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Portland Cement is the basic binding material in Portland cement concrete and as such is the most important of the

e materials composing concrete. Clinker it is the burnt product which is mixed with 2-1/2 to 5% gypsum and pulverized to form Portland Cement. Hydration is the process of chemical combination of cement and water. Curing is the process of maintaining the water in the concrete mixture for the hydration to continue. Also means to store specimen in a moist condition at temperature range of 10 to 240oC. The insoluble residue test of Portland cement determines the soundness of the cement and of course the quality of cement. Workability of Cement is defined as the case with which fresh concrete can be handled without segregation from the time it is mixed up to its final lacing. Hydraulic cement is a property of Portland cement where it combines chemically with water, then hares for an indefinite period. Slump is a type of test which measure the consistency, workability an the desirable properties of concrete. Portland Cement Concrete is the product produced by the binding of Portland cement and aggregates and water. The argillaneous raw materials include clay, shale and blast furnace slag. These materials contribute silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), and iron oxide to the clinker. The calcareous raw materials include limestone, chalk, mark and marine shells. These materials contribute lime (CaO) and magnesia (MgO) to the clinker. The Tricalcium Aluminate liberates the most heat and undergoes the most shrinkage. The dicalcium silicate hardens the slowest, but at the age of a year has about the same strength as the tricalcium silicate. There are five types of Portland Cement, Namely: Type I for general use when the special properties of the other types are not required Type II for concrete construction exposed to moderate sulphate action or where moderate heat of hydration is required. Type III For high early strength Type IV - for low heat hydration

Type V for high sulphite resistance The four significant compounds In the finish cement Tricalcium silicate, Dicalcium Silicate, Tricalcium aluminate, Tetracalcium alumina-ferrite Two desirable properties of hardened concrete while in service Strength and durability What is the significance of Fineness test on Portland Cement? The significance Fineness test determine how fine the cement is, and it is necessary to choose finer cement because finer cement will give higher strength. What is the significance of Loss on Ignition test on Portland Cement? The significance of loss on ignition test is to measure of how fresh the cement is and the more fresh the cement the better the quality. What is the significance of soundness test on Portland cement? The significance of soundness test is to determine the absence of those qualities which tend to destroy its strength and durability. Asphalt Asphalt is defined as a dark brown to black cementitious material, solid or semi-solid in consistency in which the predominating constituents are bitumens which occur in nature as such or are obtained as residue in refining petroleum. Asphaltu or Sphallo Significance Properties Consistency Fluidity or degree of hardness. It varies with temperature and with kind and amount of the flurring agent, in the case of liquid asphalts. Durability resistance to change in properties due to weathering or aging. Asphalt generally tend to become hard and brittle with age. Good asphalt quality is more weather-resistance. Adhesion ability to adhere to aggregate in the presence of water. Rate of Setting rate of hardening or curing. It varies with the type of flurring agent, climatic conditions and asphalt film thickness. Ductility Ability to stretch without breaking. Types of Bituminous Materials Natural Deposits Pure deposits, Rock Asphalt

Manufactured asphalt cement(Hot asphalt), liquid grades(slow-curing, medium curing, rapid curing cutback, asphalt emulsions)(liquid asphalts), blown asphalts, tars Slow curing road oil or residual is a liquid asphalt consisting of asphalt consisting of asphalt cement and slowly volatile and non-volatile oils. It is black has the characteristic smell of oil. Medium Curing Cut smell of kerosene Rapid Curing cut-black(R-C) is a readily identified by the characteristics smell of naphtha or gasoline which is used as flux. Emulsified Asphalt is a colloidal dispersion of asphalt in water. Asphalt Emulsion is chocolate-colored before use, turning black when the emulsion is broken.