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Proceeding of the CSIR Sponsored National Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems NCIMS2011 3rd & 4th March 2011

WIND TURBINE GENERATOR FOR AUTOMOBILES P.MADHUMATHI1


1,2

R.NITHYA2 S.THIRUMURUGAVEERAKUMAR3

FIRST M.E (INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING), KUMARAGURU COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, COIMBATORE 3 FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, KUMARAGURU COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, COIMBATORE,tmv_kumar@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT
With the evolution of new technologies in the field of automobile engineering the comfort of the passengers and safety of perishable goods has become a major concern.Various comfort accessories in passenger vehicles like televisions sets, music system, focus lights, fans with higher quality pumps, power steering electrical control systems, warning systems etc have increased the power requirements of the vehicle. In the past 20 years, the electrical demand of automobiles has more than doubled. Today vehicles with air conditioners have also become common .The power requirement of the air conditioner system is met by an additional engine attached to the vehicle. The additional battery or engine has though fulfilled the energy requirements of the vehicle it has also increased the weight of the vehicle resulting in the loss of fuel efficiency of the vehicle. This is an attempt made to utilize the wind energy produced by the movement of the vehicle to generate electrical power.

Proceeding of the CSIR Sponsored National Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems NCIMS2011 3rd & 4th March 2011

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ADVANTAGES OF WIND ENERGY POWER IN THE WIND TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ROTOR LIFT AND DRAG POWER GENERATING UNIT VARIABLE FREQUENCY ALTERNATOR DETAILS OF THE MOUNTING EXPERIMENTAL DATA APPLICATION OF POWER GENERATED CONCLUSION

Proceeding of the CSIR Sponsored National Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems NCIMS2011 3rd & 4th March 2011

INTRODUCTION
New technologies are being developed everyday. And the need for more power in the automobiles are also increasing everyday. Thus in order to depend on the same engine for all the wind energy can be utilized as it is a permanent solution to the energy needs of the vehicle. Transitioning to wind powered system will bring about improved fuel efficiency, increased power, higher levels of safety, greater comfort, and countless new convenience.

ADVANTAGES OF WIND ENERGY


It is a renewable source of energy. Like all forms of solar energy, wind power systems are polluting, so it has no adverse influence on the environment. Wind energy systems avoid fuel provision and transport. On a small scale up to a few kilowatt system is less costly. On a large scale costs can be competitive with conventional electricity and lower costs could be achieved by mass production.

POWER IN THE WIND


Wind energy is the continuous source of the power when a vehicle is in movement. When the vehicle moves it has to do work against the air in the surroundings in order to move forward. Thus the resistance offered in the form of wind to the vehicle is utilized to rotate a turbine and produce electricity. The power in the wind is proportional to: the area of windmill being swept by the wind the cube of the wind speed the air density which varies with altitude

The formula used for calculating the power in the wind is shown below:

Proceeding of the CSIR Sponsored National Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems NCIMS2011 3rd & 4th March 2011

Power =0.5 x density of air x swept area x velocity cubed P=1/2..A.V^3 Where, P - Power in the watts (W) - The air density in kilograms per cubic meter (Kg/m3) A - The swept rotor area in square meters (m2) V- The wind speed in meters (m/s) The fact that the power is proportional to the cube of the wind speed is very significant. This can be demonstrated by pointing out that if the wind speed doubles then the power in the wind increases by a factor of eight.

TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ROTOR

The factors considered to select the Wind turbine are: Start-up wind speed Cut-in speed Rated wind speed - the wind speed that turn an unloaded rotor - the wind speed at which the rotor can be loaded - the wind speed at which the machine is designed to run Furling wind speed - the wind speed at which the machine will be turned out of the wind to prevent damage

Proceeding of the CSIR Sponsored National Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems NCIMS2011 3rd & 4th March 2011

FUNCTION Start-up wind speed Cut-in speed Rated wind speed Furling wind speed

WIND SPEED IN kmph 20 30 40-60 100

The fraction of the free-flow wind power that can be extracted by a rotor is called the power-coefficient; thus

Power coefficient

Power of wind rotor Power available in the wind

LIFT AND DRAG:


The basis for wind energy conversion. The extraction of power, and hence energy, from the wind depends on creating certain forces and applying them to rotate (or to translate) a mechanism. There are two primary mechanisms for producing forces from the wind; lift and drag. Lift forces act perpendicular to the air flow, while drag forces act in the direction of flow. Lift forces are produced by changing the velocity of the air stream flowing over either side of the lifting surface: speeding up the air flow causes the pressure to drop, while slowing the air stream down leads to increase in pressure. In other words, any change in velocity generates a pressure difference across the lifting surface. This

pressure difference produces a force that begins to act on the high pressure side and moves towards the low pressure side of the lifting surface which is called airfoil.

Proceeding of the CSIR Sponsored National Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems NCIMS2011 3rd & 4th March 2011

POWER GENERATING UNIT


The idea is to implement 12 volt variable frequency alternators (VFA) for this purpose .When the wind turbine reaches a speed of 600rpm the alternator will start power generation. Thus more power is available from the assembly of 3seperate 12V VFA system. The most promising alternator technology for VFA would be permanent magnet induction system.

The assembly was mounted on a car and results proved to be satisfactory .By not increasing the height of the vehicle the drag is not increased to a large extent. The visibility angle of the driver which is 20 degrees elevation is also taken care in the design. Since the assembly is mounted inside the present structure of the vehicle is also not disturbed.

VARIABLE FREQUENCY ALTERNATOR

Since resistive heating loads are essentially frequency insensitive, the a.c. generator can be effected at a variable frequency corresponding to the changing drive

Proceeding of the CSIR Sponsored National Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems NCIMS2011 3rd & 4th March 2011

speed. For this purpose capacitor excited squirrel cage induction machines can be conveniently used. Such a scheme is shown in figure. These systems are gaining importance for stand alone wind power applications. The magnitude and frequency of the emf depends on the value of the load impedance, prime-mover speed and excitation capacitance.

The varying output voltage can be converted to constant D.C. using choppers or controlled rectifiers on constant a.c using force-commutated inverters.

MATERIAL
Three ultra low-mass blades, reinforced by a carbon-fiber skin for superior rigidity.

WIND TURBINE (EXHAUST FAN)

Proceeding of the CSIR Sponsored National Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems NCIMS2011 3rd & 4th March 2011

DETAILS OF THE MOUNTING

Block Diagram of the Wind Power Generated

PICTORIAL VIEW

Proceeding of the CSIR Sponsored National Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems NCIMS2011 3rd & 4th March 2011

The mounting system consists of the turbine assembly inside an aerodynamically designed hood. In buses this can be done by the addition of the special equipment without major losses in the aesthetics and other parameters of the vehicle. The wind turbines are fitted at the top of the bus above the drivers cabin. This will provide maximum wind to the turbine assembly, rotating high speeds which will be connected to the 12V alternator to produce electricity. This power generated is utilized to supply to all apparatus and also charging the battery, hence reducing the engine load.

The apparatus will consist of three separate turbine and VFA assembly to provide power. When connected the total power generated will be enough to run all the components and also charge the battery.

Fig shows the wind turbine fitted at the top of the bus

Proceeding of the CSIR Sponsored National Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems NCIMS2011 3rd & 4th March 2011

EXPERIMENTAL DATA
The test was conducted on two different bearings under no load conditions with one pulley attached to it with a 12V alternator coupled to wind turbine shaft. The table gives test results obtained when the assembly was fitted on the vehicle. The apparatus used for the test were an exhaust fan with 5 blades and a cycle hub in the first case. Later the second test with a made with a10mm inner diameter ball bearing. The gears that are intended to be used will have a speed ratio of 1:5.5 in order to provide a speed of up to 6000-7000 rpm in all conditions above the speed of 30 kmph.

S.
NO

VEHICLE SPEED Kmph AVERAGE

WIND TURBINE SPEED IN RPM WITH CYCLE HUB WITH BALL BEARING

TRIAL1 TRIAL2 TRIAL3 TRIAL1 TRIAL2 TRIAL3 800 1050 1250 1450 850 1000 1300 1400 880 1080 1275 1450 1050 1250 1580 1700 1080 1325 1600 1750 1060 1300 1600 1780

1. 2. 3. 4.

30 40 50 60

APPLICATION OF POWER GENERATED


STARTER MOTOR:

Starter motor can be designed to start the engine in a shorter time interval and bring it to higher speeds of rotation before the ignition process is started. Therefore, emissions due to the partial combustion that takes place at low speeds would be reduced. In other words, restarting would be smooth. The engine control

Proceeding of the CSIR Sponsored National Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems NCIMS2011 3rd & 4th March 2011

strategy delays the motor switch off for a couple of seconds to ensure that it is not a short stop that the driver is making. For example, it would not be beneficial to switch the internal combustion engine off at every stop signal. Ideally, the alternator could provide hybrid propulsion capabilities, which would further improve the efficiency of the engine. This means that the engine would avoid operating at torque speed combinations at which the engine is not efficient by allowing the alternator to provide propulsion at these times. Switched reluctance motors (SRM) can be used for the starter motor application. Studies have shown that SRMs can operate at low voltages without sacrificing efficiency.

REGENERATIVE BREAKING
Alternator could be used to remove torque from the wheels and thus slow the vehicle down when required. Therefore, breaking energy that would otherwise be wasted as heat in friction brakes is now to recharge the 12V batteries. The amount of power that the alternator produces depends on the speed of the vehicle and the capacity of the alternator at that speed.

CONCLUSION
Demands for higher fuel economy, performance, reliability, convenience, as well as reduced emissions push the automotive industry to seek electrification of ancillaries and engine augments .In buses of the future, throttle actuation, steering, anti-lock braking, air-conditioning, and electrical power system. As the electrical power requirements are taken over by the wind turbine assembly the load on the engine is reduced. This results in increased mileage and fuel saving.

Proceeding of the CSIR Sponsored National Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems NCIMS2011 3rd & 4th March 2011

REFERENCES: 1. www.windpowerindia.org 2. www.windpower india.com 3. www.landmarkwind.com 4. www.odysen.com 5. www.howstuffworks.com