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Rabies is a disease of viral origin that affects both wild and domestic animals. In developing countries, where it is transmitted mainly by rabid stray dogs, rabies is still considered a major public health concern and continues to cause 55,000 human deaths each year. (24)
Symptoms of rabies
Following infection, the virus replicates within muscle cells surrounding the wound. It then reaches the central nervous system and eventually spreads through the entire body. The mean incubation period is two to three months, but may range from several days to years. The first signs of the disease include pain or an abnormal sensation at or around the wound, followed by other non-specific symptoms such as fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, headaches, malaise, and lethargy. In the acute stage, rabies symptoms mimic encephalitis. The disease may evolve as one of two clinical forms: furious rabies or paralytic (dumb) rabies. In both cases, the outcome is coma followed by death within a few days.
Epidemiology and vaccination against rabies
Rabies is usually transmitted through a rabid animal’s saliva by a bite, scratch, or licking of damaged skin or mucosa. To date, vaccination remains the only effective treatment against rabies and acts by neutralizing the virus before it actually reaches the central nervous system. Indeed, once the nervous system is infected, the outcome of the disease is inevitably fatal.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the disease. For the virus, see Rabies virus.
Classification and external resources
Dog with rabies virus ICD-10 DiseasesDB eMedicine MeSH A82. 11148 med/1374 eerg/493 ped/1974 D011818
Rabies (pronounced /ˈreɪbiːz/. From Latin: rabies, "madness") is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in warm-blooded animals. It is zoonotic (i.e., transmitted by animals), most commonly by a bite from an infected animal. For a human, rabies is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system, ultimately causing disease in the brain and death. The rabies virus travels to the brain by following the peripheral nerves. The incubation period of the disease is usually a few months in humans, depending on the distance the virus must travel to reach the central nervous system. Once the rabies virus reaches the central nervous system and symptoms begin to show, the infection is effectively untreatable and usually fatal within days. Early-stage symptoms of rabies are malaise, headache and fever, progressing to acute pain, violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, depression, and hydrophobia. Finally, the patient may experience periods of mania and lethargy, eventually leading to coma. The primary cause of death is usually respiratory insufficiency. Worldwide, roughly 97% of rabies cases come from dog bites. In the United States, however, animal control and vaccination programs have effectively eliminated domestic dogs as reservoirs of rabies. In several countries, including Australia, Japan, and the United Kingdom, rabies carried by animals that live on the ground has been eradicated entirely. Concerns exist about airborne and mixed-habitat animals including bats. A small number of bats of three species in the UK and in some other countries have been found to have European Bat Lyssavirus 1 and European Bat Lyssavirus 2. The
symptoms of these viruses are similar to those of rabies and so the viruses are both known as bat rabies. The economic impact is also substantial, as rabies is a significant cause of death of livestock in some countries.
1 Signs and symptoms 2 Virology 3 Diagnosis 4 Prevention 5 Management o 5.1 Post-exposure prophylaxis o 5.2 Blood-brain barrier o 5.3 Induced coma 6 Prognosis 7 Epidemiology o 7.1 Transmission o 7.2 Prevalence 8 History o 8.1 Etymology o 8.2 Impact 9 In other animals 10 See also 11 References 12 External links
 Signs and symptoms
Patient with rabies, 1959
The period between infection and the first flu-like symptoms is normally two to twelve weeks, but can be as long as two years. Soon after, the symptoms expand to slight or partial paralysis, cerebral dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, confusion, agitation, abnormal behavior, paranoia, terror, hallucinations, progressing to delirium. The production of large quantities of saliva and tears coupled with an inability to speak or swallow are typical during the later stages of the disease; this can result in hydrophobia, in which the patient has difficulty swallowing because the throat and jaw become slowly paralyzed, shows panic when presented with liquids to drink, and cannot quench his or her thirst. Death almost invariably results two to ten days after first symptoms. In 2005, the first patient was treated with the Milwaukee protocol, and Jeanna Giese became the first person ever recorded to survive rabies without receiving successful post-exposure prophylaxis. An intention to treat analysis has since found that this protocol has a survival rate of about 8%. The results of this study are, however, under serious contention and clinical rabies should still be regarded as incurable at present.
Main article: Rabies virus
TEM micrograph with numerous rabies virions (small, dark grey, rodlike particles) and Negri bodies (the larger pathognomonic cellular inclusions of rabies infection). The rabies virus is the type species of the Lyssavirus genus, in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Lyssaviruses have helical symmetry, with a length of about 180 nm and a cross-sectional diameter of about 75 nm. These viruses are enveloped and have a singlestranded RNA genome with negative-sense. The genetic information is packaged as a ribonucleoprotein complex in which RNA is tightly bound by the viral nucleoprotein. The RNA genome of the virus encodes five genes whose order is highly conserved: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G), and the viral RNA polymerase (L). From the point of entry, the virus is neurotropic, traveling quickly along the neural pathways into the central nervous system (CNS), and then further into other organs. The salivary glands receive high concentrations of the virus, thus allowing further transmission.
 Similar nerve tissuederived vaccines are still used in some countries. including coxsackieviruses. 40%) caused by Nipah virus.. in particular infection with viruses such as herpesviruses. varicella-zoster virus. and arboviruses (e.. The diagnosis can also be reliably made from skin samples taken before death. Currently pre-exposure immunization has been used in both human and non-human populations. It is also possible to make the diagnosis from saliva. but are found in only about 80% of cases. travel history. urine and cerebrospinal fluid samples.g. A recombinant vaccine called V-RG has been successfully used in Belgium. polioviruses. In addition. Louis encephalitis virus. as was evidenced by the recent outbreak in Malaysia of some 300 cases of encephalitis (mortality rate. France. consideration should be given to the local epidemiology of encephalitis caused by arboviruses belonging to several taxonomic groups. The differential diagnosis in a case of suspected human rabies may initially include any cause of encephalitis. whereas in many jurisdictions domesticated animals are required to be vaccinated. and ticks) may help direct the diagnostic workup. including eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses.g. well-known viruses may be introduced into new locations. however. as is illustrated by the recent outbreak of encephalitis due to West Nile virus in the eastern United States. and La Crosse virus. from which the virus in the nerve tissue was weakened by allowing it to dry for five to ten days. The human diploid cell rabies vaccine was started in 1967. rodents. enteroviruses. The most important viruses to rule out are herpes simplex virus type 1. Cerebral inclusion bodies called Negri bodies are 100% diagnostic for rabies infection. New causes of viral encephalitis are also possible. and possible exposure to animal bites. . West Nile virus). the California encephalitis virus serogroup. and (less commonly) enteroviruses. as they are much cheaper than modern cell culture vaccines. Powassan virus. the animal from which the bite was received should also be examined for rabies. a newly recognized paramyxovirus. Likewise. Cheaper rabies diagnosis will become possible for low-income settings: accurate rabies diagnosis can be done at a tenth of the cost of traditional testing using basic light microscopy techniques. If possible. St. season. a new and less expensive purified chicken embryo cell vaccine and purified vero cell rabies vaccine are now available. Their original vaccine was harvested from infected rabbits.  Prevention Main article: Rabies vaccine All human cases of rabies were fatal until a vaccine was developed in 1885 by Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux. and the United States to prevent outbreaks of rabies in wildlife. Germany. geographic location. and human enteroviruses 68 to 71. Epidemiologic factors (e. echoviruses. Diagnosis The reference method for diagnosing rabies is by performing PCR or viral culture on brain samples taken after death. but this is not as sensitive. and the patient's age.
and reproduce more stray animals. only the post-exposure vaccinations on day 0 and 2. a virucidal antiseptic such as povidone-iodine. if you see a wild animal or a stray. iodine tincture. and contacting your healthcare provider to see whether you need rabies post-exposure prophylaxis.  Management  Post-exposure prophylaxis Treatment after exposure. As much as possible of this dose should be infiltrated around the bites. become strays. known as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP).In the USA. "If available. aqueous iodine solution. Washing the wound with soap and water between 10 and 15 minutes. The first dose of rabies vaccine is given as soon as possible after exposure. Pets that are sterile are less likely to leave home. Exposed mucous membranes such as eyes. since the widespread vaccination of domestic dogs and cats and the development of effective human vaccines and immunoglobulin treatments. . ranging as high as several thousand dollars. cats. and prevention and elimination of the disease. and ferrets against rabies Keeping pets under supervision Not handling wild animals or strays Contacting an animal control officer. in general within ten days of infection. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend patients receive one dose of human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) and four doses of rabies vaccine over a fourteen-day period. Patients who have previously received pre-exposure vaccination do not receive the immunoglobulin. HRIG is very expensive and constitutes the vast majority of the cost of postexposure treatment. seven and fourteen after the first. or alcohol (ethanol) should be applied after washing. Getting pets spayed or neutered. especially if the animal is acting strangely. the number of recorded deaths from rabies has dropped from one hundred or more annually in the early 20th century. which may go unnoticed by the victim and hence untreated. if you do get bitten by an animal. is highly successful in preventing the disease if administered promptly. The immunoglobulin dose should not exceed 20 units per kilogram body weight." In the United States. nose or mouth should be flushed well with water. with the remainder being given by deep intramuscular injection at a site distant from the vaccination site. with additional doses on days three. which promotes information on. September 28 is World Rabies Day. The Missouri Dept. Thoroughly washing the wound as soon as possible with soap and water for approximately five minutes is very effective in reducing the number of viral particles. mostly caused by bat bites. of Health and Senior Services Communicable Disease Surveillance 2007 Annual Report states that the following can help reduce the risk of exposure to rabies: Vaccinating dogs. to 1–2 per year.
but are being phased out and replaced by affordable WHO ID (intradermal) vaccination regimens. is regarded as an indication for post-exposure prophylaxis. which has been associated with vaccination failure due to injection into fat rather than muscle. as shown in the following conclusion made by the doctors involved in the case: Despite recent criticism (45). the blood-brain barrier (BBB) does not allow anti-viral immune cells to enter the brain. as well as increasingly frequent reports of human rabies contracted in North America.Modern cell-based vaccines are similar to flu shots in terms of pain and side-effects. based on a cost-benefit analysis. This aspect contributes to the pathogenicity of the virus and artificially increasing BBB permeability promotes viral clearance. even though there was no apparent report of a bite. such that the possibility exists that the virus has already penetrated the nervous system. Awakening to find a bat in the room. In the case in which there has been a significant delay in administering PEP. The recommendation for the precautionary use of post-exposure prophylaxis in occult bat encounters where there is no recognized contact has been questioned in the medical literature. the dramatic circumstances surrounding our patient's history. support the current Canadian guidelines that state that RPEP [PEP] is appropriate in cases where a significant contact with a bat cannot be excluded (45). However. the treatment should be administered regardless of that delay. where a bite or exposure may occur while the victim is asleep and unaware or awake and unaware that a bite occurred. Begun with little or no delay. especially in sleep areas. as it may still be effective. the possibility exists that amputation of the affected limb might thwart rabies.  Blood-brain barrier During lethal rabies infection of mice. the lateral thigh is used as for routine childhood vaccinations. PEP is 100% effective against rabies. if the bite or exposure was on an arm or leg. The notion that a bite or an overt break in the skin needs to be seen or felt for rabies to be transmitted by a bat is a myth in many cases. Opening the BBB during rabies infection has been suggested as a possible novel approach to treating the disease. even though no attempts have yet been made to determine whether or not this treatment could be successful. the primary site of rabies virus replication. not gluteal area. This is illustrated by the September 2000 case of a nine-yearold boy from Quebec who died from rabies three weeks after being in the presence of a sick bat. The old nerve-tissue-based vaccinations that require multiple painful injections into the abdomen with a large needle are cheap. It is highly recommended that PEP be administered as soon as possible. or finding a bat in the room of a previously unattended child or mentally disabled or intoxicated person. If there has been a delay between exposure and attempts at treatment. Intramuscular vaccination should be given into the deltoid. This treatment should be combined with an intensive PEP regimen. . recent studies have further confirmed the wisdom of maintaining the current protocol of precautionary administering of PEP in cases where a child or mentally compromised individual has been left alone with a bat. In infants.
ribavirin. Survival data using the Milwaukee protocol are available from the rabies registry. Giese was released from the hospital. She survived with almost no permanent sequelae and as of 2009 was starting her third year of university studies. an eleven-year-old boy was reported to survive rabies and the induced coma without noticeable brain damage. which has since undergone revision (the second version omits the use of ribavirin). 2011. The anesthetic drug ketamine has shown the potential for rabies virus inhibition in rats. midazolam. but prompt post-exposure vaccination may prevent the virus from progressing. American teenager Jeanna Giese survived an infection of rabies unvaccinated. A further 10 patients have been treated under the revised protocol and there have been a further 2 survivors.000 people a year. After thirty-one days of isolation and seventy-six days of hospitalization. On June 12. There are only six known cases of a person surviving symptomatic rabies. Rabies kills around 55. Induced coma See also: Milwaukee protocol In 2004. She was placed into an induced coma upon onset of symptoms and given ketamine. On April 10. and amantadine. There were 2 survivors out of 25 patients treated under the first protocol. mostly in Asia and Africa. became the third reported person in the United States to have recovered from rabies without receiving post-exposure prophylaxis. and is used as part of the Milwaukee protocol. Giese's treatment regimen became known as the "Milwaukee protocol". and only one known case of survival in which the patient received no rabies-specific treatment either before or after illness onset. rabies is usually fatal after neurological symptoms have developed. Colombia. 2008 in Cali.  Prognosis In unvaccinated humans. Her doctors administered treatment based on the hypothesis that detrimental effects of rabies were caused by temporary dysfunctions in the brain and could be avoided by inducing a temporary partial halt in brain function that would protect the brain from damage while giving the immune system time to defeat the virus. an eight-year-old girl from Humboldt County.  Epidemiology . California. Precious Reynolds.
 Transmission between humans is extremely rare. and large parts of Africa. skunks. wolves. Rabies may also inflame the spinal cord. weasels. This is called the prodromal phase.Rabies-free countries (in green) as of 2010  Transmission Main article: Rabies transmission Any warm-blooded animal (including humans) may become infected with the rabies virus and develop symptoms (although birds have only been known to be experimentally infected). and vaccination may still confer cell-mediated immunity to prevent symptomatic rabies. groundhogs. hamsters. rural fauna reservoirs. it rapidly causes encephalitis. mongoose (normally yellow mongoose) or cats present the greatest risk to humans. Infected bats. In many cases the infected animal is exceptionally aggressive. monkeys. rats. except in Australia and New Zealand. When the virus reaches the brain. dogs remain the principal host. It then travels along the nerves toward the central nervous system. treatment is almost never effective and mortality is over 99%. During this phase. Indeed the virus has even been adapted to grow in cells of poikilothermic ("cold-blooded") vertebrates. by a bite. bears and other wild carnivores. and exhibits otherwiseuncharacteristic behavior. Rabies may also spread through exposure to infected domestic farm animals. In some countries. Especially in developing . A few cases have been recorded through transplant surgery. Small rodents such as squirrels. dogs. The Virginia opossum is resistant but not immune to rabies. producing transverse myelitis. cattle. Mandatory vaccination of animals is less effective in rural areas. the virus cannot be easily detected within the host. The route of infection is usually. raccoons. After a typical human infection by bite. parts of the Americas. foxes. rabies is considered to be prevalent among bat populations only. guinea pigs. It is present in the animal populations of almost every country in the world. Once the patient becomes symptomatic. the virus enters the peripheral nervous system. and mice and lagomorphs like rabbits and hares are almost never found to be infected with rabies and are not known to transmit rabies to humans. coyotes. In Asia. but not always. Most animals can be infected by the virus and can transmit the disease to humans.  Prevalence Main article: Prevalence of rabies The rabies virus survives in widespread. and is the beginning of the symptoms. gerbils. varied. like those in western Europe and Oceania. may attack without provocation. chipmunks. The virus is usually present in the nerves and saliva of a symptomatic rabid animal.
baits are successfully used on raccoons in the Mont-Royal Park area.  History  Etymology The term is derived from the Latin rabies. Wisconsin.000 human deaths annually from rabies worldwide. and the remaining cases were other animals. The Greeks derived the word "lyssa".  Impact This section requires expansion with: currently the following web page . with about 31. North and South Dakota. "madness".countries. In Montréal. "to do violence". may be related to the Sanskrit rabhas. Nebraska. The first written record of rabies is in the Mesopotamian Codex of Eshnunna (ca. 15 were skunks. 50 were bats. pets may not be privately kept and their destruction may be unacceptable. this root is used in the name of the genus of rabies lyssavirus.C. This contradicts the CDC finding that in the midwest most rabies cases are found in skunks. India has been reported as having the highest rate of human rabies in the world. dating from the 1970s.000 in Asia. Minnesota. This. In the midwestern United States. the JAVMA found that. Vaccination campaigns may be expensive. Kansas. which was moving westward into Ohio. 352 cases were bats. Michigan.000 in Africa. Ohio.2000 B. 223 were skunks. between 1996 and 2009. Iowa. and Indiana). primarily because of stray dogs. and costbenefit analysis suggests that baits may be a cost effective method of control. in these countries too the virus is primarily transmitted through canines (feral dogs and other wild canine species). and one domestic cat. China introduced the "one-dog policy" in the city of Beijing in November 2006 to control the problem. As of 2007. followed by Thailand. a practice that has successfully reduced rabies in rural areas of Canada. Oral vaccines can be safely distributed in baits. One of the sources of recent flourishing of rabies in East Asia is the pet boom. Therefore. and an increase in the prevalence of bats with rabies. Vietnam had the second-highest rate. and 24. in turn. Rabies was once rare in the United States outside the Southern states. the state of Missouri had a total of 66 documented cases of rabies. and the USA. Canada. Of the 66 cases. which . There are an estimated 55. Because of its potentially violent nature. Surveying other states in the midwest (including Illinois. rabies has been known since c. from "lud" or "violent". 1930 BC). France. According to the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA). there has been a relative decrease in the US midwest in the prevalence of skunks with rabies. out of 671 confirmed rabies cases. comprising 134 of the 237 documented non-human cases in 1996. but as of 2006 raccoons in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States have been suffering from a rabies epidemic. skunks are the primary carriers of rabies.
Three stages of rabies are recognized in dogs and other animals. Rabies .  In other animals This section requires expansion with: information from the main article. Rabies was considered a scourge for its prevalence in the 19th century. In France and Belgium. Main article: Rabies in animals Rabies is infectious to mammals. which lasts three to four days. dogs were branded with the key in hopes of protecting them from rabies. where Saint Hubert was venerated. The second stage is the excitative stage. Death is usually caused by respiratory arrest.to three-day period characterized by behavioral changes and is known as the prodromal stage. however. If another person was bitten by a rabid dog and later died. the owner was heavily fined. Rabies "Rabies" is also available in Portable Document Format Versión en español What is rabies? Rabies is a deadly disease caused by a virus that attacks the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Infected mammals can transmit rabies virus to humans and other mammals. this gave Louis Pasteur ample opportunity to test post-exposure treatments from 1885. Incoordination is seen owing to rear limb paralysis and drooling and difficulty swallowing is caused by paralysis of facial and throat muscles. Fear of rabies related to methods of transmissions was almost irrational. The third stage is the paralytic stage and is caused by damage to motor neurons. It is this stage that is often known as furious rabies for the tendency of the affected animal to be hyperreactive to external stimuli and bite at anything near. the "St Hubert's Key" was heated and applied to cauterize the wound.dictates that the owner of a dog showing symptoms of rabies should take preventive measure against bites. by an application of magical thinking. The first stage is a one.
amphibians (like frogs). Exposure may also occur if saliva from a rabid animal enters an open cut or mucous membrane (eyes. These include rabbits and small rodents such as squirrels. cats are most frequently diagnosed with rabies in New York State.health. if possible. The phone number for your county health department can be found in the government listing of your telephone directory or the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) website at: http://www. It may become unusually aggressive or tame. skunks and foxes. What are the signs of rabies in animals? The first sign of rabies is usually a change in an animal's behavior.is almost always fatal once symptoms appear. convulsions. Many animals will make very unusual sounds. Report all animal bites to your county health department. but any mammal can be infected with rabies. Among domestic animals.ny. but only in rare circumstances. What should I do if I am exposed to rabies? Wash all wounds thoroughly with soap and water and seek medical attention immediately. The animal may lose its fear of people and natural enemies. Some animals almost never get rabies. guinea pigs. choking. A wild animal may appear affectionate and friendly.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/contact. How do people become exposed to rabies? People usually get exposed to the rabies virus when an infected animal bites them. gerbils and hamsters. frothing at the mouth and paralysis are sometimes seen. rats. Try to keep track of the animal that exposed you and report this information to your county health department so the animal can be captured safely. nose or mouth). birds. such as if they are attacked but not killed by a rabid animal. Pets and livestock can get rabies if they are not vaccinated to protect them against infection. Reptiles (such as lizards and snakes). fish and insects do not get or carry rabies. What animals can get rabies? Rabies is most often seen among wild animals such as raccoons. chipmunks. you may . In the case of a bat. only a few human cases are reported each year in the United States. bats. It is possible for these animals to get rabies. Infected animals usually die within one week after showing signs of rabies. mice.htm. It may become excited or irritable and attack anything in its path. even if they seem minor. Fortunately. Staggering.
the disease almost always results in death.ny. 7 and 14 following the initial injection. To learn how to capture a bat safely. plus 4 doses of rabies vaccine given over two weeks. A person who has already been vaccinated for rabies and is exposed to rabies must receive two booster vaccine doses three days apart immediately after exposure. rabies can be prevented. If there is a wound. contact your veterinarian to get medical care. They do not need an injection of HRIG. a booster dose of rabies vaccine may be needed within five days of the incident.health. What is the treatment for people exposed to rabies? Treatment after rabies exposure consists of a dose of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) administered as soon as possible after exposure. If treatment is initiated promptly following a rabies exposure. The first vaccine dose is given at the same time. How do I protect my pets from rabies? The best way to keep pets safe from rabies is to vaccinate them and keep their shots up-to-date. If your pet has been injured by a rabid animal.be able to safely capture it yourself and take it to your county health department where it will be transferred to the state for rabies testing. as determined by their doctor. with the remaining injections given on days 3. If a rabies exposure is not treated and a person develops clinical signs of rabies. stray dogs or cats. . ferrets and livestock that have bitten or otherwise caused a potential human exposure to rabies will be confined under the direction of the county health department and observed for ten days following the exposure. the full dose of HRIG should go into the wound.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/ . If the animal remains healthy during this period. Your county health department will assist you and your physician to determine whether treatment is necessary. If an animal cannot be observed or tested for rabies. cats. What can people do to protect themselves against rabies? Don't feed. Contact your county health department to determine what additional follow-up may be needed. What happens if a rabies exposure goes untreated? Exposure to a rabid animal does not always result in rabies. touch or adopt wild animals. People who have weakened immune systems may require a fifth dose of vaccine. Other types of animals that cause a potential human exposure must be tested for rabies under the direction of the county health department. Healthy dogs. Even though your pet has been vaccinated. the animal did not transmit rabies at the time of the bite. view a short video (1 minute 22 seconds) at www. treatment may be necessary for the people exposed. if possible.
You may contact a nuisance wildlife control expert who will remove the animal for a fee. cats and ferrets as well as horses and valuable livestock animals are up-to-date on their rabies vaccinations. Bring children and pets indoors and alert neighbors who are outside. Cap your chimney with screens.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/contact. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system. Where can I get more information about rabies? The county health department is your best source of additional rabies information. If a wild animal is on your property. do not let any animal escape that has possibly exposed someone to rabies. skunks. Keep family pets indoors at night. Teach children not to touch any animal they do not know and to tell an adult immediately if they are bitten by any animal.ny. If nuisance wild animals are living in parts of your home. primarily in bats. If possible. basement. The vast majority of rabies cases in the United States each year occur in wild animals like raccoons. Rabies is almost always fatal once symptoms appear. bats.health. Don't attract wild animals to your home or yard. Don't leave them outside unattended or let them roam free. Pets too young to be vaccinated should be kept indoors and allowed outside only under direct observation. let it wander away. Board up any openings to your attic. Feed pets indoors. Be sure your pet dogs. and foxes.htm. Tightly cap or put away garbage cans. consult with a nuisance wildlife control expert about having them removed. Detailed rabies information is also available at the following websites: NYSDOH: Rabies Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Rabies Last Reviewed: October 2010 Last Updated: October 2010 Revised: September 2011 What is rabies? Rabies is a preventable viral disease of mammals (including humans) most often transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. New York City . skunks and raccoons. The phone number for your county health department can be found in the government listing of your telephone directory or the NYSDOH website at: www. Report all animal bites or contact with wild animals to your county health department. in your telephone directory under pest control. Vaccination protects pets if they are exposed to rabid animals. Animal rabies is reported annually in New York City and State. Keep your property free of stored bird seed or other foods that may attract wild animals. porch or garage. who work on a fee-for-service basis. You can find wildlife control experts.
In the United States. The human rabies vaccine is given in a series of five vaccinations along with one initial dose of rabies immune globulin (RIG). There have been no human cases of rabies in New York City for more than 50 years. especially among animals in the Bronx. The one time dose of RIG and five vaccines administered over the course of one month is referred to as post exposure prophylaxis (PEP).first saw rabies in animals starting in 1992. and continues to every year. 2004-2009 Borough Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 13 0 0 0 26 1 0 1 6 0 1 2 14 0 0 1 13 1 0 1 15 0 12 1 . Table 1: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City and New York State 2003-2008 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 New York City New York State 6 14 28 44 44 19 429 546 565 612 515 496 Table 2: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City by Borough. rabies rarely infects humans because of companion animal vaccination programs and the availability of human rabies vaccine. can prevent infection after a person has been bitten or otherwise exposed to an animal with rabies. New York State has reported 14 human cases since 1925. if administered promptly and as recommended. Human rabies vaccine.
back to top . but it most often seen among wild animals such as raccoons. fox and coyotes. bats. skunk. including humans. can get rabies.Staten Island 1 0 35 29 4 1 Table 3: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City by Species and Borough. 1992-2009 1992-2007 Bronx Queens Man SI Bklyn Total Raccoon Skunk Opossum Bat Dog Cat Groundhog Coyote Total 163 40 0 8 0 2 0 1 214 9 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 13 20 121 0 0 7 0 1 0 0 2 2 5 0 7 1 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 6 313 42 2 29 0 11 1 1 399 28 138 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2009 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2008 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2007 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2006 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2005 back to top Who gets rabies? All mammals.
dogs or other mammals. an infant. or an open wound. mice. foxes and coyotes. nose. suggesting that even limited contact with bats may be associated with transmission of the rabies virus. and the person exposed should receive PEP. skunks. If the bat can be captured safely and tested. Every known or suspect encounter with a bat is considered a possible rabies exposure and is treated as such. On occasion. raccoons are the principal reservoir of rabies and primarily transmit the virus to other raccoons. but quite rare. see the link to the NYS DOH website listed below. results will determine whether the person exposed needs PEP. back to top . when raccoon rabies is widespread in an area.Which animals get rabies? Animal species most often diagnosed with rabies in the United States are wild and include raccoons. and none occurred in New York City. The vast majority of those were raccoons. guinea pigs. Bat bites may not be obvious as their teeth are small and very sharp. In all cases involving rodents.e. and squirrels) are rarely found to be infected with rabies and have not been known to transmit rabies to people. the health department should be consulted before a decision is made to initiate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). bats. For more information on bats. gerbils. Two of those occurred in New York State. From 1990 to 2003 there have been 38 human rabies cases acquired within the US. hamsters. Anyone who thinks they may have been exposed to a bat or a rabid animal should contact their physician or their local health department for advice. If the bat is not available for testing. A suspect encounter would include any scenario in which a bat is found in an enclosed setting with a person who may not be fully aware of its presence (i. In the eastern US. 263 animals have tested positive for rabies since 1992 when the virus was first introduced. Of the 38 cases. for people to get rabies from a scratch or from direct contact with a rabid animals saliva or nerve tissue if it gets directly into their eyes. foxes and coyotes are considered high-risk sources of virus. a person that is sleeping or intoxicated). Bites by these animals are usually not considered a risk of rabies unless the animal appeared sick or was behaving in an unusual manner. Rabbits and small rodents (such as chipmunks. While raccoons. as of January 2007. raccoons may infect other animals such as cats. The one exception has been woodchucks or groundhogs. mouth. the bat is assumed to be rabid. A history of having had contact with a bat could only be documented in approximately half of the cases. 2 opossums and 1 coyote were reported. skunks. 32 were due to bats. rats. which have occasionally been reported to have rabies. rabies and advice on how to capture a bat. It is also possible. back to top How do people get rabies? People usually get rabies from the bite of a rabid animal. while only 7 cats. In New York City. bats are the most common source of infection for people across the United States.
but this is extremely rare. Other contact. agitation. excitation. Other signs may include a change in voice so that it is hoarse.. A nonbite exposure could include a scratch. stones. They may eat or chew things such as wood. muscle tremors (especially in cats). hallucinations. vacant stare. More recently. malaise. or an animal that demonstrates unusual aggression. Inhalation of aerosolized rabies virus is also a potential non-bite route of exposure. such as petting a rabid animal or having contact with the blood. guano or skunk spray) of a rabid animal. abrasion. difficulty swallowing. most people are unlikely to encounter an aerosol of rabies virus. hydrophobia (fear of water). does not constitute an exposure and is not an indication for PEP. dilated pupils. convulsions. varying degrees of paralysis frequently beginning at the head and neck causing jaws to hang open. open wounds. hypersalivation. delirium and death. which may last for several days. and or impaired locomotion. four persons became infected and died from rabies after receiving solid organ donations from one infected donor. One of the most recognizable signs is excessive drooling or foaming at the mouth. include irritability. Rabies has been transmitted through organ transplantation. Within days the patient may develop slight or partial paralysis. with a throaty bark or snarl. or other foreign objects. urine or feces (e. back to top What are the symptoms of rabies in humans? Early symptoms.g. soil. but other than laboratory workers who work with the rabies virus. back to top . There have been eight well-documented cases of rabies transmission through corneal transplantation. fever. plants. and sometimes discomfort or tingling at the site of the bite or exposure. Occasionally non-bite exposures are treated with PEP. confusion. headache. back to top What are the symptoms of rabies in animals? Animals with rabies most often exhibit behavior changes such as a friendly dog that becomes withdrawn or belligerent. or mucous membranes of the nose or eye that gets contaminated with saliva or other potentially infectious material (such as brain or other nerve tissue) from a rabid animal.Can I get rabies in any way other than an animal bite? It is extremely rare for a person to get rabies from an exposure other than an animal bite. anxiety. an aloof animal that becomes suddenly affectionate.
This protocol may not apply to all animal species. raccoon or bat that either has tested positive for rabies or the animal is not available for rabies testing 2. cats or dogs should be discussed with the DOHMH. a person that is sleeping or intoxicated). although time periods of up to several years have been reported. they had contact with a bat. cats. Once the brain is infected. In these animals.How soon after infection do symptoms appear? Typically. symptoms of rabies may start to appear within 1 to 3 months of exposure. back to top . For dogs.e. ferrets and some other animals the period during which they can shed the virus has been documented. or a bat is found in an enclosed setting with a person that may not be fully aware of it's presence (i. fox. the animal begins shedding the virus in its saliva. an infant. cat or ferret that is unavailable for testing or a 10 day observation period 3. so any injury from an animal. back to top What constitutes a possible rabies exposure? A person is considered to have had a possible rabies exposure if: 1.. Prior arrangements must be made through the DOHMH before samples will be accepted. back to top When and for how long is an animal able to spread rabies? An animal can only transmit rabies through a bite when the virus has infected the animal's brain. they were bitten by a skunk. It is at this time or soon after that the animal begins to shows signs of illness. If the animal does NOT develop rabies illness during the 10 days observation period. the animal was not shedding rabies virus and the exposed person does not need PEP. or exposure to a bat within the household. Animal bites from animals other than ferrets. cat or ferret for 10 days to determine whether it could have been shedding rabies at the time of the bite. coyote. back to top How are animals tested? Animal rabies testing is done at the New York City Public Health Laboratory. rabies virus is present in saliva only a few days prior to the onset of their illness and up until their death. This allows us to observe a biting dog. It is sometimes difficult to determine whether a possible rabies exposure occurred. should be discussed with a medical provider. they were bitten by a dog.
and 14 after exposure. Rabies preventive vaccine is no longer given in the abdomen. back to top What is the 10 day observation period? After a healthy dog or cat has bitten someone. have tested positive. This will help the DOHMH follow up with the pet owner regarding the 10 day at home observation. animal bite or bat exposure)? If a physician determines that rabies exposure may have occurred.What is the preventive treatment for a potential rabies exposure (e. back to top How can rabies be prevented? Avoiding contact with bats and staying away from all wild and stray animals. and any household exposure or other direct contact with a bat. No rabid dogs have been reported in NYC since 1954. Any animal-related injury. It is also important to have domestic animals (dogs. back to top What should I do if I've been bitten by a healthy dog or cat? Try to get the owner’s contact information including. address and phone number.g. Preventive treatment requires prompt washing of the bite site with soap and copious amounts of water. click here. Report the bite to the DOHMH by calling 311. primarily strays. most cases of rabies will be prevented. For the most recent rabies data. should be discussed with a physician to determine if rabies preventive treatment is necessary. 7. cats and ferrets) vaccinated against rabies. name. If preventive treatment is obtained promptly following a rabies exposure. especially those acting abnormally may minimize exposure to rabies. you do not need to start rabies shots. the animal can be watched for a period for 10 days at home by the owner. Untreated cases of rabies will likely result in death. although several cats. If the animal is available for observation. The health department will attempt to communicate with the pet . Immediately wash the wound with soap and water and consider seeking care from your health care provider. back to top What happens if I am exposed to rabies but I don't get PEP? Exposure to a rabid animal does not have to result in rabies. Immunosuppressed persons should receive a 5th dose of vaccine on day 28 followed by a blood test 14 to 28 days after the last vaccine to ensure an acceptable rabies antibody response.. they will recommend PEP. the bite victim does not need to get rabies shots. If after 10 days the animal is still alive and healthy. followed by the injection of PEP which includes rabies immune globulin (dosage depending on weight) and four doses of rabies vaccine injected into the arm muscle on days 0. 3.
raccoons and skunks. of Health) • Rabies Information for Children (CDC) Rabies Definition By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies is a deadly virus spread to people from the saliva of infected animals. Rabies testing requires that the animal be humanely euthanized. foxes. unless the animal tests positive for rabies. skunks and bats are known to transmit rabies. In developing countries of Africa and Southeast Asia. but is regularly observed and easy to identy. testing will be performed. bat. immediately wash the wound with soap and water and see your health care provider. in most instances. . If the animal will be tested. If you are bitten by one of these animals. you do not need to start the rabies vaccine. or any animal that appears rabid? Raccoons. The rabies virus is usually transmitted through a bite. consider observing the animal for 10 days where it lives. Animals most likely to transmit rabies in the United States include bats. If during this time the animal develops signs of rabies. back to top What if the dog or cat was a stray animal? If the animal is a healthy stray. stray dogs are the most likely to spread rabies to people. back to top Related Information • Rabies: Protecting Yourself and Your Pet • The Veterinary Public Health Service Website • Bat Inspection and Management (New York State Dept. call 311 to see if arrangements can be made to capture the animal so it can be observed at a shelter.owner during this time. Otherwise. skunk. coyotes. Call 311 to see if arrangements can be made to capture the animal and test it for rabies. back to top What if I was bitten by a raccoon.
such as a small child or a person with a disability. . For instance. such as the mouth or eyes. This could occur if an infected animal were to lick an open cut on your skin. Causes By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies infection is caused by the rabies virus. Symptoms By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies doesn't cause any signs or symptoms until late in the disease. often just days before death. Signs and symptoms may include: Fever Headache Agitation Anxiety Confusion Difficulty swallowing Excessive salivation Fear of water (hydrophobia) because of the difficulty in swallowing Hallucinations Insomnia Partial paralysis When to see a doctor Seek immediate medical care if you're bitten by any animal. If you awake to find a bat in your room. Based on your injuries and the situation in which the bite occurred. For that reason. Infected animals can spread the virus by biting another animal or a person. seek medical attention. assume that person has been bitten. the disease is nearly always fatal. In rare cases. The virus is spread through the saliva of infected animals. assume you've been bitten. Also. if you find a bat near a person who can't report a bite. a bat that flies into your room while you're sleeping may bite you without waking you. anyone who may have a risk of contracting rabies should receive rabies vaccines for protection. Even if you aren't sure whether you've been bitten.Once a person begins showing signs and symptoms of rabies. rabies can be spread when infected saliva gets into an open wound or the mucous membranes. you and your doctor can decide whether you should receive treatment to prevent rabies.
including countries in Africa and Southeast Asia Activities that are likely to put you in contact with wild animals that may have rabies. the virus has been transmitted to tissue and organ transplant recipients from an infected organ. which may help the rabies virus travel to your brain more quickly Tests and diagnosis By Mayo Clinic staff . Risk factors By Mayo Clinic staff Factors that can increase your risk of rabies include: Traveling or living in developing countries where rabies is more common. In rare cases. such as exploring caves where bats live or camping without taking precautions to keep wild animals away from your campsite Working in a laboratory with the rabies virus Wounds to the head or neck. The animals most likely to transmit the rabies virus to people include: Pets and farm animals Cats Cows Dogs Ferrets Goats Horses Rabbits Wild animals Bats Beavers Coyotes Foxes Monkeys Raccoons Skunks Woodchucks There has never been a documented case of human-to-human rabies transmission.Animals that can transmit the rabies virus Any mammal can transmit the rabies virus.
Wild animals that can be found and captured. If the animal that bit you remains healthy during the observation period. such as a bat that came into your home. you'll receive a series of shots to prevent the rabies virus from infecting you. Rabies vaccines are given as injections in your arm. Part of this injection is given near the area where the animal bit you if possible. But this will depend on several factors. such as the type of animal and the situation in which the bite occurred. Treatment for people bitten by animals with rabies If you've been bitten by an animal that is known to have rabies. Blood and tissue tests are used to diagnose rabies in people who have signs and symptoms of the infection. you won't need the shots. Though a small number of people have survived rabies. Treatments and drugs By Mayo Clinic staff There is no specific treatment for rabies infection. anyone thought to have been exposed to rabies receives a series of shots to prevent the infection from taking hold. Other pets and farm animals are considered on a case-by-case basis. Wild animals that can be caught. Cats. treatment to prevent the rabies virus from infecting your body is recommended if the doctor thinks there's a chance you have been exposed to the virus. For that reason. there's no way to know whether the animal has transmitted the rabies virus to you. For instance: Pets and farm animals. That way. dogs and ferrets that bite can be observed for 10 days to see if they show signs and symptoms of rabies. A series of rabies vaccines to help your body learn to identify and fight the rabies virus. it may be safest to assume that the animal has rabies. if it's determined the animal is healthy. If the animal that bit you can't be found. the disease is usually fatal. it's possible to determine whether the animal that bit you has rabies before beginning the series of rabies shots. For this reason. then it doesn't have rabies and you won't need rabies shots. can be killed and tested for rabies. At the time a rabid animal bites you. as soon as possible after the bite. Determining whether the animal that bit you has rabies In some cases. Talk to your doctor and local public health officials to determine whether you should receive rabies shots. You receive five injections over 14 days. Procedures for determining whether an animal has rabies vary by situation. Rabies shots include: A fast-acting shot (rabies immune globulin) to prevent the virus from infecting you. Tests on the animal's .
Cats. Here's how: Vaccinate your pets. These small pets can't be vaccinated against rabies. Keep bats out of your home. It's not normal for a wild animal to be friendly with people. brain may reveal the rabies virus. Call your local animal control officials or other local law enforcement to report stray dogs and cats. Seal any cracks and gaps where bats can enter your home. FROM: http://rabiespoi.org/index. This will help keep your pets from coming in contact with wild animals. ask your doctor whether you should receive the rabies vaccine. work with a local expert to find ways to keep bats out. Animals that can't be found. Protect small pets from predators. you won't need the shots. Keep your pets confined. Report stray animals to local authorities. Don't approach wild animals. Keep your pets inside and supervise them when outside. such as guinea pigs. so stay away from any animal that seems unafraid. In certain cases. In other cases. it may be safest to assume that the animal had rabies and proceed with the rabies shots. Prevention By Mayo Clinic staff You can reduce your risk of coming in contact with rabid animals. dogs and ferrets can be vaccinated against rabies. If you know you have bats in your home. it may be unlikely that the animal that bit you had rabies and it may be determined that rabies shots aren't necessary. If you're traveling to a country where rabies is common and you'll be there for a long period of time. Consider the rabies vaccine if you're traveling. If the animal doesn't have rabies.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=59&Itemid=64 Declaring RabiesFree Zones . Keep rabbits and other small pets. discuss the situation with your doctor and the local health department. Wild animals with rabies may seem unafraid of people. Ask your veterinarian how often your pets should be vaccinated. inside or in protected cages so that they are safe from wild animals. If the animal that bit you can't be found.
Rabies Fast Facts .
Rabies Fast Facts .
2. (rate of 2 per 100.4.000 population Region IV-A had the highest incidence of rabies (in 2007).000 population) Bulacan had the highest number of reported rabies cases for 2007 with a total of 126 but the rate was lower at 6. Reported Rabies Cases in Angeles City for 2007 was 26 (with a rate of 8. the highest in the region) . Tarlac ranked second at the regional level with an incidence of 30 and a rate of 3.3.Reported Rabies Cases in the Philippines for 2007 were 833 (with a rate of 1 per 100. Region X had the 2nd highest incidence of rabies Region III ranked 3rd in national rabies morbidity in 2007 with 190 cases.
Manila www. . two Japanese nationals were infected after being bitten by dogs in the Philippines. otherwise known as the Rabies Act of 2007 which seeks to eradicate rabies in the Philippines by 2020. In 2006.Reference: Field Health Service Information System Annual 2007 National Epidemiology Center. The Department of Health (DOH) estimates that 300 to 600 Filipinos die of rabies each year. In the Philippines. scratches or licks on open wounds. Both countries have declared themselves rabies-free a long time ago. the most common sources of infection are dogs and cats. At least 50% of victims are children aged 5 to 14 years. It is transmitted to other animals through contact with virus-laden saliva from a rabid animal. He died in a London hospital. the Philippines ranked fifth in the rabies list of the World Health Organization in terms of prevalence in a specific area. Department of Health. In 2001.0 per 100.ph RABIES: THE PHILIPPINE SITUATION Rabies is a dangerous disease of animals transmissible to humans through bites.gov. there were 833 reported rabies cases in the country with a rate of 1.doh. In recent years.000 population. DOH recognizes that rabies remains a public health problem in the country despite the enactment of Republic Act 9482. a long-time resident of the UK contracted rabies after being bitten by a dog in the Philippines. We had gained notoriety among international communities as a nation with high endemicity (or prevalence) of rabies. The last indigenous case of rabies infection in the UK occurred in 1902 while that of Japan was in 1954. In 2007.
the nineteenth day of February. Poypoy has not died in vain. . 4654 Republic of the Philippines Congress of the Philippines Metro Manila Thirteenth Congress Third Special Session Begun and held in Metro Manila. REPUBLIC ACT NO. rabies is almost always fatal and irreversible. Tandoks or faith healers .Rabies is highly and easily preventable in this day and age but once the signs and symptoms appear. still believe that garlic and a few drops of vinegar can cure rabies. Last Updated on Wednesday. PRESCRIBING PENALTIES FOR VIOLATION THEREOF AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: SECTION 1. – This Act shall be known as the “Anti-Rabies Act of 2007”. No. Rabies is a highly misunderstood disease among Filipinos. His shocking and dramatic exit from this world has opened our eyes to the realities surrounding this disease.9482 AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE CONTROL AND ELIMINATION OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL RABIES.people believed to have the power to eliminate the virus from the body with the use of a stone (called batong buhay) or by sucking with the use of a carabao horn or an animal bone are widely accepted as a wiser and more economical alternative to post-exposure treatment or vaccination. No. especially those in rural areas. 25 March 2009 16:33 Anti-Rabies Act of 2007 Date 2007-06-22 (RA 9482) S. Only a few know that an inch-long scratch or a playful lick on an open wound can cost a person his/her life. Many. Title. on Monday. 2541 H. two thousand seven.
the following terms shall mean: (a) Bitten refers to an act by which a Dog seizes. 3. (d) Dog refers to a common quadruped domestic animal belonging to the order carnivora (male or female). SEC. health workers. (b) Concerned Officials refers to barangay officials. 2. markets. (e) Euthanasia refers to the process of painless death to Dogs and other animals. scientifically known as canis familiaris. etc.SEC. and other neurological manifestations. . (c) Direct Supervision refers to range supervision where physical presence of the veterinarian within the barangay is necessary. (i) Public Place refers to any place open to the public like parks. and eventual eradication of human and animal Rabies shall be provided and the need for responsible pet ownership established. transmitted mainly through the bite of an infected animal and is characterized by muscle paralysis. care or control of a Dog including his/her representative. (f) Impound refers to seize and hold in the custody of the law. or through contamination with virus-laden saliva on breaks in the skin and of mucous membranes such as the eyes. prevention of the spread. streets. (h) Pound refers to a public enclosure for stray animals. the mouth. harboring or having charge. (g) Owner refers to any person keeping. hydrophobia and aerophobia. – It is the declared policy of the State to protect and promote the right to health of the people. Definition of Terms. malls. (j) Rabies refers to a highly fatal disease caused by a lyssa virus. Towards this end. pierced or scratched. police officers or government veterinarians. cuts or grips with its teeth so that the skin of a person has been wounded. a system for the control. or the genital organs. the lips. Declaration of Policy. – For the purpose of this Act. (k) Rabies transmission refers to the transmission or passage of the Rabies virus through a bite by an infected animal.
( (3) impounding. (m) Rabies Vaccination of Dogs refers to the inoculation of a Dog with a Rabies vaccine by a licensed government or private veterinarian or trained individual under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian. (n) Post-exposure Treatment (P. (p) Stray Dog refers to any Dog leaving its Owner’s place or premise and no longer under the effective control of the Owner. Among its component activities include: (1) mass vaccination of Dogs. National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. which include local wound care.) refers to Rabies vaccination administered before an exposure to Rabies to those who are at high risk of getting Rabies.E. (q) Veterinary or Human Barbiturates refer to drugs that depress the function of the central nervous system. The program shall be a multi-agency effort in controlling and eliminating Rabies in the country. with or without antiRabies immunizing agent.T.) refers to an anti-Rabies treatment administered after an exposure to Rabies. (o) Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (P. field control and disposition of unregistered. by a trained doctor or nurse under the supervision of a qualified medical practitioner. The services of the said trained individual shall be limited only to Rabies Vaccination Injection in Dogs and only during government mass vaccination campaigns. with modern day rabies vaccines or Rabies immunoglobulin. Rabies vaccine. (2) establishment of a central database system for registered and vaccinated Dogs. Stray and unvaccinated Dogs. – It is hereby mandated that there shall be a National Rabies Prevention and Control Program to be implemented by a multiagency/ multi-sectoral committee chaired by the Bureau of Animal Industry of the Department of Agriculture. .P.(l) Rabies Vaccination/Immunoprophylaxis of Humans refers to the inoculation of humans. 4.E. SEC.
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and People’s Organizations (POs).P. (b) Submit their Dogs for mandatory registration. report immediately any Dog biting incident to the Concerned Officials for investigation or for any appropriate action and place such Dog under observation by a government or private veterinarian. (d) Be a responsible Owner by providing their Dog with proper grooming.E. (3) Undertake free anti-Rabies Vaccination of Dogs giving priority to high . shall be tasked to: A. – The following government agencies. adequate food and clean shelter. (c) Maintain control over their Dog and not allow it to roam the streets or any Public Place without a leash.) of schoolchildren aged five to fourteen in areas where there is high incidence of rabies as well as the (7) encouragement of the practice of responsible pet ownership. The program shall be implemented by the Department of Agriculture (DA). 6. – All Pet Owners shall be required to: (a) Have their Dog regularly vaccinated against Rabies and maintain a registration card which shall contain all vaccinations conducted on their Dog. Responsibilities of Government Agencies. Responsibilities of Pet Owners. 5. which shall jointly implement the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. Department of Agriculture (1) Improve and upgrade existing animal Rabies laboratory diagnostic capabilities to ensure better services to the people. SEC. SEC. for accurate record purposes. Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) and Department of Education (DepEd).(4) conduct of information and education campaign on the prevention and control of Rabies. (6) provision of free routine immunization or Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (P. (e) Within twenty-four (24) hours. (2) Ensure the availability and adequate supply of animal anti-Rabies vaccine at all times. Department of Health (DOH). (5) provision on pre-exposure treatment to high risk personnel and Post Exposure Treatment to animal bite victims. as well as Local Government Units (LGUs) with the assistance of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). (f) Assist the Dog bite victim immediately and shoulder the medical expenses incurred and other incidental expenses relative to the victim’s injuries.
(7) Strengthen the training of field personnel and the Information Education and Communication (lEC) activities on Rabies prevention and control and responsible pet ownership. DILG. (9) Formulate minimum standards and monitor the effective implementation of this Act. DepEd. but not limited to. Department of Health (1) Ensure the availability and adequate supply of DOH pre-qualified human Anti-Rabies vaccine in animal bite treatment centers at all times and shall coordinate with other implementing agencies and concerned NGOs for this purpose. laboratory staff. (4) Maintain and improve animal Rabies surveillance system. NGOs. (10) Encourage collaborative activities with the DOH. B. (6) Encourage collaborative activities with the DA. DepEd. NGOs. veterinarians. (8) Conduct research on Rabies and its control in coordination with other agencies. Department of Education (1) Strengthen Rabies education program through school health . POs and other concerned sectors. (3) Provide Pre-Exposure Treatment to high-risk personnel. (7) Immediately approve the registration of Veterinary and Human Barbiturate drugs and veterinary euthanasia drugs in coordination with the PDEA. animal handlers. (5) Establish and maintain Rabies free zone in coordination with the LGUs. C. (4) Coordinate with the DA in the development of appropriate health education strategy to inform the public on Rabies prevention and control and responsible pet ownership. DENR. such as. DILG. POs and other concerned sectors. (5) Develop and maintain a human Rabies surveillance system. vaccinators and other persons working with Rabies virus for free.risk depressed areas. DENR. (6) Immediately facilitate for the approval of the sale and use of Veterinary and Human Barbiturate drugs and veterinary euthanasia drugs by the DOH and the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA). (2) Provide Post-Exposure Treatment at the minimum expense to individuals bitten by animals suspected of being rabid which will consist of the initial vaccine and immunoglobulin dose.
registered and issued a corresponding Dog tag for every i mmunized and registered Dog.teaching/curriculum. – LGUs. (4) Integrate proper information and education on responsible pet ownership in the relevant subjects in the Elementary and High School levels. That the other municipalities shall. DENR. Responsibilities of the LGUs. establish and maintain a Dog Pound where Impounded Dogs shall be kept.That the other municipalities. on their own.” (7) Prohibit the trade of Dogs for meat. (2) Assist in the Dog mass immunization campaigns in the community. (6) Enact additional local ordinances that will support the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program that should include the regulation of treatment locally known as “tandok. POs and other concerned sectors. city and firstclass municipality: Provided. (4) Allocate funds to augment the implementation of the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. (5) Ensure the enforcement of Section 6 of Republic Act No. in their respective localities. DILG. (8) With respect to cities and first class municipalities. (11) Require pet shops to post information regarding Rabies and responsible pet ownership. (3) Encourage collaborative activities with the DA. 7. 8485 or “The Animal Welfare Act of 1998”. shall: (1) Ensure that all Dogs are properly immunized. on their own. (10) Appoint a veterinarian and establish a veterinary office in every province. in accordance with Section 9 herein: Provided. particularly on the financing of supplies and human and Dog vaccines needed for immunization. (12) For purposes of ensuring the administrative feasibility of implementing the provisions of this Act and subject to . (9) Prohibit the use of electrocution as a euthanasia procedure. SEC. DOH. establish a Dog Pound or opt to share the expense of establishing and maintaining a Dog Pound with other adjoining municipalities and/or with private animal shelters and control facilities. shall. (2) Strictly enforce Dog Impounding activities and field control to eliminate Stray Dogs. NGOs. (3) Ensure that Dogs are leashed or confined within the premises of the Owner’s house or Owner’s fenced surroundings. opt to share the expense of having a veterinary office.
subject to the pertinent provisions of Republic Act No.paragraph 8 of this Section. – Unregistered. As such. Assistance of NGOs and the Academe. (3) Mass anti-Rabies campaign. taking into consideration the following guidelines: (1) Unregistered. as well as the achievement of the objectives envisioned in this Act. Stray or unvaccinated Dogs shall be put in Dog Pounds and disposed of. Field Control and Disposition of Unregistered. Any and all fines collected pursuant to this Act shall be used for the enhancement of the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program within the locality concerned. (3) A fee shall be paid by Owners of Impounded Dogs to the LGU concerned. Stray and Unvaccinated Dogs. SEC. (4) Promotion of the anti-Rabies campaign during pet or any animal shows. Stray or unvaccinated Dogs shall be impounded and kept in the LGU’s designated Dog Pound. 8. Dog Population Control. when feasible. or otherwise disposed of in any manner authorized. the LGU shall collect the fines imposed under Section 11 subparagraphs (1). (5) Surveillance/reporting of Rabies cases in animals and humans. it is hereby mandated: . (5) and (6) hereof. – The agencies tasked to implement the anti-Rabies program shall seek the assistance and participation of NGOs in any of the following activities: (1) Community mobilization. there is the need to control the Dog population and minimize the number of unwanted Stray Dogs. 8485. The DILG shall ensure compliance of these responsibilities by the LGUs. pursuant to Section 7 hereof. otherwise known as the “Animal Welfare Act of 1998”. (2) Health education/information dissemination on Rabies and responsible pet ownership. with the assistance of an animal welfare NGO. 9. (6) Any other activities geared towards the prevention and complete eradication of Rabies. 10. (2) Impounded Dogs not claimed after three days from the Dog Pound shall be placed for adoption to qualified persons. (3). SEC. – In furtherance of the policy of this Act to eradicate Rabies. SEC. (4). Impounding.
LGUs. (9) If the violation is committed by an alien. (2) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog vaccinated against Rabies shall be liable to pay for the vaccination of both the Dog and the individuals Bitten by their Dog. (6) An impounded Dog shall be released to its Owner upon payment of a fine of not less than Five hundred pesos (P500. DepEd. . (7) Any person found guilty of trading Dog for meat shall be fined not less than Five thousand pesos (P5.00). Penalties.00). with the assistance of NGOs and POs shall undertake an educational and promotional campaign on responsible Pet Ownership. SEC.00). DILG.(1) That the DA. DOH. including the option of spaying or neutering their Dogs.000.00) per Dog and subjected to imprisonment for one to four years. (2) That the LGUs shall provide an incentive system whereby Owners of Dogs which have been spayed or neutered will be given a subsidized or discounted pet registration fee. 11.00) for each incident. (4) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog put under observation and do not shoulder the medical expenses of the person Bitten by their Dog shall be meted a fine of Twenty-five thousand pesos (P25. he or she shall be immediately deported after service of sentence without any further proceedings.00).000.000. – (1) Pet Owners who fail or refuse to have their Dog registered and immunized against Rabies shall be punished by a fine of Two thousand pesos (P2.000.00) but not more than One thousand pesos (P1.00) per act and subject to imprisonment for one to four years.000.000. (3) That Dogs which have been impounded three times shall only be released after having been spayed or neutered. at the expense of the Pet’s Owner. (8) Any person found guilty of using electrocution as a method of euthanasia shall be fined not less than Five thousand pesos (P5. (5) Pet Owners who refuse to put leash on their Dogs when they are brought outside the house shall be meted a fine of Five hundred pesos (P500. (3) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog put under observation after said Dog has Bitten an individual shall be meted a fine of Ten thousand pesos (P10.
DILG and DepEd under the General Appropriations Act. DENR. 2541 and House Bill No. JOSE DE VENECIA JR. DepEd. SEC. 2007 and February 20. Approved. Effectivity.SEC. SEC. Appropriations. Implementing Rules and Regulations. 12. the other provisions shall remain in full force and effect. such sums as may be necessary for its continued implementation shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act. For the LGUs. 2007 respectively. Speaker of the House Senate of Representatives This Act which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. NGOs and POs shall issue the necessary rules and regulations within sixty (60) days from the effectivity of this Act. the requirements shall be taken from their Internal Revenue Allotment and other local funds.000. whichever comes earlier.000. DA. YABES House of Representatives . Separability Clause. ROBERTO P. SEC. – This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in the Official Gazette or in at least two newspapers of general circulation. 4654 was finally passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives on February 9. NAZARENO Secretary General OSCAR Secretary of the Senate MANNY President of the VILLAR G. – In case any provision of this Act is declared unconstitutional. – The DA.00) necessary to implement the provisions of this Act shall be initially charged against the appropriations of the DOH. 14. 15. 13. Thereafter. in coordination with the DOH. – The amount of One hundred million pesos (P100. DILG.
Health officials say that it is during school vacation time that cases of rabies are on the rise because children play with the unvaccinated animals. 2010 at 9:34 PM PST By Gino C. burning of itching sensation at the site of the bite. 16 of whom succumbed. paralysis. 206 died due to the virus that is transmitted by the infected saliva of animals. fear of air (aerophobia). cough or sore throat. the following areas had the highest reported cases of rabies: Region IV-A (49). symptoms become more distinctive such as hallucinations. delirium. With the Christmas vacation coming. through bites or licking of open wounds. Later. Human rabies is a deadly disease and over 99 percent of people who develop the symptoms of the disease die. pain. Of these. Region V (29). For this year. Matibag 20 Views: 630 The health department of the Philippines reported 264 human rabies cases between January and 23 October this year. coma.Approved: GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO President of the Philippines Rising rabies deaths alarms health dept Manila : Philippines | Nov 18. and Metro Manila (20). seizures. health officials are alarmed of the possible surge in the number of cases. muscle spasms in the face and neck. Region III (36). abdominal pain. especially dogs. and anxiety and agitation. . fear of water (hydrophobia). heart and respiratory failure. The symptoms of human rabies are trivial such as fever.
Immediately go to the doctor for medical advice. In 2008. fishes. Philippines.900 China-13. Matibag is based in Manila.208 Some of the countries that have successfully eradicated rabies are Australia. Once bitten. National Capital Region. Capture the animal and observe for 10 to 15 days for behavioral changes. rabbits. it is strongly advised that the bite wound be thoroughly washed with soap and running water for 15 minutes. Do not kill the offending animal. cats. rats.843 Sri Lanka-2. and the United Kingdom.658 Vietnam-5.The disease is also preventable through adequate vaccination of warm-blooded animal pets like dogs.478 Bangladesh-22.683 Thailand-1. Birds.183 Pakistan-2. Gino C. Ask a veterinarian or any authorities for further action toward the animal.995 Philippines-5. too. and reptiles cannot transmit the disease. the 10 countries with highest human deaths due to rabies are: India-244. Bats.377 Indonesia-1. and monkeys. elephants. chickens. Japan. New Zealand.042 Myanmar-1. Report Credibility FROM: DOH . and is a Stringer for Allvoices. and horses may harbor the rabies virus.
animal control and other public health measures are undertaken because of the high case fatality rate for rabies. This next three years. responsible pet ownership and dog-bite victim immunization – is still recommended for all government units to control rabies in their areas of responsibility. local government units and partner agencies will advocate for the full implementation of the law nationwide.March is Rabies Awareness Month and September 28 is World Rabies Day! March is Rabies Awareness Month and September 28 is World Rabies Day! Rabies is 100% fatal viral disease affecting the nervous system of humans and animals. Although a great majority of animal bites are non-infected with the rabies virus. the said agencies are also gearing up their efforts towards the goal of declaring the Philippines as Rabies-Free by the 2020. Meanwhile. 9482 (An Act Providing for the Control and Elimination of Human and Animal Rabies. Department of Health. 2005-2001. The battlecry is “SUMUNOD SA BATAS RABIES”. It remains a serious public health problem in the country which causes the death of between 200 . with universal immunization of dogs and responsible pet ownership as major preventive measures. and the Philippines ranked number six among the countries with the highest reported incidence of rabies in the world. the cost of postexposure vaccination against rabies can be prohibitive.500 Filipinos annually. all efforts should be made to contain rabies at its source. Philippines. 2007. There is yet no way of immediately segregating those who had acquired rabies infection from those who had been bitten by nonrabid sources. Philippines. Rabies Although rabies is not among the leading causes of disease and death in the country it has become a public health problem of significance for two reasons: it is one of the most acutely fatal infections which causes the death of between 200-500 Filipinos annually. Thus. Source: National Objectives for Health. and the Philippines ranked No. Manila. . A threepronged approach – dog immunization. Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Animal Industry. The rabies prevention and control program received its needed boost when President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed into law the Republic Act No. and the disease almost always leads to death even when vaccination and medical management are given as soon as the symptoms have set in. 6 among the countries with the highest incidence of rabies in the world. It is hard to make a definite early diagnosis of rabies. Prescribing Penalties for Violation Thereof and Appropriating Funds Therefore) on May 27. Further. Dogs remain the principal animal source of rabies. the Department of Health.
» 1285 reads Is rubbing the bite wounds with garlic and vinegar useful in the prevention of Rabies? . Studies have shown that a dog or cat. it means that it is not rabid and has not transmitted the virus to the person. If the dog is apparently healthy. The observation period for dogs or cats is usually 14 days starting from the day the animal has bitten a person. » 1662 reads Do we need to kill the dog immediately? 8. dies within 14 days. NCDPC Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given antiRabies immunization? Yes. which is rabid at the time of the bite usually.Rabies. A rabid person can transmit the Rabies virus to another person and need to be given antiRabies immunization » 1627 reads What is the difference between the observation period and the incubation period? The observation period is the period of time that the dog or cat is observed for signs of Rabies. A rabid person can transmit the Rabies virus to another person and need to be given antiRabies immunization » 972 reads Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given antiRabies immunization? 10. it should not be killed immediately and should instead be kept on a leash or caged for observation for 14 days. Do we need to kill the dog immediately? No. Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given anti-Rabies immunization? Yes. If it remains to be alive within that period.
Records have shown that patients who received “tandok” treatment died either of Rabies or Tetanus. the Rabies victim dies within 1-3 days. Garlic and vinegar need not be applied on the bite wound for they will cause more injury (swelling.No. » 1526 reads Is Rabies curable? No. licks of the eyes. the risk of Rabies infection will be greatly reduced. » 1725 reads What is active and passive immunization? Active immunization or vaccination aims to induce the body to develop antibodies against Rabies whose effect lasts for 1 to 3 years. Once signs of brain involvement are manifested. which should be administered within the first seven days of active immunization. NCDPC What is Rabies post-exposure treatment? . By administering vaccine and immunoglobin at the right time to an animal bite victim. Passive immunization is the process of giving an antibody to persons with Category III exposure (head and neck bites. lips and mouth) in order to provide immediate protection against Rabies. which only means that “tandok” is not effective. Rabies. multiple/single deep bites. further introducing dirt into the wound). » 1257 reads Is Rabies preventable? Yes. irritation. The effect of the immunoglobulin is only short term. contamination of mucous membranes. This is believed to suck out the Rabies virus. One important measure that will be of big help in reducing the risk of getting Rabies is by immediately washing the bite wound with soap and water. » 1254 reads Is “tandok” effective in the prevention of Rabies? No. Rabies can be prevented. “Tandok” is folk medicine done by placing a deer horn over the wound. By washing the wound immediately with soap and clean water.
Consult a physician or go to your nearest Animal Bite Center for immunization. which is why households are always encouraged to have their dogs vaccinated and restricted within their properties. » 1298 reads If bitten by a stray animal.Post-exposure treatment is given to persons who are exposed to rabid animals. The most obvious sign would be the hanging of the tongue and continuous drooling. There are two types of rabies: the furious type and the dumb type. Rabies is usually transmitted from a dog’s saliva and enters the body through breaks in the skin. It roams around aimlessly and will snap at or bite anyone who crosses its path. and symptoms include the absence of appetite and difficulty in breathing. c. Antiseptics may be applied. a person should seek treatment immediately after bitten by a rabid animal. the most obvious and popular symptoms of rabid dog is the continuous foaming of the mouth. confine him in a cage or at least leash him in an isolated area. A dog becomes depressed. Immediately wash the bite wound with soap and clean water. if indicated. lethargic and tends to hide in quiet. Dogs are the main sources of rabies in the country. Dogs with the furious type of rabies become wild and uncontrollable. Carefully observe the animal for 14 days for physical symptoms described . with approximately 600 citizens dying of it every year. Consult a veterinarian for the management of the biting dog. isolated places. It consists of local wound treatment. Of course. To determine whether a biting dog is rabid or not. what should be properly done? a. It can also enter the body through a person’s eyes and mouth. The victim may also be given antibiotics and anti-tetanus immunization. The dumb type of rabies is the total opposite of the furious type. The lack of discipline towards animal care and the fact that animals are allowed to roam around freely in the streets are the main culprits behind the high incidence of rabies in the Philippines. Let us examine the various rabies symptoms. A dog becomes restless and has difficulty eating and drinking. Rabies is a rampant health problem in the country. A dog with this type of rabies will die suddenly without any indication beforehand. b. active immunization (vaccination) and passive immunization (administration of rabies immunoglobin). The Department of Health (DOH) and other public health organizations hold annual seminars to educate the people about rabies. even though they normally have a friendly disposition. Since rabies is a fatal disease which can kill those who get infected with it.
In humans. the signs of infection include: fever. vomiting and headache.above. An infected person will experience dysfunction in the nervous system such as hallucination and paralysis. Better yet. nausea. If bitten by a rabid dog. bring the dog to a veterinarian for proper observation. make sure to get medical attention immediately. To prevent the incidence of rabies in your area. If the dog dies within two weeks. make sure to have your dogs vaccinated every year and keep them within the confines of your home or property. . it is most likely rabid.