Rabies

Rabies is a disease of viral origin that affects both wild and domestic animals. In developing countries, where it is transmitted mainly by rabid stray dogs, rabies is still considered a major public health concern and continues to cause 55,000 human deaths each year. (24)

Symptoms of rabies
Following infection, the virus replicates within muscle cells surrounding the wound. It then reaches the central nervous system and eventually spreads through the entire body. The mean incubation period is two to three months, but may range from several days to years. The first signs of the disease include pain or an abnormal sensation at or around the wound, followed by other non-specific symptoms such as fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, headaches, malaise, and lethargy. In the acute stage, rabies symptoms mimic encephalitis. The disease may evolve as one of two clinical forms: furious rabies or paralytic (dumb) rabies. In both cases, the outcome is coma followed by death within a few days.

Epidemiology and vaccination against rabies
Rabies is usually transmitted through a rabid animal’s saliva by a bite, scratch, or licking of damaged skin or mucosa. To date, vaccination remains the only effective treatment against rabies and acts by neutralizing the virus before it actually reaches the central nervous system. Indeed, once the nervous system is infected, the outcome of the disease is inevitably fatal.

Rabies
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the disease. For the virus, see Rabies virus.

Rabies
Classification and external resources

Dog with rabies virus ICD-10 DiseasesDB eMedicine MeSH A82. 11148 med/1374 eerg/493 ped/1974 D011818

Rabies (pronounced /ˈreɪbiːz/. From Latin: rabies, "madness") is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in warm-blooded animals.[1] It is zoonotic (i.e., transmitted by animals), most commonly by a bite from an infected animal. For a human, rabies is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system, ultimately causing disease in the brain and death. The rabies virus travels to the brain by following the peripheral nerves. The incubation period of the disease is usually a few months in humans, depending on the distance the virus must travel to reach the central nervous system.[2] Once the rabies virus reaches the central nervous system and symptoms begin to show, the infection is effectively untreatable and usually fatal within days. Early-stage symptoms of rabies are malaise, headache and fever, progressing to acute pain, violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, depression, and hydrophobia.[1] Finally, the patient may experience periods of mania and lethargy, eventually leading to coma. The primary cause of death is usually respiratory insufficiency.[2] Worldwide, roughly 97% of rabies cases come from dog bites.[3] In the United States, however, animal control and vaccination programs have effectively eliminated domestic dogs as reservoirs of rabies.[4] In several countries, including Australia, Japan, and the United Kingdom, rabies carried by animals that live on the ground has been eradicated entirely.[5][6] Concerns exist about airborne and mixed-habitat animals including bats. A small number of bats of three species in the UK and in some other countries have been found to have European Bat Lyssavirus 1 and European Bat Lyssavirus 2.[citation needed] The

symptoms of these viruses are similar to those of rabies and so the viruses are both known as bat rabies.[citation needed] The economic impact is also substantial, as rabies is a significant cause of death of livestock in some countries.[citation needed]

Contents
[hide]
    

 

   

1 Signs and symptoms 2 Virology 3 Diagnosis 4 Prevention 5 Management o 5.1 Post-exposure prophylaxis o 5.2 Blood-brain barrier o 5.3 Induced coma 6 Prognosis 7 Epidemiology o 7.1 Transmission o 7.2 Prevalence 8 History o 8.1 Etymology o 8.2 Impact 9 In other animals 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

[edit] Signs and symptoms

Patient with rabies, 1959

The period between infection and the first flu-like symptoms is normally two to twelve weeks, but can be as long as two years. Soon after, the symptoms expand to slight or partial paralysis, cerebral dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, confusion, agitation, abnormal behavior, paranoia, terror, hallucinations, progressing to delirium.[2][7] The production of large quantities of saliva and tears coupled with an inability to speak or swallow are typical during the later stages of the disease; this can result in hydrophobia, in which the patient has difficulty swallowing because the throat and jaw become slowly paralyzed, shows panic when presented with liquids to drink, and cannot quench his or her thirst. Death almost invariably results two to ten days after first symptoms. In 2005, the first patient was treated with the Milwaukee protocol,[8] and Jeanna Giese became the first person ever recorded to survive rabies without receiving successful post-exposure prophylaxis. An intention to treat analysis has since found that this protocol has a survival rate of about 8%.[9] The results of this study are, however, under serious contention and clinical rabies should still be regarded as incurable at present.

[edit] Virology
Main article: Rabies virus

TEM micrograph with numerous rabies virions (small, dark grey, rodlike particles) and Negri bodies (the larger pathognomonic cellular inclusions of rabies infection). The rabies virus is the type species of the Lyssavirus genus, in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Lyssaviruses have helical symmetry, with a length of about 180 nm and a cross-sectional diameter of about 75 nm.[1] These viruses are enveloped and have a singlestranded RNA genome with negative-sense. The genetic information is packaged as a ribonucleoprotein complex in which RNA is tightly bound by the viral nucleoprotein. The RNA genome of the virus encodes five genes whose order is highly conserved: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G), and the viral RNA polymerase (L).[10] From the point of entry, the virus is neurotropic, traveling quickly along the neural pathways into the central nervous system (CNS), and then further into other organs.[2] The salivary glands receive high concentrations of the virus, thus allowing further transmission.

St.[18] The human diploid cell rabies vaccine was started in 1967. however.[20] . Germany. rodents. Cerebral inclusion bodies called Negri bodies are 100% diagnostic for rabies infection. whereas in many jurisdictions domesticated animals are required to be vaccinated. and ticks) may help direct the diagnostic workup. and (less commonly) enteroviruses. and human enteroviruses 68 to 71. Powassan virus. including eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses.[19] Currently pre-exposure immunization has been used in both human and non-human populations.[16] [edit] Prevention Main article: Rabies vaccine All human cases of rabies were fatal until a vaccine was developed in 1885 by Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux. geographic location.[14] Likewise. but this is not as sensitive. a new and less expensive purified chicken embryo cell vaccine and purified vero cell rabies vaccine are now available. in particular infection with viruses such as herpesviruses. as is illustrated by the recent outbreak of encephalitis due to West Nile virus in the eastern United States. a newly recognized paramyxovirus. enteroviruses. and the patient's age.g. and arboviruses (e. Cheaper rabies diagnosis will become possible for low-income settings: accurate rabies diagnosis can be done at a tenth of the cost of traditional testing using basic light microscopy techniques.[edit] Diagnosis The reference method for diagnosing rabies is by performing PCR or viral culture on brain samples taken after death. 40%) caused by Nipah virus. The most important viruses to rule out are herpes simplex virus type 1. urine and cerebrospinal fluid samples. and the United States to prevent outbreaks of rabies in wildlife. Their original vaccine was harvested from infected rabbits. the animal from which the bite was received should also be examined for rabies. varicella-zoster virus. West Nile virus). polioviruses.[12] A recombinant vaccine called V-RG has been successfully used in Belgium. including coxsackieviruses. from which the virus in the nerve tissue was weakened by allowing it to dry for five to ten days..[11] It is also possible to make the diagnosis from saliva.[1] If possible. France. as was evidenced by the recent outbreak in Malaysia of some 300 cases of encephalitis (mortality rate. and La Crosse virus. consideration should be given to the local epidemiology of encephalitis caused by arboviruses belonging to several taxonomic groups.[13] In addition. but are found in only about 80% of cases. season.[15] Epidemiologic factors (e. the California encephalitis virus serogroup.[17] Similar nerve tissuederived vaccines are still used in some countries.. Louis encephalitis virus.g. The diagnosis can also be reliably made from skin samples taken before death. as they are much cheaper than modern cell culture vaccines. well-known viruses may be introduced into new locations.[12] The differential diagnosis in a case of suspected human rabies may initially include any cause of encephalitis. echoviruses.[citation needed] New causes of viral encephalitis are also possible. and possible exposure to animal bites. travel history.

the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend patients receive one dose of human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) and four doses of rabies vaccine over a fourteen-day period.[24] The immunoglobulin dose should not exceed 20 units per kilogram body weight. is highly successful in preventing the disease if administered promptly. iodine tincture. Washing the wound with soap and water between 10 and 15 minutes. in general within ten days of infection. September 28 is World Rabies Day. nose or mouth should be flushed well with water. which may go unnoticed by the victim and hence untreated. a virucidal antiseptic such as povidone-iodine. ranging as high as several thousand dollars. with additional doses on days three. Pets that are sterile are less likely to leave home.In the USA. if you see a wild animal or a stray. Patients who have previously received pre-exposure vaccination do not receive the immunoglobulin.[22] [edit] Management [edit] Post-exposure prophylaxis Treatment after exposure. . which promotes information on. known as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). especially if the animal is acting strangely."[23] In the United States. Exposed mucous membranes such as eyes. "If available. and reproduce more stray animals. mostly caused by bat bites. seven and fourteen after the first. and contacting your healthcare provider to see whether you need rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. if you do get bitten by an animal. aqueous iodine solution. become strays. only the post-exposure vaccinations on day 0 and 2. or alcohol (ethanol) should be applied after washing. and prevention and elimination of the disease. and ferrets against rabies Keeping pets under supervision Not handling wild animals or strays Contacting an animal control officer. the number of recorded deaths from rabies has dropped from one hundred or more annually in the early 20th century. with the remainder being given by deep intramuscular injection at a site distant from the vaccination site.[1] Thoroughly washing the wound as soon as possible with soap and water for approximately five minutes is very effective in reducing the number of viral particles. HRIG is very expensive and constitutes the vast majority of the cost of postexposure treatment. to 1–2 per year. Getting pets spayed or neutered. of Health and Senior Services Communicable Disease Surveillance 2007 Annual Report states that the following can help reduce the risk of exposure to rabies[21]:       Vaccinating dogs.[4] The Missouri Dept. since the widespread vaccination of domestic dogs and cats and the development of effective human vaccines and immunoglobulin treatments. As much as possible of this dose should be infiltrated around the bites.[25] The first dose of rabies vaccine is given as soon as possible after exposure. cats.

the lateral thigh is used as for routine childhood vaccinations. the possibility exists that amputation of the affected limb might thwart rabies.[12] Intramuscular vaccination should be given into the deltoid. recent studies have further confirmed the wisdom of maintaining the current protocol of precautionary administering of PEP in cases where a child or mentally compromised individual has been left alone with a bat.Modern cell-based vaccines are similar to flu shots in terms of pain and side-effects. support the current Canadian guidelines that state that RPEP [PEP] is appropriate in cases where a significant contact with a bat cannot be excluded (45). which has been associated with vaccination failure due to injection into fat rather than muscle. the treatment should be administered regardless of that delay. The notion that a bite or an overt break in the skin needs to be seen or felt for rabies to be transmitted by a bat is a myth in many cases. This is illustrated by the September 2000 case of a nine-yearold boy from Quebec who died from rabies three weeks after being in the presence of a sick bat.[25] If there has been a delay between exposure and attempts at treatment. but are being phased out and replaced by affordable WHO ID (intradermal) vaccination regimens. if the bite or exposure was on an arm or leg. The recommendation for the precautionary use of post-exposure prophylaxis in occult bat encounters where there is no recognized contact has been questioned in the medical literature.[27] It is highly recommended that PEP be administered as soon as possible. PEP is 100% effective against rabies. as it may still be effective. where a bite or exposure may occur while the victim is asleep and unaware or awake and unaware that a bite occurred.[citation needed] [edit] Blood-brain barrier During lethal rabies infection of mice.[8] In the case in which there has been a significant delay in administering PEP. especially in sleep areas. as shown in the following conclusion made by the doctors involved in the case: Despite recent criticism (45). not gluteal area.[citation needed] . This treatment should be combined with an intensive PEP regimen.[26] However.[29] Opening the BBB during rabies infection has been suggested as a possible novel approach to treating the disease. the primary site of rabies virus replication. even though no attempts have yet been made to determine whether or not this treatment could be successful. is regarded as an indication for post-exposure prophylaxis. In infants. as well as increasingly frequent reports of human rabies contracted in North America. such that the possibility exists that the virus has already penetrated the nervous system.[28] This aspect contributes to the pathogenicity of the virus and artificially increasing BBB permeability promotes viral clearance. Begun with little or no delay. the dramatic circumstances surrounding our patient's history. Awakening to find a bat in the room. The old nerve-tissue-based vaccinations that require multiple painful injections into the abdomen with a large needle are cheap. the blood-brain barrier (BBB) does not allow anti-viral immune cells to enter the brain. even though there was no apparent report of a bite. based on a cost-benefit analysis. or finding a bat in the room of a previously unattended child or mentally disabled or intoxicated person.

2011. American teenager Jeanna Giese survived an infection of rabies unvaccinated. Colombia. California.[edit] Induced coma See also: Milwaukee protocol In 2004. She was placed into an induced coma upon onset of symptoms and given ketamine. mostly in Asia and Africa. and amantadine. rabies is usually fatal after neurological symptoms have developed. an eight-year-old girl from Humboldt County. After thirty-one days of isolation and seventy-six days of hospitalization. On April 10. an eleven-year-old boy was reported to survive rabies and the induced coma without noticeable brain damage. Rabies kills around 55. There were 2 survivors out of 25 patients treated under the first protocol.[39] [edit] Epidemiology .[32] The anesthetic drug ketamine has shown the potential for rabies virus inhibition in rats. and only one known case of survival in which the patient received no rabies-specific treatment either before or after illness onset. midazolam. became the third reported person in the United States to have recovered from rabies without receiving post-exposure prophylaxis. Giese was released from the hospital.[8][37][38] Survival data using the Milwaukee protocol are available from the rabies registry.[31] Giese's treatment regimen became known as the "Milwaukee protocol". but prompt post-exposure vaccination may prevent the virus from progressing. 2008 in Cali. A further 10 patients have been treated under the revised protocol and there have been a further 2 survivors.[30] She survived with almost no permanent sequelae and as of 2009 was starting her third year of university studies.[34] On June 12. ribavirin. Her doctors administered treatment based on the hypothesis that detrimental effects of rabies were caused by temporary dysfunctions in the brain and could be avoided by inducing a temporary partial halt in brain function that would protect the brain from damage while giving the immune system time to defeat the virus.[36] There are only six known cases of a person surviving symptomatic rabies.[35] [edit] Prognosis In unvaccinated humans.000 people a year. Precious Reynolds.[33] and is used as part of the Milwaukee protocol. which has since undergone revision (the second version omits the use of ribavirin).

[43][44] monkeys. producing transverse myelitis.[50] Transmission between humans is extremely rare. A few cases have been recorded through transplant surgery. Mandatory vaccination of animals is less effective in rural areas. This is called the prodromal phase. rural fauna reservoirs. mongoose (normally yellow mongoose)[45] or cats present the greatest risk to humans. gerbils.[46] The Virginia opossum is resistant but not immune to rabies. it rapidly causes encephalitis. hamsters.[55] In some countries. rats. Rabies may also spread through exposure to infected domestic farm animals. and vaccination may still confer cell-mediated immunity to prevent symptomatic rabies.[51] After a typical human infection by bite. Indeed the virus has even been adapted to grow in cells of poikilothermic ("cold-blooded") vertebrates.[41][42] Most animals can be infected by the virus and can transmit the disease to humans. chipmunks.Rabies-free countries (in green) as of 2010 [edit] Transmission Main article: Rabies transmission Any warm-blooded animal (including humans) may become infected with the rabies virus and develop symptoms (although birds have only been known to be experimentally infected[40]).[47] The virus is usually present in the nerves and saliva of a symptomatic rabid animal. Infected bats. but not always. It then travels along the nerves toward the central nervous system. guinea pigs. When the virus reaches the brain.[48][49] The route of infection is usually. Once the patient becomes symptomatic. Small rodents such as squirrels. foxes. may attack without provocation. bears and other wild carnivores. and is the beginning of the symptoms.[52] During this phase. skunks. Especially in developing .[53][54] [edit] Prevalence Main article: Prevalence of rabies The rabies virus survives in widespread. groundhogs. In Asia. In many cases the infected animal is exceptionally aggressive. dogs remain the principal host. varied. weasels. like those in western Europe and Oceania. coyotes. rabies is considered to be prevalent among bat populations only. parts of the Americas. and mice and lagomorphs like rabbits and hares are almost never found to be infected with rabies and are not known to transmit rabies to humans. wolves. and exhibits otherwiseuncharacteristic behavior. It is present in the animal populations of almost every country in the world. Rabies may also inflame the spinal cord. dogs. by a bite. the virus enters the peripheral nervous system. cattle. treatment is almost never effective and mortality is over 99%. raccoons. the virus cannot be easily detected within the host. and large parts of Africa. except in Australia and New Zealand.

Surveying other states in the midwest (including Illinois. a practice that has successfully reduced rabies in rural areas of Canada. comprising 134 of the 237 documented non-human cases in 1996. pets may not be privately kept and their destruction may be unacceptable. "madness". and the USA. the state of Missouri had a total of 66 documented cases of rabies. and an increase in the prevalence of bats with rabies. Kansas. in these countries too the virus is primarily transmitted through canines (feral dogs and other wild canine species). skunks are the primary carriers of rabies. rabies has been known since c.2000 B. may be related to the Sanskrit rabhas.000 in Africa.[62] This.[61] [edit] History [edit] Etymology The term is derived from the Latin rabies. Ohio. 352 cases were bats. China introduced the "one-dog policy" in the city of Beijing in November 2006 to control the problem. 1930 BC). and the remaining cases were other animals.[60] In the midwestern United States.[59] Rabies was once rare in the United States outside the Southern states[citation needed]. this root is used in the name of the genus of rabies lyssavirus. with about 31. Minnesota. and 24. dating from the 1970s.countries.000 in Asia. 15 were skunks.[56] There are an estimated 55. Oral vaccines can be safely distributed in baits. there has been a relative decrease in the US midwest in the prevalence of skunks with rabies.C. Iowa. Of the 66 cases.[57] India has been reported as having the highest rate of human rabies in the world. In Montréal.[58] As of 2007.000 human deaths annually from rabies worldwide. in turn. followed by Thailand. baits are successfully used on raccoons in the Mont-Royal Park area. between 1996 and 2009. 223 were skunks. "to do violence". out of 671 confirmed rabies cases.[63] [edit] Impact This section requires expansion with: currently the following web page [1]. The Greeks derived the word "lyssa". from "lud" or "violent". According to the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA). Wisconsin. and Indiana). This contradicts the CDC finding that in the midwest most rabies cases are found in skunks. Canada. Vaccination campaigns may be expensive. North and South Dakota.[64] The first written record of rabies is in the Mesopotamian Codex of Eshnunna (ca. the JAVMA found that.[36] One of the sources of recent flourishing of rabies in East Asia is the pet boom. Michigan. but as of 2006 raccoons in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States have been suffering from a rabies epidemic. primarily because of stray dogs. Because of its potentially violent nature. Therefore. 50 were bats. and costbenefit analysis suggests that baits may be a cost effective method of control. Nebraska. and one domestic cat. Vietnam had the second-highest rate. France. which . which was moving westward into Ohio.

It is this stage that is often known as furious rabies for the tendency of the affected animal to be hyperreactive to external stimuli and bite at anything near. the "St Hubert's Key" was heated and applied to cauterize the wound.[67] Rabies   "Rabies" is also available in Portable Document Format Versión en español What is rabies? Rabies is a deadly disease caused by a virus that attacks the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Incoordination is seen owing to rear limb paralysis and drooling and difficulty swallowing is caused by paralysis of facial and throat muscles. dogs were branded with the key in hopes of protecting them from rabies. Main article: Rabies in animals Rabies is infectious to mammals. which lasts three to four days.[65] Rabies was considered a scourge for its prevalence in the 19th century. Fear of rabies related to methods of transmissions was almost irrational. In France and Belgium. The first stage is a one. where Saint Hubert was venerated. Rabies . If another person was bitten by a rabid dog and later died. The third stage is the paralytic stage and is caused by damage to motor neurons.dictates that the owner of a dog showing symptoms of rabies should take preventive measure against bites. this gave Louis Pasteur ample opportunity to test post-exposure treatments from 1885. Death is usually caused by respiratory arrest. The second stage is the excitative stage.to three-day period characterized by behavioral changes and is known as the prodromal stage. Infected mammals can transmit rabies virus to humans and other mammals. Three stages of rabies are recognized in dogs and other animals. by an application of magical thinking.[63] however. the owner was heavily fined.[66] [edit] In other animals This section requires expansion with: information from the main article.

Infected animals usually die within one week after showing signs of rabies. chipmunks. bats. A wild animal may appear affectionate and friendly. mice. What are the signs of rabies in animals? The first sign of rabies is usually a change in an animal's behavior. amphibians (like frogs). cats are most frequently diagnosed with rabies in New York State. It may become unusually aggressive or tame. Pets and livestock can get rabies if they are not vaccinated to protect them against infection. convulsions. even if they seem minor. The animal may lose its fear of people and natural enemies. gerbils and hamsters. What should I do if I am exposed to rabies? Wash all wounds thoroughly with soap and water and seek medical attention immediately. you may . How do people become exposed to rabies? People usually get exposed to the rabies virus when an infected animal bites them. Exposure may also occur if saliva from a rabid animal enters an open cut or mucous membrane (eyes.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/contact. guinea pigs. if possible. birds. Some animals almost never get rabies. fish and insects do not get or carry rabies. What animals can get rabies? Rabies is most often seen among wild animals such as raccoons. choking. only a few human cases are reported each year in the United States.health. Reptiles (such as lizards and snakes).htm. rats.is almost always fatal once symptoms appear.ny. It may become excited or irritable and attack anything in its path. but any mammal can be infected with rabies. skunks and foxes. Report all animal bites to your county health department. Try to keep track of the animal that exposed you and report this information to your county health department so the animal can be captured safely. but only in rare circumstances. Among domestic animals. nose or mouth). These include rabbits and small rodents such as squirrels. Staggering. such as if they are attacked but not killed by a rabid animal. In the case of a bat. Many animals will make very unusual sounds. Fortunately. The phone number for your county health department can be found in the government listing of your telephone directory or the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) website at: http://www. It is possible for these animals to get rabies. frothing at the mouth and paralysis are sometimes seen.

To learn how to capture a bat safely. view a short video (1 minute 22 seconds) at www. People who have weakened immune systems may require a fifth dose of vaccine. stray dogs or cats. with the remaining injections given on days 3. If an animal cannot be observed or tested for rabies. A person who has already been vaccinated for rabies and is exposed to rabies must receive two booster vaccine doses three days apart immediately after exposure. They do not need an injection of HRIG. Even though your pet has been vaccinated. as determined by their doctor. The first vaccine dose is given at the same time. Healthy dogs. What is the treatment for people exposed to rabies? Treatment after rabies exposure consists of a dose of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) administered as soon as possible after exposure. a booster dose of rabies vaccine may be needed within five days of the incident.ny. 7 and 14 following the initial injection. the animal did not transmit rabies at the time of the bite. If the animal remains healthy during this period. the disease almost always results in death. Other types of animals that cause a potential human exposure must be tested for rabies under the direction of the county health department. contact your veterinarian to get medical care. What happens if a rabies exposure goes untreated? Exposure to a rabid animal does not always result in rabies. .health.be able to safely capture it yourself and take it to your county health department where it will be transferred to the state for rabies testing. If there is a wound. How do I protect my pets from rabies? The best way to keep pets safe from rabies is to vaccinate them and keep their shots up-to-date. touch or adopt wild animals. If treatment is initiated promptly following a rabies exposure. If your pet has been injured by a rabid animal. Your county health department will assist you and your physician to determine whether treatment is necessary. cats. If a rabies exposure is not treated and a person develops clinical signs of rabies. What can people do to protect themselves against rabies?  Don't feed. plus 4 doses of rabies vaccine given over two weeks. treatment may be necessary for the people exposed. the full dose of HRIG should go into the wound.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/ . if possible. ferrets and livestock that have bitten or otherwise caused a potential human exposure to rabies will be confined under the direction of the county health department and observed for ten days following the exposure. rabies can be prevented. Contact your county health department to determine what additional follow-up may be needed.

skunks.       Be sure your pet dogs. Where can I get more information about rabies? The county health department is your best source of additional rabies information. Report all animal bites or contact with wild animals to your county health department. Bring children and pets indoors and alert neighbors who are outside. Don't leave them outside unattended or let them roam free. Pets too young to be vaccinated should be kept indoors and allowed outside only under direct observation. The vast majority of rabies cases in the United States each year occur in wild animals like raccoons. You can find wildlife control experts. The phone number for your county health department can be found in the government listing of your telephone directory or the NYSDOH website at: www. porch or garage. If a wild animal is on your property. Don't attract wild animals to your home or yard.ny.health. If possible. in your telephone directory under pest control. consult with a nuisance wildlife control expert about having them removed. Keep your property free of stored bird seed or other foods that may attract wild animals. basement. Cap your chimney with screens. New York City . Animal rabies is reported annually in New York City and State. Feed pets indoors. Vaccination protects pets if they are exposed to rabid animals. skunks and raccoons. who work on a fee-for-service basis. You may contact a nuisance wildlife control expert who will remove the animal for a fee.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/contact. Teach children not to touch any animal they do not know and to tell an adult immediately if they are bitten by any animal. Board up any openings to your attic. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system. bats. If nuisance wild animals are living in parts of your home. primarily in bats.htm. Rabies is almost always fatal once symptoms appear. do not let any animal escape that has possibly exposed someone to rabies. cats and ferrets as well as horses and valuable livestock animals are up-to-date on their rabies vaccinations. and foxes. Keep family pets indoors at night. Tightly cap or put away garbage cans. let it wander away. Detailed rabies information is also available at the following websites:   NYSDOH: Rabies Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Rabies Last Reviewed: October 2010 Last Updated: October 2010 Revised: September 2011 What is rabies? Rabies is a preventable viral disease of mammals (including humans) most often transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal.

and continues to every year. In the United States. Table 1: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City and New York State 2003-2008 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 New York City New York State 6 14 28 44 44 19 429 546 565 612 515 496 Table 2: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City by Borough. 2004-2009 Borough Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 13 0 0 0 26 1 0 1 6 0 1 2 14 0 0 1 13 1 0 1 15 0 12 1 . The human rabies vaccine is given in a series of five vaccinations along with one initial dose of rabies immune globulin (RIG).first saw rabies in animals starting in 1992. can prevent infection after a person has been bitten or otherwise exposed to an animal with rabies. if administered promptly and as recommended. The one time dose of RIG and five vaccines administered over the course of one month is referred to as post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). There have been no human cases of rabies in New York City for more than 50 years. especially among animals in the Bronx. New York State has reported 14 human cases since 1925. rabies rarely infects humans because of companion animal vaccination programs and the availability of human rabies vaccine. Human rabies vaccine.

skunk. but it most often seen among wild animals such as raccoons.Staten Island 1 0 35 29 4 1 Table 3: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City by Species and Borough. 1992-2009 1992-2007 Bronx Queens Man SI Bklyn Total Raccoon Skunk Opossum Bat Dog Cat Groundhog Coyote Total 163 40 0 8 0 2 0 1 214 9 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 13 20 121 0 0 7 0 1 0 0 2 2 5 0 7 1 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 6 313 42 2 29 0 11 1 1 399 28 138      Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2009 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2008 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2007 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2006 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2005 back to top Who gets rabies? All mammals. can get rabies. back to top . fox and coyotes. including humans. bats.

mouth. 32 were due to bats. Anyone who thinks they may have been exposed to a bat or a rabid animal should contact their physician or their local health department for advice. The one exception has been woodchucks or groundhogs. hamsters. It is also possible. and the person exposed should receive PEP. dogs or other mammals. raccoons are the principal reservoir of rabies and primarily transmit the virus to other raccoons. From 1990 to 2003 there have been 38 human rabies cases acquired within the US. gerbils. For more information on bats. Of the 38 cases. Bites by these animals are usually not considered a risk of rabies unless the animal appeared sick or was behaving in an unusual manner. as of January 2007. On occasion. The vast majority of those were raccoons. skunks. foxes and coyotes. see the link to the NYS DOH website listed below. the health department should be consulted before a decision is made to initiate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). results will determine whether the person exposed needs PEP. and none occurred in New York City. which have occasionally been reported to have rabies.e. If the bat can be captured safely and tested. and squirrels) are rarely found to be infected with rabies and have not been known to transmit rabies to people. an infant. while only 7 cats. the bat is assumed to be rabid. nose. skunks. Rabbits and small rodents (such as chipmunks. rabies and advice on how to capture a bat. rats.Which animals get rabies? Animal species most often diagnosed with rabies in the United States are wild and include raccoons. 263 animals have tested positive for rabies since 1992 when the virus was first introduced. guinea pigs. 2 opossums and 1 coyote were reported. back to top . when raccoon rabies is widespread in an area. Every known or suspect encounter with a bat is considered a possible rabies exposure and is treated as such. While raccoons. or an open wound. mice. raccoons may infect other animals such as cats. Two of those occurred in New York State. bats are the most common source of infection for people across the United States. In all cases involving rodents. In New York City. Bat bites may not be obvious as their teeth are small and very sharp. suggesting that even limited contact with bats may be associated with transmission of the rabies virus. back to top How do people get rabies? People usually get rabies from the bite of a rabid animal. a person that is sleeping or intoxicated). In the eastern US. A suspect encounter would include any scenario in which a bat is found in an enclosed setting with a person who may not be fully aware of its presence (i. A history of having had contact with a bat could only be documented in approximately half of the cases. but quite rare. bats. foxes and coyotes are considered high-risk sources of virus. for people to get rabies from a scratch or from direct contact with a rabid animals saliva or nerve tissue if it gets directly into their eyes. If the bat is not available for testing.

More recently. A nonbite exposure could include a scratch. or mucous membranes of the nose or eye that gets contaminated with saliva or other potentially infectious material (such as brain or other nerve tissue) from a rabid animal. four persons became infected and died from rabies after receiving solid organ donations from one infected donor. confusion. varying degrees of paralysis frequently beginning at the head and neck causing jaws to hang open. Inhalation of aerosolized rabies virus is also a potential non-bite route of exposure. with a throaty bark or snarl. does not constitute an exposure and is not an indication for PEP. fever. muscle tremors (especially in cats). guano or skunk spray) of a rabid animal.g. stones. hallucinations. include irritability. most people are unlikely to encounter an aerosol of rabies virus. or other foreign objects. excitation. and or impaired locomotion. They may eat or chew things such as wood. malaise. convulsions. delirium and death. dilated pupils. There have been eight well-documented cases of rabies transmission through corneal transplantation.Can I get rabies in any way other than an animal bite? It is extremely rare for a person to get rabies from an exposure other than an animal bite. abrasion. One of the most recognizable signs is excessive drooling or foaming at the mouth. anxiety. Other contact. Within days the patient may develop slight or partial paralysis. Other signs may include a change in voice so that it is hoarse. difficulty swallowing. but other than laboratory workers who work with the rabies virus. agitation. hypersalivation. back to top What are the symptoms of rabies in animals? Animals with rabies most often exhibit behavior changes such as a friendly dog that becomes withdrawn or belligerent. but this is extremely rare.. which may last for several days. back to top What are the symptoms of rabies in humans? Early symptoms. such as petting a rabid animal or having contact with the blood. urine or feces (e. vacant stare. Rabies has been transmitted through organ transplantation. soil. back to top . or an animal that demonstrates unusual aggression. open wounds. headache. an aloof animal that becomes suddenly affectionate. plants. hydrophobia (fear of water). and sometimes discomfort or tingling at the site of the bite or exposure. Occasionally non-bite exposures are treated with PEP.

It is at this time or soon after that the animal begins to shows signs of illness. cat or ferret for 10 days to determine whether it could have been shedding rabies at the time of the bite. cats or dogs should be discussed with the DOHMH. For dogs. If the animal does NOT develop rabies illness during the 10 days observation period. the animal was not shedding rabies virus and the exposed person does not need PEP. Prior arrangements must be made through the DOHMH before samples will be accepted. Animal bites from animals other than ferrets. cats.e. an infant. they were bitten by a dog. symptoms of rabies may start to appear within 1 to 3 months of exposure. rabies virus is present in saliva only a few days prior to the onset of their illness and up until their death. back to top How are animals tested? Animal rabies testing is done at the New York City Public Health Laboratory. This allows us to observe a biting dog. It is sometimes difficult to determine whether a possible rabies exposure occurred. they had contact with a bat. they were bitten by a skunk. Once the brain is infected. coyote. although time periods of up to several years have been reported. raccoon or bat that either has tested positive for rabies or the animal is not available for rabies testing 2. the animal begins shedding the virus in its saliva. fox. back to top When and for how long is an animal able to spread rabies? An animal can only transmit rabies through a bite when the virus has infected the animal's brain. or a bat is found in an enclosed setting with a person that may not be fully aware of it's presence (i. or exposure to a bat within the household. so any injury from an animal. ferrets and some other animals the period during which they can shed the virus has been documented. back to top . back to top What constitutes a possible rabies exposure? A person is considered to have had a possible rabies exposure if: 1. In these animals. should be discussed with a medical provider. cat or ferret that is unavailable for testing or a 10 day observation period 3..How soon after infection do symptoms appear? Typically. a person that is sleeping or intoxicated). This protocol may not apply to all animal species.

back to top What should I do if I've been bitten by a healthy dog or cat? Try to get the owner’s contact information including. although several cats. If the animal is available for observation. should be discussed with a physician to determine if rabies preventive treatment is necessary. followed by the injection of PEP which includes rabies immune globulin (dosage depending on weight) and four doses of rabies vaccine injected into the arm muscle on days 0. the bite victim does not need to get rabies shots. and any household exposure or other direct contact with a bat. Immunosuppressed persons should receive a 5th dose of vaccine on day 28 followed by a blood test 14 to 28 days after the last vaccine to ensure an acceptable rabies antibody response. and 14 after exposure. back to top What is the 10 day observation period? After a healthy dog or cat has bitten someone. have tested positive. This will help the DOHMH follow up with the pet owner regarding the 10 day at home observation. address and phone number. most cases of rabies will be prevented. For the most recent rabies data. 7. primarily strays. animal bite or bat exposure)? If a physician determines that rabies exposure may have occurred. The health department will attempt to communicate with the pet . Any animal-related injury. click here. the animal can be watched for a period for 10 days at home by the owner. Report the bite to the DOHMH by calling 311. especially those acting abnormally may minimize exposure to rabies.g.. No rabid dogs have been reported in NYC since 1954. 3.What is the preventive treatment for a potential rabies exposure (e. name. It is also important to have domestic animals (dogs. back to top How can rabies be prevented? Avoiding contact with bats and staying away from all wild and stray animals. cats and ferrets) vaccinated against rabies. If preventive treatment is obtained promptly following a rabies exposure. Rabies preventive vaccine is no longer given in the abdomen. Preventive treatment requires prompt washing of the bite site with soap and copious amounts of water. they will recommend PEP. Immediately wash the wound with soap and water and consider seeking care from your health care provider. If after 10 days the animal is still alive and healthy. Untreated cases of rabies will likely result in death. back to top What happens if I am exposed to rabies but I don't get PEP? Exposure to a rabid animal does not have to result in rabies. you do not need to start rabies shots.

consider observing the animal for 10 days where it lives. The rabies virus is usually transmitted through a bite. stray dogs are the most likely to spread rabies to people. skunks and bats are known to transmit rabies. back to top What if the dog or cat was a stray animal? If the animal is a healthy stray. . foxes. skunk. bat. or any animal that appears rabid? Raccoons. you do not need to start the rabies vaccine. raccoons and skunks. coyotes. Animals most likely to transmit rabies in the United States include bats. testing will be performed. immediately wash the wound with soap and water and see your health care provider. Call 311 to see if arrangements can be made to capture the animal and test it for rabies.owner during this time. Rabies testing requires that the animal be humanely euthanized. back to top Related Information     • Rabies: Protecting Yourself and Your Pet • The Veterinary Public Health Service Website • Bat Inspection and Management (New York State Dept. If during this time the animal develops signs of rabies. If you are bitten by one of these animals. In developing countries of Africa and Southeast Asia. in most instances. Otherwise. unless the animal tests positive for rabies. call 311 to see if arrangements can be made to capture the animal so it can be observed at a shelter. back to top What if I was bitten by a raccoon. of Health) • Rabies Information for Children (CDC) Rabies Definition By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies is a deadly virus spread to people from the saliva of infected animals. If the animal will be tested. but is regularly observed and easy to identy.

If you awake to find a bat in your room. often just days before death. assume you've been bitten. rabies can be spread when infected saliva gets into an open wound or the mucous membranes. Even if you aren't sure whether you've been bitten. Signs and symptoms may include:            Fever Headache Agitation Anxiety Confusion Difficulty swallowing Excessive salivation Fear of water (hydrophobia) because of the difficulty in swallowing Hallucinations Insomnia Partial paralysis When to see a doctor Seek immediate medical care if you're bitten by any animal. seek medical attention. For instance. if you find a bat near a person who can't report a bite.Once a person begins showing signs and symptoms of rabies. the disease is nearly always fatal. anyone who may have a risk of contracting rabies should receive rabies vaccines for protection. assume that person has been bitten. The virus is spread through the saliva of infected animals. Based on your injuries and the situation in which the bite occurred. Causes By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies infection is caused by the rabies virus. This could occur if an infected animal were to lick an open cut on your skin. you and your doctor can decide whether you should receive treatment to prevent rabies. such as the mouth or eyes. For that reason. such as a small child or a person with a disability. In rare cases. . Also. Infected animals can spread the virus by biting another animal or a person. Symptoms By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies doesn't cause any signs or symptoms until late in the disease. a bat that flies into your room while you're sleeping may bite you without waking you.

including countries in Africa and Southeast Asia Activities that are likely to put you in contact with wild animals that may have rabies. which may help the rabies virus travel to your brain more quickly   Tests and diagnosis By Mayo Clinic staff . the virus has been transmitted to tissue and organ transplant recipients from an infected organ. Risk factors By Mayo Clinic staff Factors that can increase your risk of rabies include:     Traveling or living in developing countries where rabies is more common. The animals most likely to transmit the rabies virus to people include: Pets and farm animals        Cats Cows Dogs Ferrets Goats Horses Rabbits Wild animals         Bats Beavers Coyotes Foxes Monkeys Raccoons Skunks Woodchucks There has never been a documented case of human-to-human rabies transmission.Animals that can transmit the rabies virus Any mammal can transmit the rabies virus. such as exploring caves where bats live or camping without taking precautions to keep wild animals away from your campsite Working in a laboratory with the rabies virus Wounds to the head or neck. In rare cases.

the disease is usually fatal. anyone thought to have been exposed to rabies receives a series of shots to prevent the infection from taking hold. Wild animals that can be found and captured. A series of rabies vaccines to help your body learn to identify and fight the rabies virus. it's possible to determine whether the animal that bit you has rabies before beginning the series of rabies shots. If the animal that bit you can't be found. If the animal that bit you remains healthy during the observation period. can be killed and tested for rabies. Tests on the animal's . Rabies shots include:   A fast-acting shot (rabies immune globulin) to prevent the virus from infecting you. dogs and ferrets that bite can be observed for 10 days to see if they show signs and symptoms of rabies. For that reason. Other pets and farm animals are considered on a case-by-case basis. treatment to prevent the rabies virus from infecting your body is recommended if the doctor thinks there's a chance you have been exposed to the virus. there's no way to know whether the animal has transmitted the rabies virus to you. you won't need the shots. You receive five injections over 14 days. if it's determined the animal is healthy. Wild animals that can be caught. For instance:   Pets and farm animals. Cats. you'll receive a series of shots to prevent the rabies virus from infecting you. Part of this injection is given near the area where the animal bit you if possible. Treatment for people bitten by animals with rabies If you've been bitten by an animal that is known to have rabies. Though a small number of people have survived rabies. as soon as possible after the bite. Blood and tissue tests are used to diagnose rabies in people who have signs and symptoms of the infection. That way.  At the time a rabid animal bites you. it may be safest to assume that the animal has rabies. Procedures for determining whether an animal has rabies vary by situation. such as the type of animal and the situation in which the bite occurred. such as a bat that came into your home. Rabies vaccines are given as injections in your arm. then it doesn't have rabies and you won't need rabies shots. Determining whether the animal that bit you has rabies In some cases. Treatments and drugs By Mayo Clinic staff There is no specific treatment for rabies infection. Talk to your doctor and local public health officials to determine whether you should receive rabies shots. But this will depend on several factors. For this reason.

Protect small pets from predators.org/index. discuss the situation with your doctor and the local health department. Here's how:        Vaccinate your pets. FROM: http://rabiespoi. Call your local animal control officials or other local law enforcement to report stray dogs and cats. Ask your veterinarian how often your pets should be vaccinated. Keep bats out of your home. If you know you have bats in your home. If the animal that bit you can't be found. brain may reveal the rabies virus. so stay away from any animal that seems unafraid. it may be unlikely that the animal that bit you had rabies and it may be determined that rabies shots aren't necessary. Wild animals with rabies may seem unafraid of people. Keep your pets confined. dogs and ferrets can be vaccinated against rabies. such as guinea pigs. work with a local expert to find ways to keep bats out. Keep rabbits and other small pets. If the animal doesn't have rabies. Report stray animals to local authorities. This will help keep your pets from coming in contact with wild animals. If you're traveling to a country where rabies is common and you'll be there for a long period of time.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=59&Itemid=64 Declaring RabiesFree Zones . Animals that can't be found. it may be safest to assume that the animal had rabies and proceed with the rabies shots. you won't need the shots. Keep your pets inside and supervise them when outside. In other cases. Don't approach wild animals. inside or in protected cages so that they are safe from wild animals. Consider the rabies vaccine if you're traveling. Seal any cracks and gaps where bats can enter your home. These small pets can't be vaccinated against rabies. Cats. Prevention By Mayo Clinic staff You can reduce your risk of coming in contact with rabid animals. It's not normal for a wild animal to be friendly with people. In certain cases. ask your doctor whether you should receive the rabies vaccine.

Rabies Fast Facts .

.

Rabies Fast Facts .

.

Region X had the 2nd highest incidence of rabies Region III ranked 3rd in national rabies morbidity in 2007 with 190 cases. (rate of 2 per 100.4. Reported Rabies Cases in Angeles City for 2007 was 26 (with a rate of 8.Reported Rabies Cases in the Philippines for 2007 were 833 (with a rate of 1 per 100. Tarlac ranked second at the regional level with an incidence of 30 and a rate of 3. the highest in the region) .3.2.000 population) Bulacan had the highest number of reported rabies cases for 2007 with a total of 126 but the rate was lower at 6.000 population Region IV-A had the highest incidence of rabies (in 2007).

0 per 100. otherwise known as the Rabies Act of 2007 which seeks to eradicate rabies in the Philippines by 2020. In the Philippines. Manila www. The last indigenous case of rabies infection in the UK occurred in 1902 while that of Japan was in 1954. We had gained notoriety among international communities as a nation with high endemicity (or prevalence) of rabies. In 2001. Department of Health. DOH recognizes that rabies remains a public health problem in the country despite the enactment of Republic Act 9482. two Japanese nationals were infected after being bitten by dogs in the Philippines.gov. scratches or licks on open wounds.ph RABIES: THE PHILIPPINE SITUATION Rabies is a dangerous disease of animals transmissible to humans through bites. Both countries have declared themselves rabies-free a long time ago.Reference: Field Health Service Information System Annual 2007 National Epidemiology Center. there were 833 reported rabies cases in the country with a rate of 1. He died in a London hospital. In 2006. the most common sources of infection are dogs and cats. . a long-time resident of the UK contracted rabies after being bitten by a dog in the Philippines. In recent years.000 population. It is transmitted to other animals through contact with virus-laden saliva from a rabid animal.doh. The Department of Health (DOH) estimates that 300 to 600 Filipinos die of rabies each year. the Philippines ranked fifth in the rabies list of the World Health Organization in terms of prevalence in a specific area. At least 50% of victims are children aged 5 to 14 years. In 2007.

still believe that garlic and a few drops of vinegar can cure rabies.people believed to have the power to eliminate the virus from the body with the use of a stone (called batong buhay) or by sucking with the use of a carabao horn or an animal bone are widely accepted as a wiser and more economical alternative to post-exposure treatment or vaccination. the nineteenth day of February. two thousand seven. PRESCRIBING PENALTIES FOR VIOLATION THEREOF AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: SECTION 1. Rabies is a highly misunderstood disease among Filipinos.9482 AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE CONTROL AND ELIMINATION OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL RABIES. 2541 H.Rabies is highly and easily preventable in this day and age but once the signs and symptoms appear. 25 March 2009 16:33 Anti-Rabies Act of 2007 Date 2007-06-22 (RA 9482) S. Poypoy has not died in vain. . rabies is almost always fatal and irreversible. Many. on Monday. Last Updated on Wednesday. No. – This Act shall be known as the “Anti-Rabies Act of 2007”. No. especially those in rural areas. 4654 Republic of the Philippines Congress of the Philippines Metro Manila Thirteenth Congress Third Special Session Begun and held in Metro Manila. REPUBLIC ACT NO. His shocking and dramatic exit from this world has opened our eyes to the realities surrounding this disease. Only a few know that an inch-long scratch or a playful lick on an open wound can cost a person his/her life. Title. Tandoks or faith healers .

(k) Rabies transmission refers to the transmission or passage of the Rabies virus through a bite by an infected animal. a system for the control. (c) Direct Supervision refers to range supervision where physical presence of the veterinarian within the barangay is necessary. malls. scientifically known as canis familiaris. . (f) Impound refers to seize and hold in the custody of the law. police officers or government veterinarians. streets. etc. the following terms shall mean: (a) Bitten refers to an act by which a Dog seizes. cuts or grips with its teeth so that the skin of a person has been wounded. prevention of the spread. SEC. (b) Concerned Officials refers to barangay officials. pierced or scratched. (d) Dog refers to a common quadruped domestic animal belonging to the order carnivora (male or female). 3. Definition of Terms. or through contamination with virus-laden saliva on breaks in the skin and of mucous membranes such as the eyes. (j) Rabies refers to a highly fatal disease caused by a lyssa virus. the lips. hydrophobia and aerophobia. Declaration of Policy. or the genital organs. Towards this end. and other neurological manifestations. markets. the mouth. – It is the declared policy of the State to protect and promote the right to health of the people. and eventual eradication of human and animal Rabies shall be provided and the need for responsible pet ownership established. (i) Public Place refers to any place open to the public like parks. (e) Euthanasia refers to the process of painless death to Dogs and other animals. – For the purpose of this Act.SEC. (g) Owner refers to any person keeping. care or control of a Dog including his/her representative. (h) Pound refers to a public enclosure for stray animals. 2. harboring or having charge. transmitted mainly through the bite of an infected animal and is characterized by muscle paralysis. health workers.

4. with or without antiRabies immunizing agent.P. (m) Rabies Vaccination of Dogs refers to the inoculation of a Dog with a Rabies vaccine by a licensed government or private veterinarian or trained individual under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian.T. by a trained doctor or nurse under the supervision of a qualified medical practitioner. SEC. (n) Post-exposure Treatment (P. (q) Veterinary or Human Barbiturates refer to drugs that depress the function of the central nervous system. ( (3) impounding.E. (2) establishment of a central database system for registered and vaccinated Dogs. – It is hereby mandated that there shall be a National Rabies Prevention and Control Program to be implemented by a multiagency/ multi-sectoral committee chaired by the Bureau of Animal Industry of the Department of Agriculture. . Stray and unvaccinated Dogs.) refers to an anti-Rabies treatment administered after an exposure to Rabies. with modern day rabies vaccines or Rabies immunoglobulin. National Rabies Prevention and Control Program.E. Among its component activities include: (1) mass vaccination of Dogs. which include local wound care.(l) Rabies Vaccination/Immunoprophylaxis of Humans refers to the inoculation of humans. The services of the said trained individual shall be limited only to Rabies Vaccination Injection in Dogs and only during government mass vaccination campaigns. (p) Stray Dog refers to any Dog leaving its Owner’s place or premise and no longer under the effective control of the Owner. The program shall be a multi-agency effort in controlling and eliminating Rabies in the country. (o) Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (P.) refers to Rabies vaccination administered before an exposure to Rabies to those who are at high risk of getting Rabies. Rabies vaccine. field control and disposition of unregistered.

(4) conduct of information and education campaign on the prevention and control of Rabies. Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) and Department of Education (DepEd). SEC. – All Pet Owners shall be required to: (a) Have their Dog regularly vaccinated against Rabies and maintain a registration card which shall contain all vaccinations conducted on their Dog. Department of Health (DOH). (2) Ensure the availability and adequate supply of animal anti-Rabies vaccine at all times. (f) Assist the Dog bite victim immediately and shoulder the medical expenses incurred and other incidental expenses relative to the victim’s injuries.) of schoolchildren aged five to fourteen in areas where there is high incidence of rabies as well as the (7) encouragement of the practice of responsible pet ownership. 5. as well as Local Government Units (LGUs) with the assistance of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). (b) Submit their Dogs for mandatory registration. The program shall be implemented by the Department of Agriculture (DA). SEC.P. which shall jointly implement the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and People’s Organizations (POs). (c) Maintain control over their Dog and not allow it to roam the streets or any Public Place without a leash. 6. (3) Undertake free anti-Rabies Vaccination of Dogs giving priority to high . – The following government agencies. (d) Be a responsible Owner by providing their Dog with proper grooming. report immediately any Dog biting incident to the Concerned Officials for investigation or for any appropriate action and place such Dog under observation by a government or private veterinarian.E. shall be tasked to: A. (e) Within twenty-four (24) hours. for accurate record purposes. Responsibilities of Government Agencies. (6) provision of free routine immunization or Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (P. Responsibilities of Pet Owners. Department of Agriculture (1) Improve and upgrade existing animal Rabies laboratory diagnostic capabilities to ensure better services to the people. adequate food and clean shelter. (5) provision on pre-exposure treatment to high risk personnel and Post Exposure Treatment to animal bite victims.

(6) Immediately facilitate for the approval of the sale and use of Veterinary and Human Barbiturate drugs and veterinary euthanasia drugs by the DOH and the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA). laboratory staff. animal handlers. (7) Strengthen the training of field personnel and the Information Education and Communication (lEC) activities on Rabies prevention and control and responsible pet ownership. DepEd. but not limited to. DILG. veterinarians. DENR. (7) Immediately approve the registration of Veterinary and Human Barbiturate drugs and veterinary euthanasia drugs in coordination with the PDEA. (6) Encourage collaborative activities with the DA. POs and other concerned sectors. Department of Education (1) Strengthen Rabies education program through school health . NGOs. POs and other concerned sectors.risk depressed areas. (3) Provide Pre-Exposure Treatment to high-risk personnel. (5) Establish and maintain Rabies free zone in coordination with the LGUs. NGOs. DILG. (5) Develop and maintain a human Rabies surveillance system. DepEd. (8) Conduct research on Rabies and its control in coordination with other agencies. DENR. such as. (9) Formulate minimum standards and monitor the effective implementation of this Act. (2) Provide Post-Exposure Treatment at the minimum expense to individuals bitten by animals suspected of being rabid which will consist of the initial vaccine and immunoglobulin dose. C. (10) Encourage collaborative activities with the DOH. (4) Coordinate with the DA in the development of appropriate health education strategy to inform the public on Rabies prevention and control and responsible pet ownership. B. vaccinators and other persons working with Rabies virus for free. (4) Maintain and improve animal Rabies surveillance system. Department of Health (1) Ensure the availability and adequate supply of DOH pre-qualified human Anti-Rabies vaccine in animal bite treatment centers at all times and shall coordinate with other implementing agencies and concerned NGOs for this purpose.

(12) For purposes of ensuring the administrative feasibility of implementing the provisions of this Act and subject to . registered and issued a corresponding Dog tag for every i mmunized and registered Dog. 8485 or “The Animal Welfare Act of 1998”. DILG. (4) Integrate proper information and education on responsible pet ownership in the relevant subjects in the Elementary and High School levels. (2) Assist in the Dog mass immunization campaigns in the community. (11) Require pet shops to post information regarding Rabies and responsible pet ownership. DOH. (6) Enact additional local ordinances that will support the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program that should include the regulation of treatment locally known as “tandok. (3) Encourage collaborative activities with the DA. (4) Allocate funds to augment the implementation of the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. (3) Ensure that Dogs are leashed or confined within the premises of the Owner’s house or Owner’s fenced surroundings. city and firstclass municipality: Provided. DENR. POs and other concerned sectors.That the other municipalities. That the other municipalities shall. in accordance with Section 9 herein: Provided. 7.” (7) Prohibit the trade of Dogs for meat.teaching/curriculum. in their respective localities. shall: (1) Ensure that all Dogs are properly immunized. (8) With respect to cities and first class municipalities. (2) Strictly enforce Dog Impounding activities and field control to eliminate Stray Dogs. particularly on the financing of supplies and human and Dog vaccines needed for immunization. on their own. Responsibilities of the LGUs. (9) Prohibit the use of electrocution as a euthanasia procedure. shall. on their own. SEC. – LGUs. establish a Dog Pound or opt to share the expense of establishing and maintaining a Dog Pound with other adjoining municipalities and/or with private animal shelters and control facilities. NGOs. establish and maintain a Dog Pound where Impounded Dogs shall be kept. opt to share the expense of having a veterinary office. (5) Ensure the enforcement of Section 6 of Republic Act No. (10) Appoint a veterinarian and establish a veterinary office in every province.

(3) A fee shall be paid by Owners of Impounded Dogs to the LGU concerned. Stray or unvaccinated Dogs shall be put in Dog Pounds and disposed of. (3). Assistance of NGOs and the Academe. when feasible. taking into consideration the following guidelines: (1) Unregistered. with the assistance of an animal welfare NGO. there is the need to control the Dog population and minimize the number of unwanted Stray Dogs. The DILG shall ensure compliance of these responsibilities by the LGUs. 8485. Field Control and Disposition of Unregistered. Stray and Unvaccinated Dogs. 8. SEC. – Unregistered. (4). Stray or unvaccinated Dogs shall be impounded and kept in the LGU’s designated Dog Pound. or otherwise disposed of in any manner authorized. – The agencies tasked to implement the anti-Rabies program shall seek the assistance and participation of NGOs in any of the following activities: (1) Community mobilization. the LGU shall collect the fines imposed under Section 11 subparagraphs (1). – In furtherance of the policy of this Act to eradicate Rabies. subject to the pertinent provisions of Republic Act No. Dog Population Control. as well as the achievement of the objectives envisioned in this Act. otherwise known as the “Animal Welfare Act of 1998”. (5) Surveillance/reporting of Rabies cases in animals and humans. Any and all fines collected pursuant to this Act shall be used for the enhancement of the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program within the locality concerned. SEC. 9. 10. (4) Promotion of the anti-Rabies campaign during pet or any animal shows. (6) Any other activities geared towards the prevention and complete eradication of Rabies. (2) Health education/information dissemination on Rabies and responsible pet ownership. Impounding. (3) Mass anti-Rabies campaign. As such. (5) and (6) hereof. it is hereby mandated: . pursuant to Section 7 hereof.paragraph 8 of this Section. (2) Impounded Dogs not claimed after three days from the Dog Pound shall be placed for adoption to qualified persons. SEC.

000.000. (9) If the violation is committed by an alien. DILG.00) per act and subject to imprisonment for one to four years.00) but not more than One thousand pesos (P1.000.(1) That the DA.00). (7) Any person found guilty of trading Dog for meat shall be fined not less than Five thousand pesos (P5. (2) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog vaccinated against Rabies shall be liable to pay for the vaccination of both the Dog and the individuals Bitten by their Dog. DOH. (6) An impounded Dog shall be released to its Owner upon payment of a fine of not less than Five hundred pesos (P500. 11.000. including the option of spaying or neutering their Dogs. (8) Any person found guilty of using electrocution as a method of euthanasia shall be fined not less than Five thousand pesos (P5. SEC. he or she shall be immediately deported after service of sentence without any further proceedings.000. Penalties.00) per Dog and subjected to imprisonment for one to four years. (5) Pet Owners who refuse to put leash on their Dogs when they are brought outside the house shall be meted a fine of Five hundred pesos (P500. – (1) Pet Owners who fail or refuse to have their Dog registered and immunized against Rabies shall be punished by a fine of Two thousand pesos (P2. at the expense of the Pet’s Owner.00).00) for each incident. (3) That Dogs which have been impounded three times shall only be released after having been spayed or neutered.00).000. LGUs.00). (2) That the LGUs shall provide an incentive system whereby Owners of Dogs which have been spayed or neutered will be given a subsidized or discounted pet registration fee. (3) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog put under observation after said Dog has Bitten an individual shall be meted a fine of Ten thousand pesos (P10. DepEd. (4) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog put under observation and do not shoulder the medical expenses of the person Bitten by their Dog shall be meted a fine of Twenty-five thousand pesos (P25. . with the assistance of NGOs and POs shall undertake an educational and promotional campaign on responsible Pet Ownership.

SEC. the requirements shall be taken from their Internal Revenue Allotment and other local funds. Implementing Rules and Regulations. – This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in the Official Gazette or in at least two newspapers of general circulation. 14.00) necessary to implement the provisions of this Act shall be initially charged against the appropriations of the DOH. Speaker of the House Senate of Representatives This Act which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. For the LGUs. whichever comes earlier. – In case any provision of this Act is declared unconstitutional.000.SEC. Thereafter. DILG and DepEd under the General Appropriations Act. SEC. 2007 respectively. ROBERTO P. the other provisions shall remain in full force and effect. – The amount of One hundred million pesos (P100. 13. DA. – The DA. 2007 and February 20. Approved. 2541 and House Bill No. such sums as may be necessary for its continued implementation shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act.000. JOSE DE VENECIA JR. DENR. NAZARENO Secretary General OSCAR Secretary of the Senate MANNY President of the VILLAR G. Appropriations. DepEd. Effectivity. 15. 12. YABES House of Representatives . in coordination with the DOH. SEC. 4654 was finally passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives on February 9. NGOs and POs shall issue the necessary rules and regulations within sixty (60) days from the effectivity of this Act. Separability Clause. DILG.

especially dogs.Approved: GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO President of the Philippines Rising rabies deaths alarms health dept Manila : Philippines | Nov 18. fear of air (aerophobia). delirium. abdominal pain. 16 of whom succumbed. Region V (29). and Metro Manila (20). . The symptoms of human rabies are trivial such as fever. health officials are alarmed of the possible surge in the number of cases. Matibag 20 Views: 630 The health department of the Philippines reported 264 human rabies cases between January and 23 October this year. muscle spasms in the face and neck. With the Christmas vacation coming. 206 died due to the virus that is transmitted by the infected saliva of animals. coma. burning of itching sensation at the site of the bite. Later. pain. the following areas had the highest reported cases of rabies: Region IV-A (49). paralysis. Of these. 2010 at 9:34 PM PST By Gino C. Human rabies is a deadly disease and over 99 percent of people who develop the symptoms of the disease die. Region III (36). through bites or licking of open wounds. Health officials say that it is during school vacation time that cases of rabies are on the rise because children play with the unvaccinated animals. symptoms become more distinctive such as hallucinations. heart and respiratory failure. cough or sore throat. For this year. and anxiety and agitation. seizures. fear of water (hydrophobia).

Philippines.843 Sri Lanka-2.183 Pakistan-2. Report Credibility FROM: DOH . Capture the animal and observe for 10 to 15 days for behavioral changes. and is a Stringer for Allvoices.658 Vietnam-5.The disease is also preventable through adequate vaccination of warm-blooded animal pets like dogs.208 Some of the countries that have successfully eradicated rabies are Australia. and the United Kingdom.478 Bangladesh-22. too. chickens. National Capital Region. cats. rats. fishes. it is strongly advised that the bite wound be thoroughly washed with soap and running water for 15 minutes. Once bitten. Bats.900 China-13. New Zealand.377 Indonesia-1. and monkeys. and horses may harbor the rabies virus. In 2008. rabbits. Immediately go to the doctor for medical advice.683 Thailand-1. Japan. Gino C.042 Myanmar-1. Birds. Matibag is based in Manila. and reptiles cannot transmit the disease.995 Philippines-5. elephants. Do not kill the offending animal. Ask a veterinarian or any authorities for further action toward the animal. the 10 countries with highest human deaths due to rabies are: India-244.

animal control and other public health measures are undertaken because of the high case fatality rate for rabies. Rabies Although rabies is not among the leading causes of disease and death in the country it has become a public health problem of significance for two reasons: it is one of the most acutely fatal infections which causes the death of between 200-500 Filipinos annually. 9482 (An Act Providing for the Control and Elimination of Human and Animal Rabies. Source: National Objectives for Health. local government units and partner agencies will advocate for the full implementation of the law nationwide. and the disease almost always leads to death even when vaccination and medical management are given as soon as the symptoms have set in. the said agencies are also gearing up their efforts towards the goal of declaring the Philippines as Rabies-Free by the 2020.500 Filipinos annually.March is Rabies Awareness Month and September 28 is World Rabies Day! March is Rabies Awareness Month and September 28 is World Rabies Day! Rabies is 100% fatal viral disease affecting the nervous system of humans and animals. Philippines. 6 among the countries with the highest incidence of rabies in the world. There is yet no way of immediately segregating those who had acquired rabies infection from those who had been bitten by nonrabid sources. Thus. It is hard to make a definite early diagnosis of rabies. the cost of postexposure vaccination against rabies can be prohibitive. Dogs remain the principal animal source of rabies. Manila. Meanwhile. Further. and the Philippines ranked No. 2005-2001. Prescribing Penalties for Violation Thereof and Appropriating Funds Therefore) on May 27. . and the Philippines ranked number six among the countries with the highest reported incidence of rabies in the world. Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Animal Industry. the Department of Health. Although a great majority of animal bites are non-infected with the rabies virus. 2007. The battlecry is “SUMUNOD SA BATAS RABIES”. all efforts should be made to contain rabies at its source. This next three years. with universal immunization of dogs and responsible pet ownership as major preventive measures. Philippines. It remains a serious public health problem in the country which causes the death of between 200 . responsible pet ownership and dog-bite victim immunization – is still recommended for all government units to control rabies in their areas of responsibility. A threepronged approach – dog immunization. The rabies prevention and control program received its needed boost when President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed into law the Republic Act No. Department of Health.

dies within 14 days. The observation period for dogs or cats is usually 14 days starting from the day the animal has bitten a person. which is rabid at the time of the bite usually. If the dog is apparently healthy. » 1662 reads Do we need to kill the dog immediately? 8. » 1285 reads Is rubbing the bite wounds with garlic and vinegar useful in the prevention of Rabies? . A rabid person can transmit the Rabies virus to another person and need to be given antiRabies immunization » 972 reads Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given antiRabies immunization? 10. Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given anti-Rabies immunization? Yes. it should not be killed immediately and should instead be kept on a leash or caged for observation for 14 days. A rabid person can transmit the Rabies virus to another person and need to be given antiRabies immunization » 1627 reads What is the difference between the observation period and the incubation period? The observation period is the period of time that the dog or cat is observed for signs of Rabies. Do we need to kill the dog immediately? No.Rabies. NCDPC Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given antiRabies immunization? Yes. Studies have shown that a dog or cat. If it remains to be alive within that period. it means that it is not rabid and has not transmitted the virus to the person.

One important measure that will be of big help in reducing the risk of getting Rabies is by immediately washing the bite wound with soap and water. Records have shown that patients who received “tandok” treatment died either of Rabies or Tetanus. Rabies. NCDPC What is Rabies post-exposure treatment? . Once signs of brain involvement are manifested. Garlic and vinegar need not be applied on the bite wound for they will cause more injury (swelling. “Tandok” is folk medicine done by placing a deer horn over the wound. By administering vaccine and immunoglobin at the right time to an animal bite victim. Passive immunization is the process of giving an antibody to persons with Category III exposure (head and neck bites. » 1725 reads What is active and passive immunization? Active immunization or vaccination aims to induce the body to develop antibodies against Rabies whose effect lasts for 1 to 3 years. contamination of mucous membranes. the Rabies victim dies within 1-3 days. By washing the wound immediately with soap and clean water. which should be administered within the first seven days of active immunization. which only means that “tandok” is not effective. » 1254 reads Is “tandok” effective in the prevention of Rabies? No. irritation. » 1526 reads Is Rabies curable? No. The effect of the immunoglobulin is only short term.No. licks of the eyes. the risk of Rabies infection will be greatly reduced. lips and mouth) in order to provide immediate protection against Rabies. Rabies can be prevented. This is believed to suck out the Rabies virus. further introducing dirt into the wound). » 1257 reads Is Rabies preventable? Yes. multiple/single deep bites.

A dog becomes restless and has difficulty eating and drinking. c. Antiseptics may be applied. Rabies is usually transmitted from a dog’s saliva and enters the body through breaks in the skin. b. The Department of Health (DOH) and other public health organizations hold annual seminars to educate the people about rabies. The lack of discipline towards animal care and the fact that animals are allowed to roam around freely in the streets are the main culprits behind the high incidence of rabies in the Philippines. Since rabies is a fatal disease which can kill those who get infected with it. The most obvious sign would be the hanging of the tongue and continuous drooling. A dog with this type of rabies will die suddenly without any indication beforehand. » 1298 reads If bitten by a stray animal. Carefully observe the animal for 14 days for physical symptoms described . Immediately wash the bite wound with soap and clean water. Consult a veterinarian for the management of the biting dog. the most obvious and popular symptoms of rabid dog is the continuous foaming of the mouth. even though they normally have a friendly disposition. what should be properly done? a. with approximately 600 citizens dying of it every year. It roams around aimlessly and will snap at or bite anyone who crosses its path. a person should seek treatment immediately after bitten by a rabid animal. A dog becomes depressed. Dogs are the main sources of rabies in the country. There are two types of rabies: the furious type and the dumb type. The dumb type of rabies is the total opposite of the furious type. Of course. It can also enter the body through a person’s eyes and mouth. and symptoms include the absence of appetite and difficulty in breathing. It consists of local wound treatment. To determine whether a biting dog is rabid or not. confine him in a cage or at least leash him in an isolated area. Dogs with the furious type of rabies become wild and uncontrollable. isolated places. Consult a physician or go to your nearest Animal Bite Center for immunization. lethargic and tends to hide in quiet. Let us examine the various rabies symptoms. The victim may also be given antibiotics and anti-tetanus immunization.Post-exposure treatment is given to persons who are exposed to rabid animals. if indicated. active immunization (vaccination) and passive immunization (administration of rabies immunoglobin). which is why households are always encouraged to have their dogs vaccinated and restricted within their properties. Rabies is a rampant health problem in the country.

nausea. make sure to have your dogs vaccinated every year and keep them within the confines of your home or property. To prevent the incidence of rabies in your area. make sure to get medical attention immediately. If bitten by a rabid dog. the signs of infection include: fever. If the dog dies within two weeks. . it is most likely rabid. Better yet. vomiting and headache. In humans. bring the dog to a veterinarian for proper observation.above. An infected person will experience dysfunction in the nervous system such as hallucination and paralysis.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful