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CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction All human behavior arises in response to some forms of internal or external stimulation. These behaviors are purposeful or goal directed as result of the arousal of certain motives. Thus motivation can be defined as the process of activating, maintaining and directing behavior toward a particular goal. Motivation is the strength of the drive toward an action which refers to the forces that prompt a person to act in a certain way or to develop a tendency for specific behavior. Arousal of behavior involves whatever brings an organism to action. It may result from stimuli inside or outside the body. Direction of behavior determined by several influences includes an organisms habits, skills, and basic capacities. Adequate motivation provides energy that makes it possible for learning to occur. It is the control factor in every learning process that prompts action toward a certain direction or goal. Learning is an active process that needs to be motivated and guided by the motives or incentives in order for the learner to persist in learning process; therefore, learning efficiency is impaired if there is neither explicit not self- induced desire to learn. There are two types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is an internal stimulus to learning arises from a desire to learn a topic due to its inherent interests, for selffulfillment, enjoyment and to achieve a mastery of the subject. Extrinsic motivation is an external stimulus to learning based on incentives or external rewards causes people to behave for reasons external to their self.

Student influenced by both internal and external factors that can start, sustain, intensify, or discourage behavior. Intrinsically motivated students are bound to do much better in classroom activities, because they are willing and eager to learn new material. Their learning experience is more meaningful, and they go deeper into the subject to fully understand it. Internal factors include the individual characteristics or dispositions that students bring to their learning, such as their interests, responsibility for learning, effort, values and perceived ability. Thus, Intrinsic motivators also include fascination with the subject, a sense of its relevance to life and the world, a sense of accomplishment in mastering it, and a sense of calling to it. Extrinsic motivators of the students include parental expectations, expectations of other trusted role models, earning potential of a course of study, and grades. In addition, extrinsic motivation is motivation to perform and succeed for the sake of accomplishing a specific result or outcome. The students may have to be bribed to perform based from the external rewards, whereas students who seem to truly embrace their work and take a genuine interest in it are intrinsically motivated. Motivations are one of the principal factors influencing the outcome on the education or academic performance of the students. Student's motivation for learning is generally regarded as one of the most critical determinants, if not the premier determinant, of the success and quality of any learning outcome. Academic performance involves the students motives to deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them. Intelligence is not the only determinant of academic achievement. The increased on motivation and engagement in learning have consistently been linked to increased levels of student success. Development of academic motivation in students is an important goal for educators because of its inherent importance for future motivation as well as for student's effective school functioning. This study wants to determine the intrinsic and/or extrinsic motivational factors and its effect or influenced to the level of academic performance of the first year nursing students of San Juan de Dios Educational foundation Inc., School year 2009- 2010.

Background of the Study This study was conducted at selected nursing students of San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Inc. at Pasay City, which has a noble vision/mission and a dynamic environment. Its facilities and other physical features have been aligned with CHED's (Commission on Higher Education) policies and requirements. The faculty members teach their fields of specialization. It is an educational institution which offers different courses such as Bachelor of Science in HRS, Bachelor in Medical Laboratory Science, Bachelor of Science in Physical Therapy and Bachelor of Science in Nursing. The selected college is a dynamic and pro-active learning organization that produces quality and globally competitive students and graduates; upholding the highest standard of excellence in the fields of education, research, and other developmental pursuits towards contributing to the over-all attainment of a better quality of life for the Filipinos.

The study focuses on the Motivation and Academic Performance of the First Year Nursing Students of San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Inc., College School Year 20092010 researches wants to study the motivational factors of the first year nursing students which influenced the level of their academic performance. The goal of this study is to determine if there is a significant relationship in the motivational factors (Intrinsic or Extrinsic factors) and academic performance of the first year nursing students. To identify how the first year nursing students of San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Inc., were able to perform on their studies whether they are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated in attaining their goal to become a professional nurse.

Theoretical Framework
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Self-determination theory (SDT) is the theory of human motivation and is concerned with the choices people make with their own free will and full sense of choice and external influence and interference. SDT focuses on the degree to which an individuals behavior is selfendorsed and self-determined. Intrinsic motivation refers to initiating an activity for its own sake because it is interesting and satisfying in itself, as opposed to doing an activity to obtain an external goal (extrinsic motivation). Based on the degree of control exerted by external factors, levels of extrinsic motivation can be aligned along a continuum. Theory differentiated between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation played in an individuals behavior. Extrinsic motivation involves the need to experience oneself as capable and competent controlled by the environment or external to the individual and being able to reliably predict outcomes. Internal motivation involves to the need to actively participate in determining own behavior. It includes the need to experience ones actions as result of self or own choice. (Deci & Ryan, 2002).

Conceptual framework

Intrinsic Motivation First Year Nursing Students Academic Performance

Extrinsic Motivation

Figure 1. Diagram of Research Paradigm

The Figure 1 shows that the first year nursing students were influenced by different motivational factors in relation to their learning process. Motivational factors of the student which arouses and sustains their action toward a desired goal. It gives them purpose and direction to behavior. Thus, students can be intrinsically or extrinsically motivated. Intrinsic motivations are those motives came from within. They have desire or interest to explore on the learning process for their self satisfaction. They desire to learn due to their interests, for selffulfillment, enjoyment and to achieve a mastery of their subject. An intrinsic motivated student does not mean that they dont seek rewards but rather external rewards are not enough to keep them motivated. Examples of intrinsic motivations: seeing nursing as a caring profession, perceiving nursing as a challenge, taking up nursing to be able to render care to those who are ill, belief that Filipinos are good nurses, and the desire to uplift ones self esteem. Extrinsically motivated students are those motives came from external or outside, rewards such as high salary or opportunity going abroad. Students work on their learning process even when they have little interest in it because of the anticipated satisfaction they will get from some reward. The rewards can be something as minor as a high grade or to something major like
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fame or fortune. For example, an extrinsically motivated student who dislikes math may work hard on a math equation because wants the reward for completing it. In the case of a student, the reward would be a good grade on an assignment or in the class. The motivational factors which can be intrinsically and/or extrinsically motivated help the students to concentrate on the learning process. Thus, continuous motivation influenced the students on their level of academic performances (learning process). These will determine the level of academic performance of the students whether they are intrinsically and/or extrinsically motivated.

Statement of the Problem

This study will determine the intrinsic and/or extrinsic motivational factors and its effect or influenced on the level of academic performance of the first year nursing students of San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Inc., School year 2009- 2010. This study aims to answer the following questions: 1. What are the final grades of the first year nursing students? 2. What is the intrinsic and/or extrinsic motivational factor of the respondents in taking up nursing course? 3. Is there a significant relationship on the motivational factors and academic performance of the first year nursing students?

Hypothesis

HO: There are no significant relationship between motivational factors and academic performance of the first year nursing students.
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Ha: There are significant relationship between motivational factors and academic performance of the first year nursing students.

Scope and Delimitation The respondents of the study includes all the first year nursing students of San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Incorporated, College during school year 2009-2010, with a total population of 75 students. The students should be officially enrolled in the program of Bachelor of Science in Nursing regardless of age and gender in the first semester. The study will determine the motivational factors of the first year nursing students. Intrinsically motivated students have desire to learn due to their interests, for self-fulfillment, enjoyment and to achieve a mastery of their subject. Extrinsically motivated students motives came from external or outside, rewards such as high salary or opportunity going abroad. Students work on their learning process even when they have little interest in it because of the anticipated satisfaction they will get from some reward. The study will identify the significant relationship between motivational factors and the level of academic performance of the students. The permission of the Nursing Department will be elicited allowing the researchers to gain access to their midterm grade and final grade from all the subjects that includes: English, Filipino, Chemistry, College Algebra, Psychology, Philosophy of Man, Rizal, Physical Education, Religious Education, Vincentian Heritage, and Theoretical Foundation of Nursing. Descriptive Correlation Design will use to obtain the necessary information about the respondents. There are two sections with a total population of 75 first year nursing students to answer the survey questionnaire (tool).

Significance of the Study

To the Students

The study will determine the intrinsic and/or extrinsic motivational factors among first year nursing students that influenced or affect their academic performance. This study would help the low performing students to improve their academic performance thru developing a favorable behavior towards the learning process, while high performing students will encourage more in to maintain and further improve their academic performance, whether they are intrinsically and extrinsically motivated thru possible recommendations of the researcher.

To the Parents This study will determine the motivational factors of their child in order for them to be aware of the factors influencing them on their academic performance. It will help parents to encourage their child to focus on their continued improvement and to find out how they feel and what is motivating them to achieve a good nursing career.

To the Department-College of Nursing This study would help the facilitators to what strategies they will use to motivate the students to study and to understand the attitudes of the students towards the course. Thus, it would help to maintain quality nursing students. Increased motivation and engagement in learning have consistently been

linked to reduced dropout rates and increased levels of student success. Development of academic motivation in students is an important goal for educators because of its inherent importance for future motivation as well as for student's effective school functioning.

Definition of Terms

Motivation anything that caused the students to behave as they do. It involves having the desire and willingness to do something. It can be the reason for the action or that which gives direction to an action. There are two types: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic Motivation - refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades. The motivation comes from the pleasure one gets from the task itself or from the sense of satisfaction in completing or even working on a task. An intrinsically motivated person will work on a math equation, for example, because it is enjoyable. Extrinsic motivation - refers to motivation that comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as money or grades. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide. Academic Performance performance, action, task or operation and progress of students in school Final Grade average grade of midterm and final term in the first semester of the first year nursing students of San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Inc., currently enrolled in school year 2009- 2010. Low performing students are nonetheless struggling or lack of self motivation is often referred to as an underachiever. High performing students are self- generated thoughts, feelings, and actions which are systematically towards the attainment of goals.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


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Foreign Literature

MOTIVATION

Motivation towards studies is a process starting, sustaining and directing students study behavior. On the other hand, motivation in education can have effects on how the students learn and their behavior towards subject matter. It can direct behavior toward specific goals, guide to increased effort and energy, increase initiation of, and persevere in activities, intensify cognitive processing, determine what consequences are to be strengthened, lead to better performance. (Omrod, 2003) Motivation determines the presence and vigor of activity. Although motivation provides energy or power that makes it possible for learning to occur, more is needed for the realization for learning. Motivation is the heart of learning process. A strong inner urge will mean stronger efforts. Adequate motivation provides the energy that makes it possible for learning to occur. More is needed for the realization of learning. Learning efficiency is impaired if there is neither explicit not self-induced desire to learn. Self-direction is essential to promote a complete development best when they are sensitive to maturing self-direction in the students. (Gregorio, 2000). Motives are important aspect of motivation. They release energy and arouse activity. It is not enough to activate an organism. The energy released is ineffective unless action is directed toward some object that is capable of satisfying the drive. Improvement in learning will take place when activities are converged upon well-defined and attainable goals. Learning cannot be
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successful without persistent selective, and purposeful effort. This principle has far reaching implication for educational procedures. The needs are adequate motives for doing college or university work is clearly as great as the need for adequate motive for doing any other types of work. (Gregorio, 2000). Motivation is a driving force that initiates and directs behavior. In other words, motivation is a kind of internal and external energy which drives a person to do something in order to achieve something. (ezinearticles.com). It is a question of energy, such as process starting, sustaining and directing students study behavior. On the other hand, motivation in education can have influenced on how the students learn and their behavior towards subject matter (Ormrod, 2003). It can direct behavior toward specific goals, guide to increased effort and energy, increase initiation of, and persevere in activities, intensify cognitive processing, determine what consequences are to be strengthened, lead to better performance. Motivation refers to the dynamics of our behavior, which involves our needs, desires, and ambitions in life. Achievement motivation is based on reaching success and achieving all of our aspirations in life. Achievement goals can affect the way a person performs a task and represent a desire to show competence (Harackiewicz et al, 1997).

Motivation is based on three specific aspects such as the arousal of behavior, the direction of behavior, and persistence of behavior. Arousal of behavior involves what activates human behavior and direction of behavior is concerned with what directs behavior towards a specific goal. Persistence of behavior is concerned with how the behavior is sustained.

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Theory about motivation is Stephen Moultons Multifactor Motivation Theory (2007). It says that people are motivated to do things because they desire to and not because others think it is a good thing to do. Motivations results from actions that gratify from inner needs. It is not an indicative of being motivated if people are strained to do something and doing it. And according to numerous studies done over the past 50 years, parents (despite of generation or supposed generation gap) have the greatest influence over their childrens decisions even in todays society, with the influence of television, peers and internet. On the study made by BioMed Central Nursing Research about Nursing Students Motivations towards their studies, the motivation among first year nursing students goal and the future time perspective theories were combined. The result of the study showed that the students could be motivated by the present studies leading to the future utilities as registered nurses and that both present and the future might be regulated internally or externally. These dimensions of a goal have different influence on motivation. Students who are internally regulated were more task-oriented and attracted in the course and performed well. Students who are externally regulated used more avoidance ego goals, were less interested and performed worse. Those students, who also find the courses practical for the future, not only for the training but also they are motivated and attained better result, than those students who found the courses just relevant for training (Wilson, 2008). Important Points Concerning Motivation The principle of motivation states that the learner must be motivated before learning takes place. This fact suggests the desirability of studying the way in which concepts goals and needs engendered in the learner. Motivation is basic to learning through a proper motivation.
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Motives compel the learner to act or to react. Motivation of learning is more efficient when it is directed by strong motivational pattern. Continuous motivation is essential in developing concentration of attention.(Gregorio 2000). Students motivation naturally has to do with students desire to take part in the learning process. But it also concerns the reasons or goals that underlie their involvement or noninvolvement in academic activities. Although students may be similarly motivated to perform a task, the sources of their motivation may differ. A student who is intrinsically motivated undertakes an activity for its own sake for the enjoyment it provides, the learning it permits or the feelings of accomplishment it evokes (Lepper, 1988) An extrinsically motivated student performs in order to: attain some reward or avoid some punishment external to the activity itself. such as grades, stickers or teacher approval. (Lepper, 1988) Even if motivation is elevated, this may not be reflected in the performance, perhaps because of hindrances, such as lack of capability or preparation, inadequate materials, machinery, aids and tools, an unsuitable strategy for doing the job, a system and organizational environment which are not helpful to continuous improvement, etc.

INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION

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Motivation can be seen as an intrinsic or extrinsic factor. Enjoy learning for its own sake or positive feedback on learning outcomes are example of intrinsic motivation. Accordingly, there is a built-in pleasure for the activity itself. Intrinsic motivation is the internal desires to perform a particular task, people do certain activities because it gives them pleasure, develops a particular skill while extrinsic motivations are factors external to the individual. In a study of self- efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivations as predictors for students engage in academic work. On the other hand, Self- determination theory (SDT) motivation concerned with the choices people make with their own free will and full sense of choice and external influence and interference. SDT focuses on the degree to which an individuals behavior is self-endorsed and self-determined. Intrinsic motivation refers to initiating an activity for its own sake because it is interesting and satisfying in itself, as opposed to doing an activity to obtain an external goal (extrinsic motivation). Based on the degree of control exerted by external factors, levels of extrinsic motivation can be aligned along a continuum. Theory differentiated between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation played in an individuals behavior. Extrinsic motivation involves the need to experience oneself as capable and competent controlled by the environment or external to the individual and being able to reliably predict outcomes. Internal motivation involves to the need to actively participate in determining own behavior. It includes the need to experience ones actions as result of self or own choice. (Deci & Ryan, 2002). Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation is an internal stimulus to learning. It is based on the motives that every individual strives to satisfy. Motives are intrinsic, or within the person. They have their roots in needs and drives. Motives refer to drives that exercise behaviors. Motives are thoughts, feelings, or conditions that cause one to act. Motives are highly individualized. They belong to the students and they have energizing function. The desire for knowledge, the desire to explore
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and the desire to construct are the most common forms of intrinsic motivation. Interest of the learner in a subject matter is an internal desire to do better work. In intrinsic motivation the students work are not on the focus of external rewards, but for personal satisfaction that comes with accomplishment. Good motivation aims when the motive for doing the act lies within the act. The students who are intrinsically motivated carries out an action for the learning it permits and engage for the enjoyment in the learning process without considering its consequence. They take advantage of a given opportunity and show intense effort and concentration in the implementation of learning process. Also, they reveal positive emotions such as excitement, enthusiasm, interest, and optimism during learning. (ezinearticles.com) Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they: attribute their educational results to internal factors that they can control (e.g. the amount of effort they put in), believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck), and are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades. Motivation is based on three specific aspects such as the arousal of behavior, the direction of behavior, and persistence of behavior. Arousal of behavior involves what activates human behavior and direction of behavior is concerned with what directs behavior towards a specific goal. Persistence of behavior is concerned with how the behavior is sustained. Advantages: Intrinsic motivation can be long-lasting and self-sustaining. Efforts to build this kind of motivation are also typically efforts at promoting student learning. Such efforts often focus on the subject rather than rewards or punishments.
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Disadvantages: On the other hand, efforts at fostering intrinsic motivation can be slow to affect behavior and can require special and lengthy preparation. Students are individuals, so a variety of approaches may be needed to motivate different students. It is often helpful to know what interests one's students in order to connect these interests with the subject matter. This requires getting to know one's students. Also, it helps if the instructor is interested in the subject to begin with. (Matt DeLong et al.,2002) In fact, several theorists such as Combs (1982) or Purkey & Stanley (1991) maintain that there is only a single kind of intrinsic motivation. That motivation is one that can be described as engaging in activities that enhance or maintain a person's self-image or concept of oneself. Other theorists such as Malone and Lepper (1987) define self motivation in broader and perhaps more useful terms. Malone and Lepper believe that motivation is simply what people will do without external influence. Said another way, self motivation or intrinsically motivating activities are those in which people will partake in for no reward other than the enjoyment that these activities bring them.

Extrinsic Motivation This type of motivation is an external stimulus to learning activity. Praises and rewards are some of the more common types of extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is based on incentives external rewards. The extrinsic motivation, students are encourage to do good college work by such prizes and privileges.

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Extrinsic or external motivation is the term used to describe external factors that stimulate individual. The concept of externally motivating someone is not at odds with the fact that motivation comes from within. The point here is that it is possible to provide others with situations or an external environment that is motivating. The students who are extrinsically motivated carries out an action in order to obtain rewards or to avoid punishments from external source. Extrinsic referred to as social motivations include parents influence, peers influence, and media influence. (Motivation Theory and Leadership 2006 - 2007 Money-Zine.com) Extrinsic motivators include parental expectations, expectations of other trusted role models, earning potential of a course of study, and grades (which keep scholarships coming). Advantages: Extrinsic motivators more readily produce behavior changes and typically involve relatively little effort or preparation. Also, efforts at applying extrinsic motivators often do not require extensive knowledge of individual students. Disadvantages: On the other hand, extrinsic motivators can often distract students from learning the subject at hand. It can be challenging to devise appropriate rewards and punishments for student behaviors. Often, one needs to escalate the rewards and punishments over time to maintain a certain effect level. Also, extrinsic motivators typically do not work over the long term. Once the rewards or punishments are removed, students lose their motivation. Matt DeLong and Dale Winter, Learning to Teaching and Teaching to Learn Mathematics: Resources for Professional Development, Mathematical Association of America, 2002, page 163. Students self-efficacy beliefs their confidence in their educational and vocational prospects shape the occupational options they consider and the way they prepare for careers.
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These beliefs and aspirations are often influenced by parents own self-efficacy beliefs and aspirations (Bandura et al., 2001). Parents Values regarding academic achievement influence adolescents values and occupational goals (Sameroff et al., 2001).Moreover, gender also may have an influence. A 1192 report by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) Educational Foundation claimed thet the schools short-change girls by steering them away from science and math and into gender-typed pursuits. Six years later, a follow up study reported that girls were taking more science and math than before and doing better in those subjects. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (1997), male and female high school seniors are now equally likely to plan careers in math or science (Weinman 1998). Parents Influence Over the years, research has moved from examining family demographics and their relationships to career development to examining the dynamics of family interactions. One consistent finding in research suggests that adolescents own aspirations are influenced by their parents aspirations or expectations for them. When adolescents perceive their parents to have high educational expectations for them, adolescents are likely to have higher aspirations for themselves. A (1998) Sylvan Learning Center report indicates that parents and childrens views about career aspirations are more compatible than incompatible. Parents are influential figures with whom, whether intentionally or unintentionally, children become aware of and get exposed to occupations or career opportunities and implied expectations (Taylor et al, 2004). Overall, research supports the influence of parental expectations and aspirations on the career decisions and aspirations of their children. These expectations lay a foundation for parents behaviors and

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interactions with their children, which then indirectly or directly influence choices they make in the future (Taylor et al, 2004). Parents Educational Attainment The most common place observation in the study of educational stratification and mobility is that how far an individual goes in school is strongly associated with how far his or her parents have gone in school. Although the reasons for this association are the subject of a rich field of investigation and the strength of the association varies across time and place, the positive correlation of parents and offsprings educational attainments is nearly universal. Whereas early studies of educational inequality focused on educational attainment as a status, typically measured by total years of schooling attained, (Duncan et al.,1976) more studies that are recent have assumed that schooling is a dynamic process. The process is conceived of and measured as a sequence of school transitions between levels of schooling, whether measured as years of school completed or enrollment in major organizational divisions of school systems (Jonsson 2000). Typically, mothers and fathers schooling in the same way as offsprings schooling measure as highest grade of school completed, and estimate their linear effects on the log odds of school continuation. It is widely recognized that parents aspirations for their offsprings socioeconomic achievements are heavily conditioned by their own accomplishments. Parents desire and expect that their children will grow up to achieve at least as high a standard of living as they themselves enjoy and that educational attainment is the primary avenue to socioeconomic success. In an era of secularly rising average levels of educational attainment, one criterion of successful parenthood is for children go at least as far in school as their parents. Moreover, theorists of educational inequality suggest that parents educational attainments set a
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floor for the attainments of their offspring because individuals face psychic costs to downward intergenerational mobility (Goldthorpe 2000). Peer Influence Peers have also been shown to have an effect on decision. While the effect of peers on vocational choice is reliant upon gender and social class, research point out that boys tend to rank peer influence low when it comes to choice. Also, there is verification that lower class boys who attend middle class schools tend to have higher aspirations than do lower boys who attend lower class schools (Adams, 1980) Media Influence These results relate to how the media depict nurses and the nursing profession. Thirtytwo (25%) participants stated that the media presented a negative view of nursing. In comparison, only 6 (4.8%) participants stated that the media projected a positive perspective. This view shows how media affects students in choosing nursing as a degree of course (Goldthorpe 2000). Local Literature Motivation There are different reasons why Filipinos would want to go abroad especially those in the medical field. Some prefer to go abroad because of high salary. Filipinos are motivated to get a better quality life. It may be difficult for a health professional to but a new house and car, as well as easily purchase a digital camera, television set, personal computer and the like here in the
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Philippines. By working overseas, their dream of owning a car can be fulfilled (Cruz, 2004; Tapaoan, 2004). Most MD-RNs prefer going to the US to realize the American Dream, just like most other immigrants. The goal to improve ones life is worth all the effort (Saha, 2004). Nurses based in cities around the Philippines can earn from P8,500 (US $155) to P16,500 (US $300) per month. While nurses based of rural areas can earn only between P3, 500 (US $64) and P5, 500 (US $100) monthly. And even in private hospitals around Metro Manila, the accounts of nurses only earning P2,500 (US $45) to P3,000 ( US $55). The Republic Act 9173 states that P13,00 ( US $245) should be the minimum basic pay of nurses. On the other hand, if we compare the salary of doctors and the salary of nurses here in the Philippines, the doctors definitely have a higher salary. But why do more and more people in the medical profession change career paths and why do some prefer nursing over medicine? When we consider nursing and the medical professions, there are people who prefer the nurses kind of work since it is more in tune with the patient in terms of providing care. It follows a more holistic approach as compared to medicine that is more concerned with the pathophysiology of disease and its medical management. The needs of the patient are more often neglect by doctors. One respondent added, Nursing makes me feel complete in taking care of patients. Another said that nursing has made him a better doctor. Another factor is the lack of faith in the Philippines. Many are disgusted with what is happening in the country uncontrolled corruption and poor peace and order. The country is also in hopeless economic state: the peso falls and the cost of living continue to go up. Nursing is the road to migration of families abroad, away from the Philippines, away from the land of lost opportunities (Manalansan and Azurin, 2003)
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There are two categories of Filipino nurses overseas based on their status in their host country. First, immigrant nurses who live overseas as permanent residents who may even become citizen of their host countries, depending on existing citizenship laws, and the other category being temporary migrant or OFW nurses whose stay in their host countries are entirely dependent on their employment contracts. Filipino emigrant nurses may be classified as economic migrants, career migrants, or migrant family member; Economic migrant go overseas because they are drawn to a better standard of living, while career migrants are attracted by enhanced professional opportunities. Migrant family members going overseas brought about by migration of a family member, spouse or partner. In this case, the nursing qualification usually facilitates their overseas immigration. (Manalansan and Azurin, 2003)

Foreign Literature Academic Performance In educational institutions, success is measured by academic performance, or how well a student meets standards set out by the institution itself. As career competition grows ever fiercer in the working world, the importance of students doing well in school has caught the attention of parents, legislators and government education departments alike. Although education is not the only road to success in the working world, much effort is made to identify, evaluate, track and
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encourage the progress of students in schools. Parents care about their child's academic performance because they believe good academic results will provide more career choices and job security. Schools, though invested in fostering good academic habits for the same reason, are also often influenced by concerns about the school's reputation which can hinge on the overall academic performance of the school. State and federal departments of education are charged with improving schools, and so devise methods of measuring success in order to create plans for improvement. The tracking of academic performance fulfills a number of purposes. Areas of achievement and failure in a student's academic career need to be evaluated in order to foster improvement and make full use of the learning process. Results provide a framework for talking about how students fare in school, and a constant standard to which all students are held. Performance results also allow students to be ranked and sorted on a scale that is numerically obvious, minimizing complaints by holding teachers and schools accountable for the components of each and every grade. Performance in school is evaluated in a number of ways. For regular grading, students demonstrate their knowledge by taking written and oral tests, performing presentations, turning in homework and participating in class activities and discussions. Teachers evaluate in the form of letter or number grades and side notes, to describe how well a student has done. At the state level, students are evaluated by their performance on standardized tests based on a set of achievements students are expected to meet. (ehow.com) As stated by Eric Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, Oreg, in 1994 although students motivational histories go together with them into each new classroom setting, it is necessary for facilitators to view themselves as active socialization agent capable of stimulating students motivation to learn (Brophy 1987).

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Different task dimensions can also promote motivation to learn. Ideally, tasks should be challenging but achievable. Relevance also promote motivation, as does contextualizing learning, that is, helping the students to distinguish how skills can be applied in the real world (Lepper). Tasks that consist of a moderate amount of discrepancy or integrity are favorable because they arouse the students inquisitiveness, an intrinsic motivator (Lepper). In addition, defining tasks in terms of specific, short term goals can assist students to associate effort with success (Stipek 2000). The verbal noting of the purposes of the specific tasks when presenting to the students is also beneficial (Brophy). While extrinsic rewards, should be used with caution, for they have the potential in decreasing intrinsic motivation. To encourage motivation to learn, practices should stress learning, task, mastery and effort (Maehr and Midgley) rather than relative performance and competition.

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


This chapter includes research method, locale of the study, subject of the study, data gathering procedure, validation of instrument and statistical treatment of the Data.

Research Method

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The study involved a descriptive correlational design to obtain necessary information about the study. Information was collected through structured questionnaires (frequency method) composed primarily of extrinsic and intrinsic factors that determined the career motivation of the respondents. The respondents of the study includes all the first year nursing students of San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Incorporated, College during school year 2009-2010, with a total population of 75 students. Locale of the Study The San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation, Inc can be found at Roxas Boulevard, Pasay City. Its College of Nursing was established in the year 1913. They are generally acknowledged as one of the schools who produce competitive nurses and always have high passing rate in the Nursing Licensure Examinations. As early as second college, their nursing students were exposed to the hospital for their training. Their faculty has well experienced Clinical instructors, which educates the students in lectures and during their duties at the hospital. Despite of having San Juan de Dios Hospital as their base of hospital, they also affiliate at Philippine Orthopedic Center, San Lazaro Hospital and National Center for Mental Health.

Subjects of the Study This study is focused to all first year nursing students of San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Inc., with a total population of 75 students. The respondents must be currently enrolled in the program of Bachelor of Science in Nursing of San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Inc., school year 2009-2010, regardless of age and gender, in the first semester.

Data Gathering Procedure

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The main purpose of the researchers is to determine the motivational factors of the first year nursing students and its effects on their level of academic performance during midterm and final term of the first semester. The researchers used questionnaires to gather the information needed. The respondents include all the first year nursing students of San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Inc. with a total population 75 students during school year 2009-2010. The permission of the Nursing Department and the first year nursing students will be elicited allowing the researchers to gain access to their midterm grade and final grades in the first semester. The researchers will get approval from the Dean of College of Nursing. After the approval of the dean, the researchers will disseminate the tool to the selected first year nursing students. The researchers will also get the approval from the Chair of Social Sciences, Language and Literature, Religious Education, College of Nursing, and Mathematics and Natural Science to obtain the midterm grade and final grades of the students. The research tools will be collected and reviewed to be interpreted. The researchers will able to classify the respondents if the students were intrinsically and/or extrinsically motivated.

Validation of the Instrument The researchers will use structured questionnaires for the gathering of data to determine the motivational factors of the first year nursing students of SJDEFI. The questionnaire included 20 different intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors that were combined randomly. Questions adapted from previous thesis study (2008). The questionnaire composed 20 different intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors that influenced the high and low performing that were combined randomly. Questions were obtained from different books, articles and web sites on the internet.
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The questionnaire is composed of 10 intrinsic and 10 extrinsic factors that motivated them to take up nursing. All the odd numbers are intrinsic factors and all even numbers are extrinsic factors. The respondents will choose from 1-5 wherein it will indicate the extent to which of the following reasons that influenced them in taking up nursing course. Wherein 5- to very high extent, 4- to a high extent, 3- to a moderate extent, 2- to a limited extent, and 1- not at all. The researchers will total up the scores of all odd and even numbers. If the student got a high score on all odd numbers, the student will be considered intrinsically motivated. If the students got a high score on all even numbers, then the students will be considered extrinsically motivated. The results will determine the motivational factors between high and low performing first year nursing students. The research tool will be tested at San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Inc wherein 11 fourth year nursing students will gather data using the sample questionnaires to test the appropriateness of the toll for the study.

Statistical treatment of the Data Ungrouped frequency distributions, percentage distributions, weighted mean, and OneWay Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) are the statistical treatments that will be use by the researchers for the interpretation and analysis of data and testing of hypothesis. Ungrouped frequency distribution use to display the midterm and final grades of the first year nursing students of San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Incorporated during their first semester of school year 2009- 2010.

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Percentage distribution use to utilize to present the percentage of students who were intrinsically and extrinsically motivated. Weighted mean is use to determine whether the student is intrinsically or extrinsically motivated in taking up nursing by their scores in the questionnaires. One- Way ANOVA is use to present the significant differences on the motivational factors base (intrinsic and extrinsic factors) on the academic performance of high and low performing first year nursing students .

Bibliography Herman Gregorio, Principles and Methods of Teaching Garotech Publishing, 2000, pp. 105- 110

Matt DeLong and Dale Winter, Learning to Teaching and Teaching to Learn Mathematics: Resources for Professional Development, Mathematical Association of America, 2002, page 163.

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Bonito, S. (2005) Status of Filipino Nurses in Foreign Employment Philippine Journal of Nursing 75 (2), 2-4

Electronic source http:/www.ehow.com http:/www.wikipedia.com http:/www.freelibrary.com http:/www.msu.edu http:/www.biomedcentral.com http:/academic.reed.edu http:/www.adb.org


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http:/www.yahoo.com http:/www.googles.com http:/www.askjeeves.com http:/www.ezinearticles.com

QUESTIONNARE
San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Inc. 2772-2774 Roxas Blvd., Pasay City

Student no. ______ Section: _______ Direction: Indicate the extent to which the following reasons influenced you to take up Nursing. 5 to a very high extent 4 to a high extent 3 to a moderate extent 2 to al limited extent
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1 not at all

5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I see nursing as a caring profession My parents influenced me to take up nursing. I perceived nursing as a challenge. I took up nursing because my friends do so. I took up nursing because I want to render quality care to those who are ill 6. I took up nursing because of the high salary. 7. I believe that becoming a nurse is my destiny.
8. I took up nursing because its in demand in the Philippines and abroad.

9. Becoming a nurse is my dream. 10. I have plans of working abroad. 11. I believe that Filipino nurses are good in rendering care.
12. I took up nursing because I want to uplift my status in life.

13. I want to uplift my self esteem. 14. Medical course runs to my family. 15. I want to challenge myself. 16. I took up nursing only because I want to flaunt my white uniform. 17. Nursing fits my personality. 18. Nursing is the course that I will support on. 19. I have what it takes to finish the course. 20. The media shows nursing as an exciting job.

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