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of March 20, 1883, as revised at Brussels on December 14, 1900, at Washington on June 2, 1911, at The Hague on November 6, 1925, at London on June 2, 1934, at Lisbon on October 31, 1958, and at Stockholm on July 14, 1967, and as amended on September 28, 1979
The Convention applies to industrial property in the widest sense, including patents, marks, industrial designs, utility models (a kind of “small patent” provided for by the laws of some countries), trade names (designations under which an industrial or commercial activity is carried on), geographical indications (indications of source and appellations of origin) and the repression of unfair competition. The substantive provisions of the Convention fall into three main categories: national treatment, right of priority, common rules. (1) Under the provisions on national treatment, the Convention provides that, as regards the protection of industrial property, each contracting State must grant the same protection to nationals of the other contracting States as it grants to its own nationals. Nationals of non-contracting States are also entitled to national treatment under the Convention if they are domiciled or have a real and effective industrial or commercial establishment in a contracting State. (2) The Convention provides for the right of priority in the case of patents (and utility models, where they exist), marks and industrial designs. This right means that, on the basis of a regular first application filed in one of the contracting States, the applicant may, within a certain period of time (12 months for patents and utility models; 6 months for industrial designs and marks), apply for protection in any of the other contracting States; these later applications will then be regarded as if they had been filed on the same day as the first application. In other words, these later applications will have priority (hence the expression “right of priority”) over applications which may have been filed during the said period of time by other persons for the same invention, utility model, mark or industrial design. Moreover, these later applications, being based on the first application, will not be affected by any event that may have taken place in the interval, such as any publication of the invention or sale of articles bearing the mark or incorporating the industrial design. One of the great practical advantages of this provision is that, when an applicant desires protection in several countries, he is not required to present all his applications at the same time but has six or 12 months at his disposal to decide in which countries he wishes protection and to organize with due care the steps he must take to secure protection. (3) The Convention lays down a few common rules which all the contracting States must follow. The more important are the following: (a) As to Patents: Patents granted in different contracting States for the same invention are independent of each other: the granting of a patent in one contracting State does not oblige the other contracting States to grant a patent; a patent cannot be refused, annulled or terminated in any contracting State on the ground that it has been refused or annulled or has terminated in any other contracting State. The inventor has the right to be named as such in the patent. The grant of a patent may not be refused, and a patent may not be invalidated, on the ground that the sale of the patented product, or of a product obtained by means of the patented process, is subject to restrictions or limitations resulting from the domestic law. Each contracting State that takes legislative measures providing for the grant of compulsory licenses to prevent the abuses which might result from the exclusive rights conferred by a patent may do so only with certain limitations. Thus, a compulsory license (license not granted by the owner of the patent but by a public authority of the State concerned) based on failure to work the patented invention may only be granted pursuant to a request filed after three or four years of failure to work or insufficient working of the patented invention and it must be refused if the patentee gives legitimate reasons to justify his inaction. Furthermore, forfeiture of a patent may not be provided for, except in cases where the grant of a compulsory license would not have been sufficient to prevent the abuse. In the latter case, proceedings for forfeiture of a patent may be instituted, but only after the expiration of two years from the grant of the first compulsory license. (b) As to Marks: The Paris Convention does not regulate the conditions for the filing and registration of marks which are therefore determined in each contracting State by the domestic law. Consequently, no application for the registration of a mark filed by a national of a contracting State may be refused, nor may a registration be invalidated, on the ground that filing, registration or renewal has not been effected in the country of origin. Once the registration of a mark is obtained in a contracting State, it is independent of its possible registration in any other country, including the country of origin;
or a translation. (e) As to Indications of Source: Measures must be taken by each contracting State against direct or indirect use of a false indication of the source of the goods or the identity of the producer. has not been effected in the country of origin. when it is devoid of distinctive character. (3) No time limit shall be fixed for requesting the cancellation or the prohibition of the use of marks registered or used in bad faith. (3) A mark duly registered in a country of the Union shall be regarded as independent of marks registered in the other countries of the Union. liable to create confusion. an application for the registration of a mark filed by a national of a country of the Union in any country of the Union may not be refused. the lapse or annulment of the registration of a mark in one contracting State will not affect the validity of registration in other contracting States. such as when the mark would infringe acquired rights of third parties. and it was amended in 1979. in any contracting State. Independence of Protection of Same Mark in Different Countries (1) The conditions for the filing and registration of trademarks shall be determined in each country of the Union by its domestic legislation. at Lisbon in 1958 and at Stockholm in 1967. or renewal. flags. armorial bearings. except for Switzerland. concluded in 1883. and to prohibit the use. Where a mark has been duly registered in the country of origin. at The Hague in 1925. (c) As to Industrial Designs: Industrial designs must be protected in each contracting State.consequently. including the country of origin. liable to create confusion. The countries of the Union may provide for a period within which the prohibition of use must be requested. of a trademark which constitutes a reproduction. Collective marks must be granted protection. abbreviations and names of certain intergovernmental organizations. be accepted for filing and protected in its original form in the other contracting States. Instruments of ratification or accession must be deposited with the Director General of WIPO. when it is contrary to morality or public order. other emblems. The Convention is open to all States. and only if the owner cannot justify his inaction. at Washington in 1911. the use of a registered mark is compulsory. an imitation. established by the Convention. provided they have been communicated through the International Bureau of WIPO. The same provisions apply to armorial bearings. at London in 1934. These provisions shall also apply when the essential part of the mark constitutes a reproduction of any such well-known mark or an imitation liable to create confusion therewith. Each contracting State must refuse registration and prohibit the use of marks which constitute a reproduction. or at the request of an interested party. manufacturer or trader. The Paris Union. which is a member ex officio. on request. Article 6bis Marks: Well-Known Marks (1) The countries of the Union undertake. (d) As to Trade Names: Protection must be granted to trade names in each contracting State without the obligation of filing or registration. nor may a registration be invalidated. the registration cannot be canceled until after a reasonable period. ex officio if their legislation so permits. of a mark considered by the competent authority of the country of registration or use to be well known in that country as being already the mark of a person entitled to the benefits of this Convention and used for identical or similar goods. was revised at Brussels in 1900. (2) However. If. of a mark considered by the competent authority of that State to be well known in that State as being already the mark of a person entitled to the benefits of the Convention and used for identical or similar goods. (f) As to Unfair Competition: Each contracting State must provide for effective protection against unfair competition. State emblems and official signs and hallmarks of contracting states. on the ground that filing. registration. The establishment of the biennial program and budget of the WIPO Secretariat—as far as the Paris Union is concerned—is the task of its Assembly. Article 6 Marks: Conditions of Registration. The Paris Convention. to refuse or to cancel the registration. Each contracting State must likewise refuse registration and prohibit the use of marks which consist of or contain without authorization. and protection may not be forfeited on the ground that the articles incorporating the design are not manufactured in that State. Nevertheless. has an Assembly and an Executive Committee. imitation or translation. . The members of the Executive Committee are elected from among the members of the Union. (2) A period of at least five years from the date of registration shall be allowed for requesting the cancellation of such a mark. or when it is of such a nature as to be liable to deceive the public. registration may be refused in well-defined cases. it must. Every State member of the Union which has adhered to at least the administrative and final provisions of the Stockholm Act (1967) is a member of the Assembly.
through the intermediary of the International Bureau. through the intermediary of the International Bureau. (10) The above provisions shall not prevent the countries from exercising the right given in paragraph (3) of Article 6quinquies. of international intergovernmental organizations. shall apply equally to armorial bearings. is not of such a nature as to suggest to the public that a connection exists between the organization concerned and the armorial bearings. above. of international intergovernmental organizations of which one or more countries of the Union are members. (6) In the case of State emblems other than flags. official signs and hallmarks indicating control and warranty adopted by them. in that country.Article 6ter Marks: Prohibitions concerning State Emblems. of their country may use them even if they are similar to those of another country. flags. and names. and Emblems of Intergovernmental Organizations (1) (a) The countries of the Union agree to refuse or to invalidate the registration. above. intended to ensure their protection. flags. of armorial bearings. Article 6quater Marks: Assignment of Marks (1) When. together with the exclusive right to manufacture in the said country. emblems. other State emblems. to place wholly or within certain limits under the protection of this Article. (3) (a) For the application of these provisions. and in the case of armorial bearings. that are already the subject of international agreements in force. with the exception of armorial bearings. and names. abbreviations. and names. other emblems. or official signs and hallmarks adopted by a country of the Union. of this Convention. The countries of the Union shall not be required to apply the said provisions when the use or registration referred to in subparagraph (a). to the country or international intergovernmental organization concerned. 1925. and names. either as trademarks or as elements of trademarks. these provisions shall apply only to marks registered more than two months after receipt of the communication provided for in paragraph (3). in accordance with the law of a country of the Union. signs. the countries of the Union agree to communicate reciprocally. (b) The provisions of subparagraph (a). and all subsequent modifications of such list. (5) In the case of State flags. (2) Prohibition of the use of official signs and hallmarks indicating control and warranty shall apply solely in cases where the marks in which they are incorporated are intended to be used on goods of the same or a similar kind. the countries shall have the right to cancel even those marks incorporating State emblems. and hallmarks. signs. the assignment of a mark is valid only if it takes place at the same time as the transfer of the business or goodwill to which the mark belongs. (9) The countries of the Union undertake to prohibit the unauthorized use in trade of the State armorial bearings of the other countries of the Union. which were registered before November 6. flags. Nevertheless such communication is not obligatory in respect of flags of States. abbreviations. to refuse or to invalidate the registration of marks incorporating. (4) Any country of the Union may. and official signs and hallmarks indicating control and warranty. and of official signs and hallmarks of the countries of the Union. and other State emblems. flags. Section B. other emblems. or may hereafter desire. be of such a nature as . if any. other emblems. without authorization. the measures prescribed by paragraph (1). (b) The provisions of subparagraph (b) of paragraph (1) of this Article shall apply only to such armorial bearings. it shall suffice for the recognition of such validity that the portion of the business or goodwill located in that country be transferred to the assignee. (2) The foregoing provision does not impose upon the countries of the Union any obligation to regard as valid the assignment of any mark the use of which by the assignee would. within a period of twelve months from the receipt of the notification. Official Hallmarks. other emblems. and hallmarks. as well as the distinctive signs of international intergovernmental organizations referred to in paragraph (1). flags. (c) No country of the Union shall be required to apply the provisions of subparagraph (b). of the countries of the Union. Each country of the Union shall in due course make available to the public the lists so communicated. and any imitation from a heraldic point of view. or to sell therein. the goods bearing the mark assigned. of international intergovernmental organizations as the latter have communicated to the countries of the Union through the intermediary of the International Bureau. or if such use or registration is probably not of such a nature as to mislead the public as to the existence of a connection between the user and the organization. without authorization by the competent authorities. and to prohibit by appropriate measures the use. to the prejudice of the owners of rights acquired in good faith before the entry into force. abbreviations. above. transmit its objections. (7) In cases of bad faith. above. in fact. (8) Nationals of any country who are authorized to make use of the State emblems. flags. flags. above. above. and names. abbreviations. which they desire. abbreviations. when the use is of such a nature as to be misleading as to the origin of the goods. 1925. shall apply solely to marks registered after November 6. armorial bearings. the list of State emblems.
intended purpose. The benefit of priority shall remain unaffected for applications for the registration of marks filed within the period fixed byArticle 4. in particular. . (1) Every trademark duly registered in the country of origin shall be accepted for filing and protected as is in the other countries of the Union. Article 6quinquies Marks: Protection of Marks Registered in One Country of the Union in the Other Countries of the Union A. on Importation. or. or consist exclusively of signs or indications which may serve. of the goods. subject to the reservations indicated in this Article. (2) No trademark shall be refused in the other countries of the Union for the sole reason that it differs from the mark protected in the country of origin only in respect of elements that do not alter its distinctive character and do not affect its identity in the form in which it has been registered in the said country of origin. or have become customary in the current language or in the bona fide and established practices of the trade of the country where protection is claimed. or essential qualities. in conformity with the domestic legislation of each country. D. even if registration in the country of origin is effected after the expiration of such period. C. Article 8 Trade Names A trade name shall be protected in all the countries of the Union without the obligation of filing or registration. No authentication shall be required for this certificate. the country of which he is a national. of the goods to which the mark is applied. whether a natural person or a legal entity. or any other competent authority. (iii) when they are contrary to morality or public order and. all the factual circumstances must be taken into consideration. This provision is subject. if he has no such establishment within the Union. to designate the kind. quality. except if such provision itself relates to public order. before proceeding to final registration. (3) Seizure shall take place at the request of the public prosecutor. (4) The authorities shall not be bound to effect seizure of goods in transit. Trade Names: Seizure. in no case shall the renewal of the registration of the mark in the country of origin involve an obligation to renew the registration in the other countries of the Union in which the mark has been registered. It is understood that a mark may not be considered contrary to public order for the sole reason that it does not conform to a provision of the legislation on marks. No person may benefit from the provisions of this Article if the mark for which he claims protection is not registered in the country of origin. nature. (2) Seizure shall likewise be effected in the country where the unlawful affixation occurred or in the country into which the goods were imported. (1) In determining whether a mark is eligible for protection. (ii) when they are devoid of any distinctive character. the country of the Union where he has his domicile. require the production of a certificate of registration in the country of origin. However.. or any interested party. however. in trade. Trademarks covered by this Article may be neither denied registration nor invalidated except in the following cases: (i) when they are of such a nature as to infringe rights acquired by third parties in the country where protection is claimed. particularly as regards the origin. if he has no domicile within the Union but is a national of a country of the Union. etc. value.to mislead the public. whether or not it forms part of a trademark. of such a nature as to deceive the public. E. or. quantity. Article 9 Marks. to the application of Article 10bis. B. (2) Shall be considered the country of origin the country of the Union where the applicant has a real and effective industrial or commercial establishment. or the time of production. Such countries may. place of origin. of Goods Unlawfully Bearing a Mark or Trade Name (1) All goods unlawfully bearing a trademark or trade name shall be seized on importation into those countries of the Union where such mark or trade name is entitled to legal protection. particularly the length of time the mark has been in use. issued by the competent authority. F.
manufacturer. manufacturer. (3) The following in particular shall be prohibited: (i) all acts of such a nature as to create confusion by any means whatever with the establishment. seizure shall be replaced by prohibition of importation or by seizure inside the country. (2) They undertake. (2) Such temporary protection shall not extend the periods provided by Article 4. of the goods. in so far as the law of the country in which protection is claimed allows such action by federations and associations of that country. or the industrial or commercial activities. False Indications. Utility Models. utility models. shall in any case be deemed an interested party. of Goods Bearing False Indications as to their Source or the Identity of the Producer (1) The provisions of the preceding Article shall apply in cases of direct or indirect use of a false indication of the source of the goods or the identity of the producer. If. to take action in the courts or before the administrative authorities. the goods. Trade Names. Article 10bis Unfair Competition (1) The countries of the Union are bound to assure to nationals of such countries effective protection against unfair competition.. or merchant. (2) Any producer. Article 10ter Marks. the authorities of any country may provide that the period shall start from the date of introduction of the goods into the exhibition. Unfair Competition: Remedies. industrial designs. Marks: Temporary Protection at Certain International Exhibitions (1) The countries of the Union shall. in respect of goods exhibited at official or officially recognized international exhibitions held in the territory of any of them. of a competitor. or merchants. (iii) indications or allegations the use of which in the course of trade is liable to mislead the public as to the nature. whether a natural person or a legal entity. the manufacturing process. Article 12 Special National Industrial Property Services (1) Each country of the Union undertakes to establish a special industrial property service and a central office for the communication to the public of patents. later. (b) the reproductions of registered trademarks. Right to Sue (1) The countries of the Union undertake to assure to nationals of the other countries of the Union appropriate legal remedies effectively to repress all the acts referred to in Articles 9. such documentary evidence as it considers necessary. and trademarks. on Importation. or the quantity. and 10bis. and 10bis. further. Article 10 False Indications: Seizure. in conformity with their domestic legislation. and trademarks. until such time as the legislation is modified accordingly. producers. (2) This service shall publish an official periodical journal. the characteristics. grant temporary protection to patentable inventions. or in the country falsely indicated. or in the country where the false indication of source is used. utility models. (6) If the legislation of a country permits neither seizure on importation nor prohibition of importation nor seizure inside the country. etc. (2) Any act of competition contrary to honest practices in industrial or commercial matters constitutes an act of unfair competition. It shall publish regularly: (a) the names of the proprietors of patents granted. to provide measures to permit federations and associations representing interested industrialists. Industrial Designs. of a competitor. Article 11 Inventions. the suitability for their purpose. (3) Each country may require. . or merchant. then. 10. 10. or in the region where such locality is situated. with a brief designation of the inventions patented. or the industrial or commercial activities. provided that the existence of such federations and associations is not contrary to the laws of their countries. these measures shall be replaced by the actions and remedies available in such cases to nationals under the law of such country. (ii) false allegations in the course of trade of such a nature as to discredit the establishment. the goods. industrial designs. the right of priority is invoked. engaged in the production or manufacture of or trade in such goods and established either in the locality falsely indicated as the source.(5) If the legislation of a country does not permit seizure on importation. as proof of the identity of the article exhibited and of the date of its introduction. with a view to the repression of the acts referred to in Articles 9.
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