Rabies

Rabies is a disease of viral origin that affects both wild and domestic animals. In developing countries, where it is transmitted mainly by rabid stray dogs, rabies is still considered a major public health concern and continues to cause 55,000 human deaths each year. (24)

Symptoms of rabies
Following infection, the virus replicates within muscle cells surrounding the wound. It then reaches the central nervous system and eventually spreads through the entire body. The mean incubation period is two to three months, but may range from several days to years. The first signs of the disease include pain or an abnormal sensation at or around the wound, followed by other non-specific symptoms such as fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, headaches, malaise, and lethargy. In the acute stage, rabies symptoms mimic encephalitis. The disease may evolve as one of two clinical forms: furious rabies or paralytic (dumb) rabies. In both cases, the outcome is coma followed by death within a few days.

Epidemiology and vaccination against rabies
Rabies is usually transmitted through a rabid animal’s saliva by a bite, scratch, or licking of damaged skin or mucosa. To date, vaccination remains the only effective treatment against rabies and acts by neutralizing the virus before it actually reaches the central nervous system. Indeed, once the nervous system is infected, the outcome of the disease is inevitably fatal.

Rabies
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the disease. For the virus, see Rabies virus.

Rabies
Classification and external resources

Dog with rabies virus ICD-10 DiseasesDB eMedicine MeSH A82. 11148 med/1374 eerg/493 ped/1974 D011818

Rabies (pronounced /ˈreɪbiːz/. From Latin: rabies, "madness") is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in warm-blooded animals.[1] It is zoonotic (i.e., transmitted by animals), most commonly by a bite from an infected animal. For a human, rabies is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system, ultimately causing disease in the brain and death. The rabies virus travels to the brain by following the peripheral nerves. The incubation period of the disease is usually a few months in humans, depending on the distance the virus must travel to reach the central nervous system.[2] Once the rabies virus reaches the central nervous system and symptoms begin to show, the infection is effectively untreatable and usually fatal within days. Early-stage symptoms of rabies are malaise, headache and fever, progressing to acute pain, violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, depression, and hydrophobia.[1] Finally, the patient may experience periods of mania and lethargy, eventually leading to coma. The primary cause of death is usually respiratory insufficiency.[2] Worldwide, roughly 97% of rabies cases come from dog bites.[3] In the United States, however, animal control and vaccination programs have effectively eliminated domestic dogs as reservoirs of rabies.[4] In several countries, including Australia, Japan, and the United Kingdom, rabies carried by animals that live on the ground has been eradicated entirely.[5][6] Concerns exist about airborne and mixed-habitat animals including bats. A small number of bats of three species in the UK and in some other countries have been found to have European Bat Lyssavirus 1 and European Bat Lyssavirus 2.[citation needed] The

symptoms of these viruses are similar to those of rabies and so the viruses are both known as bat rabies.[citation needed] The economic impact is also substantial, as rabies is a significant cause of death of livestock in some countries.[citation needed]

Contents
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1 Signs and symptoms 2 Virology 3 Diagnosis 4 Prevention 5 Management o 5.1 Post-exposure prophylaxis o 5.2 Blood-brain barrier o 5.3 Induced coma 6 Prognosis 7 Epidemiology o 7.1 Transmission o 7.2 Prevalence 8 History o 8.1 Etymology o 8.2 Impact 9 In other animals 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

[edit] Signs and symptoms

Patient with rabies, 1959

The period between infection and the first flu-like symptoms is normally two to twelve weeks, but can be as long as two years. Soon after, the symptoms expand to slight or partial paralysis, cerebral dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, confusion, agitation, abnormal behavior, paranoia, terror, hallucinations, progressing to delirium.[2][7] The production of large quantities of saliva and tears coupled with an inability to speak or swallow are typical during the later stages of the disease; this can result in hydrophobia, in which the patient has difficulty swallowing because the throat and jaw become slowly paralyzed, shows panic when presented with liquids to drink, and cannot quench his or her thirst. Death almost invariably results two to ten days after first symptoms. In 2005, the first patient was treated with the Milwaukee protocol,[8] and Jeanna Giese became the first person ever recorded to survive rabies without receiving successful post-exposure prophylaxis. An intention to treat analysis has since found that this protocol has a survival rate of about 8%.[9] The results of this study are, however, under serious contention and clinical rabies should still be regarded as incurable at present.

[edit] Virology
Main article: Rabies virus

TEM micrograph with numerous rabies virions (small, dark grey, rodlike particles) and Negri bodies (the larger pathognomonic cellular inclusions of rabies infection). The rabies virus is the type species of the Lyssavirus genus, in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Lyssaviruses have helical symmetry, with a length of about 180 nm and a cross-sectional diameter of about 75 nm.[1] These viruses are enveloped and have a singlestranded RNA genome with negative-sense. The genetic information is packaged as a ribonucleoprotein complex in which RNA is tightly bound by the viral nucleoprotein. The RNA genome of the virus encodes five genes whose order is highly conserved: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G), and the viral RNA polymerase (L).[10] From the point of entry, the virus is neurotropic, traveling quickly along the neural pathways into the central nervous system (CNS), and then further into other organs.[2] The salivary glands receive high concentrations of the virus, thus allowing further transmission.

Cheaper rabies diagnosis will become possible for low-income settings: accurate rabies diagnosis can be done at a tenth of the cost of traditional testing using basic light microscopy techniques. and (less commonly) enteroviruses.[11] It is also possible to make the diagnosis from saliva. in particular infection with viruses such as herpesviruses.[1] If possible. the animal from which the bite was received should also be examined for rabies. and human enteroviruses 68 to 71. but this is not as sensitive.[12] A recombinant vaccine called V-RG has been successfully used in Belgium. The most important viruses to rule out are herpes simplex virus type 1.[14] Likewise.[20] . and ticks) may help direct the diagnostic workup. as was evidenced by the recent outbreak in Malaysia of some 300 cases of encephalitis (mortality rate.g. a new and less expensive purified chicken embryo cell vaccine and purified vero cell rabies vaccine are now available. and arboviruses (e.[18] The human diploid cell rabies vaccine was started in 1967. travel history. echoviruses. Powassan virus. Cerebral inclusion bodies called Negri bodies are 100% diagnostic for rabies infection. polioviruses. as is illustrated by the recent outbreak of encephalitis due to West Nile virus in the eastern United States. and possible exposure to animal bites.[17] Similar nerve tissuederived vaccines are still used in some countries.[12] The differential diagnosis in a case of suspected human rabies may initially include any cause of encephalitis.[15] Epidemiologic factors (e. 40%) caused by Nipah virus. Their original vaccine was harvested from infected rabbits. France.[citation needed] New causes of viral encephalitis are also possible. Germany.[16] [edit] Prevention Main article: Rabies vaccine All human cases of rabies were fatal until a vaccine was developed in 1885 by Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux. and the patient's age. urine and cerebrospinal fluid samples.[edit] Diagnosis The reference method for diagnosing rabies is by performing PCR or viral culture on brain samples taken after death. including eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses. but are found in only about 80% of cases. varicella-zoster virus.. Louis encephalitis virus. and the United States to prevent outbreaks of rabies in wildlife.[19] Currently pre-exposure immunization has been used in both human and non-human populations. the California encephalitis virus serogroup. well-known viruses may be introduced into new locations. enteroviruses. a newly recognized paramyxovirus. The diagnosis can also be reliably made from skin samples taken before death. from which the virus in the nerve tissue was weakened by allowing it to dry for five to ten days. consideration should be given to the local epidemiology of encephalitis caused by arboviruses belonging to several taxonomic groups. and La Crosse virus. season.g. St.[13] In addition. West Nile virus). rodents. geographic location. however.. whereas in many jurisdictions domesticated animals are required to be vaccinated. including coxsackieviruses. as they are much cheaper than modern cell culture vaccines.

and ferrets against rabies Keeping pets under supervision Not handling wild animals or strays Contacting an animal control officer. in general within ten days of infection. if you do get bitten by an animal. As much as possible of this dose should be infiltrated around the bites.[22] [edit] Management [edit] Post-exposure prophylaxis Treatment after exposure. Washing the wound with soap and water between 10 and 15 minutes. Getting pets spayed or neutered. of Health and Senior Services Communicable Disease Surveillance 2007 Annual Report states that the following can help reduce the risk of exposure to rabies[21]:       Vaccinating dogs. September 28 is World Rabies Day. if you see a wild animal or a stray. . Pets that are sterile are less likely to leave home. and contacting your healthcare provider to see whether you need rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. become strays. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend patients receive one dose of human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) and four doses of rabies vaccine over a fourteen-day period.[4] The Missouri Dept. ranging as high as several thousand dollars.[24] The immunoglobulin dose should not exceed 20 units per kilogram body weight. which promotes information on. is highly successful in preventing the disease if administered promptly. "If available. since the widespread vaccination of domestic dogs and cats and the development of effective human vaccines and immunoglobulin treatments. Patients who have previously received pre-exposure vaccination do not receive the immunoglobulin. only the post-exposure vaccinations on day 0 and 2. especially if the animal is acting strangely. Exposed mucous membranes such as eyes.[25] The first dose of rabies vaccine is given as soon as possible after exposure. to 1–2 per year. which may go unnoticed by the victim and hence untreated.[1] Thoroughly washing the wound as soon as possible with soap and water for approximately five minutes is very effective in reducing the number of viral particles. aqueous iodine solution."[23] In the United States. or alcohol (ethanol) should be applied after washing. HRIG is very expensive and constitutes the vast majority of the cost of postexposure treatment. a virucidal antiseptic such as povidone-iodine. seven and fourteen after the first. with additional doses on days three. nose or mouth should be flushed well with water. and reproduce more stray animals. cats.In the USA. mostly caused by bat bites. iodine tincture. with the remainder being given by deep intramuscular injection at a site distant from the vaccination site. and prevention and elimination of the disease. the number of recorded deaths from rabies has dropped from one hundred or more annually in the early 20th century. known as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP).

Begun with little or no delay. support the current Canadian guidelines that state that RPEP [PEP] is appropriate in cases where a significant contact with a bat cannot be excluded (45). recent studies have further confirmed the wisdom of maintaining the current protocol of precautionary administering of PEP in cases where a child or mentally compromised individual has been left alone with a bat.[27] It is highly recommended that PEP be administered as soon as possible. PEP is 100% effective against rabies. The old nerve-tissue-based vaccinations that require multiple painful injections into the abdomen with a large needle are cheap. The notion that a bite or an overt break in the skin needs to be seen or felt for rabies to be transmitted by a bat is a myth in many cases. which has been associated with vaccination failure due to injection into fat rather than muscle. as shown in the following conclusion made by the doctors involved in the case: Despite recent criticism (45). the lateral thigh is used as for routine childhood vaccinations. such that the possibility exists that the virus has already penetrated the nervous system. based on a cost-benefit analysis.[28] This aspect contributes to the pathogenicity of the virus and artificially increasing BBB permeability promotes viral clearance. the dramatic circumstances surrounding our patient's history.[26] However. even though there was no apparent report of a bite. even though no attempts have yet been made to determine whether or not this treatment could be successful. as well as increasingly frequent reports of human rabies contracted in North America.[25] If there has been a delay between exposure and attempts at treatment. the treatment should be administered regardless of that delay. This is illustrated by the September 2000 case of a nine-yearold boy from Quebec who died from rabies three weeks after being in the presence of a sick bat. Awakening to find a bat in the room. the blood-brain barrier (BBB) does not allow anti-viral immune cells to enter the brain. This treatment should be combined with an intensive PEP regimen.Modern cell-based vaccines are similar to flu shots in terms of pain and side-effects. or finding a bat in the room of a previously unattended child or mentally disabled or intoxicated person. as it may still be effective. not gluteal area.[citation needed] .[12] Intramuscular vaccination should be given into the deltoid.[citation needed] [edit] Blood-brain barrier During lethal rabies infection of mice. especially in sleep areas. the possibility exists that amputation of the affected limb might thwart rabies. the primary site of rabies virus replication. is regarded as an indication for post-exposure prophylaxis.[29] Opening the BBB during rabies infection has been suggested as a possible novel approach to treating the disease. if the bite or exposure was on an arm or leg. In infants.[8] In the case in which there has been a significant delay in administering PEP. The recommendation for the precautionary use of post-exposure prophylaxis in occult bat encounters where there is no recognized contact has been questioned in the medical literature. but are being phased out and replaced by affordable WHO ID (intradermal) vaccination regimens. where a bite or exposure may occur while the victim is asleep and unaware or awake and unaware that a bite occurred.

[34] On June 12. which has since undergone revision (the second version omits the use of ribavirin).[39] [edit] Epidemiology . and amantadine.[8][37][38] Survival data using the Milwaukee protocol are available from the rabies registry. Precious Reynolds. She was placed into an induced coma upon onset of symptoms and given ketamine. There were 2 survivors out of 25 patients treated under the first protocol. Her doctors administered treatment based on the hypothesis that detrimental effects of rabies were caused by temporary dysfunctions in the brain and could be avoided by inducing a temporary partial halt in brain function that would protect the brain from damage while giving the immune system time to defeat the virus. ribavirin.[35] [edit] Prognosis In unvaccinated humans. and only one known case of survival in which the patient received no rabies-specific treatment either before or after illness onset. mostly in Asia and Africa.[edit] Induced coma See also: Milwaukee protocol In 2004.[31] Giese's treatment regimen became known as the "Milwaukee protocol".[36] There are only six known cases of a person surviving symptomatic rabies. American teenager Jeanna Giese survived an infection of rabies unvaccinated. After thirty-one days of isolation and seventy-six days of hospitalization.[32] The anesthetic drug ketamine has shown the potential for rabies virus inhibition in rats. Rabies kills around 55.000 people a year. rabies is usually fatal after neurological symptoms have developed. 2011. midazolam.[33] and is used as part of the Milwaukee protocol. Giese was released from the hospital.[30] She survived with almost no permanent sequelae and as of 2009 was starting her third year of university studies. 2008 in Cali. an eleven-year-old boy was reported to survive rabies and the induced coma without noticeable brain damage. Colombia. became the third reported person in the United States to have recovered from rabies without receiving post-exposure prophylaxis. an eight-year-old girl from Humboldt County. but prompt post-exposure vaccination may prevent the virus from progressing. On April 10. A further 10 patients have been treated under the revised protocol and there have been a further 2 survivors. California.

varied. It then travels along the nerves toward the central nervous system. This is called the prodromal phase. Indeed the virus has even been adapted to grow in cells of poikilothermic ("cold-blooded") vertebrates. it rapidly causes encephalitis. parts of the Americas. Infected bats.[47] The virus is usually present in the nerves and saliva of a symptomatic rabid animal.[41][42] Most animals can be infected by the virus and can transmit the disease to humans. mongoose (normally yellow mongoose)[45] or cats present the greatest risk to humans. producing transverse myelitis. cattle. rabies is considered to be prevalent among bat populations only.[53][54] [edit] Prevalence Main article: Prevalence of rabies The rabies virus survives in widespread. Mandatory vaccination of animals is less effective in rural areas.[48][49] The route of infection is usually. like those in western Europe and Oceania.[46] The Virginia opossum is resistant but not immune to rabies. by a bite. Once the patient becomes symptomatic. except in Australia and New Zealand. hamsters. Small rodents such as squirrels. A few cases have been recorded through transplant surgery. bears and other wild carnivores.[55] In some countries. Especially in developing . In many cases the infected animal is exceptionally aggressive. weasels. Rabies may also spread through exposure to infected domestic farm animals. skunks.[52] During this phase. rural fauna reservoirs. When the virus reaches the brain. gerbils. coyotes. and vaccination may still confer cell-mediated immunity to prevent symptomatic rabies. and exhibits otherwiseuncharacteristic behavior. wolves. but not always.[43][44] monkeys. and large parts of Africa. the virus cannot be easily detected within the host. chipmunks.Rabies-free countries (in green) as of 2010 [edit] Transmission Main article: Rabies transmission Any warm-blooded animal (including humans) may become infected with the rabies virus and develop symptoms (although birds have only been known to be experimentally infected[40]). treatment is almost never effective and mortality is over 99%.[51] After a typical human infection by bite. the virus enters the peripheral nervous system. rats. and mice and lagomorphs like rabbits and hares are almost never found to be infected with rabies and are not known to transmit rabies to humans. It is present in the animal populations of almost every country in the world. and is the beginning of the symptoms.[50] Transmission between humans is extremely rare. dogs remain the principal host. groundhogs. dogs. In Asia. Rabies may also inflame the spinal cord. foxes. guinea pigs. may attack without provocation. raccoons.

and the remaining cases were other animals. and costbenefit analysis suggests that baits may be a cost effective method of control. and the USA.[59] Rabies was once rare in the United States outside the Southern states[citation needed]. Minnesota.[58] As of 2007. with about 31.[62] This.[57] India has been reported as having the highest rate of human rabies in the world. and 24.000 in Asia. 352 cases were bats. 1930 BC). Vietnam had the second-highest rate.[56] There are an estimated 55. In Montréal. Because of its potentially violent nature.[61] [edit] History [edit] Etymology The term is derived from the Latin rabies. in these countries too the virus is primarily transmitted through canines (feral dogs and other wild canine species).[60] In the midwestern United States. 50 were bats. this root is used in the name of the genus of rabies lyssavirus. According to the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA). Kansas. the state of Missouri had a total of 66 documented cases of rabies. 223 were skunks. "to do violence". dating from the 1970s.000 in Africa. between 1996 and 2009.countries. Michigan. which . pets may not be privately kept and their destruction may be unacceptable. "madness". Wisconsin. Therefore. there has been a relative decrease in the US midwest in the prevalence of skunks with rabies.C. Iowa. the JAVMA found that. China introduced the "one-dog policy" in the city of Beijing in November 2006 to control the problem. a practice that has successfully reduced rabies in rural areas of Canada. out of 671 confirmed rabies cases. and an increase in the prevalence of bats with rabies. Vaccination campaigns may be expensive. comprising 134 of the 237 documented non-human cases in 1996. rabies has been known since c. This contradicts the CDC finding that in the midwest most rabies cases are found in skunks. Canada. Oral vaccines can be safely distributed in baits. The Greeks derived the word "lyssa". Of the 66 cases.[36] One of the sources of recent flourishing of rabies in East Asia is the pet boom. may be related to the Sanskrit rabhas. primarily because of stray dogs. followed by Thailand.[63] [edit] Impact This section requires expansion with: currently the following web page [1]. 15 were skunks.000 human deaths annually from rabies worldwide. France. in turn. Nebraska. and Indiana). North and South Dakota.2000 B. Ohio. skunks are the primary carriers of rabies. but as of 2006 raccoons in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States have been suffering from a rabies epidemic. and one domestic cat. Surveying other states in the midwest (including Illinois. from "lud" or "violent".[64] The first written record of rabies is in the Mesopotamian Codex of Eshnunna (ca. baits are successfully used on raccoons in the Mont-Royal Park area. which was moving westward into Ohio.

Infected mammals can transmit rabies virus to humans and other mammals. the "St Hubert's Key" was heated and applied to cauterize the wound. If another person was bitten by a rabid dog and later died. by an application of magical thinking.to three-day period characterized by behavioral changes and is known as the prodromal stage. Main article: Rabies in animals Rabies is infectious to mammals.[65] Rabies was considered a scourge for its prevalence in the 19th century. It is this stage that is often known as furious rabies for the tendency of the affected animal to be hyperreactive to external stimuli and bite at anything near. The second stage is the excitative stage. Rabies . where Saint Hubert was venerated.[66] [edit] In other animals This section requires expansion with: information from the main article. Death is usually caused by respiratory arrest. this gave Louis Pasteur ample opportunity to test post-exposure treatments from 1885. Fear of rabies related to methods of transmissions was almost irrational. which lasts three to four days. Three stages of rabies are recognized in dogs and other animals.dictates that the owner of a dog showing symptoms of rabies should take preventive measure against bites. The third stage is the paralytic stage and is caused by damage to motor neurons. In France and Belgium. dogs were branded with the key in hopes of protecting them from rabies. the owner was heavily fined.[67] Rabies   "Rabies" is also available in Portable Document Format Versión en español What is rabies? Rabies is a deadly disease caused by a virus that attacks the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Incoordination is seen owing to rear limb paralysis and drooling and difficulty swallowing is caused by paralysis of facial and throat muscles. The first stage is a one.[63] however.

only a few human cases are reported each year in the United States. It may become unusually aggressive or tame.is almost always fatal once symptoms appear. gerbils and hamsters. you may . It is possible for these animals to get rabies. Report all animal bites to your county health department. birds. bats. choking.health. Fortunately. fish and insects do not get or carry rabies. Among domestic animals. The animal may lose its fear of people and natural enemies.ny. It may become excited or irritable and attack anything in its path. amphibians (like frogs). such as if they are attacked but not killed by a rabid animal. rats. How do people become exposed to rabies? People usually get exposed to the rabies virus when an infected animal bites them. but only in rare circumstances. The phone number for your county health department can be found in the government listing of your telephone directory or the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) website at: http://www. even if they seem minor. frothing at the mouth and paralysis are sometimes seen. Reptiles (such as lizards and snakes). What animals can get rabies? Rabies is most often seen among wild animals such as raccoons. Try to keep track of the animal that exposed you and report this information to your county health department so the animal can be captured safely. What should I do if I am exposed to rabies? Wash all wounds thoroughly with soap and water and seek medical attention immediately. Staggering. Some animals almost never get rabies.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/contact.htm. Pets and livestock can get rabies if they are not vaccinated to protect them against infection. These include rabbits and small rodents such as squirrels. chipmunks. nose or mouth). skunks and foxes. Exposure may also occur if saliva from a rabid animal enters an open cut or mucous membrane (eyes. if possible. but any mammal can be infected with rabies. convulsions. cats are most frequently diagnosed with rabies in New York State. What are the signs of rabies in animals? The first sign of rabies is usually a change in an animal's behavior. guinea pigs. In the case of a bat. Many animals will make very unusual sounds. mice. Infected animals usually die within one week after showing signs of rabies. A wild animal may appear affectionate and friendly.

Your county health department will assist you and your physician to determine whether treatment is necessary. Healthy dogs. a booster dose of rabies vaccine may be needed within five days of the incident. Contact your county health department to determine what additional follow-up may be needed.be able to safely capture it yourself and take it to your county health department where it will be transferred to the state for rabies testing. with the remaining injections given on days 3. the animal did not transmit rabies at the time of the bite. contact your veterinarian to get medical care. Other types of animals that cause a potential human exposure must be tested for rabies under the direction of the county health department. if possible. view a short video (1 minute 22 seconds) at www. 7 and 14 following the initial injection.ny. To learn how to capture a bat safely. What happens if a rabies exposure goes untreated? Exposure to a rabid animal does not always result in rabies. the full dose of HRIG should go into the wound. as determined by their doctor. Even though your pet has been vaccinated. What is the treatment for people exposed to rabies? Treatment after rabies exposure consists of a dose of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) administered as soon as possible after exposure.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/ . plus 4 doses of rabies vaccine given over two weeks. ferrets and livestock that have bitten or otherwise caused a potential human exposure to rabies will be confined under the direction of the county health department and observed for ten days following the exposure. If treatment is initiated promptly following a rabies exposure. A person who has already been vaccinated for rabies and is exposed to rabies must receive two booster vaccine doses three days apart immediately after exposure. If a rabies exposure is not treated and a person develops clinical signs of rabies. treatment may be necessary for the people exposed. If there is a wound. rabies can be prevented. If an animal cannot be observed or tested for rabies. . stray dogs or cats. If the animal remains healthy during this period. If your pet has been injured by a rabid animal. touch or adopt wild animals. The first vaccine dose is given at the same time. What can people do to protect themselves against rabies?  Don't feed. How do I protect my pets from rabies? The best way to keep pets safe from rabies is to vaccinate them and keep their shots up-to-date. People who have weakened immune systems may require a fifth dose of vaccine. the disease almost always results in death. They do not need an injection of HRIG. cats.health.

If nuisance wild animals are living in parts of your home. Keep family pets indoors at night. If a wild animal is on your property. Pets too young to be vaccinated should be kept indoors and allowed outside only under direct observation.htm. Vaccination protects pets if they are exposed to rabid animals. who work on a fee-for-service basis. Teach children not to touch any animal they do not know and to tell an adult immediately if they are bitten by any animal. Where can I get more information about rabies? The county health department is your best source of additional rabies information.ny. cats and ferrets as well as horses and valuable livestock animals are up-to-date on their rabies vaccinations. Tightly cap or put away garbage cans. bats. Don't leave them outside unattended or let them roam free. Don't attract wild animals to your home or yard. The phone number for your county health department can be found in the government listing of your telephone directory or the NYSDOH website at: www. let it wander away. Cap your chimney with screens.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/contact.       Be sure your pet dogs. New York City . skunks. Bring children and pets indoors and alert neighbors who are outside. in your telephone directory under pest control. Animal rabies is reported annually in New York City and State.health. Detailed rabies information is also available at the following websites:   NYSDOH: Rabies Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Rabies Last Reviewed: October 2010 Last Updated: October 2010 Revised: September 2011 What is rabies? Rabies is a preventable viral disease of mammals (including humans) most often transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. Keep your property free of stored bird seed or other foods that may attract wild animals. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system. Report all animal bites or contact with wild animals to your county health department. primarily in bats. do not let any animal escape that has possibly exposed someone to rabies. If possible. and foxes. Feed pets indoors. consult with a nuisance wildlife control expert about having them removed. Rabies is almost always fatal once symptoms appear. You can find wildlife control experts. porch or garage. You may contact a nuisance wildlife control expert who will remove the animal for a fee. The vast majority of rabies cases in the United States each year occur in wild animals like raccoons. basement. skunks and raccoons. Board up any openings to your attic.

rabies rarely infects humans because of companion animal vaccination programs and the availability of human rabies vaccine. Table 1: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City and New York State 2003-2008 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 New York City New York State 6 14 28 44 44 19 429 546 565 612 515 496 Table 2: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City by Borough. Human rabies vaccine. The human rabies vaccine is given in a series of five vaccinations along with one initial dose of rabies immune globulin (RIG). 2004-2009 Borough Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 13 0 0 0 26 1 0 1 6 0 1 2 14 0 0 1 13 1 0 1 15 0 12 1 . especially among animals in the Bronx. can prevent infection after a person has been bitten or otherwise exposed to an animal with rabies. and continues to every year. New York State has reported 14 human cases since 1925. There have been no human cases of rabies in New York City for more than 50 years. The one time dose of RIG and five vaccines administered over the course of one month is referred to as post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). if administered promptly and as recommended.first saw rabies in animals starting in 1992. In the United States.

skunk. bats. but it most often seen among wild animals such as raccoons.Staten Island 1 0 35 29 4 1 Table 3: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City by Species and Borough. 1992-2009 1992-2007 Bronx Queens Man SI Bklyn Total Raccoon Skunk Opossum Bat Dog Cat Groundhog Coyote Total 163 40 0 8 0 2 0 1 214 9 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 13 20 121 0 0 7 0 1 0 0 2 2 5 0 7 1 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 6 313 42 2 29 0 11 1 1 399 28 138      Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2009 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2008 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2007 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2006 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2005 back to top Who gets rabies? All mammals. fox and coyotes. including humans. back to top . can get rabies.

It is also possible. In all cases involving rodents. gerbils. nose. skunks. a person that is sleeping or intoxicated). A history of having had contact with a bat could only be documented in approximately half of the cases. which have occasionally been reported to have rabies. Of the 38 cases. as of January 2007. bats. back to top . In the eastern US. While raccoons. rabies and advice on how to capture a bat.Which animals get rabies? Animal species most often diagnosed with rabies in the United States are wild and include raccoons. Anyone who thinks they may have been exposed to a bat or a rabid animal should contact their physician or their local health department for advice.e. raccoons are the principal reservoir of rabies and primarily transmit the virus to other raccoons. Every known or suspect encounter with a bat is considered a possible rabies exposure and is treated as such. see the link to the NYS DOH website listed below. skunks. guinea pigs. an infant. raccoons may infect other animals such as cats. rats. mouth. On occasion. Bat bites may not be obvious as their teeth are small and very sharp. when raccoon rabies is widespread in an area. the health department should be consulted before a decision is made to initiate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). In New York City. The one exception has been woodchucks or groundhogs. hamsters. dogs or other mammals. If the bat can be captured safely and tested. 2 opossums and 1 coyote were reported. bats are the most common source of infection for people across the United States. The vast majority of those were raccoons. Two of those occurred in New York State. and the person exposed should receive PEP. while only 7 cats. If the bat is not available for testing. Rabbits and small rodents (such as chipmunks. results will determine whether the person exposed needs PEP. From 1990 to 2003 there have been 38 human rabies cases acquired within the US. back to top How do people get rabies? People usually get rabies from the bite of a rabid animal. foxes and coyotes. For more information on bats. mice. suggesting that even limited contact with bats may be associated with transmission of the rabies virus. the bat is assumed to be rabid. 32 were due to bats. but quite rare. and none occurred in New York City. foxes and coyotes are considered high-risk sources of virus. and squirrels) are rarely found to be infected with rabies and have not been known to transmit rabies to people. or an open wound. 263 animals have tested positive for rabies since 1992 when the virus was first introduced. for people to get rabies from a scratch or from direct contact with a rabid animals saliva or nerve tissue if it gets directly into their eyes. Bites by these animals are usually not considered a risk of rabies unless the animal appeared sick or was behaving in an unusual manner. A suspect encounter would include any scenario in which a bat is found in an enclosed setting with a person who may not be fully aware of its presence (i.

guano or skunk spray) of a rabid animal.g. abrasion. which may last for several days. back to top . dilated pupils. Other signs may include a change in voice so that it is hoarse. Occasionally non-bite exposures are treated with PEP. difficulty swallowing. and sometimes discomfort or tingling at the site of the bite or exposure. malaise. They may eat or chew things such as wood. convulsions. include irritability. such as petting a rabid animal or having contact with the blood. or an animal that demonstrates unusual aggression. Inhalation of aerosolized rabies virus is also a potential non-bite route of exposure. headache. and or impaired locomotion. A nonbite exposure could include a scratch. or other foreign objects. plants. with a throaty bark or snarl. hydrophobia (fear of water). does not constitute an exposure and is not an indication for PEP. agitation. stones. hallucinations. varying degrees of paralysis frequently beginning at the head and neck causing jaws to hang open. most people are unlikely to encounter an aerosol of rabies virus. but other than laboratory workers who work with the rabies virus.. excitation. delirium and death. Rabies has been transmitted through organ transplantation. There have been eight well-documented cases of rabies transmission through corneal transplantation. or mucous membranes of the nose or eye that gets contaminated with saliva or other potentially infectious material (such as brain or other nerve tissue) from a rabid animal. One of the most recognizable signs is excessive drooling or foaming at the mouth. open wounds. Other contact. back to top What are the symptoms of rabies in animals? Animals with rabies most often exhibit behavior changes such as a friendly dog that becomes withdrawn or belligerent. hypersalivation. urine or feces (e. vacant stare. but this is extremely rare.Can I get rabies in any way other than an animal bite? It is extremely rare for a person to get rabies from an exposure other than an animal bite. anxiety. four persons became infected and died from rabies after receiving solid organ donations from one infected donor. More recently. an aloof animal that becomes suddenly affectionate. back to top What are the symptoms of rabies in humans? Early symptoms. soil. muscle tremors (especially in cats). confusion. fever. Within days the patient may develop slight or partial paralysis.

an infant. cats. This protocol may not apply to all animal species. back to top How are animals tested? Animal rabies testing is done at the New York City Public Health Laboratory. back to top What constitutes a possible rabies exposure? A person is considered to have had a possible rabies exposure if: 1. a person that is sleeping or intoxicated). they were bitten by a dog. Prior arrangements must be made through the DOHMH before samples will be accepted. ferrets and some other animals the period during which they can shed the virus has been documented. or a bat is found in an enclosed setting with a person that may not be fully aware of it's presence (i. the animal begins shedding the virus in its saliva. fox. they were bitten by a skunk. It is sometimes difficult to determine whether a possible rabies exposure occurred. Once the brain is infected. Animal bites from animals other than ferrets. although time periods of up to several years have been reported. cats or dogs should be discussed with the DOHMH. symptoms of rabies may start to appear within 1 to 3 months of exposure. so any injury from an animal. In these animals. It is at this time or soon after that the animal begins to shows signs of illness. cat or ferret that is unavailable for testing or a 10 day observation period 3. raccoon or bat that either has tested positive for rabies or the animal is not available for rabies testing 2. the animal was not shedding rabies virus and the exposed person does not need PEP. back to top When and for how long is an animal able to spread rabies? An animal can only transmit rabies through a bite when the virus has infected the animal's brain. should be discussed with a medical provider. back to top ..How soon after infection do symptoms appear? Typically. For dogs. coyote. This allows us to observe a biting dog. If the animal does NOT develop rabies illness during the 10 days observation period. or exposure to a bat within the household. they had contact with a bat. cat or ferret for 10 days to determine whether it could have been shedding rabies at the time of the bite.e. rabies virus is present in saliva only a few days prior to the onset of their illness and up until their death.

Immediately wash the wound with soap and water and consider seeking care from your health care provider. back to top What should I do if I've been bitten by a healthy dog or cat? Try to get the owner’s contact information including. Preventive treatment requires prompt washing of the bite site with soap and copious amounts of water. Immunosuppressed persons should receive a 5th dose of vaccine on day 28 followed by a blood test 14 to 28 days after the last vaccine to ensure an acceptable rabies antibody response. the animal can be watched for a period for 10 days at home by the owner. especially those acting abnormally may minimize exposure to rabies. No rabid dogs have been reported in NYC since 1954. The health department will attempt to communicate with the pet . animal bite or bat exposure)? If a physician determines that rabies exposure may have occurred. This will help the DOHMH follow up with the pet owner regarding the 10 day at home observation. back to top What is the 10 day observation period? After a healthy dog or cat has bitten someone. have tested positive.. Any animal-related injury. Rabies preventive vaccine is no longer given in the abdomen. and any household exposure or other direct contact with a bat. 7. back to top How can rabies be prevented? Avoiding contact with bats and staying away from all wild and stray animals.What is the preventive treatment for a potential rabies exposure (e. they will recommend PEP. If preventive treatment is obtained promptly following a rabies exposure. 3. and 14 after exposure. most cases of rabies will be prevented. It is also important to have domestic animals (dogs. the bite victim does not need to get rabies shots. cats and ferrets) vaccinated against rabies. although several cats. For the most recent rabies data. should be discussed with a physician to determine if rabies preventive treatment is necessary.g. If the animal is available for observation. you do not need to start rabies shots. Untreated cases of rabies will likely result in death. click here. back to top What happens if I am exposed to rabies but I don't get PEP? Exposure to a rabid animal does not have to result in rabies. If after 10 days the animal is still alive and healthy. followed by the injection of PEP which includes rabies immune globulin (dosage depending on weight) and four doses of rabies vaccine injected into the arm muscle on days 0. primarily strays. Report the bite to the DOHMH by calling 311. name. address and phone number.

in most instances. bat. call 311 to see if arrangements can be made to capture the animal so it can be observed at a shelter. back to top What if the dog or cat was a stray animal? If the animal is a healthy stray. skunk. testing will be performed. Rabies testing requires that the animal be humanely euthanized. foxes. consider observing the animal for 10 days where it lives. but is regularly observed and easy to identy. coyotes.owner during this time. back to top What if I was bitten by a raccoon. raccoons and skunks. stray dogs are the most likely to spread rabies to people. If you are bitten by one of these animals. If the animal will be tested. Animals most likely to transmit rabies in the United States include bats. or any animal that appears rabid? Raccoons. back to top Related Information     • Rabies: Protecting Yourself and Your Pet • The Veterinary Public Health Service Website • Bat Inspection and Management (New York State Dept. . The rabies virus is usually transmitted through a bite. immediately wash the wound with soap and water and see your health care provider. unless the animal tests positive for rabies. Call 311 to see if arrangements can be made to capture the animal and test it for rabies. In developing countries of Africa and Southeast Asia. Otherwise. If during this time the animal develops signs of rabies. skunks and bats are known to transmit rabies. of Health) • Rabies Information for Children (CDC) Rabies Definition By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies is a deadly virus spread to people from the saliva of infected animals. you do not need to start the rabies vaccine.

. Symptoms By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies doesn't cause any signs or symptoms until late in the disease. Signs and symptoms may include:            Fever Headache Agitation Anxiety Confusion Difficulty swallowing Excessive salivation Fear of water (hydrophobia) because of the difficulty in swallowing Hallucinations Insomnia Partial paralysis When to see a doctor Seek immediate medical care if you're bitten by any animal. In rare cases. Infected animals can spread the virus by biting another animal or a person. such as a small child or a person with a disability. assume you've been bitten. Based on your injuries and the situation in which the bite occurred. Also. rabies can be spread when infected saliva gets into an open wound or the mucous membranes. If you awake to find a bat in your room. assume that person has been bitten. Causes By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies infection is caused by the rabies virus.Once a person begins showing signs and symptoms of rabies. the disease is nearly always fatal. a bat that flies into your room while you're sleeping may bite you without waking you. often just days before death. such as the mouth or eyes. if you find a bat near a person who can't report a bite. seek medical attention. For that reason. This could occur if an infected animal were to lick an open cut on your skin. For instance. anyone who may have a risk of contracting rabies should receive rabies vaccines for protection. Even if you aren't sure whether you've been bitten. you and your doctor can decide whether you should receive treatment to prevent rabies. The virus is spread through the saliva of infected animals.

In rare cases. The animals most likely to transmit the rabies virus to people include: Pets and farm animals        Cats Cows Dogs Ferrets Goats Horses Rabbits Wild animals         Bats Beavers Coyotes Foxes Monkeys Raccoons Skunks Woodchucks There has never been a documented case of human-to-human rabies transmission. such as exploring caves where bats live or camping without taking precautions to keep wild animals away from your campsite Working in a laboratory with the rabies virus Wounds to the head or neck. Risk factors By Mayo Clinic staff Factors that can increase your risk of rabies include:     Traveling or living in developing countries where rabies is more common.Animals that can transmit the rabies virus Any mammal can transmit the rabies virus. including countries in Africa and Southeast Asia Activities that are likely to put you in contact with wild animals that may have rabies. which may help the rabies virus travel to your brain more quickly   Tests and diagnosis By Mayo Clinic staff . the virus has been transmitted to tissue and organ transplant recipients from an infected organ.

Treatments and drugs By Mayo Clinic staff There is no specific treatment for rabies infection. If the animal that bit you can't be found. such as a bat that came into your home. such as the type of animal and the situation in which the bite occurred. dogs and ferrets that bite can be observed for 10 days to see if they show signs and symptoms of rabies. Cats. Other pets and farm animals are considered on a case-by-case basis. Blood and tissue tests are used to diagnose rabies in people who have signs and symptoms of the infection. Wild animals that can be found and captured. if it's determined the animal is healthy. For that reason. it may be safest to assume that the animal has rabies. you won't need the shots.  At the time a rabid animal bites you. can be killed and tested for rabies. A series of rabies vaccines to help your body learn to identify and fight the rabies virus. you'll receive a series of shots to prevent the rabies virus from infecting you. If the animal that bit you remains healthy during the observation period. For this reason. there's no way to know whether the animal has transmitted the rabies virus to you. Tests on the animal's . That way. treatment to prevent the rabies virus from infecting your body is recommended if the doctor thinks there's a chance you have been exposed to the virus. Part of this injection is given near the area where the animal bit you if possible. then it doesn't have rabies and you won't need rabies shots. Determining whether the animal that bit you has rabies In some cases. anyone thought to have been exposed to rabies receives a series of shots to prevent the infection from taking hold. the disease is usually fatal. You receive five injections over 14 days. Rabies vaccines are given as injections in your arm. Procedures for determining whether an animal has rabies vary by situation. But this will depend on several factors. as soon as possible after the bite. Talk to your doctor and local public health officials to determine whether you should receive rabies shots. For instance:   Pets and farm animals. Wild animals that can be caught. it's possible to determine whether the animal that bit you has rabies before beginning the series of rabies shots. Rabies shots include:   A fast-acting shot (rabies immune globulin) to prevent the virus from infecting you. Treatment for people bitten by animals with rabies If you've been bitten by an animal that is known to have rabies. Though a small number of people have survived rabies.

dogs and ferrets can be vaccinated against rabies. Protect small pets from predators. Call your local animal control officials or other local law enforcement to report stray dogs and cats. Keep your pets inside and supervise them when outside.org/index. FROM: http://rabiespoi. If you know you have bats in your home. Keep bats out of your home. If the animal doesn't have rabies.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=59&Itemid=64 Declaring RabiesFree Zones . Consider the rabies vaccine if you're traveling. discuss the situation with your doctor and the local health department. so stay away from any animal that seems unafraid. Animals that can't be found. In certain cases. it may be unlikely that the animal that bit you had rabies and it may be determined that rabies shots aren't necessary. Cats. These small pets can't be vaccinated against rabies. It's not normal for a wild animal to be friendly with people. Keep rabbits and other small pets. If the animal that bit you can't be found. Report stray animals to local authorities. Wild animals with rabies may seem unafraid of people. Ask your veterinarian how often your pets should be vaccinated. brain may reveal the rabies virus. you won't need the shots. In other cases. such as guinea pigs. work with a local expert to find ways to keep bats out. This will help keep your pets from coming in contact with wild animals. If you're traveling to a country where rabies is common and you'll be there for a long period of time. Here's how:        Vaccinate your pets. ask your doctor whether you should receive the rabies vaccine. inside or in protected cages so that they are safe from wild animals. Don't approach wild animals. Prevention By Mayo Clinic staff You can reduce your risk of coming in contact with rabid animals. Seal any cracks and gaps where bats can enter your home. Keep your pets confined. it may be safest to assume that the animal had rabies and proceed with the rabies shots.

Rabies Fast Facts .

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Rabies Fast Facts .

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000 population) Bulacan had the highest number of reported rabies cases for 2007 with a total of 126 but the rate was lower at 6. (rate of 2 per 100.Reported Rabies Cases in the Philippines for 2007 were 833 (with a rate of 1 per 100.4.3. Tarlac ranked second at the regional level with an incidence of 30 and a rate of 3.000 population Region IV-A had the highest incidence of rabies (in 2007). the highest in the region) .2. Region X had the 2nd highest incidence of rabies Region III ranked 3rd in national rabies morbidity in 2007 with 190 cases. Reported Rabies Cases in Angeles City for 2007 was 26 (with a rate of 8.

a long-time resident of the UK contracted rabies after being bitten by a dog in the Philippines. two Japanese nationals were infected after being bitten by dogs in the Philippines. Manila www. It is transmitted to other animals through contact with virus-laden saliva from a rabid animal.000 population. He died in a London hospital. Both countries have declared themselves rabies-free a long time ago. The Department of Health (DOH) estimates that 300 to 600 Filipinos die of rabies each year. DOH recognizes that rabies remains a public health problem in the country despite the enactment of Republic Act 9482. In 2001.doh. scratches or licks on open wounds. The last indigenous case of rabies infection in the UK occurred in 1902 while that of Japan was in 1954. In 2007. In recent years. . At least 50% of victims are children aged 5 to 14 years. there were 833 reported rabies cases in the country with a rate of 1. otherwise known as the Rabies Act of 2007 which seeks to eradicate rabies in the Philippines by 2020. Department of Health. the Philippines ranked fifth in the rabies list of the World Health Organization in terms of prevalence in a specific area. the most common sources of infection are dogs and cats. In 2006. We had gained notoriety among international communities as a nation with high endemicity (or prevalence) of rabies.Reference: Field Health Service Information System Annual 2007 National Epidemiology Center.gov.0 per 100.ph RABIES: THE PHILIPPINE SITUATION Rabies is a dangerous disease of animals transmissible to humans through bites. In the Philippines.

REPUBLIC ACT NO. PRESCRIBING PENALTIES FOR VIOLATION THEREOF AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: SECTION 1. No.9482 AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE CONTROL AND ELIMINATION OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL RABIES. Many. especially those in rural areas.people believed to have the power to eliminate the virus from the body with the use of a stone (called batong buhay) or by sucking with the use of a carabao horn or an animal bone are widely accepted as a wiser and more economical alternative to post-exposure treatment or vaccination. Tandoks or faith healers . the nineteenth day of February. rabies is almost always fatal and irreversible.Rabies is highly and easily preventable in this day and age but once the signs and symptoms appear. Only a few know that an inch-long scratch or a playful lick on an open wound can cost a person his/her life. still believe that garlic and a few drops of vinegar can cure rabies. two thousand seven. Title. Rabies is a highly misunderstood disease among Filipinos. 2541 H. 25 March 2009 16:33 Anti-Rabies Act of 2007 Date 2007-06-22 (RA 9482) S. on Monday. Last Updated on Wednesday. – This Act shall be known as the “Anti-Rabies Act of 2007”. No. Poypoy has not died in vain. 4654 Republic of the Philippines Congress of the Philippines Metro Manila Thirteenth Congress Third Special Session Begun and held in Metro Manila. His shocking and dramatic exit from this world has opened our eyes to the realities surrounding this disease. .

or the genital organs. health workers. the following terms shall mean: (a) Bitten refers to an act by which a Dog seizes. (i) Public Place refers to any place open to the public like parks. care or control of a Dog including his/her representative. harboring or having charge. 3. (k) Rabies transmission refers to the transmission or passage of the Rabies virus through a bite by an infected animal. (g) Owner refers to any person keeping. malls. – It is the declared policy of the State to protect and promote the right to health of the people. . scientifically known as canis familiaris. the mouth. the lips. (h) Pound refers to a public enclosure for stray animals. Declaration of Policy. Definition of Terms. prevention of the spread. police officers or government veterinarians. transmitted mainly through the bite of an infected animal and is characterized by muscle paralysis. (c) Direct Supervision refers to range supervision where physical presence of the veterinarian within the barangay is necessary. (e) Euthanasia refers to the process of painless death to Dogs and other animals. and eventual eradication of human and animal Rabies shall be provided and the need for responsible pet ownership established. (j) Rabies refers to a highly fatal disease caused by a lyssa virus. pierced or scratched. or through contamination with virus-laden saliva on breaks in the skin and of mucous membranes such as the eyes. and other neurological manifestations. (b) Concerned Officials refers to barangay officials.SEC. – For the purpose of this Act. Towards this end. hydrophobia and aerophobia. cuts or grips with its teeth so that the skin of a person has been wounded. 2. (d) Dog refers to a common quadruped domestic animal belonging to the order carnivora (male or female). streets. a system for the control. etc. SEC. (f) Impound refers to seize and hold in the custody of the law. markets.

– It is hereby mandated that there shall be a National Rabies Prevention and Control Program to be implemented by a multiagency/ multi-sectoral committee chaired by the Bureau of Animal Industry of the Department of Agriculture.E. (n) Post-exposure Treatment (P. 4. The program shall be a multi-agency effort in controlling and eliminating Rabies in the country. by a trained doctor or nurse under the supervision of a qualified medical practitioner.T. (o) Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (P. field control and disposition of unregistered. Rabies vaccine.) refers to an anti-Rabies treatment administered after an exposure to Rabies.(l) Rabies Vaccination/Immunoprophylaxis of Humans refers to the inoculation of humans. Among its component activities include: (1) mass vaccination of Dogs. The services of the said trained individual shall be limited only to Rabies Vaccination Injection in Dogs and only during government mass vaccination campaigns. with or without antiRabies immunizing agent.) refers to Rabies vaccination administered before an exposure to Rabies to those who are at high risk of getting Rabies. (q) Veterinary or Human Barbiturates refer to drugs that depress the function of the central nervous system. (2) establishment of a central database system for registered and vaccinated Dogs. (p) Stray Dog refers to any Dog leaving its Owner’s place or premise and no longer under the effective control of the Owner. with modern day rabies vaccines or Rabies immunoglobulin. National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. which include local wound care. . (m) Rabies Vaccination of Dogs refers to the inoculation of a Dog with a Rabies vaccine by a licensed government or private veterinarian or trained individual under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian.P.E. SEC. ( (3) impounding. Stray and unvaccinated Dogs.

(b) Submit their Dogs for mandatory registration. Department of Agriculture (1) Improve and upgrade existing animal Rabies laboratory diagnostic capabilities to ensure better services to the people. 5. (5) provision on pre-exposure treatment to high risk personnel and Post Exposure Treatment to animal bite victims. shall be tasked to: A. as well as Local Government Units (LGUs) with the assistance of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). adequate food and clean shelter.P. which shall jointly implement the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. (2) Ensure the availability and adequate supply of animal anti-Rabies vaccine at all times. Department of Health (DOH). (3) Undertake free anti-Rabies Vaccination of Dogs giving priority to high . (e) Within twenty-four (24) hours.E. (f) Assist the Dog bite victim immediately and shoulder the medical expenses incurred and other incidental expenses relative to the victim’s injuries. Responsibilities of Government Agencies.) of schoolchildren aged five to fourteen in areas where there is high incidence of rabies as well as the (7) encouragement of the practice of responsible pet ownership. (6) provision of free routine immunization or Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (P. The program shall be implemented by the Department of Agriculture (DA). report immediately any Dog biting incident to the Concerned Officials for investigation or for any appropriate action and place such Dog under observation by a government or private veterinarian. – The following government agencies.(4) conduct of information and education campaign on the prevention and control of Rabies. Responsibilities of Pet Owners. 6. (d) Be a responsible Owner by providing their Dog with proper grooming. for accurate record purposes. SEC. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and People’s Organizations (POs). – All Pet Owners shall be required to: (a) Have their Dog regularly vaccinated against Rabies and maintain a registration card which shall contain all vaccinations conducted on their Dog. (c) Maintain control over their Dog and not allow it to roam the streets or any Public Place without a leash. Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) and Department of Education (DepEd). SEC.

(7) Strengthen the training of field personnel and the Information Education and Communication (lEC) activities on Rabies prevention and control and responsible pet ownership. NGOs. vaccinators and other persons working with Rabies virus for free. B. POs and other concerned sectors. Department of Education (1) Strengthen Rabies education program through school health . (5) Develop and maintain a human Rabies surveillance system. (8) Conduct research on Rabies and its control in coordination with other agencies. but not limited to. veterinarians. such as. animal handlers. Department of Health (1) Ensure the availability and adequate supply of DOH pre-qualified human Anti-Rabies vaccine in animal bite treatment centers at all times and shall coordinate with other implementing agencies and concerned NGOs for this purpose. DILG. (2) Provide Post-Exposure Treatment at the minimum expense to individuals bitten by animals suspected of being rabid which will consist of the initial vaccine and immunoglobulin dose.risk depressed areas. DENR. (5) Establish and maintain Rabies free zone in coordination with the LGUs. (10) Encourage collaborative activities with the DOH. DepEd. (6) Encourage collaborative activities with the DA. laboratory staff. DepEd. (6) Immediately facilitate for the approval of the sale and use of Veterinary and Human Barbiturate drugs and veterinary euthanasia drugs by the DOH and the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA). (3) Provide Pre-Exposure Treatment to high-risk personnel. (4) Maintain and improve animal Rabies surveillance system. (9) Formulate minimum standards and monitor the effective implementation of this Act. DENR. C. NGOs. (4) Coordinate with the DA in the development of appropriate health education strategy to inform the public on Rabies prevention and control and responsible pet ownership. DILG. (7) Immediately approve the registration of Veterinary and Human Barbiturate drugs and veterinary euthanasia drugs in coordination with the PDEA. POs and other concerned sectors.

in accordance with Section 9 herein: Provided. DOH. establish and maintain a Dog Pound where Impounded Dogs shall be kept. particularly on the financing of supplies and human and Dog vaccines needed for immunization. DENR.” (7) Prohibit the trade of Dogs for meat. Responsibilities of the LGUs.teaching/curriculum. registered and issued a corresponding Dog tag for every i mmunized and registered Dog. (9) Prohibit the use of electrocution as a euthanasia procedure. shall: (1) Ensure that all Dogs are properly immunized. shall. city and firstclass municipality: Provided. (6) Enact additional local ordinances that will support the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program that should include the regulation of treatment locally known as “tandok. – LGUs. (4) Integrate proper information and education on responsible pet ownership in the relevant subjects in the Elementary and High School levels. (8) With respect to cities and first class municipalities. 8485 or “The Animal Welfare Act of 1998”. (4) Allocate funds to augment the implementation of the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. POs and other concerned sectors. SEC. on their own. DILG. (10) Appoint a veterinarian and establish a veterinary office in every province. opt to share the expense of having a veterinary office. NGOs. establish a Dog Pound or opt to share the expense of establishing and maintaining a Dog Pound with other adjoining municipalities and/or with private animal shelters and control facilities. (12) For purposes of ensuring the administrative feasibility of implementing the provisions of this Act and subject to . (11) Require pet shops to post information regarding Rabies and responsible pet ownership. 7. (3) Ensure that Dogs are leashed or confined within the premises of the Owner’s house or Owner’s fenced surroundings. in their respective localities. (3) Encourage collaborative activities with the DA.That the other municipalities. (5) Ensure the enforcement of Section 6 of Republic Act No. on their own. (2) Strictly enforce Dog Impounding activities and field control to eliminate Stray Dogs. (2) Assist in the Dog mass immunization campaigns in the community. That the other municipalities shall.

(4). Impounding. Stray and Unvaccinated Dogs. there is the need to control the Dog population and minimize the number of unwanted Stray Dogs. (6) Any other activities geared towards the prevention and complete eradication of Rabies. Any and all fines collected pursuant to this Act shall be used for the enhancement of the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program within the locality concerned. SEC. (3) Mass anti-Rabies campaign. (3). Stray or unvaccinated Dogs shall be put in Dog Pounds and disposed of. (5) and (6) hereof. Dog Population Control. (3) A fee shall be paid by Owners of Impounded Dogs to the LGU concerned. when feasible. (2) Health education/information dissemination on Rabies and responsible pet ownership. (4) Promotion of the anti-Rabies campaign during pet or any animal shows. Assistance of NGOs and the Academe. or otherwise disposed of in any manner authorized. 8. the LGU shall collect the fines imposed under Section 11 subparagraphs (1). as well as the achievement of the objectives envisioned in this Act. 10. As such. 9. 8485. Field Control and Disposition of Unregistered. (2) Impounded Dogs not claimed after three days from the Dog Pound shall be placed for adoption to qualified persons. The DILG shall ensure compliance of these responsibilities by the LGUs. taking into consideration the following guidelines: (1) Unregistered. SEC. (5) Surveillance/reporting of Rabies cases in animals and humans. with the assistance of an animal welfare NGO. otherwise known as the “Animal Welfare Act of 1998”. subject to the pertinent provisions of Republic Act No.paragraph 8 of this Section. Stray or unvaccinated Dogs shall be impounded and kept in the LGU’s designated Dog Pound. it is hereby mandated: . – The agencies tasked to implement the anti-Rabies program shall seek the assistance and participation of NGOs in any of the following activities: (1) Community mobilization. SEC. pursuant to Section 7 hereof. – In furtherance of the policy of this Act to eradicate Rabies. – Unregistered.

(5) Pet Owners who refuse to put leash on their Dogs when they are brought outside the house shall be meted a fine of Five hundred pesos (P500.000. .00). with the assistance of NGOs and POs shall undertake an educational and promotional campaign on responsible Pet Ownership.000. 11.00).00).00) for each incident. at the expense of the Pet’s Owner. including the option of spaying or neutering their Dogs. (3) That Dogs which have been impounded three times shall only be released after having been spayed or neutered.00) per Dog and subjected to imprisonment for one to four years. Penalties. DepEd.000. DOH. – (1) Pet Owners who fail or refuse to have their Dog registered and immunized against Rabies shall be punished by a fine of Two thousand pesos (P2. (2) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog vaccinated against Rabies shall be liable to pay for the vaccination of both the Dog and the individuals Bitten by their Dog. (8) Any person found guilty of using electrocution as a method of euthanasia shall be fined not less than Five thousand pesos (P5. (6) An impounded Dog shall be released to its Owner upon payment of a fine of not less than Five hundred pesos (P500.000.000. LGUs.00).00) per act and subject to imprisonment for one to four years. (2) That the LGUs shall provide an incentive system whereby Owners of Dogs which have been spayed or neutered will be given a subsidized or discounted pet registration fee. (9) If the violation is committed by an alien. DILG.(1) That the DA. SEC.00) but not more than One thousand pesos (P1. (4) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog put under observation and do not shoulder the medical expenses of the person Bitten by their Dog shall be meted a fine of Twenty-five thousand pesos (P25. (3) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog put under observation after said Dog has Bitten an individual shall be meted a fine of Ten thousand pesos (P10.000. (7) Any person found guilty of trading Dog for meat shall be fined not less than Five thousand pesos (P5. he or she shall be immediately deported after service of sentence without any further proceedings.

Thereafter. JOSE DE VENECIA JR. Appropriations. NAZARENO Secretary General OSCAR Secretary of the Senate MANNY President of the VILLAR G. Speaker of the House Senate of Representatives This Act which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. Effectivity. Separability Clause.000. – This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in the Official Gazette or in at least two newspapers of general circulation. DILG.SEC. whichever comes earlier. – The amount of One hundred million pesos (P100. For the LGUs. DepEd. DILG and DepEd under the General Appropriations Act. NGOs and POs shall issue the necessary rules and regulations within sixty (60) days from the effectivity of this Act. – In case any provision of this Act is declared unconstitutional. Approved. such sums as may be necessary for its continued implementation shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act. 2007 and February 20. 14. – The DA.000. the requirements shall be taken from their Internal Revenue Allotment and other local funds. DENR. YABES House of Representatives . 12. SEC. 4654 was finally passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives on February 9. the other provisions shall remain in full force and effect. in coordination with the DOH. 2007 respectively. 15. DA.00) necessary to implement the provisions of this Act shall be initially charged against the appropriations of the DOH. SEC. Implementing Rules and Regulations. 13. SEC. 2541 and House Bill No. ROBERTO P.

Approved: GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO President of the Philippines Rising rabies deaths alarms health dept Manila : Philippines | Nov 18. through bites or licking of open wounds. muscle spasms in the face and neck. heart and respiratory failure. Region V (29). 206 died due to the virus that is transmitted by the infected saliva of animals. fear of air (aerophobia). Matibag 20 Views: 630 The health department of the Philippines reported 264 human rabies cases between January and 23 October this year. burning of itching sensation at the site of the bite. and Metro Manila (20). Health officials say that it is during school vacation time that cases of rabies are on the rise because children play with the unvaccinated animals. Later. symptoms become more distinctive such as hallucinations. cough or sore throat. health officials are alarmed of the possible surge in the number of cases. paralysis. With the Christmas vacation coming. Region III (36). the following areas had the highest reported cases of rabies: Region IV-A (49). abdominal pain. and anxiety and agitation. fear of water (hydrophobia). 16 of whom succumbed. delirium. Of these. seizures. . For this year. 2010 at 9:34 PM PST By Gino C. Human rabies is a deadly disease and over 99 percent of people who develop the symptoms of the disease die. coma. especially dogs. The symptoms of human rabies are trivial such as fever. pain.

and is a Stringer for Allvoices. Do not kill the offending animal. Birds. cats.The disease is also preventable through adequate vaccination of warm-blooded animal pets like dogs. too. In 2008.478 Bangladesh-22. Philippines. Japan. Bats.843 Sri Lanka-2. National Capital Region. elephants.377 Indonesia-1. Immediately go to the doctor for medical advice. Ask a veterinarian or any authorities for further action toward the animal.658 Vietnam-5. rabbits.900 China-13.208 Some of the countries that have successfully eradicated rabies are Australia. Matibag is based in Manila. and reptiles cannot transmit the disease. and horses may harbor the rabies virus. it is strongly advised that the bite wound be thoroughly washed with soap and running water for 15 minutes. Once bitten.183 Pakistan-2.995 Philippines-5. Report Credibility FROM: DOH . the 10 countries with highest human deaths due to rabies are: India-244. and the United Kingdom. and monkeys.042 Myanmar-1.683 Thailand-1. rats. Capture the animal and observe for 10 to 15 days for behavioral changes. Gino C. fishes. chickens. New Zealand.

animal control and other public health measures are undertaken because of the high case fatality rate for rabies. the Department of Health. and the disease almost always leads to death even when vaccination and medical management are given as soon as the symptoms have set in. This next three years. 2005-2001. Further. Meanwhile. Rabies Although rabies is not among the leading causes of disease and death in the country it has become a public health problem of significance for two reasons: it is one of the most acutely fatal infections which causes the death of between 200-500 Filipinos annually. all efforts should be made to contain rabies at its source. and the Philippines ranked number six among the countries with the highest reported incidence of rabies in the world. Source: National Objectives for Health. local government units and partner agencies will advocate for the full implementation of the law nationwide. Dogs remain the principal animal source of rabies. Philippines. and the Philippines ranked No. the said agencies are also gearing up their efforts towards the goal of declaring the Philippines as Rabies-Free by the 2020. Although a great majority of animal bites are non-infected with the rabies virus. The rabies prevention and control program received its needed boost when President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed into law the Republic Act No. Prescribing Penalties for Violation Thereof and Appropriating Funds Therefore) on May 27. 2007. Philippines. with universal immunization of dogs and responsible pet ownership as major preventive measures.500 Filipinos annually. responsible pet ownership and dog-bite victim immunization – is still recommended for all government units to control rabies in their areas of responsibility. Manila.March is Rabies Awareness Month and September 28 is World Rabies Day! March is Rabies Awareness Month and September 28 is World Rabies Day! Rabies is 100% fatal viral disease affecting the nervous system of humans and animals. the cost of postexposure vaccination against rabies can be prohibitive. . There is yet no way of immediately segregating those who had acquired rabies infection from those who had been bitten by nonrabid sources. Department of Health. It is hard to make a definite early diagnosis of rabies. 9482 (An Act Providing for the Control and Elimination of Human and Animal Rabies. A threepronged approach – dog immunization. Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Animal Industry. Thus. The battlecry is “SUMUNOD SA BATAS RABIES”. 6 among the countries with the highest incidence of rabies in the world. It remains a serious public health problem in the country which causes the death of between 200 .

Rabies. A rabid person can transmit the Rabies virus to another person and need to be given antiRabies immunization » 972 reads Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given antiRabies immunization? 10. Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given anti-Rabies immunization? Yes. The observation period for dogs or cats is usually 14 days starting from the day the animal has bitten a person. If the dog is apparently healthy. it means that it is not rabid and has not transmitted the virus to the person. which is rabid at the time of the bite usually. NCDPC Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given antiRabies immunization? Yes. » 1662 reads Do we need to kill the dog immediately? 8. » 1285 reads Is rubbing the bite wounds with garlic and vinegar useful in the prevention of Rabies? . Studies have shown that a dog or cat. it should not be killed immediately and should instead be kept on a leash or caged for observation for 14 days. dies within 14 days. A rabid person can transmit the Rabies virus to another person and need to be given antiRabies immunization » 1627 reads What is the difference between the observation period and the incubation period? The observation period is the period of time that the dog or cat is observed for signs of Rabies. If it remains to be alive within that period. Do we need to kill the dog immediately? No.

» 1725 reads What is active and passive immunization? Active immunization or vaccination aims to induce the body to develop antibodies against Rabies whose effect lasts for 1 to 3 years. “Tandok” is folk medicine done by placing a deer horn over the wound. NCDPC What is Rabies post-exposure treatment? . Rabies. which should be administered within the first seven days of active immunization. Records have shown that patients who received “tandok” treatment died either of Rabies or Tetanus. multiple/single deep bites. which only means that “tandok” is not effective. Garlic and vinegar need not be applied on the bite wound for they will cause more injury (swelling. » 1257 reads Is Rabies preventable? Yes. Once signs of brain involvement are manifested.No. licks of the eyes. Passive immunization is the process of giving an antibody to persons with Category III exposure (head and neck bites. further introducing dirt into the wound). contamination of mucous membranes. lips and mouth) in order to provide immediate protection against Rabies. By administering vaccine and immunoglobin at the right time to an animal bite victim. the risk of Rabies infection will be greatly reduced. By washing the wound immediately with soap and clean water. » 1526 reads Is Rabies curable? No. the Rabies victim dies within 1-3 days. This is believed to suck out the Rabies virus. » 1254 reads Is “tandok” effective in the prevention of Rabies? No. Rabies can be prevented. irritation. One important measure that will be of big help in reducing the risk of getting Rabies is by immediately washing the bite wound with soap and water. The effect of the immunoglobulin is only short term.

Since rabies is a fatal disease which can kill those who get infected with it. A dog with this type of rabies will die suddenly without any indication beforehand. and symptoms include the absence of appetite and difficulty in breathing. » 1298 reads If bitten by a stray animal. The Department of Health (DOH) and other public health organizations hold annual seminars to educate the people about rabies. what should be properly done? a. Of course. Dogs are the main sources of rabies in the country. A dog becomes depressed. It consists of local wound treatment. Immediately wash the bite wound with soap and clean water. The victim may also be given antibiotics and anti-tetanus immunization. Rabies is usually transmitted from a dog’s saliva and enters the body through breaks in the skin. confine him in a cage or at least leash him in an isolated area. Let us examine the various rabies symptoms. isolated places. There are two types of rabies: the furious type and the dumb type. It can also enter the body through a person’s eyes and mouth. a person should seek treatment immediately after bitten by a rabid animal. b. even though they normally have a friendly disposition. The lack of discipline towards animal care and the fact that animals are allowed to roam around freely in the streets are the main culprits behind the high incidence of rabies in the Philippines. To determine whether a biting dog is rabid or not. Dogs with the furious type of rabies become wild and uncontrollable.Post-exposure treatment is given to persons who are exposed to rabid animals. which is why households are always encouraged to have their dogs vaccinated and restricted within their properties. if indicated. Rabies is a rampant health problem in the country. Antiseptics may be applied. the most obvious and popular symptoms of rabid dog is the continuous foaming of the mouth. with approximately 600 citizens dying of it every year. The most obvious sign would be the hanging of the tongue and continuous drooling. It roams around aimlessly and will snap at or bite anyone who crosses its path. Consult a physician or go to your nearest Animal Bite Center for immunization. A dog becomes restless and has difficulty eating and drinking. lethargic and tends to hide in quiet. The dumb type of rabies is the total opposite of the furious type. Carefully observe the animal for 14 days for physical symptoms described . Consult a veterinarian for the management of the biting dog. active immunization (vaccination) and passive immunization (administration of rabies immunoglobin). c.

vomiting and headache. it is most likely rabid. the signs of infection include: fever. bring the dog to a veterinarian for proper observation. If the dog dies within two weeks.above. make sure to get medical attention immediately. To prevent the incidence of rabies in your area. . An infected person will experience dysfunction in the nervous system such as hallucination and paralysis. nausea. If bitten by a rabid dog. make sure to have your dogs vaccinated every year and keep them within the confines of your home or property. In humans. Better yet.

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