jesus quoted this verse to encourage the Pharisees to ask themselves who the Christ is. He is more than a man, more than a king's son. Even King David acknowledged Him as his Master. "Mat 22:41-45" The writer of Hebrews quoted this verse in regard to Christ's authority: He is better than (ie., above) the angels. "Heb 1:13" Peter quoted this vs. in his first sermon after Jesus' death, resurrection & ascension. He is both Lord & Christ (the Anointed). "Act 2:34-36" This Psalm reveals Him as the Lord of lords, and also as the Anointed Priest, who alone can atone for sins. Today, Jesus is seated at the right hand of the Father, awaiting the set time when He will judge the earth. No matter how we rebel against Him, no matter how we shut Him out of our lives (even to the point of crucifying Him), He is who He is. David called Him "my Lord". But is He your Lord? Mark 13:32-37 thy footstool- cp. 1Cor 15:24-28; Php 2:9-11; Eph 1:20-22 The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath. Note the change of speaker: vs.1-4, The LORD speaks to David's Lord (Adon). vs.5-7, David speaks: addressing the LORD, about his Lord (Adon), with prophetic insight. The Lord at [the LORD's] right hand- is Christ. (cp. Heb 12:2; 1Pet 3:22) The word used for 'Lord' is HB= Adon. 'Adoni' (v.1) is the first person possessive form of Adon (ie., 'My Lord'). Adon usually refers to a human lord or master. Thus, David's 'Adon' is his superior. - - However, David's Lord is also 'at the LORD's right hand,' that is side by side with God. The word 'Adon' is closely related to the word 'Adonai'. 'Adonai' is always used as a name for God (translated as 'Lord'). The word 'Adon' is often used synonomously with 'Adonai,' in reference to God. Consider just a few examples:

1

• • • • • • • •

Exodus 23:17- 'The Lord (Adon) GOD.' Deuteronomy 10:17- 'The LORD your God is God of gods, and the Lord (Adon) of lords.' Joshua 3:11,13 - 'The Lord (Adon) of all the earth.' Psalm 8:1- 'O LORD, our Lord (Adon) how excellent is thy name in all the earth!' Hosea 12:14 - 'Ephraim provoked him... his reproach shall his Lord (Adon) return unto him.' Micah 4:13 - '...I will consecrate their gain unto the LORD, and their substance unto the Lord (Adon) of the whole earth.' Zechariah 4:14 - '...that stand before the Lord (Adon) of the whole earth.' Malachi 3:1-3 'The Lord (Adon) whom you seek, shall suddenly come to His temple, even the messenger of the Covenant... he shall come.' -- This last passage shows us that the Messiah (Christ) is both the Lord of lords (the man who is above all men), and the LORD who alone can rightly occupy His Temple, and who alone has the right to judge His people.

2). From http://www.hebrew4christians.com/Names_of_Gd/Adonai/adonai.html
Interesting explanation of the Hebrew Names of God in this site 3). From http://members.tripod.com/~HarveP/divinenames.html

ADON is one of three titles (ADON, ADONI, and ADONIM), all generally rendered "Lord"; but each has its own peculiar usage and association. They all denote headship in various aspects. They have to do with God as "overLord." (1) ADON is the Lord as Ruler in the earth. (2) ADONAI is the Lord in His relation to the earth, and as carrying out His purposes of blessing in the earth. With this limitation it is almost equivalent to Jehovah. Indeed, it was from an early date so used, by association the vowel points of the word Jehovah with Adon, thus converting Adon into Adoni. A list of 134 passages where this was deliberately done is preserved and given in the Massorah. (3) ADONIM is plural of Adon, never used of man. Adonim carries with it all that Adon does, but in a greater and higher degree; and more especially as owner and proprietor. An Adon may rule others who do not belong to him. Hence (without the article) it is often used of men. But Adonim is the Lord Who rules His own. The three may be thus briefly distinguished: Adon is the Lord as overlord or ruler.
2

Adonim is the Lord as owner. Adonai is the Lord as blesser.

4)- From http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:8Z7ZFgmT5lgJ:www.tor ahvoice.org/glossary.htm+Adon,+adonai,+adoni&hl=es&gl=a r&ct=clnk&cd=45
ADONAI (AH-DOE-NAI) - The name used by the Orthodox Jewish community when praying directly to God or when reading the weekly Torah portion in the synagogue on Shabbat (the Sabbath). It means SUPREME MASTER and when used only in the context of prayer and Torah reading refers only to the Divine Creator. When this name is read in the Torah portion in an Orthodox synagogue it is immediately sanctified (made holy) with the entire congregation singing in a chorus at each mention "BARUCH HU U'VARUCH SH'MO" (Blessed is He and Blessed is His Name." ADONAI should not be confused with ADONI (AH-DOE-NEE) or ADON (AH-DON), which simply means "sir", "master" or "lord" in the generic sense.

5). From http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=52&letter=N
Adonai

Adonai ( ) occurs as a name of God apart from its use by the Masorites as a substituted reading for Yhwh. It was, probably, at first Adoni ("my Lord") or Adonai ("my Lord," plural of majesty), and later assumed this form, as a proper name, to distinguish it from other uses of the same word. The simple form Adon, with and without the article, also occurs as a divine name.

6). From http://www.myjewishlearning.com/ideas_belief/god/Overview_A bout_God/God_Speaking_Gillman/God_Names_CohnSherbok.ht m?OVRAW=Adonai&OVKEY=adonai&OVMTC=standard
In ancient times the term Adonai was not just used for God. It was a common mode of address to kings, slave-masters, and even by wives to husbands. The "i" at the end signifies "my" and, in fact, Adonai is a plural form so it literally means "my lords." In many verses of scripture and in the liturgy, God is spoken of as JHWH (pronounced Adonai) Eloheynu, which means "the Lord our God."

3

7) From http://www.adonim.com/articles/whatMeansAdonai.html
Adonai (Hebrew meaning "lord, ruler") is a name bestowed upon God in the Old Testament. It is retained in the Vulgate and its dependent versions, Exod., vi, 3; Judith, xvi, 16. No other name applied to God is more definite and more easily understood than this. Etymologically it is the plural of Adon, with the suffix of the possessive pronoun, first person, singular number. This plural has been subjected to various explanations. It may be looked upon as a plurale abstractum, and as such it would indicate the fullness of divine sway and point to God as the Lord of lords. This explanation has the endorsement of Hebrew grammarians, who distinguish a plurale virium, or virtutum. Others prefer to designate this form as plurale excellenti, magnitudinis, or plurale majestatis. To look upon it as a form of politeness such as the German Sie for du, or French volts for to is certainly not warranted by Hebrew usage. The possessive pronoun has no more significance in this word than it has in Rabbi (my master), Monsieur, or Madonna. Adonai is also the perpetual substitute for the ineffable Name Yahve, to which it lends its vowel signs. Whenever therefore, the word Yahve occurs in the text, the Jew will read Adonai. KAUTZSCH-GESENTIUS Hebräische Grammatik (Leipzig, 1896), DALMAN Der Gottesname and seine Geschichte (Berlin l889); STADE, Biblische Theologie des Alten Testaments (Tübingen, 1905).E. HEINLEIN Transcribed by the Cloistered Dominican Nuns of the Monastery of the Infant Jesus, Lufkin, Texas 8). From

http://www.logon.org

Psalm 110:1-7 1 A Psalm of David. The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. 2 The LORD shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies. 3 Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth. 4 The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. 5 The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath. 6 He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill the places with the dead bodies; he shall wound the heads over many countries. 7 He shall drink of the brook in the way: therefore shall he lift up the head. (KJV) This Psalm is short but very important. The text is one of the 134 texts altered by the Sopherim where Yahovah or Jehovah was altered to Adonai. The text in 110:1 uses the form adoni, a fact which is used by radical Unitarians to indicate that the Lord in issue is a human as it can refer to humans in the form of owner, master or lord. Even Strong

4

lists this as the case. This contrived limitation, however, is denied by Bullinger as it obviously refers to the Adonai at the Right Hand of God. The word used in 110:5 was originally Yahovah but was changed to Adonai in the same possessive form Adoni as that of 110:1 and means Adonai and refers to Yahovah. This psalm is clearly dealing with two divine beings one of which is the subordinate of the other at his right hand. The subordinate is also named Yahovah (refer to the paper The Angel of YHVH (No. 24)). The Sopherim changed the word to Adonai to conceal the fact of the divinity of the Messiah by association with Yahovah as the One True God. It begins with the identification that it is a Psalm of David. Thus, the verse is not referring to David but to David’s Lord. Thus, the being is Messiah. The rabbinical authorities use the text in the commentaries to refer to Abraham using the link of Melchisedek in verse 4 (see the Soncino commentaries to the Psalm (pp. 371-372) and note the Hebrew of the MT in both verses). However, Abraham tithed to Melchisedek so we must be speaking of Messiah and his order of priests of which Abraham is a subordinate. He is referred to as Jehovah in Psalm 110:5 and this was changed to Adonai as we will see. Psalm 110:1 A Psalm of David. The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. Jehovah is speaking to a being called My Lord (Adoni) who is David’s Lord. This being is Adonai. The form used of one divine being is the same in the Hebrew as the other being yet one is claimed to be referring to a human and the other is clearly referring to Yahovah as that was the original word. Thus the Sopherim changed the text. This text is quoted in Matthew 22:41-46, Acts 2:34-35 and Hebrews 1:13.

9). From www.restorationfellowship.org

Adonai and Adoni (Psalm 110:1)
The Bible’s supreme proof text for telling the difference between the One God and the Messiah who is not God (A. Buzzard)
This verse was referred to the Messiah by the Pharisees and by Jesus. It tells us that the relationship between God and Jesus is that of Deity and nonDeity. The Messiah is called adoni (my lord) and in every one of its 195 occurrences adoni (my lord) means a superior who is not God. Adonai on the other hand refers exclusively to the One God in all of its 449 occurrences. Adonai is the title of Deity and adoni never designates Deity. If the Messiah were called Adonai this would introduce “two Gods” into the Bible and would be polytheism. Psalm 110:1 should guard us all against supposing that there are two who are God. In fact the Messiah is the supreme human being and agent of the One God. Psalm 110:1 is the Bible’s master text for defining the Son of God in relation to the One God, his Father. Why is it that a number of commentaries misstate the facts about Psalm 110:1? They assert that the word for the Messiah in Psalm 110:1 is adonai. It is not. These commentaries seem to obscure a classic text defining God in relation to His Son. The Hebrew text assigns to the Messiah the title adoni

5

which invariably distinguishes the one addressed from the Deity. The Messiah is the supreme human lord. He is not the Lord God (cp. I Tim. 2:5; I Cor. 8:4-6; Mark 12:28ff).

Why is the Messiah called adoni (my lord) and never adonai (my Lord God)? “Adonai and Adoni are variations of Masoretic pointing to distinguish divine reference from human.” Adonai is referred to God but Adoni to human superiors. Adoni — ref. to men: my lord, my master [see Ps. 110:1] Adonai — ref. to God…Lord (Brown, Driver, Briggs, Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, under adon [= lord]). “The form ADONI (‘my lord’), a royal title (I Sam. 29:8), is to be carefully distinguished from the divine title ADONAI (‘my Lord’) used of Yahweh.” “ADONAI — the special plural form [the divine title] distinguishes it from adonai [with short vowel] = my lords” (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, “Lord,” p. 157). “Lord in the OT is used to translate ADONAI when applied to the Divine Being. The [Hebrew] word…has a suffix [with special pointing] presumably for the sake of distinction…between divine and human appellative” (Hastings Dictionary of the Bible, “Lord,” Vol. 3, p. 137). “Hebrew Adonai exclusively denotes the God of Israel. It is attested about 450 times in the OT…Adoni [is] addressed to human beings (Gen. 44:7, Num. 32:25, II Kings 2:19 [etc.]). We have to assume that the word adonai received its special form to distinguish it from the secular use of adon [i.e., adoni]. The reason why [God is addressed] as adonai, [with long vowel] instead of the normal adon, adoni or adonai [with short vowel] may have been to distinguish Yahweh from other gods and from human lords” (Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, p. 531).
“The lengthening of the ā on Adonai [the Lord God] may be traced to the concern of the Masoretes to mark the word as sacred by a small external sign” (Theological Dictionary of the OT, “Adon,” p. 63 and Theological Dictionary of the NT, III, 1060ff. n.109).

“The form ‘to my lord,’ l’adoni, is never used in the OT as a divine reference…the generally accepted fact that the masoretic pointing distinguishes divine references (adonai) from human references (adoni)” (Wigram, The Englishman’s Hebrew and Chaldee Concordance of the OT, p. 22) (Herbert Bateman, “Psalm 110:1 and the NT,” Bibliothecra Sacra, Oct.-Dec., 1992, p. 438).

10). From http://www.jehova.net/jehova1.htm
Adon (or Adonai)

6

This is a title of authority and honor. It can be translated "Lord." It is not exclusively a title for deity because it is used in addressing a superior, such as a king or master. In this sense, it is used to ascribe the highest honor and worship to God. Adon or Adonai was often used in conjunction with Yahweh. In time, Adonai became a substitute for Yahweh. In the postexilic period, it took on the connotation of God's absolute lordship. This name has also been used to refer to His friendship. Jehova Adonai is our friend and has the intent to bless His friends.

11).Fromhttp://www.creationdays.dk/C.%20I.%20Scofield/ God-Gods%20name.html
[1] {Lord} [2] {God} [1] "Lord" (Heb. Adon, Adonai) (1) The primary meaning of Adon, Adonai, is Master, and it is applied in the Old Testament Scriptures both to Deity and to man. The latter instances are distinguished in the English version by the omission of the capital. As applied to man, the word is used of two relationships; master and husband # Ge 24:9 , 10 , 12 "master" may illustrate the former; # Ge 18:12 "lord," the latter). Both these relationships exist between Christ and the believer # Joh 13:13 "master"; # 2Co 11:2 , 3 "husband"). (2) Two principles inhere in the relation of master and servant: (a) the Masters right to implicit obedience # Joh 13:13 Mt 23:10 Lu 6:46 (b) the servant’s right to direction in service # Isa 6:8-11 Clear distinction in the use of the divine names is illustrated in # Ex 4:10-12. Moses feels his weakness and incompetency, and "Moses said unto the Lord [Jehovah], O my Lord [Adonai], I am not eloquent," etc. Since service is in question, Moses appropriately addresses Jehovah as Lord. But now power is in question, and it not the Lord (Adonai) but Jehovah (Lord) who answers (referring to creation power)—"and Jehovah said unto him, Who hath made man’s mouth? . . Now therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth." The same distinction in # Jos 7:8-11. See, for other names of Deity: See Scofield "Ge 1:1" See Scofield "Ge 2:4" # Ge 2:7 See Scofield "Ge 14:18" See Scofield "Ge 15:2" See Scofield "Ge 17:1" See Scofield "Ge 21:33" See Scofield "1Sa 1:3" [2] "Lord God" (Heb. Adonai Jehovah). When used distinctively, this compound name, while gathering into one the special meanings of each. 7

See Scofield "Ge 2:4" See Scofield "Ge 15:2" will be found to emphasize the Adonai rather than the Jehovah character of Deity. (The following passages may suffice to illustrate this:) # Ge 15:2 , 8 De 3:24 9:26 Jos 7:7 Jud 6:22 16:28 2Sa 7:18-20, # 2Sa 7:28 , 29 1Ki 2:26 Ps 69:6 71:5 Isa 7:7

12).Fromhttp://www.gospeltrail.com/Study/God/adonai. htm

Adonai
The name Adonai, translated "Lord" (only the "L" capitalized), occurs approximately 300 times in the Old Testament. It's interesting to note that it is almost always used in the plural possessive form meaning "My Lords". This, once again, confirms the concept of The Trinity as found in the name "Elohim". Also consider the fact that this same word is used of men approximately 215 times in the Old Testament and is predominantly translated as "master". Note, however, that, when used of men, it is always used in the singular form. The implication of The Trinity in this name is obvious in Psalms 110:1 Ps 110:1 The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.(KJV)

13). From http://www.piney.com/HsThrone.html
I noticed as I perused your website, that in your quote of Psalms 110:1, you stated that the Hebrew word for the phrase 'my Lord' was 'Adonai' i.e. The LORD said unto 'my Lord (Adonai)' I should point out that this is in fact, incorrect! The actual word there is adoni NOT Adonai! Although they appear to be similar words, these two distinct words serve different purposes. Adonai (which occurs about 449 times in the Hebrew OT) is solely used in reference to Almighty GOD whilst adoni (in all of its 195 occurrences which therefore must include Psalms 110:1) is solely used in reference to human masters/lords (and occasionally angelic lords); that is, adoni is never used in reference to Almighty God!! Although Strong's Concordance does not clearly show the two distinct Hebrew words being used, it does indicate their distinction by assigning the number 113 to 'my lord' in Ps. 110:1, whereas Adonai has the number 136 e.g. Ps. 110:5. From what I gathered about how these two words are used in the Hebrew Masoretic text,

8

the form ADONI ('my lord'), a royal title (I Sam. 29:8), is to be carefully distinguished from the divine title ADONAI ('my Lord') used of Yahweh; the generally accepted fact is that the masoretic pointing distinguishes divine references (adonai) from human references (adoni). It can easily be seen why one would think that Adonai is being used when reading our bibles, because the translators of our English bibles capitalised the 'L' (hence Lord) giving the impression that the word Adonai is being used here (incidentally the RSV & NRSV bibles corrected this, therefore, Psalms 110:1 reads "The LORD says to my lord"). Nevertheless, the fact yet remains that the word Adonai does not appear in Psalms 110:1; it is the word adoni! Therefore, I ask, is it possible that your website's quote could be amended to reflect this? I hope the above info is of some help to you Yours In Christ, adam_pastor@hotmail.com Adam Pastor

18).Fromhttp://www.biblestudy.org/question/mylord.ht ml
Who are the two "Lords" King David wrote about in Psalms 110:1? Were they both God? (Submitted by: M.M.) A. Psalm 110:1 reads: "The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool." (Psalm 110:1, KJV) Now the first "Lord" of this verse, in many Bible translations, is often partially or fully capitalized. This indicates that it is translated from the Hebrew letters YHWH, which is known as the tetragammaton. This word can be transliterated as "Jehovah" or "Yahweh," as was done in the American Standard Version of this passage: "Jehovah saith unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, Until I make thine enemies thy footstool. " (Psalm 110:1, ASV)

9

YHWH, or the tetragammaton, can also be translated as "The Eternal" or "The Ever-Living." This is the most important personal name of the God of the Old Testament, a name that implies He has always existed and will also exist into the future. It is His covenant name (see Exodus 3:13-15). In this case, and this is rather rare in the Old Testament, "The LORD" refers to God the FatherNow lets go on to the second "Lord" of this verse. This verse is a reference to Jesus, for He was David's "Lord" or "my Lord" from his perspective. There is some controversy about what this word is in the Hebrew, for it is a different word in the Hebrew from YHWH. Depending on what vowels are used, the word could be "Adonai," which always means "Lord" in reference to God, or it could be "adoni," which means "master." The Jews added the points that stood for vowels some time in the Middle Ages, so they could easily have downgraded the reference to Jesus from "Adonai" to "adoni" by a stroke or two of a pen. This verse is repeatedly referred to in the New Testament as a reference to Jesus. For example, Peter applied it to Jesus on his first public sermon on the day of Pentecost to the crowd in Jerusalem in Acts 2:34-36: "For David did not ascend into the heavens, but he says himself, 'The Lord said to my Lord, 'Sit at My right hand, till I make Your enemies Your footstool.' ' Therefore, let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ." (Acts 2:34-36, NKJV) Jesus posed a puzzle to his listeners by citing this Psalm, for he was obliquely applying it to Himself: Then Jesus answered and said, while He taught in the temple, "How is it that the scribes say that the Christ is the Son of David? For David himself said by the Holy Spirit: 'The LORD said to my Lord, "Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool." ' Therefore David himself calls Him 'Lord'; how is He then his Son?" And the common people heard Him gladly. (Mark 12:3537, NKJV). Notice how the Psalm refers to a Messiah who would (one day) conquer, since He totally dominates His enemies, which verses 35 and 36 help to reinforce. The author of the book of Hebrews also cites Psalm 110:1 as a reference to Jesus (for the context see the entire first chapter of Hebrews), when contrasting His (Jesus') nature with the angels. Therefore, the first "LORD" mentioned in Psalm 110:1 refers to God the Father, and the second "Lord" (Who was King David's Lord or Master) refers to Jesus. 19).-From http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:sTBw16orTLoJ:qumran.com/Refuting_C hristianity/a_primer.htm+Adoni,+adonai&hl=es&gl=ar&ct=clnk&cd=207

10

D. Psalm 110 -- One Lord or Two? In Matthew 22:41-44, there is a reported conversation between Jesus and the Pharisees concerning the genealogy of the Messiah. The Pharisees said that the Messiah will be the son of David, and Jesus reportedly counted: "'How then does David in the spirit call him 'Lord,' saying: 'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at My right hand, till I make your enemies your footstool"? If David then called him Lord, how is he his son?' And no one was able to answer him a word, neither did any man from that day forth ask him any more questions." This conversation could not have happened! Matthew is referring to Psalm 110:1, and is based on a clear mistranslation. The first "Lord" in the sentence is properly capitalized because it uses the fourletter Hebrew name for G-d, the Yud kay vav kay. We would pronounce that in prayer as "Adonai," which means Lord and only applies to G-d. The second "Lord" is improperly capitalized because the Hebrew word used at that point is "adoni" which means "my lord" and only refers to a human. So Psalms 110:1 should read: "The Lord said unto my lord, sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool." So who is the second and lower-cased "lord"? King David. This psalm begins "LeDavid Mizmor" (A song to David as opposed to by David). Accordingly, the song is written for David and makes him the subject of the first sentence. With that knowledge, the rest of the psalm makes perfect sense, G-d is giving much needed comfort to the King of Israel. Alternatively, it can be understood as a psalm written by David to be sung by the Levite choir praising him after his death. Certainly any Pharisee would would not have been confused clear that a Greek-educated training, and a Christian knowledgeable. The story in self-serving. have known the meaning of Psalm 110 and by "Adonai" versus "adoni". It is not so story teller with little or no Jewish axe to grind, would have been so Matthew then must be made up and judged

Yet despite the obvious mistranslation, Psalms 110:1, continues to be misused by missionaries to prove that the Messiah sits at G-d's right hand and is like G-d. Judaism, however, believes that the Messiah is a human being, not a god.

20).- From http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:ptVn7i6pI08J:www.a bccoggc.org/herald_online/feb05.htm+Adoni,+adonai&hl =es&gl=ar&ct=clnk&cd=321
Students of the Bible should give careful attention to the oracle provided for our learning in Ps. 110:1. This text is the prince of OT quotations and appears some 23 times in the New Testament. It prophesies (as Peter taught in Acts 2:34-36) the exaltation of the Messiah, Son of God, to the right hand of the One God, pending his return in the future to rule the world on earth in the coming Kingdom. The Psalm precisely defines the nature of the One God in relation to the Son. Yahweh (Jehovah) addresses David’s Lord (adoni [pronounced adonee] in Hebrew) and bids him remain at God’s right hand until his enemies are to be defeated. The One God of Israel and the Bible is Yahweh and he here addresses the Son and Messiah. The

11

Son is called “adoni,” a title never designating Deity, but always, in all of its 195 occurrences, an address to a human (occasionally angelic) superior. What a grand opportunity Scripture had here for informing us that there are two or more who are fully God! The text makes a definitive statement about the role and status of the Messiah. He is not Adonai (the Lord God, 449 times in the OT) but the Lord Messiah, a human superior. Elizabeth indeed visited “the mother of my lord,” (Luke 1:43) not as later post-biblical theology taught “the mother of God”!

21).-From http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:kvEIGe1aKKYJ:www.ibiblio.o rg/bgreek/archives/greek2/msg00428.html+Adoni,+adonai&hl=es &gl=ar&ct=clnk&cd=354
Adonai and Yahweh are used in the Hebrew Bible exclusively for the One True God. Like Elohim, Adonai is morphologically a plural which takes a singular verb. The singular form Adoni is sometimes used for human a human lord. The Christian Greek writings both adopted both the vocabulary of the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, and retained the use of kurios in place of Yahweh. Thus is somewhat amusing that some Christians want to popularize the divine Name whilst their scriptures show greater sensitivity to the Jewish preference. There is probably no convincing argument for a Trinity based upon the orthography of the divine names in either Hebrew or Greek. That extra-biblical doctrine is rather a theologian's abstraction which accounts for the usage of the divine names and attributes as clearly applied to Jesus of Nazareth in the Christian Greek Scriptures.

22).- From http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:buOpMW29umsJ:in.a nswers.yahoo.com/question/index%3Fqid%3D1006053018 072+Adoni,+adonai&hl=es&gl=ar&ct=clnk&cd=417
Psalm 110:1 is a proof text for CLEARLY demonstrating the distinction between THE LORD and the Lord, one being the Most High God, and the other being David's master. I will insert the vowel pointed Hebrew words as written in the manuscripts to demonstrate to you that these two beings are different in rank: "ADONAI Yahovih" said to my "adoni", sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies they footstool."

12

"Adoni" is simply rendered "lord" in English. Sarah called Abraham "adoni" (lord). But, ADONAI Yahovih, ONLY refers to the Most High God who is the Father of Abraham. David knew exactly to whom He referred in each case. He knew "the Lord" was the prophesied Messiah. He knew also that "THE LORD" (the Father), Adonai Yahovih, is THE GOD of the first commandment and no other. Jesus Christ is not the God of the first commandment. He is Lord and Savior and exalted above the angels because God has the power to exalt whom He will. Jesus Christ is the only begotten Son of God. He is unique. But he is always subject to the Father out of obedience and rank. He is NOT THE ONE TRUE GOD. He is Lord...VERY DIFFERENT in position, rank, and purpose.

23).-From http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:omLf2VxIIMYJ:www. ldolphin.org/nathanstone/+Adoni,+adonai&hl=es&gl=ar& ct=clnk&cd=420

ADONAI THE NAMES OF GOD we have studied so far have been Elohim, translated "God" in our Bibles; Jehovah, translated "LORD"; and "El-Shaddai," translated "God Almighty" or "Almighty God." These names have related rather to the Person of God--the power and glory of His Being, as in Elohim; the expression of Himself as a God of righteousness, holiness, love and redemption, as in Jehovah; and as a beneficent and bountiful Bestower of powers, gifts, blessings, and fruitfulness for service, as seen in El-Shaddai. While these names do imply or demand a responsibility on the part of man to conform to the Being in whose image he is made, the name under consideration in this chapter makes a definite claim upon man's obedience and service. The name Adonai is translated in our Bibles by the word Lord in small letters, only the first of which is a capital. Used as a name of God, Adonai occurs probably some 300 times in the Old Testament. It is significant that it is almost always in the plural and possessive, meaning my Lords'. It confirms the idea of a trinity as found also in the name Elohim. This is still further confirmed by the fact that the same word is used of men some 215 times and translated variously "master," "sir," and "lord," but for the most part, "master," as throughout Genesis 24, where Eliezer, the servant of Abraham, speaks of "my master Abraham," and over and over again says, "Blessed be Jehovah God of my master Abraham." It is important to notice, too, that the same word Adonai is translated a number of times by the word "owner." But, used of men, it is

13

always in the singular form, adon. Only of God is it in the plural. The suggestion of the Trinity in this name is still more strikingly confirmed by its use in Psalm 110, in these words: "The Lord said unto my Lord," or "Jehovah said unto my Adonai, Sit thou on, my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool." The Lord Jesus in Matthew 22:41-45 (as also Peter, Acts 2:34, 35; and Hebrews 1:13; 10:12, 13) refers this striking passage to Himself. How significant then that David, speaking of but one member of the Trinity, should use here not the plural Adonai, but the singular form Adoni: "Jehovah said unto my Adoni," that is to Christ, the second Person of the Trinity! The name Adonai, while translated "Lord," signifies ownership or mastership and indicates "the truth that God is the owner of each member of the human family, and that He consequently claims the unrestricted obedience of all." The expression, "Lord of lords," in Deuteronomy 10:17, could be rendered "Master of masters." An illustration of this name as a claim upon man's obedience and service is found in Malachi 1:6: "A son honoreth his father, and a servant his master: if then I be a father, where is mine honor? And if I be a master, where is my fear? Saith Jehovah of hostsI" And in Job 28:28 it is declared that the fear of Adonai (the Lord, the Master) is wisdom. THE USE OF THE WORD IN THE OLD TESTAMENT The use of this name Adonai in the Old Testament plainly reveals the relationship which God sustains toward His creatures and what He expects of them. A glance at a good concordance will give all the instances in which the name occurs. Let us examine a few of them. The first occasion of its use, as with the name El-Shaddai, is with Abraham in Genesis 15:2. In the first verse of this chapter it is written: "After these things" -that is, after his rescue of Lot and his military achievement of the defeat of the four kings and their armies, where it is revealed that Abraham himself was lord or master (adon) of a large establishment--"After these things the word of Jehovah came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram: I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward." Abram then makes his reply addressing God as Adonai-Jehovah--an acknowledgment that Jehovah is also Master. Certainly Abram understood what this relationship meant; perhaps better than we nowadays understand it, for those were days of slavery. Lordship meant complete possession on the one hand, and complete submission on the other. As already seen, Abraham himself sustained the relationship of master and lord over a very considerable number of souls; therefore in addressing Jehovah as Adonai he acknowledged God's complete possession of and perfect right to all that he was and had. But even Abraham, thousands of years ago, understood by this more than mere ownership, more than the expression and imposition of an arbitrary or capricious will. Even in those days the relationship of master and slave was not altogether or necessarily an unmitigated evil. The purchased slave stood in a 14

much nearer relationship to his lord than the hired servant. who was free to come and go as he might wish: In Israel, the hired servant who was a stranger might not eat of the Passover or the holy things of the master's house, but the purchased slave, as belonging to his master, and so a member of the family, possessed this privilege (Exodus 12:43-45; Leviticus 22:10, 11). The slave had the right of the master's protection and help and direction. Nor was the relationship devoid of affection. In the absence of seed, a slave, Eliezer, is the heir to Abram's entire household. So the psalmist well puts it all when he says: "Behold, as the eyes of servants look unto the hand of their masters, and as the eyes of a maiden unto the hand of her mistress; so our eyes wait upon the Lord our GodI" (123:2). "The eyes of all wait upon thee; and thou givest them their meat in due season" (Psalm 145:15). As Adonai, or Master or Lord, God says to Abraham: "Fear not, Abram; I am thy shield and thy exceeding great reward." He can depend upon the faithfulness of the Master. For if a human master can sustain relationships even of affection to a slave and be faithful in provision and protection, how much more the Jehovah-God who is Adonai also to His creatures. There are many examples of the use of this name which well illustrate this truth: Moses, when commissioned to go to Egypt to deliver Israel, addresses God as Adonai, acknowledging thus God's right to his life and service when he replies: "O my Lord" (that is, Adonai), "I am not eloquent . . . I am slow of speech" (Exodus 4:10). And again he says after God's reply, "O my Lord [Adonai] send someone else." Then God's anger kindled against him, against a servant who seeks to evade his responsibility of carrying out the will of his rightful Lord. For God, who is never a capricious or unjust Master, does not ask what cannot he performed, and never requires a task for which He does not equip His servants. Thus He assures Moses that He will be his sufficiency for the task (Exodus 4:10). As the eye of a servant looks to the master, so Joshua, in defeat and distress, looks for direction to the Lord God who is his Adonai. When Gideon is called to deliver the children of Israel from the Midianites, he asks: "O my Lord [Adonai], wherewith shall I save Israel? Behold my family is poor in Manasseh, and I am the least in my father's house" (Judges 6:15). Then God gives answer: "Surely I will be with thee, and thou shaft smite the Midianites as one man." The name Adonai is found frequently on the lips of David, and in one especially significant passage in this connection (II Samuel 7:18-20), it appears four times in three verses. To David, of humble origin, a shepherd lad, and now king of Israel, God comes and promises to establish his dynasty, his throne, forever. Overcome by this great promise, for he recognizes in it also the promise of Messiah who shall come from his loins, David, king and lord of God's people, calls God his Lord, coupling it with the name Jehovah, He acknowledges his humble origin, his own unworthiness, and the goodness and greatness of God the Adonai who has exalted him, and he says: "Who am I, O Adonai Jehovah? And what is my house, that thou hast brought me hitherto? . .

15

And what can David say more unto thee? For thou, Adonai Jehovah, knowest thy servant."

The psalmists, too, make frequent use of the name in its proper significance. It is Jehovah, Adonai, whose name is so excellent in all the earth, who has put all things under His feet (Psalm 8). He is the Adonai of the whole earth (Psalm 97:5). The earth is bidden to tremble at the presence of the Adonai. its Lord (Psalm 114:7). Adonai is above all elohim or gods (Psalm 135:5). As Master or Lord, Adonai is besought to remember the reproach of His servant (Psalm 89:50). "My eyes are unto thee, O God, the Adonai" (Psalm 141:8) says the psalmist as of a servant to his Lord. And he asks Adonai, his Master, to take up his cause and defend him against his enemies (Psalm 109:21-28). The use of this name by Isaiah the prophet is especially significant. It is the vision of God as Adonai which started him out on his prophetical career. One of the most stirring portions of Scripture describes this vision. It was a time of national darkness, for Uzziah, Judah's great king, had died. Uzziah was the prophet's king, therefore his lord and master, and perhaps his hero too, in spite of his tragic end. It is then that the young man experiences one of the most solemn and significant visions of Scripture. In the sixth chapter he tells us, "in the year that King Uzziah died I saw the Lord"-Adonai. His earthly lord and master had died, but what does that matter when the Lord of lords, the Adonai in the heavens, lives and reigns. This Adonai is seated upon a throne too, but high and lifted up, above all earthly lords and monarchs, for this Adonai is also Jehovah of hosts, whose train fills the Temple and whose glory covers the whole earth. This Adonai is surrounded by the fiery seraphim, who not only cover their eyes before their thrice holy Lord, but with their wings are ready instantly to do His bidding. Then after the prophet's confession and cleansing in preparation for his service, he hears a voice saying: "Whom shall I send and who will go for us?" This call for service comes from Adonai, for this is the name used in verse 8. So prophet after prophet is called and commissioned for service by Adonai, the Lord who claims obedience and service. The shrinking Jeremiah, ordained from before his birth to be a prophet, answers the call to service by saying, somewhat like Moses: "Ah, Adonai Jehovah! Behold, I cannot speak: for I am a child" (Jet. 1:6). As with Moses, the Lord of life and service enables His servants to carry out His commands when they yield themselves to Him and obey. He touches the lips of Jeremiah, as of Isaiah, and promises His presence and protection. In the prophecy of Ezekiel the name Adonai Jehovah occurs some 200 times. It has added significance here in that the name occurs in connection with prophecies not only concerning Israel but concerning the nations round about. It reveals that Adonai claims lordship not only over Israel but, whether they will or not, Over all the peoples of the earth. It is, "Thus saith Jehovah who is 16

Adonai," and again and again, "Ye shall know," and "They shall know that I am Adonai Jehovah" (Ezekiel 13:9; 23:49; 24:24; 28:24; 29:16). It is Adonai Jehovah who commands the four winds to breathe upon the dry bones and make them live (Ezekiel 37:9). The use of this name is especially notable in Daniel 9 where it occurs ten times in seventeen verses. Daniel is living in the land of Israel's captivity, whose king is lord or adon over many nations; but only Jehovah is the Adonai of Daniel and his people. This is a chapter of confession of Israel's faithlessness as God's servant, hence Daniel addresses God as Adonai in his prayer for forgiveness and restoration of the people and Jerusalem. "O Adonai," he cries, "the great and dreadful God, keeping the covenant and mercy to them that love him, and to them that keep his commandments; we have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, even by departing from thy precepts and from thy judgments" (9:4, 5). Since it is God as Lord and Master whose will they have disobeyed, it is He to whom they must address their prayer for forgiveness, for acceptance, for restoration. Thus it is in verse 19, "O Adonai, hear; O Adonai, forgive; O Adonai, hearken and do: defer not, for thine own sake, O my GodI" So throughout the Old Testament those who know God as Adonai acknowledge themselves as servants: Abraham, Isaac and Jacob are thus spoken of (Exodus 32:13). Over and over again we read, "Moses, my servant," and "Moses, the servant of the Lord." In the same significant passage in which he addresses God as Adonai, a number of times David the king speaks of himself as "thy servant." "I am thy servant; give me understanding," says the psalmist (Psalm 119:125). The word translated servant is also slave. Thus prophets, priests, kings, all God's people acknowledged themselves His servants, recognizing His right to command and dispose of them according to His will as the Lord of their lives, it is this which is suggested by the name Lord or Adonai. ITS USE IN THE NEW TESTAMENT

The meaning of Adonai as Lord and Master is carried over into the New Testament. Between two and three centuries before Christ the Hebrew Scriptures were translated into Greek by a group of Jewish translators at Alexandria in Egypt. It is interesting to note that they translated the word Adonai in Genesis 15:2 as "Master." In the Greek it is "Despot." In the New Testament, too, it is the word used of men as lord and master in relationship to servants. It is used hundreds of times of the Lord Jesus Himself. We are said to be not our own; we have been bought with a price. We belong to God who is our Lord and Master. We are therefore bidden to glorify God in body and spirit, which are His (I Corinthians 6:19, 20). Many Scriptures set forth 17

this relationship to God as His servants. We are exhorted to present our bodies as a living sacrifice to God, holy, and acceptable, and this as our reasonable service (Romans 12:1). We are to understand what is the will of the Lord--our Adonai (Ephesians 5:17). And Peter calls us children of obedience to Him who has called us (I Peter 1:14, 15); and He is the Master who has bought us (II Peter 2:1). A striking illustration of this is found in the life of the apostle Paul. He felt himself to be a zealous servant of the Lord God of his fathers even in his first opposition to and persecution of the Church, believing he was doing God great service. The first words that fall from his lips on his conversion are: "Lord [Master], what wilt thou have me to do?" (Acts 9:6). Like a good servant, lie tells its that when it pleased God to reveal His Son in him that he might preach Him among the nations, "immediately he conferred not with flesh and blood," but he went away in complete surrender to he alone with his Lord to prepare himself as quickly as possible to do His will (Galatians 1:16, 17). He seems to take even a little pride in emphasizing the Lordship of Jesus Christ by calling himself His bondservant or slave. As such he bore in his body the marks of his Lord Jesus (Galatians 6:17). "Christ Jesus, my Lord [my Master, my Adonai], counted me faithful, appointing me to his service" (I Timothy 1:12). "1 count not my life dear to myself so that 1 may accomplish my course, and the ministry which I received from the Lord Jesus" (Acts 20:24). Whether we live or die, we are the Lord's (the Master's. As in the Old Testament, so in the New, God as Lord is represented as the One who bestows gifts upon and equips His servants for their service. He made some apostles, others prophets, evangelists, pastors, teachers--all for the accomplishment of His purpose and will in the perfecting of the saints, the work of the ministry, and the edifying of the Body of Christ (Ephesians 4:11, 12). Having these gifts from our Lord, Paul exhorts us, let us wait on them and minister them, as faithful servants, with diligence (Romans 12:6-8). God, as Lord, is said to protect, to provide for and sustain His servants. In the Old Testament, Adonai says to Abram, "I am thy shield." He is a rock, a fortress, a deliverer. Luke says of Paul, in great danger: "The Lord stood by him and said, Be of good cheer" (Acts 23:11). Again: "The Lord stood with me and strengthened me" (II Timothy 4:17). The Lord delivers His servants from every evil (II Timothy 4:18). The grace of the Lord is continually with His servants. It is the Lord who says to Paul, "My grace is sufficient for thee" (II Corinthians 12:9). The Lord directs the service of His servants, opening doors (II Corinthians 2:12), and closing them, too (Acts 16:6). We are exhorted to abound in the work of the Lord for such work is never in vain (I Corinthians 15:58). God's requirements of service and usefulness are clearly set forth in the parables of the Lord Jesus, especially in the parable of the talents (Matthew 25:14-30), and the parable of the pounds (Luke 19:11-27). As Lord, He rewards the faithfulness of His servants and punishes their lack of it. The reward is far more than commensurate with the service rendered. In the parables, the reward 18

is represented in terms of the material, but the real reward is in the realm of the spiritual, of which the material is only a feeble analogy. Even so, the greatness of our reward for faithfulness as servants lies in our increasing apprehension and possession of our Lord Himself. Adonai said to Abram, "I am thy exceeding great reward." Frequently in the Old Testament the Lord is said to be the inheritance, the portion and possession of His people (Num. 18:20; Psalm 73:26; 16:5; Ezek. 44:27, 28). So Christ our Lord gave Himself for us and to us. If we are His, He n ours, and He is ours in proportion as we are His. Apart from this, however, there is a day of reckoning for His servants. In the Old Testament, Adonai renders to every man according to his work (Psalm 62:12). Every servant's work is to be made manifest. The test of fire will prove its worth. If it stands the test,: it will receive a reward, If not, it will be lost (I Corinthians 3:13-15). "To whomsoever much is given, of him shall much be required: and to whom they commit much, of him will they ask the more" (Luke 12:48, ASV) 'It is required in stewards, that a man be found faithful" (I Corinthians 4:2, ASV). But since God is Lord of all men whether they acknowledge Him or not, there is a day of reckoning: for all men apart from His servants. Jeremiah calls it the day of Adonai, Jehovah of hosts (46:10). It is day of vengeance, for Adonai the Lord will demand a reckoning from all His creatures. But, thank God that the Lord Jesus Christ will be deliverance and sure in that day for all who have believed on and served Him. It is the Lord Jesus Christ, however, who, though He is our Lord and Master, is the supreme example of the true and faithful servant. He is the ideal servant. It is in Him we realize the full import and blessedness of the relationship that exists between ourselves and God as servant to a Lord. He is revealed in the Old Testament as the Servant. "Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him" (Isaiah 42:1). "He shall not fail" (v. 4). "I the Lord ... will hold thine hand, and will keep thee (v. 6). So the New Testament tells us He took the form of a servant--the same word Paul uses of himself, a bondservant, a slave. He humbled Himself and became obedient unto death (Philippians 2:7, 8). "Lo, I come (in the volume of the book it is written of me,) to do thy will, O God" (Hebrews 10:7). This is in fulfillment of Psalm 40:6-8 where He is spoken of as the slave whose ear is bored, because he loves his master and elects to serve him forever (Exodus 21:6). He said of Himself, "I do always those things that please him" (John 8:29). "Even Christ pleased not himself," says Paul (Romans 15:3). "The Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many" (Matthew 20:28). "I am among you as he that serveth" (Luke 22:27). As a servant He also suffered, being made perfect through sufferings (Hebrews 2:10). In that wonderful thirteenth chapter of John, He sets Himself forth as our Example as a servant. "Ye call me Master and Lord: and ye say well, for so I am" (v. 13). "1 have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you. Verily, verily, I say unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord (vv. 15, 16). He 19

exhorted to faithful service to the end, and spoke of the blessedness of those servants whom the Lord when He comes will find faithful and watching (Luke 12:36, 37). To be servant of the Lord is the greatest liberty and joy of all. Man needs lordship. With faculties and judgments impaired, distorted by sin, original and personal, he needs direction, guidance, authority in this world. Man is born to worship and serve. If he does not serve God, then directly or indirectly he serves the Devil, the usurper of authority. But no man, as our Lord said, can serve two masters-that is, God and the Devil-at the same time. "Know ye not," says Paul, "that to Whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness?" (Romans 6:16). To be subject to Satan is to be abject. His lordship makes service servile. He has made service degraded and a badge of inferiority. Christ, our Lord, Himself the ideal servant, has invested service with dignity, nobility, liberty, joy. "For he that is called in the Lord, being a servant, is the Lord's freeman" (I Corinthians 7:22). To be the servant of God is eternal life (Romans 6:22). And the faithful servant of the Lord will one day hear those joyful words from the lips of the Lord: "Well done, good and faithful servant . . . enter thou into the joy of thy Lord." ………………………..

20