Rabies

Rabies is a disease of viral origin that affects both wild and domestic animals. In developing countries, where it is transmitted mainly by rabid stray dogs, rabies is still considered a major public health concern and continues to cause 55,000 human deaths each year. (24)

Symptoms of rabies
Following infection, the virus replicates within muscle cells surrounding the wound. It then reaches the central nervous system and eventually spreads through the entire body. The mean incubation period is two to three months, but may range from several days to years. The first signs of the disease include pain or an abnormal sensation at or around the wound, followed by other non-specific symptoms such as fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, headaches, malaise, and lethargy. In the acute stage, rabies symptoms mimic encephalitis. The disease may evolve as one of two clinical forms: furious rabies or paralytic (dumb) rabies. In both cases, the outcome is coma followed by death within a few days.

Epidemiology and vaccination against rabies
Rabies is usually transmitted through a rabid animal’s saliva by a bite, scratch, or licking of damaged skin or mucosa. To date, vaccination remains the only effective treatment against rabies and acts by neutralizing the virus before it actually reaches the central nervous system. Indeed, once the nervous system is infected, the outcome of the disease is inevitably fatal.

Rabies
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the disease. For the virus, see Rabies virus.

Rabies
Classification and external resources

Dog with rabies virus ICD-10 DiseasesDB eMedicine MeSH A82. 11148 med/1374 eerg/493 ped/1974 D011818

Rabies (pronounced /ˈreɪbiːz/. From Latin: rabies, "madness") is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in warm-blooded animals.[1] It is zoonotic (i.e., transmitted by animals), most commonly by a bite from an infected animal. For a human, rabies is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system, ultimately causing disease in the brain and death. The rabies virus travels to the brain by following the peripheral nerves. The incubation period of the disease is usually a few months in humans, depending on the distance the virus must travel to reach the central nervous system.[2] Once the rabies virus reaches the central nervous system and symptoms begin to show, the infection is effectively untreatable and usually fatal within days. Early-stage symptoms of rabies are malaise, headache and fever, progressing to acute pain, violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, depression, and hydrophobia.[1] Finally, the patient may experience periods of mania and lethargy, eventually leading to coma. The primary cause of death is usually respiratory insufficiency.[2] Worldwide, roughly 97% of rabies cases come from dog bites.[3] In the United States, however, animal control and vaccination programs have effectively eliminated domestic dogs as reservoirs of rabies.[4] In several countries, including Australia, Japan, and the United Kingdom, rabies carried by animals that live on the ground has been eradicated entirely.[5][6] Concerns exist about airborne and mixed-habitat animals including bats. A small number of bats of three species in the UK and in some other countries have been found to have European Bat Lyssavirus 1 and European Bat Lyssavirus 2.[citation needed] The

symptoms of these viruses are similar to those of rabies and so the viruses are both known as bat rabies.[citation needed] The economic impact is also substantial, as rabies is a significant cause of death of livestock in some countries.[citation needed]

Contents
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1 Signs and symptoms 2 Virology 3 Diagnosis 4 Prevention 5 Management o 5.1 Post-exposure prophylaxis o 5.2 Blood-brain barrier o 5.3 Induced coma 6 Prognosis 7 Epidemiology o 7.1 Transmission o 7.2 Prevalence 8 History o 8.1 Etymology o 8.2 Impact 9 In other animals 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

[edit] Signs and symptoms

Patient with rabies, 1959

The period between infection and the first flu-like symptoms is normally two to twelve weeks, but can be as long as two years. Soon after, the symptoms expand to slight or partial paralysis, cerebral dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, confusion, agitation, abnormal behavior, paranoia, terror, hallucinations, progressing to delirium.[2][7] The production of large quantities of saliva and tears coupled with an inability to speak or swallow are typical during the later stages of the disease; this can result in hydrophobia, in which the patient has difficulty swallowing because the throat and jaw become slowly paralyzed, shows panic when presented with liquids to drink, and cannot quench his or her thirst. Death almost invariably results two to ten days after first symptoms. In 2005, the first patient was treated with the Milwaukee protocol,[8] and Jeanna Giese became the first person ever recorded to survive rabies without receiving successful post-exposure prophylaxis. An intention to treat analysis has since found that this protocol has a survival rate of about 8%.[9] The results of this study are, however, under serious contention and clinical rabies should still be regarded as incurable at present.

[edit] Virology
Main article: Rabies virus

TEM micrograph with numerous rabies virions (small, dark grey, rodlike particles) and Negri bodies (the larger pathognomonic cellular inclusions of rabies infection). The rabies virus is the type species of the Lyssavirus genus, in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Lyssaviruses have helical symmetry, with a length of about 180 nm and a cross-sectional diameter of about 75 nm.[1] These viruses are enveloped and have a singlestranded RNA genome with negative-sense. The genetic information is packaged as a ribonucleoprotein complex in which RNA is tightly bound by the viral nucleoprotein. The RNA genome of the virus encodes five genes whose order is highly conserved: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G), and the viral RNA polymerase (L).[10] From the point of entry, the virus is neurotropic, traveling quickly along the neural pathways into the central nervous system (CNS), and then further into other organs.[2] The salivary glands receive high concentrations of the virus, thus allowing further transmission.

varicella-zoster virus. geographic location.[citation needed] New causes of viral encephalitis are also possible. West Nile virus). and arboviruses (e. and possible exposure to animal bites.[16] [edit] Prevention Main article: Rabies vaccine All human cases of rabies were fatal until a vaccine was developed in 1885 by Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux. urine and cerebrospinal fluid samples. including eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses.[19] Currently pre-exposure immunization has been used in both human and non-human populations. including coxsackieviruses.[18] The human diploid cell rabies vaccine was started in 1967.[13] In addition. the California encephalitis virus serogroup. well-known viruses may be introduced into new locations. and La Crosse virus. in particular infection with viruses such as herpesviruses. Cheaper rabies diagnosis will become possible for low-income settings: accurate rabies diagnosis can be done at a tenth of the cost of traditional testing using basic light microscopy techniques.[12] A recombinant vaccine called V-RG has been successfully used in Belgium. 40%) caused by Nipah virus.g. echoviruses. Cerebral inclusion bodies called Negri bodies are 100% diagnostic for rabies infection. a newly recognized paramyxovirus. Louis encephalitis virus. however. polioviruses. and (less commonly) enteroviruses. a new and less expensive purified chicken embryo cell vaccine and purified vero cell rabies vaccine are now available.[1] If possible. France. the animal from which the bite was received should also be examined for rabies. Germany. as was evidenced by the recent outbreak in Malaysia of some 300 cases of encephalitis (mortality rate. The most important viruses to rule out are herpes simplex virus type 1. enteroviruses. and the patient's age. The diagnosis can also be reliably made from skin samples taken before death.[15] Epidemiologic factors (e.[12] The differential diagnosis in a case of suspected human rabies may initially include any cause of encephalitis. and ticks) may help direct the diagnostic workup.[14] Likewise. but are found in only about 80% of cases. consideration should be given to the local epidemiology of encephalitis caused by arboviruses belonging to several taxonomic groups. Their original vaccine was harvested from infected rabbits. season. St. rodents. from which the virus in the nerve tissue was weakened by allowing it to dry for five to ten days..[20] . and the United States to prevent outbreaks of rabies in wildlife.[edit] Diagnosis The reference method for diagnosing rabies is by performing PCR or viral culture on brain samples taken after death. and human enteroviruses 68 to 71. as is illustrated by the recent outbreak of encephalitis due to West Nile virus in the eastern United States.[11] It is also possible to make the diagnosis from saliva. Powassan virus.g. travel history.[17] Similar nerve tissuederived vaccines are still used in some countries. whereas in many jurisdictions domesticated animals are required to be vaccinated.. as they are much cheaper than modern cell culture vaccines. but this is not as sensitive.

cats.[1] Thoroughly washing the wound as soon as possible with soap and water for approximately five minutes is very effective in reducing the number of viral particles. and prevention and elimination of the disease.In the USA. or alcohol (ethanol) should be applied after washing. which may go unnoticed by the victim and hence untreated. Pets that are sterile are less likely to leave home. and ferrets against rabies Keeping pets under supervision Not handling wild animals or strays Contacting an animal control officer. especially if the animal is acting strangely. become strays. . a virucidal antiseptic such as povidone-iodine. Washing the wound with soap and water between 10 and 15 minutes. mostly caused by bat bites. As much as possible of this dose should be infiltrated around the bites.[4] The Missouri Dept. HRIG is very expensive and constitutes the vast majority of the cost of postexposure treatment. to 1–2 per year. only the post-exposure vaccinations on day 0 and 2. Patients who have previously received pre-exposure vaccination do not receive the immunoglobulin. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend patients receive one dose of human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) and four doses of rabies vaccine over a fourteen-day period. "If available. which promotes information on. and reproduce more stray animals."[23] In the United States. Exposed mucous membranes such as eyes. aqueous iodine solution. ranging as high as several thousand dollars. of Health and Senior Services Communicable Disease Surveillance 2007 Annual Report states that the following can help reduce the risk of exposure to rabies[21]:       Vaccinating dogs.[25] The first dose of rabies vaccine is given as soon as possible after exposure. with additional doses on days three. with the remainder being given by deep intramuscular injection at a site distant from the vaccination site. since the widespread vaccination of domestic dogs and cats and the development of effective human vaccines and immunoglobulin treatments. the number of recorded deaths from rabies has dropped from one hundred or more annually in the early 20th century. Getting pets spayed or neutered. seven and fourteen after the first. September 28 is World Rabies Day. and contacting your healthcare provider to see whether you need rabies post-exposure prophylaxis.[24] The immunoglobulin dose should not exceed 20 units per kilogram body weight. iodine tincture. if you see a wild animal or a stray. nose or mouth should be flushed well with water.[22] [edit] Management [edit] Post-exposure prophylaxis Treatment after exposure. is highly successful in preventing the disease if administered promptly. if you do get bitten by an animal. in general within ten days of infection. known as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP).

The recommendation for the precautionary use of post-exposure prophylaxis in occult bat encounters where there is no recognized contact has been questioned in the medical literature. as it may still be effective. the lateral thigh is used as for routine childhood vaccinations. the possibility exists that amputation of the affected limb might thwart rabies. the dramatic circumstances surrounding our patient's history. such that the possibility exists that the virus has already penetrated the nervous system.[citation needed] . even though there was no apparent report of a bite.Modern cell-based vaccines are similar to flu shots in terms of pain and side-effects.[citation needed] [edit] Blood-brain barrier During lethal rabies infection of mice. Begun with little or no delay.[29] Opening the BBB during rabies infection has been suggested as a possible novel approach to treating the disease. as well as increasingly frequent reports of human rabies contracted in North America. which has been associated with vaccination failure due to injection into fat rather than muscle. The old nerve-tissue-based vaccinations that require multiple painful injections into the abdomen with a large needle are cheap. is regarded as an indication for post-exposure prophylaxis. recent studies have further confirmed the wisdom of maintaining the current protocol of precautionary administering of PEP in cases where a child or mentally compromised individual has been left alone with a bat. Awakening to find a bat in the room. where a bite or exposure may occur while the victim is asleep and unaware or awake and unaware that a bite occurred.[25] If there has been a delay between exposure and attempts at treatment. based on a cost-benefit analysis. the treatment should be administered regardless of that delay. In infants. PEP is 100% effective against rabies.[8] In the case in which there has been a significant delay in administering PEP. This is illustrated by the September 2000 case of a nine-yearold boy from Quebec who died from rabies three weeks after being in the presence of a sick bat. The notion that a bite or an overt break in the skin needs to be seen or felt for rabies to be transmitted by a bat is a myth in many cases. or finding a bat in the room of a previously unattended child or mentally disabled or intoxicated person.[27] It is highly recommended that PEP be administered as soon as possible. not gluteal area. even though no attempts have yet been made to determine whether or not this treatment could be successful.[12] Intramuscular vaccination should be given into the deltoid. the blood-brain barrier (BBB) does not allow anti-viral immune cells to enter the brain. if the bite or exposure was on an arm or leg.[28] This aspect contributes to the pathogenicity of the virus and artificially increasing BBB permeability promotes viral clearance.[26] However. This treatment should be combined with an intensive PEP regimen. support the current Canadian guidelines that state that RPEP [PEP] is appropriate in cases where a significant contact with a bat cannot be excluded (45). especially in sleep areas. as shown in the following conclusion made by the doctors involved in the case: Despite recent criticism (45). but are being phased out and replaced by affordable WHO ID (intradermal) vaccination regimens. the primary site of rabies virus replication.

[33] and is used as part of the Milwaukee protocol. Colombia. 2011.[36] There are only six known cases of a person surviving symptomatic rabies.[35] [edit] Prognosis In unvaccinated humans. After thirty-one days of isolation and seventy-six days of hospitalization. There were 2 survivors out of 25 patients treated under the first protocol. Her doctors administered treatment based on the hypothesis that detrimental effects of rabies were caused by temporary dysfunctions in the brain and could be avoided by inducing a temporary partial halt in brain function that would protect the brain from damage while giving the immune system time to defeat the virus.[31] Giese's treatment regimen became known as the "Milwaukee protocol". mostly in Asia and Africa. California. midazolam.000 people a year. and amantadine. Precious Reynolds. became the third reported person in the United States to have recovered from rabies without receiving post-exposure prophylaxis. an eleven-year-old boy was reported to survive rabies and the induced coma without noticeable brain damage. 2008 in Cali.[edit] Induced coma See also: Milwaukee protocol In 2004. She was placed into an induced coma upon onset of symptoms and given ketamine. which has since undergone revision (the second version omits the use of ribavirin). Giese was released from the hospital. On April 10. American teenager Jeanna Giese survived an infection of rabies unvaccinated.[8][37][38] Survival data using the Milwaukee protocol are available from the rabies registry. ribavirin.[30] She survived with almost no permanent sequelae and as of 2009 was starting her third year of university studies. Rabies kills around 55.[34] On June 12.[39] [edit] Epidemiology . an eight-year-old girl from Humboldt County.[32] The anesthetic drug ketamine has shown the potential for rabies virus inhibition in rats. but prompt post-exposure vaccination may prevent the virus from progressing. rabies is usually fatal after neurological symptoms have developed. A further 10 patients have been treated under the revised protocol and there have been a further 2 survivors. and only one known case of survival in which the patient received no rabies-specific treatment either before or after illness onset.

rats. but not always.[43][44] monkeys. producing transverse myelitis. Mandatory vaccination of animals is less effective in rural areas. A few cases have been recorded through transplant surgery. chipmunks.[52] During this phase. dogs remain the principal host. weasels. bears and other wild carnivores. and exhibits otherwiseuncharacteristic behavior. In Asia. Once the patient becomes symptomatic. gerbils.[50] Transmission between humans is extremely rare. by a bite. may attack without provocation. Rabies may also spread through exposure to infected domestic farm animals. varied. Especially in developing . This is called the prodromal phase. foxes. Infected bats. cattle. Indeed the virus has even been adapted to grow in cells of poikilothermic ("cold-blooded") vertebrates. the virus cannot be easily detected within the host. like those in western Europe and Oceania. guinea pigs.[55] In some countries.[46] The Virginia opossum is resistant but not immune to rabies. the virus enters the peripheral nervous system. rabies is considered to be prevalent among bat populations only. groundhogs. Small rodents such as squirrels. treatment is almost never effective and mortality is over 99%. dogs. mongoose (normally yellow mongoose)[45] or cats present the greatest risk to humans.[41][42] Most animals can be infected by the virus and can transmit the disease to humans.[51] After a typical human infection by bite. Rabies may also inflame the spinal cord.[48][49] The route of infection is usually. rural fauna reservoirs. coyotes. wolves. skunks.[47] The virus is usually present in the nerves and saliva of a symptomatic rabid animal. and is the beginning of the symptoms.Rabies-free countries (in green) as of 2010 [edit] Transmission Main article: Rabies transmission Any warm-blooded animal (including humans) may become infected with the rabies virus and develop symptoms (although birds have only been known to be experimentally infected[40]). In many cases the infected animal is exceptionally aggressive. except in Australia and New Zealand. It then travels along the nerves toward the central nervous system. raccoons. and vaccination may still confer cell-mediated immunity to prevent symptomatic rabies. hamsters. parts of the Americas. It is present in the animal populations of almost every country in the world. it rapidly causes encephalitis.[53][54] [edit] Prevalence Main article: Prevalence of rabies The rabies virus survives in widespread. When the virus reaches the brain. and large parts of Africa. and mice and lagomorphs like rabbits and hares are almost never found to be infected with rabies and are not known to transmit rabies to humans.

which . and one domestic cat. 15 were skunks. Kansas. baits are successfully used on raccoons in the Mont-Royal Park area. dating from the 1970s. "to do violence". the JAVMA found that. skunks are the primary carriers of rabies. 352 cases were bats.[60] In the midwestern United States. and the USA. Because of its potentially violent nature. Therefore. China introduced the "one-dog policy" in the city of Beijing in November 2006 to control the problem. and an increase in the prevalence of bats with rabies. from "lud" or "violent". with about 31. pets may not be privately kept and their destruction may be unacceptable. Michigan.2000 B. Minnesota.C. Oral vaccines can be safely distributed in baits. Surveying other states in the midwest (including Illinois.000 in Asia.[62] This.countries. followed by Thailand. Vietnam had the second-highest rate. the state of Missouri had a total of 66 documented cases of rabies.[59] Rabies was once rare in the United States outside the Southern states[citation needed].[56] There are an estimated 55. and the remaining cases were other animals.000 human deaths annually from rabies worldwide. In Montréal. According to the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA). in these countries too the virus is primarily transmitted through canines (feral dogs and other wild canine species). in turn. Wisconsin. but as of 2006 raccoons in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States have been suffering from a rabies epidemic. 50 were bats.[36] One of the sources of recent flourishing of rabies in East Asia is the pet boom.[57] India has been reported as having the highest rate of human rabies in the world. rabies has been known since c. between 1996 and 2009. and 24. North and South Dakota. 223 were skunks. may be related to the Sanskrit rabhas. Canada. comprising 134 of the 237 documented non-human cases in 1996. and Indiana).[58] As of 2007. France. This contradicts the CDC finding that in the midwest most rabies cases are found in skunks.[64] The first written record of rabies is in the Mesopotamian Codex of Eshnunna (ca. Nebraska. Ohio. this root is used in the name of the genus of rabies lyssavirus. Vaccination campaigns may be expensive. which was moving westward into Ohio. a practice that has successfully reduced rabies in rural areas of Canada. primarily because of stray dogs. 1930 BC). Iowa. there has been a relative decrease in the US midwest in the prevalence of skunks with rabies. The Greeks derived the word "lyssa". out of 671 confirmed rabies cases. Of the 66 cases. "madness".[63] [edit] Impact This section requires expansion with: currently the following web page [1]. and costbenefit analysis suggests that baits may be a cost effective method of control.[61] [edit] History [edit] Etymology The term is derived from the Latin rabies.000 in Africa.

Incoordination is seen owing to rear limb paralysis and drooling and difficulty swallowing is caused by paralysis of facial and throat muscles.to three-day period characterized by behavioral changes and is known as the prodromal stage.dictates that the owner of a dog showing symptoms of rabies should take preventive measure against bites. which lasts three to four days. It is this stage that is often known as furious rabies for the tendency of the affected animal to be hyperreactive to external stimuli and bite at anything near. Death is usually caused by respiratory arrest. dogs were branded with the key in hopes of protecting them from rabies. In France and Belgium.[66] [edit] In other animals This section requires expansion with: information from the main article. The first stage is a one. by an application of magical thinking. If another person was bitten by a rabid dog and later died.[65] Rabies was considered a scourge for its prevalence in the 19th century. The second stage is the excitative stage. Three stages of rabies are recognized in dogs and other animals. Main article: Rabies in animals Rabies is infectious to mammals. the owner was heavily fined. Rabies .[63] however.[67] Rabies   "Rabies" is also available in Portable Document Format Versión en español What is rabies? Rabies is a deadly disease caused by a virus that attacks the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). the "St Hubert's Key" was heated and applied to cauterize the wound. this gave Louis Pasteur ample opportunity to test post-exposure treatments from 1885. where Saint Hubert was venerated. Infected mammals can transmit rabies virus to humans and other mammals. The third stage is the paralytic stage and is caused by damage to motor neurons. Fear of rabies related to methods of transmissions was almost irrational.

fish and insects do not get or carry rabies. birds. It may become excited or irritable and attack anything in its path. Fortunately. rats. chipmunks.htm. gerbils and hamsters. Pets and livestock can get rabies if they are not vaccinated to protect them against infection.ny. These include rabbits and small rodents such as squirrels.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/contact.health. It may become unusually aggressive or tame. bats. such as if they are attacked but not killed by a rabid animal. choking. The phone number for your county health department can be found in the government listing of your telephone directory or the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) website at: http://www. Reptiles (such as lizards and snakes).is almost always fatal once symptoms appear. if possible. you may . but any mammal can be infected with rabies. guinea pigs. What animals can get rabies? Rabies is most often seen among wild animals such as raccoons. How do people become exposed to rabies? People usually get exposed to the rabies virus when an infected animal bites them. amphibians (like frogs). Among domestic animals. Try to keep track of the animal that exposed you and report this information to your county health department so the animal can be captured safely. mice. A wild animal may appear affectionate and friendly. but only in rare circumstances. In the case of a bat. Many animals will make very unusual sounds. Staggering. only a few human cases are reported each year in the United States. frothing at the mouth and paralysis are sometimes seen. Some animals almost never get rabies. even if they seem minor. Report all animal bites to your county health department. cats are most frequently diagnosed with rabies in New York State. nose or mouth). The animal may lose its fear of people and natural enemies. It is possible for these animals to get rabies. What are the signs of rabies in animals? The first sign of rabies is usually a change in an animal's behavior. convulsions. skunks and foxes. Exposure may also occur if saliva from a rabid animal enters an open cut or mucous membrane (eyes. What should I do if I am exposed to rabies? Wash all wounds thoroughly with soap and water and seek medical attention immediately. Infected animals usually die within one week after showing signs of rabies.

the disease almost always results in death. If treatment is initiated promptly following a rabies exposure. . What can people do to protect themselves against rabies?  Don't feed.be able to safely capture it yourself and take it to your county health department where it will be transferred to the state for rabies testing. touch or adopt wild animals. as determined by their doctor. view a short video (1 minute 22 seconds) at www. ferrets and livestock that have bitten or otherwise caused a potential human exposure to rabies will be confined under the direction of the county health department and observed for ten days following the exposure. Other types of animals that cause a potential human exposure must be tested for rabies under the direction of the county health department. with the remaining injections given on days 3.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/ . Healthy dogs. People who have weakened immune systems may require a fifth dose of vaccine. treatment may be necessary for the people exposed. rabies can be prevented. contact your veterinarian to get medical care. What happens if a rabies exposure goes untreated? Exposure to a rabid animal does not always result in rabies. the animal did not transmit rabies at the time of the bite. stray dogs or cats. Your county health department will assist you and your physician to determine whether treatment is necessary. If a rabies exposure is not treated and a person develops clinical signs of rabies. If your pet has been injured by a rabid animal. A person who has already been vaccinated for rabies and is exposed to rabies must receive two booster vaccine doses three days apart immediately after exposure.ny. plus 4 doses of rabies vaccine given over two weeks. Contact your county health department to determine what additional follow-up may be needed. The first vaccine dose is given at the same time. cats. How do I protect my pets from rabies? The best way to keep pets safe from rabies is to vaccinate them and keep their shots up-to-date. If an animal cannot be observed or tested for rabies. What is the treatment for people exposed to rabies? Treatment after rabies exposure consists of a dose of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) administered as soon as possible after exposure. the full dose of HRIG should go into the wound. 7 and 14 following the initial injection. If there is a wound. If the animal remains healthy during this period. a booster dose of rabies vaccine may be needed within five days of the incident. if possible.health. To learn how to capture a bat safely. Even though your pet has been vaccinated. They do not need an injection of HRIG.

Board up any openings to your attic. Tightly cap or put away garbage cans. Keep your property free of stored bird seed or other foods that may attract wild animals. If a wild animal is on your property.health. consult with a nuisance wildlife control expert about having them removed. and foxes.ny. cats and ferrets as well as horses and valuable livestock animals are up-to-date on their rabies vaccinations. let it wander away. Feed pets indoors. The vast majority of rabies cases in the United States each year occur in wild animals like raccoons. Where can I get more information about rabies? The county health department is your best source of additional rabies information. If possible. in your telephone directory under pest control. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system. Don't attract wild animals to your home or yard.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/contact. You can find wildlife control experts.       Be sure your pet dogs. Don't leave them outside unattended or let them roam free. primarily in bats. New York City . Pets too young to be vaccinated should be kept indoors and allowed outside only under direct observation. Report all animal bites or contact with wild animals to your county health department. Rabies is almost always fatal once symptoms appear. do not let any animal escape that has possibly exposed someone to rabies. The phone number for your county health department can be found in the government listing of your telephone directory or the NYSDOH website at: www. basement. If nuisance wild animals are living in parts of your home. Cap your chimney with screens.htm. porch or garage. Keep family pets indoors at night. Animal rabies is reported annually in New York City and State. You may contact a nuisance wildlife control expert who will remove the animal for a fee. Detailed rabies information is also available at the following websites:   NYSDOH: Rabies Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Rabies Last Reviewed: October 2010 Last Updated: October 2010 Revised: September 2011 What is rabies? Rabies is a preventable viral disease of mammals (including humans) most often transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. who work on a fee-for-service basis. skunks. Bring children and pets indoors and alert neighbors who are outside. Teach children not to touch any animal they do not know and to tell an adult immediately if they are bitten by any animal. skunks and raccoons. bats. Vaccination protects pets if they are exposed to rabid animals.

There have been no human cases of rabies in New York City for more than 50 years. 2004-2009 Borough Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 13 0 0 0 26 1 0 1 6 0 1 2 14 0 0 1 13 1 0 1 15 0 12 1 . Human rabies vaccine. New York State has reported 14 human cases since 1925.first saw rabies in animals starting in 1992. can prevent infection after a person has been bitten or otherwise exposed to an animal with rabies. Table 1: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City and New York State 2003-2008 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 New York City New York State 6 14 28 44 44 19 429 546 565 612 515 496 Table 2: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City by Borough. and continues to every year. rabies rarely infects humans because of companion animal vaccination programs and the availability of human rabies vaccine. The one time dose of RIG and five vaccines administered over the course of one month is referred to as post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). if administered promptly and as recommended. especially among animals in the Bronx. In the United States. The human rabies vaccine is given in a series of five vaccinations along with one initial dose of rabies immune globulin (RIG).

1992-2009 1992-2007 Bronx Queens Man SI Bklyn Total Raccoon Skunk Opossum Bat Dog Cat Groundhog Coyote Total 163 40 0 8 0 2 0 1 214 9 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 13 20 121 0 0 7 0 1 0 0 2 2 5 0 7 1 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 6 313 42 2 29 0 11 1 1 399 28 138      Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2009 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2008 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2007 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2006 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2005 back to top Who gets rabies? All mammals. including humans. bats. can get rabies. skunk. fox and coyotes.Staten Island 1 0 35 29 4 1 Table 3: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City by Species and Borough. back to top . but it most often seen among wild animals such as raccoons.

an infant. Bat bites may not be obvious as their teeth are small and very sharp. foxes and coyotes. dogs or other mammals. and none occurred in New York City. Rabbits and small rodents (such as chipmunks. as of January 2007. skunks. the bat is assumed to be rabid. raccoons may infect other animals such as cats. If the bat can be captured safely and tested. rats. or an open wound. raccoons are the principal reservoir of rabies and primarily transmit the virus to other raccoons. mouth. gerbils. foxes and coyotes are considered high-risk sources of virus. In all cases involving rodents. mice. Every known or suspect encounter with a bat is considered a possible rabies exposure and is treated as such. A suspect encounter would include any scenario in which a bat is found in an enclosed setting with a person who may not be fully aware of its presence (i.Which animals get rabies? Animal species most often diagnosed with rabies in the United States are wild and include raccoons. guinea pigs. when raccoon rabies is widespread in an area. bats are the most common source of infection for people across the United States. rabies and advice on how to capture a bat. Two of those occurred in New York State.e. 2 opossums and 1 coyote were reported. 263 animals have tested positive for rabies since 1992 when the virus was first introduced. The vast majority of those were raccoons. If the bat is not available for testing. A history of having had contact with a bat could only be documented in approximately half of the cases. the health department should be consulted before a decision is made to initiate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). nose. hamsters. back to top . In New York City. For more information on bats. In the eastern US. skunks. On occasion. but quite rare. suggesting that even limited contact with bats may be associated with transmission of the rabies virus. for people to get rabies from a scratch or from direct contact with a rabid animals saliva or nerve tissue if it gets directly into their eyes. while only 7 cats. While raccoons. see the link to the NYS DOH website listed below. a person that is sleeping or intoxicated). which have occasionally been reported to have rabies. results will determine whether the person exposed needs PEP. It is also possible. The one exception has been woodchucks or groundhogs. bats. Anyone who thinks they may have been exposed to a bat or a rabid animal should contact their physician or their local health department for advice. and squirrels) are rarely found to be infected with rabies and have not been known to transmit rabies to people. From 1990 to 2003 there have been 38 human rabies cases acquired within the US. back to top How do people get rabies? People usually get rabies from the bite of a rabid animal. Of the 38 cases. Bites by these animals are usually not considered a risk of rabies unless the animal appeared sick or was behaving in an unusual manner. 32 were due to bats. and the person exposed should receive PEP.

most people are unlikely to encounter an aerosol of rabies virus. stones. dilated pupils. hallucinations. fever. hypersalivation. Other signs may include a change in voice so that it is hoarse. or an animal that demonstrates unusual aggression. guano or skunk spray) of a rabid animal. or other foreign objects. include irritability. confusion. vacant stare. Inhalation of aerosolized rabies virus is also a potential non-bite route of exposure. excitation. headache. such as petting a rabid animal or having contact with the blood. There have been eight well-documented cases of rabies transmission through corneal transplantation. and or impaired locomotion. back to top .Can I get rabies in any way other than an animal bite? It is extremely rare for a person to get rabies from an exposure other than an animal bite. anxiety. One of the most recognizable signs is excessive drooling or foaming at the mouth. difficulty swallowing. They may eat or chew things such as wood. hydrophobia (fear of water). soil. agitation. A nonbite exposure could include a scratch. Within days the patient may develop slight or partial paralysis. Occasionally non-bite exposures are treated with PEP. four persons became infected and died from rabies after receiving solid organ donations from one infected donor. convulsions. varying degrees of paralysis frequently beginning at the head and neck causing jaws to hang open. or mucous membranes of the nose or eye that gets contaminated with saliva or other potentially infectious material (such as brain or other nerve tissue) from a rabid animal. delirium and death. More recently. Other contact. an aloof animal that becomes suddenly affectionate. plants. open wounds.. abrasion.g. back to top What are the symptoms of rabies in animals? Animals with rabies most often exhibit behavior changes such as a friendly dog that becomes withdrawn or belligerent. but this is extremely rare. with a throaty bark or snarl. muscle tremors (especially in cats). which may last for several days. malaise. and sometimes discomfort or tingling at the site of the bite or exposure. Rabies has been transmitted through organ transplantation. urine or feces (e. back to top What are the symptoms of rabies in humans? Early symptoms. does not constitute an exposure and is not an indication for PEP. but other than laboratory workers who work with the rabies virus.

fox. This allows us to observe a biting dog. For dogs. It is sometimes difficult to determine whether a possible rabies exposure occurred. back to top What constitutes a possible rabies exposure? A person is considered to have had a possible rabies exposure if: 1.How soon after infection do symptoms appear? Typically. Prior arrangements must be made through the DOHMH before samples will be accepted.. or exposure to a bat within the household. back to top When and for how long is an animal able to spread rabies? An animal can only transmit rabies through a bite when the virus has infected the animal's brain. cat or ferret for 10 days to determine whether it could have been shedding rabies at the time of the bite. ferrets and some other animals the period during which they can shed the virus has been documented. a person that is sleeping or intoxicated). cats or dogs should be discussed with the DOHMH. the animal was not shedding rabies virus and the exposed person does not need PEP. In these animals. back to top . Once the brain is infected. back to top How are animals tested? Animal rabies testing is done at the New York City Public Health Laboratory. an infant. should be discussed with a medical provider. Animal bites from animals other than ferrets. the animal begins shedding the virus in its saliva. If the animal does NOT develop rabies illness during the 10 days observation period. they were bitten by a skunk. they had contact with a bat. This protocol may not apply to all animal species. raccoon or bat that either has tested positive for rabies or the animal is not available for rabies testing 2. rabies virus is present in saliva only a few days prior to the onset of their illness and up until their death. cats. symptoms of rabies may start to appear within 1 to 3 months of exposure. so any injury from an animal. although time periods of up to several years have been reported. coyote. It is at this time or soon after that the animal begins to shows signs of illness. they were bitten by a dog. or a bat is found in an enclosed setting with a person that may not be fully aware of it's presence (i.e. cat or ferret that is unavailable for testing or a 10 day observation period 3.

most cases of rabies will be prevented. address and phone number. back to top How can rabies be prevented? Avoiding contact with bats and staying away from all wild and stray animals. Untreated cases of rabies will likely result in death. and any household exposure or other direct contact with a bat. they will recommend PEP. followed by the injection of PEP which includes rabies immune globulin (dosage depending on weight) and four doses of rabies vaccine injected into the arm muscle on days 0. and 14 after exposure. If after 10 days the animal is still alive and healthy. This will help the DOHMH follow up with the pet owner regarding the 10 day at home observation. 3. name. animal bite or bat exposure)? If a physician determines that rabies exposure may have occurred. cats and ferrets) vaccinated against rabies. especially those acting abnormally may minimize exposure to rabies. It is also important to have domestic animals (dogs. back to top What happens if I am exposed to rabies but I don't get PEP? Exposure to a rabid animal does not have to result in rabies. Rabies preventive vaccine is no longer given in the abdomen. If preventive treatment is obtained promptly following a rabies exposure. Report the bite to the DOHMH by calling 311. For the most recent rabies data. although several cats. the bite victim does not need to get rabies shots. The health department will attempt to communicate with the pet . Any animal-related injury. If the animal is available for observation. you do not need to start rabies shots.g. No rabid dogs have been reported in NYC since 1954. should be discussed with a physician to determine if rabies preventive treatment is necessary.. back to top What is the 10 day observation period? After a healthy dog or cat has bitten someone. 7. Immediately wash the wound with soap and water and consider seeking care from your health care provider. Preventive treatment requires prompt washing of the bite site with soap and copious amounts of water. the animal can be watched for a period for 10 days at home by the owner. have tested positive. click here.What is the preventive treatment for a potential rabies exposure (e. primarily strays. Immunosuppressed persons should receive a 5th dose of vaccine on day 28 followed by a blood test 14 to 28 days after the last vaccine to ensure an acceptable rabies antibody response. back to top What should I do if I've been bitten by a healthy dog or cat? Try to get the owner’s contact information including.

back to top Related Information     • Rabies: Protecting Yourself and Your Pet • The Veterinary Public Health Service Website • Bat Inspection and Management (New York State Dept. stray dogs are the most likely to spread rabies to people. coyotes. skunks and bats are known to transmit rabies. . Otherwise. back to top What if I was bitten by a raccoon. consider observing the animal for 10 days where it lives.owner during this time. skunk. testing will be performed. or any animal that appears rabid? Raccoons. If you are bitten by one of these animals. of Health) • Rabies Information for Children (CDC) Rabies Definition By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies is a deadly virus spread to people from the saliva of infected animals. In developing countries of Africa and Southeast Asia. The rabies virus is usually transmitted through a bite. foxes. Rabies testing requires that the animal be humanely euthanized. in most instances. raccoons and skunks. If the animal will be tested. back to top What if the dog or cat was a stray animal? If the animal is a healthy stray. you do not need to start the rabies vaccine. immediately wash the wound with soap and water and see your health care provider. call 311 to see if arrangements can be made to capture the animal so it can be observed at a shelter. but is regularly observed and easy to identy. If during this time the animal develops signs of rabies. unless the animal tests positive for rabies. bat. Animals most likely to transmit rabies in the United States include bats. Call 311 to see if arrangements can be made to capture the animal and test it for rabies.

The virus is spread through the saliva of infected animals. Signs and symptoms may include:            Fever Headache Agitation Anxiety Confusion Difficulty swallowing Excessive salivation Fear of water (hydrophobia) because of the difficulty in swallowing Hallucinations Insomnia Partial paralysis When to see a doctor Seek immediate medical care if you're bitten by any animal. seek medical attention. such as a small child or a person with a disability. assume that person has been bitten. Even if you aren't sure whether you've been bitten. If you awake to find a bat in your room. rabies can be spread when infected saliva gets into an open wound or the mucous membranes. For that reason. such as the mouth or eyes. Also.Once a person begins showing signs and symptoms of rabies. assume you've been bitten. you and your doctor can decide whether you should receive treatment to prevent rabies. anyone who may have a risk of contracting rabies should receive rabies vaccines for protection. In rare cases. For instance. Based on your injuries and the situation in which the bite occurred. Infected animals can spread the virus by biting another animal or a person. often just days before death. Causes By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies infection is caused by the rabies virus. . the disease is nearly always fatal. This could occur if an infected animal were to lick an open cut on your skin. if you find a bat near a person who can't report a bite. Symptoms By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies doesn't cause any signs or symptoms until late in the disease. a bat that flies into your room while you're sleeping may bite you without waking you.

which may help the rabies virus travel to your brain more quickly   Tests and diagnosis By Mayo Clinic staff . the virus has been transmitted to tissue and organ transplant recipients from an infected organ.Animals that can transmit the rabies virus Any mammal can transmit the rabies virus. including countries in Africa and Southeast Asia Activities that are likely to put you in contact with wild animals that may have rabies. such as exploring caves where bats live or camping without taking precautions to keep wild animals away from your campsite Working in a laboratory with the rabies virus Wounds to the head or neck. In rare cases. The animals most likely to transmit the rabies virus to people include: Pets and farm animals        Cats Cows Dogs Ferrets Goats Horses Rabbits Wild animals         Bats Beavers Coyotes Foxes Monkeys Raccoons Skunks Woodchucks There has never been a documented case of human-to-human rabies transmission. Risk factors By Mayo Clinic staff Factors that can increase your risk of rabies include:     Traveling or living in developing countries where rabies is more common.

Rabies shots include:   A fast-acting shot (rabies immune globulin) to prevent the virus from infecting you. such as the type of animal and the situation in which the bite occurred. then it doesn't have rabies and you won't need rabies shots. Talk to your doctor and local public health officials to determine whether you should receive rabies shots. Cats. Procedures for determining whether an animal has rabies vary by situation. Determining whether the animal that bit you has rabies In some cases. If the animal that bit you remains healthy during the observation period. That way. For instance:   Pets and farm animals. dogs and ferrets that bite can be observed for 10 days to see if they show signs and symptoms of rabies. Treatments and drugs By Mayo Clinic staff There is no specific treatment for rabies infection. you'll receive a series of shots to prevent the rabies virus from infecting you. For that reason. treatment to prevent the rabies virus from infecting your body is recommended if the doctor thinks there's a chance you have been exposed to the virus. anyone thought to have been exposed to rabies receives a series of shots to prevent the infection from taking hold. you won't need the shots. You receive five injections over 14 days. as soon as possible after the bite. if it's determined the animal is healthy.  At the time a rabid animal bites you. it may be safest to assume that the animal has rabies. there's no way to know whether the animal has transmitted the rabies virus to you. Though a small number of people have survived rabies. If the animal that bit you can't be found. A series of rabies vaccines to help your body learn to identify and fight the rabies virus. Wild animals that can be caught. can be killed and tested for rabies. Treatment for people bitten by animals with rabies If you've been bitten by an animal that is known to have rabies. Part of this injection is given near the area where the animal bit you if possible. such as a bat that came into your home. it's possible to determine whether the animal that bit you has rabies before beginning the series of rabies shots. the disease is usually fatal. Blood and tissue tests are used to diagnose rabies in people who have signs and symptoms of the infection. Other pets and farm animals are considered on a case-by-case basis. For this reason. Rabies vaccines are given as injections in your arm. Wild animals that can be found and captured. But this will depend on several factors. Tests on the animal's .

it may be safest to assume that the animal had rabies and proceed with the rabies shots. If the animal doesn't have rabies. In other cases. Keep rabbits and other small pets. It's not normal for a wild animal to be friendly with people.org/index. Cats. such as guinea pigs. FROM: http://rabiespoi. Animals that can't be found. Keep your pets inside and supervise them when outside. discuss the situation with your doctor and the local health department. Report stray animals to local authorities.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=59&Itemid=64 Declaring RabiesFree Zones . Consider the rabies vaccine if you're traveling. Seal any cracks and gaps where bats can enter your home. Prevention By Mayo Clinic staff You can reduce your risk of coming in contact with rabid animals. Protect small pets from predators. it may be unlikely that the animal that bit you had rabies and it may be determined that rabies shots aren't necessary. If you're traveling to a country where rabies is common and you'll be there for a long period of time. Keep bats out of your home. Wild animals with rabies may seem unafraid of people. This will help keep your pets from coming in contact with wild animals. ask your doctor whether you should receive the rabies vaccine. you won't need the shots. dogs and ferrets can be vaccinated against rabies. Call your local animal control officials or other local law enforcement to report stray dogs and cats. Don't approach wild animals. Here's how:        Vaccinate your pets. brain may reveal the rabies virus. These small pets can't be vaccinated against rabies. so stay away from any animal that seems unafraid. Ask your veterinarian how often your pets should be vaccinated. inside or in protected cages so that they are safe from wild animals. In certain cases. If the animal that bit you can't be found. work with a local expert to find ways to keep bats out. Keep your pets confined. If you know you have bats in your home.

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Rabies Fast Facts .

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4.2. Reported Rabies Cases in Angeles City for 2007 was 26 (with a rate of 8. the highest in the region) .000 population Region IV-A had the highest incidence of rabies (in 2007). (rate of 2 per 100.000 population) Bulacan had the highest number of reported rabies cases for 2007 with a total of 126 but the rate was lower at 6. Region X had the 2nd highest incidence of rabies Region III ranked 3rd in national rabies morbidity in 2007 with 190 cases.Reported Rabies Cases in the Philippines for 2007 were 833 (with a rate of 1 per 100.3. Tarlac ranked second at the regional level with an incidence of 30 and a rate of 3.

It is transmitted to other animals through contact with virus-laden saliva from a rabid animal.0 per 100. Manila www. the Philippines ranked fifth in the rabies list of the World Health Organization in terms of prevalence in a specific area. there were 833 reported rabies cases in the country with a rate of 1.Reference: Field Health Service Information System Annual 2007 National Epidemiology Center. In 2001. two Japanese nationals were infected after being bitten by dogs in the Philippines. We had gained notoriety among international communities as a nation with high endemicity (or prevalence) of rabies. The Department of Health (DOH) estimates that 300 to 600 Filipinos die of rabies each year.000 population. the most common sources of infection are dogs and cats. DOH recognizes that rabies remains a public health problem in the country despite the enactment of Republic Act 9482.ph RABIES: THE PHILIPPINE SITUATION Rabies is a dangerous disease of animals transmissible to humans through bites. . The last indigenous case of rabies infection in the UK occurred in 1902 while that of Japan was in 1954. In 2007. scratches or licks on open wounds. At least 50% of victims are children aged 5 to 14 years. In recent years. In the Philippines. In 2006. He died in a London hospital. Both countries have declared themselves rabies-free a long time ago. otherwise known as the Rabies Act of 2007 which seeks to eradicate rabies in the Philippines by 2020. Department of Health.doh.gov. a long-time resident of the UK contracted rabies after being bitten by a dog in the Philippines.

No. the nineteenth day of February. 2541 H. Many. No.9482 AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE CONTROL AND ELIMINATION OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL RABIES. His shocking and dramatic exit from this world has opened our eyes to the realities surrounding this disease.Rabies is highly and easily preventable in this day and age but once the signs and symptoms appear. especially those in rural areas. – This Act shall be known as the “Anti-Rabies Act of 2007”. 4654 Republic of the Philippines Congress of the Philippines Metro Manila Thirteenth Congress Third Special Session Begun and held in Metro Manila. PRESCRIBING PENALTIES FOR VIOLATION THEREOF AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: SECTION 1. REPUBLIC ACT NO. Title.people believed to have the power to eliminate the virus from the body with the use of a stone (called batong buhay) or by sucking with the use of a carabao horn or an animal bone are widely accepted as a wiser and more economical alternative to post-exposure treatment or vaccination. two thousand seven. Last Updated on Wednesday. still believe that garlic and a few drops of vinegar can cure rabies. on Monday. 25 March 2009 16:33 Anti-Rabies Act of 2007 Date 2007-06-22 (RA 9482) S. Tandoks or faith healers . Rabies is a highly misunderstood disease among Filipinos. rabies is almost always fatal and irreversible. . Poypoy has not died in vain. Only a few know that an inch-long scratch or a playful lick on an open wound can cost a person his/her life.

markets. pierced or scratched. scientifically known as canis familiaris. 2. – For the purpose of this Act. or the genital organs. prevention of the spread.SEC. (f) Impound refers to seize and hold in the custody of the law. (k) Rabies transmission refers to the transmission or passage of the Rabies virus through a bite by an infected animal. and eventual eradication of human and animal Rabies shall be provided and the need for responsible pet ownership established. Definition of Terms. the lips. (j) Rabies refers to a highly fatal disease caused by a lyssa virus. a system for the control. (e) Euthanasia refers to the process of painless death to Dogs and other animals. (h) Pound refers to a public enclosure for stray animals. (i) Public Place refers to any place open to the public like parks. . care or control of a Dog including his/her representative. (g) Owner refers to any person keeping. etc. transmitted mainly through the bite of an infected animal and is characterized by muscle paralysis. malls. – It is the declared policy of the State to protect and promote the right to health of the people. (d) Dog refers to a common quadruped domestic animal belonging to the order carnivora (male or female). hydrophobia and aerophobia. (c) Direct Supervision refers to range supervision where physical presence of the veterinarian within the barangay is necessary. Declaration of Policy. cuts or grips with its teeth so that the skin of a person has been wounded. Towards this end. the mouth. harboring or having charge. 3. or through contamination with virus-laden saliva on breaks in the skin and of mucous membranes such as the eyes. (b) Concerned Officials refers to barangay officials. SEC. and other neurological manifestations. health workers. police officers or government veterinarians. streets. the following terms shall mean: (a) Bitten refers to an act by which a Dog seizes.

(l) Rabies Vaccination/Immunoprophylaxis of Humans refers to the inoculation of humans.) refers to an anti-Rabies treatment administered after an exposure to Rabies. National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. which include local wound care. 4. Stray and unvaccinated Dogs. (2) establishment of a central database system for registered and vaccinated Dogs. SEC.E. (o) Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (P. The program shall be a multi-agency effort in controlling and eliminating Rabies in the country. (m) Rabies Vaccination of Dogs refers to the inoculation of a Dog with a Rabies vaccine by a licensed government or private veterinarian or trained individual under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian. with or without antiRabies immunizing agent.P. The services of the said trained individual shall be limited only to Rabies Vaccination Injection in Dogs and only during government mass vaccination campaigns. ( (3) impounding. with modern day rabies vaccines or Rabies immunoglobulin. (q) Veterinary or Human Barbiturates refer to drugs that depress the function of the central nervous system. by a trained doctor or nurse under the supervision of a qualified medical practitioner. Rabies vaccine. field control and disposition of unregistered. (p) Stray Dog refers to any Dog leaving its Owner’s place or premise and no longer under the effective control of the Owner. (n) Post-exposure Treatment (P.) refers to Rabies vaccination administered before an exposure to Rabies to those who are at high risk of getting Rabies. – It is hereby mandated that there shall be a National Rabies Prevention and Control Program to be implemented by a multiagency/ multi-sectoral committee chaired by the Bureau of Animal Industry of the Department of Agriculture.T. Among its component activities include: (1) mass vaccination of Dogs. .E.

as well as Local Government Units (LGUs) with the assistance of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). which shall jointly implement the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. 5. Responsibilities of Government Agencies. (d) Be a responsible Owner by providing their Dog with proper grooming. (3) Undertake free anti-Rabies Vaccination of Dogs giving priority to high . 6. – All Pet Owners shall be required to: (a) Have their Dog regularly vaccinated against Rabies and maintain a registration card which shall contain all vaccinations conducted on their Dog.) of schoolchildren aged five to fourteen in areas where there is high incidence of rabies as well as the (7) encouragement of the practice of responsible pet ownership. (f) Assist the Dog bite victim immediately and shoulder the medical expenses incurred and other incidental expenses relative to the victim’s injuries. (2) Ensure the availability and adequate supply of animal anti-Rabies vaccine at all times. (5) provision on pre-exposure treatment to high risk personnel and Post Exposure Treatment to animal bite victims. adequate food and clean shelter. for accurate record purposes.(4) conduct of information and education campaign on the prevention and control of Rabies. (6) provision of free routine immunization or Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (P. (b) Submit their Dogs for mandatory registration. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and People’s Organizations (POs). Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) and Department of Education (DepEd). (e) Within twenty-four (24) hours. SEC. Department of Health (DOH). (c) Maintain control over their Dog and not allow it to roam the streets or any Public Place without a leash. Responsibilities of Pet Owners. The program shall be implemented by the Department of Agriculture (DA). Department of Agriculture (1) Improve and upgrade existing animal Rabies laboratory diagnostic capabilities to ensure better services to the people.E. shall be tasked to: A. – The following government agencies. report immediately any Dog biting incident to the Concerned Officials for investigation or for any appropriate action and place such Dog under observation by a government or private veterinarian.P. SEC.

DILG. B. Department of Education (1) Strengthen Rabies education program through school health . (10) Encourage collaborative activities with the DOH. POs and other concerned sectors. (7) Immediately approve the registration of Veterinary and Human Barbiturate drugs and veterinary euthanasia drugs in coordination with the PDEA. (3) Provide Pre-Exposure Treatment to high-risk personnel. POs and other concerned sectors. DILG. DENR. such as. (4) Maintain and improve animal Rabies surveillance system. vaccinators and other persons working with Rabies virus for free.risk depressed areas. (2) Provide Post-Exposure Treatment at the minimum expense to individuals bitten by animals suspected of being rabid which will consist of the initial vaccine and immunoglobulin dose. (7) Strengthen the training of field personnel and the Information Education and Communication (lEC) activities on Rabies prevention and control and responsible pet ownership. NGOs. (4) Coordinate with the DA in the development of appropriate health education strategy to inform the public on Rabies prevention and control and responsible pet ownership. veterinarians. but not limited to. DepEd. NGOs. (6) Immediately facilitate for the approval of the sale and use of Veterinary and Human Barbiturate drugs and veterinary euthanasia drugs by the DOH and the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA). C. (5) Establish and maintain Rabies free zone in coordination with the LGUs. DENR. (8) Conduct research on Rabies and its control in coordination with other agencies. (6) Encourage collaborative activities with the DA. DepEd. Department of Health (1) Ensure the availability and adequate supply of DOH pre-qualified human Anti-Rabies vaccine in animal bite treatment centers at all times and shall coordinate with other implementing agencies and concerned NGOs for this purpose. animal handlers. (9) Formulate minimum standards and monitor the effective implementation of this Act. laboratory staff. (5) Develop and maintain a human Rabies surveillance system.

NGOs. (11) Require pet shops to post information regarding Rabies and responsible pet ownership. (6) Enact additional local ordinances that will support the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program that should include the regulation of treatment locally known as “tandok. particularly on the financing of supplies and human and Dog vaccines needed for immunization. (10) Appoint a veterinarian and establish a veterinary office in every province. (9) Prohibit the use of electrocution as a euthanasia procedure. (5) Ensure the enforcement of Section 6 of Republic Act No. (4) Integrate proper information and education on responsible pet ownership in the relevant subjects in the Elementary and High School levels. shall: (1) Ensure that all Dogs are properly immunized. (8) With respect to cities and first class municipalities. (2) Assist in the Dog mass immunization campaigns in the community.teaching/curriculum. Responsibilities of the LGUs. in their respective localities. in accordance with Section 9 herein: Provided. DOH. establish a Dog Pound or opt to share the expense of establishing and maintaining a Dog Pound with other adjoining municipalities and/or with private animal shelters and control facilities. registered and issued a corresponding Dog tag for every i mmunized and registered Dog. – LGUs. opt to share the expense of having a veterinary office. shall. DILG. on their own. on their own. POs and other concerned sectors. (4) Allocate funds to augment the implementation of the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. city and firstclass municipality: Provided. (2) Strictly enforce Dog Impounding activities and field control to eliminate Stray Dogs. establish and maintain a Dog Pound where Impounded Dogs shall be kept.That the other municipalities.” (7) Prohibit the trade of Dogs for meat. (12) For purposes of ensuring the administrative feasibility of implementing the provisions of this Act and subject to . (3) Encourage collaborative activities with the DA. 8485 or “The Animal Welfare Act of 1998”. (3) Ensure that Dogs are leashed or confined within the premises of the Owner’s house or Owner’s fenced surroundings. SEC. DENR. That the other municipalities shall. 7.

– The agencies tasked to implement the anti-Rabies program shall seek the assistance and participation of NGOs in any of the following activities: (1) Community mobilization. the LGU shall collect the fines imposed under Section 11 subparagraphs (1). 8485. SEC. – Unregistered. (5) and (6) hereof. SEC. otherwise known as the “Animal Welfare Act of 1998”. – In furtherance of the policy of this Act to eradicate Rabies. when feasible. The DILG shall ensure compliance of these responsibilities by the LGUs. Field Control and Disposition of Unregistered. (5) Surveillance/reporting of Rabies cases in animals and humans. (4) Promotion of the anti-Rabies campaign during pet or any animal shows. 9. Any and all fines collected pursuant to this Act shall be used for the enhancement of the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program within the locality concerned. Stray or unvaccinated Dogs shall be impounded and kept in the LGU’s designated Dog Pound. (3) Mass anti-Rabies campaign. as well as the achievement of the objectives envisioned in this Act. (6) Any other activities geared towards the prevention and complete eradication of Rabies. As such. (3). SEC. with the assistance of an animal welfare NGO. 8. (3) A fee shall be paid by Owners of Impounded Dogs to the LGU concerned. or otherwise disposed of in any manner authorized. taking into consideration the following guidelines: (1) Unregistered. there is the need to control the Dog population and minimize the number of unwanted Stray Dogs. it is hereby mandated: . (2) Impounded Dogs not claimed after three days from the Dog Pound shall be placed for adoption to qualified persons. (4). (2) Health education/information dissemination on Rabies and responsible pet ownership. Stray or unvaccinated Dogs shall be put in Dog Pounds and disposed of. subject to the pertinent provisions of Republic Act No. Assistance of NGOs and the Academe.paragraph 8 of this Section. Dog Population Control. Stray and Unvaccinated Dogs. Impounding. 10. pursuant to Section 7 hereof.

00) but not more than One thousand pesos (P1. (3) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog put under observation after said Dog has Bitten an individual shall be meted a fine of Ten thousand pesos (P10. including the option of spaying or neutering their Dogs. 11. (2) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog vaccinated against Rabies shall be liable to pay for the vaccination of both the Dog and the individuals Bitten by their Dog.00) per Dog and subjected to imprisonment for one to four years. (2) That the LGUs shall provide an incentive system whereby Owners of Dogs which have been spayed or neutered will be given a subsidized or discounted pet registration fee. with the assistance of NGOs and POs shall undertake an educational and promotional campaign on responsible Pet Ownership.00).00).00) per act and subject to imprisonment for one to four years. SEC. (9) If the violation is committed by an alien.000. DILG.000. DOH. LGUs. (8) Any person found guilty of using electrocution as a method of euthanasia shall be fined not less than Five thousand pesos (P5. he or she shall be immediately deported after service of sentence without any further proceedings.00).000.000. (6) An impounded Dog shall be released to its Owner upon payment of a fine of not less than Five hundred pesos (P500. Penalties. (4) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog put under observation and do not shoulder the medical expenses of the person Bitten by their Dog shall be meted a fine of Twenty-five thousand pesos (P25. DepEd. – (1) Pet Owners who fail or refuse to have their Dog registered and immunized against Rabies shall be punished by a fine of Two thousand pesos (P2.(1) That the DA.00). (7) Any person found guilty of trading Dog for meat shall be fined not less than Five thousand pesos (P5.000. at the expense of the Pet’s Owner. (3) That Dogs which have been impounded three times shall only be released after having been spayed or neutered. .00) for each incident.000. (5) Pet Owners who refuse to put leash on their Dogs when they are brought outside the house shall be meted a fine of Five hundred pesos (P500.

JOSE DE VENECIA JR. 4654 was finally passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives on February 9. 15. DENR. – The amount of One hundred million pesos (P100. Speaker of the House Senate of Representatives This Act which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No.00) necessary to implement the provisions of this Act shall be initially charged against the appropriations of the DOH. Separability Clause. in coordination with the DOH.SEC. 2541 and House Bill No. For the LGUs. DA. 2007 respectively. the other provisions shall remain in full force and effect. – In case any provision of this Act is declared unconstitutional. DILG. SEC. 13. the requirements shall be taken from their Internal Revenue Allotment and other local funds. Appropriations. NGOs and POs shall issue the necessary rules and regulations within sixty (60) days from the effectivity of this Act. Thereafter.000. SEC. 2007 and February 20. DepEd. SEC.000. ROBERTO P. – The DA. 14. – This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in the Official Gazette or in at least two newspapers of general circulation. such sums as may be necessary for its continued implementation shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act. Effectivity. YABES House of Representatives . Approved. whichever comes earlier. DILG and DepEd under the General Appropriations Act. Implementing Rules and Regulations. NAZARENO Secretary General OSCAR Secretary of the Senate MANNY President of the VILLAR G. 12.

Of these. 16 of whom succumbed. 2010 at 9:34 PM PST By Gino C. pain. seizures. and anxiety and agitation. 206 died due to the virus that is transmitted by the infected saliva of animals. and Metro Manila (20). symptoms become more distinctive such as hallucinations.Approved: GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO President of the Philippines Rising rabies deaths alarms health dept Manila : Philippines | Nov 18. The symptoms of human rabies are trivial such as fever. . With the Christmas vacation coming. cough or sore throat. For this year. health officials are alarmed of the possible surge in the number of cases. fear of water (hydrophobia). paralysis. coma. fear of air (aerophobia). especially dogs. the following areas had the highest reported cases of rabies: Region IV-A (49). Matibag 20 Views: 630 The health department of the Philippines reported 264 human rabies cases between January and 23 October this year. burning of itching sensation at the site of the bite. through bites or licking of open wounds. Region V (29). Later. Human rabies is a deadly disease and over 99 percent of people who develop the symptoms of the disease die. heart and respiratory failure. muscle spasms in the face and neck. abdominal pain. delirium. Region III (36). Health officials say that it is during school vacation time that cases of rabies are on the rise because children play with the unvaccinated animals.

and horses may harbor the rabies virus. National Capital Region. Bats.843 Sri Lanka-2. and reptiles cannot transmit the disease. Report Credibility FROM: DOH .042 Myanmar-1.658 Vietnam-5. Gino C. elephants.683 Thailand-1. Birds. too. Immediately go to the doctor for medical advice.208 Some of the countries that have successfully eradicated rabies are Australia. Do not kill the offending animal. it is strongly advised that the bite wound be thoroughly washed with soap and running water for 15 minutes. Japan.995 Philippines-5. Capture the animal and observe for 10 to 15 days for behavioral changes.377 Indonesia-1. and the United Kingdom. and is a Stringer for Allvoices. Philippines. cats.The disease is also preventable through adequate vaccination of warm-blooded animal pets like dogs. New Zealand. fishes. Matibag is based in Manila. chickens. and monkeys. In 2008. rats.478 Bangladesh-22. Once bitten. the 10 countries with highest human deaths due to rabies are: India-244.900 China-13. Ask a veterinarian or any authorities for further action toward the animal.183 Pakistan-2. rabbits.

The rabies prevention and control program received its needed boost when President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed into law the Republic Act No.March is Rabies Awareness Month and September 28 is World Rabies Day! March is Rabies Awareness Month and September 28 is World Rabies Day! Rabies is 100% fatal viral disease affecting the nervous system of humans and animals. the Department of Health. 2005-2001. the said agencies are also gearing up their efforts towards the goal of declaring the Philippines as Rabies-Free by the 2020. and the Philippines ranked No. Prescribing Penalties for Violation Thereof and Appropriating Funds Therefore) on May 27. Source: National Objectives for Health. The battlecry is “SUMUNOD SA BATAS RABIES”. and the Philippines ranked number six among the countries with the highest reported incidence of rabies in the world. A threepronged approach – dog immunization. There is yet no way of immediately segregating those who had acquired rabies infection from those who had been bitten by nonrabid sources. the cost of postexposure vaccination against rabies can be prohibitive.500 Filipinos annually. Meanwhile. Dogs remain the principal animal source of rabies. all efforts should be made to contain rabies at its source. Rabies Although rabies is not among the leading causes of disease and death in the country it has become a public health problem of significance for two reasons: it is one of the most acutely fatal infections which causes the death of between 200-500 Filipinos annually. and the disease almost always leads to death even when vaccination and medical management are given as soon as the symptoms have set in. Although a great majority of animal bites are non-infected with the rabies virus. Manila. with universal immunization of dogs and responsible pet ownership as major preventive measures. responsible pet ownership and dog-bite victim immunization – is still recommended for all government units to control rabies in their areas of responsibility. Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Animal Industry. 9482 (An Act Providing for the Control and Elimination of Human and Animal Rabies. Department of Health. This next three years. Philippines. Further. 6 among the countries with the highest incidence of rabies in the world. . It is hard to make a definite early diagnosis of rabies. local government units and partner agencies will advocate for the full implementation of the law nationwide. animal control and other public health measures are undertaken because of the high case fatality rate for rabies. Thus. 2007. It remains a serious public health problem in the country which causes the death of between 200 . Philippines.

» 1285 reads Is rubbing the bite wounds with garlic and vinegar useful in the prevention of Rabies? . If the dog is apparently healthy. it should not be killed immediately and should instead be kept on a leash or caged for observation for 14 days. If it remains to be alive within that period. The observation period for dogs or cats is usually 14 days starting from the day the animal has bitten a person. Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given anti-Rabies immunization? Yes. which is rabid at the time of the bite usually. dies within 14 days. NCDPC Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given antiRabies immunization? Yes. » 1662 reads Do we need to kill the dog immediately? 8. it means that it is not rabid and has not transmitted the virus to the person. Studies have shown that a dog or cat. Do we need to kill the dog immediately? No. A rabid person can transmit the Rabies virus to another person and need to be given antiRabies immunization » 972 reads Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given antiRabies immunization? 10.Rabies. A rabid person can transmit the Rabies virus to another person and need to be given antiRabies immunization » 1627 reads What is the difference between the observation period and the incubation period? The observation period is the period of time that the dog or cat is observed for signs of Rabies.

the Rabies victim dies within 1-3 days. » 1254 reads Is “tandok” effective in the prevention of Rabies? No. multiple/single deep bites. Rabies can be prevented. By administering vaccine and immunoglobin at the right time to an animal bite victim. Passive immunization is the process of giving an antibody to persons with Category III exposure (head and neck bites. which should be administered within the first seven days of active immunization. further introducing dirt into the wound). irritation. The effect of the immunoglobulin is only short term. Once signs of brain involvement are manifested. This is believed to suck out the Rabies virus. the risk of Rabies infection will be greatly reduced. Garlic and vinegar need not be applied on the bite wound for they will cause more injury (swelling.No. licks of the eyes. » 1725 reads What is active and passive immunization? Active immunization or vaccination aims to induce the body to develop antibodies against Rabies whose effect lasts for 1 to 3 years. lips and mouth) in order to provide immediate protection against Rabies. “Tandok” is folk medicine done by placing a deer horn over the wound. » 1257 reads Is Rabies preventable? Yes. which only means that “tandok” is not effective. By washing the wound immediately with soap and clean water. contamination of mucous membranes. Rabies. » 1526 reads Is Rabies curable? No. NCDPC What is Rabies post-exposure treatment? . Records have shown that patients who received “tandok” treatment died either of Rabies or Tetanus. One important measure that will be of big help in reducing the risk of getting Rabies is by immediately washing the bite wound with soap and water.

Rabies is usually transmitted from a dog’s saliva and enters the body through breaks in the skin. Dogs are the main sources of rabies in the country. a person should seek treatment immediately after bitten by a rabid animal. b. which is why households are always encouraged to have their dogs vaccinated and restricted within their properties. Dogs with the furious type of rabies become wild and uncontrollable. The Department of Health (DOH) and other public health organizations hold annual seminars to educate the people about rabies. The victim may also be given antibiotics and anti-tetanus immunization. even though they normally have a friendly disposition. confine him in a cage or at least leash him in an isolated area. Antiseptics may be applied. It consists of local wound treatment. A dog becomes depressed. active immunization (vaccination) and passive immunization (administration of rabies immunoglobin). » 1298 reads If bitten by a stray animal. It roams around aimlessly and will snap at or bite anyone who crosses its path.Post-exposure treatment is given to persons who are exposed to rabid animals. The dumb type of rabies is the total opposite of the furious type. Let us examine the various rabies symptoms. c. There are two types of rabies: the furious type and the dumb type. and symptoms include the absence of appetite and difficulty in breathing. Rabies is a rampant health problem in the country. Consult a veterinarian for the management of the biting dog. Of course. what should be properly done? a. Since rabies is a fatal disease which can kill those who get infected with it. A dog with this type of rabies will die suddenly without any indication beforehand. Immediately wash the bite wound with soap and clean water. lethargic and tends to hide in quiet. isolated places. if indicated. Consult a physician or go to your nearest Animal Bite Center for immunization. To determine whether a biting dog is rabid or not. It can also enter the body through a person’s eyes and mouth. A dog becomes restless and has difficulty eating and drinking. Carefully observe the animal for 14 days for physical symptoms described . with approximately 600 citizens dying of it every year. The lack of discipline towards animal care and the fact that animals are allowed to roam around freely in the streets are the main culprits behind the high incidence of rabies in the Philippines. the most obvious and popular symptoms of rabid dog is the continuous foaming of the mouth. The most obvious sign would be the hanging of the tongue and continuous drooling.

vomiting and headache. bring the dog to a veterinarian for proper observation. In humans. the signs of infection include: fever. To prevent the incidence of rabies in your area. it is most likely rabid. . If the dog dies within two weeks. An infected person will experience dysfunction in the nervous system such as hallucination and paralysis. Better yet. make sure to have your dogs vaccinated every year and keep them within the confines of your home or property. nausea. If bitten by a rabid dog. make sure to get medical attention immediately.above.

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