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Name- Madhav Khandelwal M.

Tech (NTC) Roll No- 19 Assignment Broadband and Multimedia Technology

xDSL Introduction xDSL is the term for the Broadband Access technologies based on Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology x signifies that there are various flavors of DSL Provides always-on, high-speed data services over existing copper wires to residences & businesses POTS service and DSL coexist on same copper line Lower rate xDSL (up to 1.5 Mbps) is gaining popularity in the residential market; will get faster and cheaper High performance xDSL (up to 52 Mbps) targets business and high-end users Benefits & Applications Benefits High-speed data serviceDSL typically >10x faster than 56-kbps analog modem Always on connectionNo need to dial-up Uses existing copper wiresCo-exists w/ POTS service Reasonably priced today and getting cheaper Applications High speed Internet access Multimedia, Long distance learning, gaming Video on Demand VPN VoDSL

Asymmetric xDSL Asymmetric => faster downstream rate vs. upstream Suitable for applications such as web-browsing, MP3 downloading, Video on demand (VoD) Types of asymmetric DSL Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) The original and most popular Other asymmetric DSL technologies derived from ADSL Universal ADSL (UDSL), a.k.a. G.Lite or DSL Lite Expedites and reduces cost of deployment process by moving the splitting process from the CP to the CO Splitter-less nature slows the bit rate considerably xDSL 15 Rate-Adaptive DSL (RADSL) Detects highest possible line rate & adjusts accordingly Very High Bit-rate DSL (VDSL) Used to get high speed over short local loops Typically used in conjunction with Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) Still in development phase Symmetric xDSL Symmetric => downstream & upstream rates are equal Suitable for office type apps like Video conferencing Types of symmetric xDSL Symmetric DSL (SDSL) Based on HDSL but single pair Spectral compatibility an issue (crosstalk& interference) High bit-rate DSL (HDSL) The first of the symmetric DSL technologies Uses multiple wire pairs (2 or 3) to achieve high bit rates HDSL 2 Single-pair version of HDSL More standards driven to improve interoperability and spectrallycompatible with other loop services (ISDN, T1, HDSL) also takes into consideration diminishing amount of copper pairs

Single-pair HDSL (SHDSL) Similar to HDSL 2, but more generalized Business class DSL for transporting T1/E1, ISDN, ATM, and IP ISDN DSL (ISDL) DSL over ISDN; okay to pass through repeaters &DLCs Always-on, flat rate billing, and transmit data over data network

ADSL: Motivating factor for the development of ADSL was the desire of telephone carriers to compete with cable service providers in the delivery of VoD services. VoD service was out of reach for many consmers due to equipment & operational cost. The asymmetric data streaming profile of the uADSL technology matched the data flow profile of web browsing. Downstream rate higher than the upstream rate. A distinguishing feature of ADSL is its ability to transport POTS along with broadband services. This was achieved using a guard band to separate the voice-band & broadband frequencies. Rate adaptation was included to allow the 2 modems on an ADSL link to adjust their rates according to the line conditions.

Basic Components of ADSL: Basic components: DSL Modem & a splitter Splitter separates the ADSL traffic from regular POTS traffic.

On customer premises, splitter takes a single copper loop & splits into 2 pairs: one to telephone handset & second to DSL modem (ADSL termination unit-remote)

On CO side, splitter splits the single pair into two pairs: one to voice switch & other to DSL modem (ADSL termination unit-Central)


In the CO, multiple ATU-Cs are aggregated into a single box called as DSLAM, or DSL access multiplexer.

The architecture of RADSL, maximum speed, & distances supported are same as ADSL. Earlier versions of ADSL were needed to be balanced to the conditions of the line. Technicians on both ends of the connection had to fix the speed of the link to match the conditions that existed on the line at the time of the installation. Any variation in line conditions after installations was not addressed. RADSL & current ADSL technology automatically adapt to changing line conditions each time the link becomes active. RADSL theoretically has an additional feature which is not in modern ADSL. Capability to adapt changing line conditions on the fly for both the upstream & downstream channels. VDSL: Fiber all the way to the home (FTTH) is still prohibitively expensive. An alternative is to use a combination of fiber cables feeding neighborhood optical network units (ONUs) & leverage the existing copper loops to home or business. DMT modulation techniques are rate adaptive in nature, so modern DSL modems inherently have the capability.

VDSL depends on very short runs over copper loops of up to 6000 feet in order to maximize the available frequency range of the wire, remaining loop to the local served by fiber.

ONU serves as a central distribution point where the fiber from the local distribution terminates & many VDSL copper loops aggregate.

The DSL forum refers to this arrangement as fiber to the neighborhood (FTTN) & extends the concept to include fiber to the basement (FTTB) for high rise buildings with vertical drops & fiber to the curb (FTTC) for short drops.

VDSL is full-service access network that addresses a full range of services from POTS & ISDN to linking high-speed LANs. VDSL is asymmetric with downstream speeds that range from 13 Mbps to 52 Mbps across copper loops ranging from 1000 feet to 4000 feet.


Upstream rates range from 1.5 to 6 Mbps.

High Bit-Rate DSL, was the first DSL technology put into the operation. Developed by Bellcore in the late 1980s, was intended to be an economical solution to growing demand for T1 carriers. The first version was placed into service in 1992. HDSL operates at symmetric speeds of 1.544 Mbps & 2.048 Mbps, the same as T1/E1. Is becoming preferred option over T1/E1 service.

T1/E1 Transmission Systems: T1/E1 operates over telephone wires but the loop had to be conditioned and loading coils & bridged taps had to be removed. The line had to be spliced & repeaters inserted, at every 3000-6000 feet

The power levels required for T1/E1 service created crosstalk for other services, so had to be separated into separate binder groups.

A customer premises location 18,000 feet away from the CO would require atleast 6 repeaters for a T1/E1 line. Repeaters were normally line-powered from the CO, requiring a special power supply at the central office. The resistance in the loop wasted a lot of power being sent to repeater. In spite of its challenges, T1/E1 service was popular for digital access to the PSTN.

HDSL as a Solution to T1/E1 Service: Elimination of midspan repeater, called as repeaterless or nonrepeatered T1/E1 replacement technology.

A comparison of T1/E1 HDSL

SDSL: IDSL: Technology functions the same way as basic rate ISDN, uses 2B+D, provides a data capacity of 144 Kbps. In ISDN 2 B channels are circuit switched, each capable of carrying voice & data in both directions. Symmetric DSL or single-line DSL uses a single pair. Using multiple copper pairs to provide residential digital services is not the ideal solution to Service Provider. Instead of using 2 transceivers & 2 copper pairs, SDSL uses a single transceiver & a single copper pair to fractional T1 services. SDSL fits in where customers require higher data speeds but not a full T1 service. Higher data rates than the 784 Kbps of the original HDSL transceivers are due to advances in technology.

The D channels carries control signals & customer call data in a packet switched mode & operates at 16 Kbps. ISDL runs on a single pair of wires at a maximum distance of 18 kft (3.4 miles or 5.4 Km). Traditional ISDN requires a connection to a voice switch in the CO, entire ISDL is provided by the DSL equipment hence called as BRI without the switch or switchless BRI Some versions of ISDL allow full use of 144 Kbps BW while others allow only 2B operation or 128 Kbps. A variation on ISDL exists that is based on the PRI ISDN model