Rabies | Rabies | Microbiology

Rabies

Rabies is a disease of viral origin that affects both wild and domestic animals. In developing countries, where it is transmitted mainly by rabid stray dogs, rabies is still considered a major public health concern and continues to cause 55,000 human deaths each year. (24)

Symptoms of rabies
Following infection, the virus replicates within muscle cells surrounding the wound. It then reaches the central nervous system and eventually spreads through the entire body. The mean incubation period is two to three months, but may range from several days to years. The first signs of the disease include pain or an abnormal sensation at or around the wound, followed by other non-specific symptoms such as fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, headaches, malaise, and lethargy. In the acute stage, rabies symptoms mimic encephalitis. The disease may evolve as one of two clinical forms: furious rabies or paralytic (dumb) rabies. In both cases, the outcome is coma followed by death within a few days.

Epidemiology and vaccination against rabies
Rabies is usually transmitted through a rabid animal’s saliva by a bite, scratch, or licking of damaged skin or mucosa. To date, vaccination remains the only effective treatment against rabies and acts by neutralizing the virus before it actually reaches the central nervous system. Indeed, once the nervous system is infected, the outcome of the disease is inevitably fatal.

Rabies
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the disease. For the virus, see Rabies virus.

Rabies
Classification and external resources

Dog with rabies virus ICD-10 DiseasesDB eMedicine MeSH A82. 11148 med/1374 eerg/493 ped/1974 D011818

Rabies (pronounced /ˈreɪbiːz/. From Latin: rabies, "madness") is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in warm-blooded animals.[1] It is zoonotic (i.e., transmitted by animals), most commonly by a bite from an infected animal. For a human, rabies is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system, ultimately causing disease in the brain and death. The rabies virus travels to the brain by following the peripheral nerves. The incubation period of the disease is usually a few months in humans, depending on the distance the virus must travel to reach the central nervous system.[2] Once the rabies virus reaches the central nervous system and symptoms begin to show, the infection is effectively untreatable and usually fatal within days. Early-stage symptoms of rabies are malaise, headache and fever, progressing to acute pain, violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, depression, and hydrophobia.[1] Finally, the patient may experience periods of mania and lethargy, eventually leading to coma. The primary cause of death is usually respiratory insufficiency.[2] Worldwide, roughly 97% of rabies cases come from dog bites.[3] In the United States, however, animal control and vaccination programs have effectively eliminated domestic dogs as reservoirs of rabies.[4] In several countries, including Australia, Japan, and the United Kingdom, rabies carried by animals that live on the ground has been eradicated entirely.[5][6] Concerns exist about airborne and mixed-habitat animals including bats. A small number of bats of three species in the UK and in some other countries have been found to have European Bat Lyssavirus 1 and European Bat Lyssavirus 2.[citation needed] The

symptoms of these viruses are similar to those of rabies and so the viruses are both known as bat rabies.[citation needed] The economic impact is also substantial, as rabies is a significant cause of death of livestock in some countries.[citation needed]

Contents
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1 Signs and symptoms 2 Virology 3 Diagnosis 4 Prevention 5 Management o 5.1 Post-exposure prophylaxis o 5.2 Blood-brain barrier o 5.3 Induced coma 6 Prognosis 7 Epidemiology o 7.1 Transmission o 7.2 Prevalence 8 History o 8.1 Etymology o 8.2 Impact 9 In other animals 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

[edit] Signs and symptoms

Patient with rabies, 1959

The period between infection and the first flu-like symptoms is normally two to twelve weeks, but can be as long as two years. Soon after, the symptoms expand to slight or partial paralysis, cerebral dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, confusion, agitation, abnormal behavior, paranoia, terror, hallucinations, progressing to delirium.[2][7] The production of large quantities of saliva and tears coupled with an inability to speak or swallow are typical during the later stages of the disease; this can result in hydrophobia, in which the patient has difficulty swallowing because the throat and jaw become slowly paralyzed, shows panic when presented with liquids to drink, and cannot quench his or her thirst. Death almost invariably results two to ten days after first symptoms. In 2005, the first patient was treated with the Milwaukee protocol,[8] and Jeanna Giese became the first person ever recorded to survive rabies without receiving successful post-exposure prophylaxis. An intention to treat analysis has since found that this protocol has a survival rate of about 8%.[9] The results of this study are, however, under serious contention and clinical rabies should still be regarded as incurable at present.

[edit] Virology
Main article: Rabies virus

TEM micrograph with numerous rabies virions (small, dark grey, rodlike particles) and Negri bodies (the larger pathognomonic cellular inclusions of rabies infection). The rabies virus is the type species of the Lyssavirus genus, in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Lyssaviruses have helical symmetry, with a length of about 180 nm and a cross-sectional diameter of about 75 nm.[1] These viruses are enveloped and have a singlestranded RNA genome with negative-sense. The genetic information is packaged as a ribonucleoprotein complex in which RNA is tightly bound by the viral nucleoprotein. The RNA genome of the virus encodes five genes whose order is highly conserved: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G), and the viral RNA polymerase (L).[10] From the point of entry, the virus is neurotropic, traveling quickly along the neural pathways into the central nervous system (CNS), and then further into other organs.[2] The salivary glands receive high concentrations of the virus, thus allowing further transmission.

Cerebral inclusion bodies called Negri bodies are 100% diagnostic for rabies infection. varicella-zoster virus. and arboviruses (e.[18] The human diploid cell rabies vaccine was started in 1967. whereas in many jurisdictions domesticated animals are required to be vaccinated. polioviruses. a newly recognized paramyxovirus.[17] Similar nerve tissuederived vaccines are still used in some countries. and the patient's age.[16] [edit] Prevention Main article: Rabies vaccine All human cases of rabies were fatal until a vaccine was developed in 1885 by Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux. however.[edit] Diagnosis The reference method for diagnosing rabies is by performing PCR or viral culture on brain samples taken after death. and human enteroviruses 68 to 71.[12] The differential diagnosis in a case of suspected human rabies may initially include any cause of encephalitis. as was evidenced by the recent outbreak in Malaysia of some 300 cases of encephalitis (mortality rate. Cheaper rabies diagnosis will become possible for low-income settings: accurate rabies diagnosis can be done at a tenth of the cost of traditional testing using basic light microscopy techniques. St.[citation needed] New causes of viral encephalitis are also possible. The most important viruses to rule out are herpes simplex virus type 1. from which the virus in the nerve tissue was weakened by allowing it to dry for five to ten days. enteroviruses.[11] It is also possible to make the diagnosis from saliva. and the United States to prevent outbreaks of rabies in wildlife. as is illustrated by the recent outbreak of encephalitis due to West Nile virus in the eastern United States. The diagnosis can also be reliably made from skin samples taken before death. well-known viruses may be introduced into new locations. travel history. France. and possible exposure to animal bites. urine and cerebrospinal fluid samples. the California encephalitis virus serogroup.[20] .g.[12] A recombinant vaccine called V-RG has been successfully used in Belgium.[13] In addition.[1] If possible.g. and ticks) may help direct the diagnostic workup. but are found in only about 80% of cases. rodents.[15] Epidemiologic factors (e. geographic location. Louis encephalitis virus. Their original vaccine was harvested from infected rabbits. and (less commonly) enteroviruses. Powassan virus. season. and La Crosse virus. in particular infection with viruses such as herpesviruses. the animal from which the bite was received should also be examined for rabies. but this is not as sensitive.. consideration should be given to the local epidemiology of encephalitis caused by arboviruses belonging to several taxonomic groups. including eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses. Germany. 40%) caused by Nipah virus.[14] Likewise.[19] Currently pre-exposure immunization has been used in both human and non-human populations. a new and less expensive purified chicken embryo cell vaccine and purified vero cell rabies vaccine are now available. echoviruses. as they are much cheaper than modern cell culture vaccines. West Nile virus).. including coxsackieviruses.

[4] The Missouri Dept.[24] The immunoglobulin dose should not exceed 20 units per kilogram body weight.[25] The first dose of rabies vaccine is given as soon as possible after exposure. and prevention and elimination of the disease. a virucidal antiseptic such as povidone-iodine. Getting pets spayed or neutered. ranging as high as several thousand dollars. iodine tincture. nose or mouth should be flushed well with water. to 1–2 per year. become strays. which promotes information on. especially if the animal is acting strangely. the number of recorded deaths from rabies has dropped from one hundred or more annually in the early 20th century. is highly successful in preventing the disease if administered promptly. . or alcohol (ethanol) should be applied after washing. of Health and Senior Services Communicable Disease Surveillance 2007 Annual Report states that the following can help reduce the risk of exposure to rabies[21]:       Vaccinating dogs. Exposed mucous membranes such as eyes. HRIG is very expensive and constitutes the vast majority of the cost of postexposure treatment. only the post-exposure vaccinations on day 0 and 2. "If available. if you do get bitten by an animal. since the widespread vaccination of domestic dogs and cats and the development of effective human vaccines and immunoglobulin treatments. Pets that are sterile are less likely to leave home. Patients who have previously received pre-exposure vaccination do not receive the immunoglobulin.[1] Thoroughly washing the wound as soon as possible with soap and water for approximately five minutes is very effective in reducing the number of viral particles. known as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). with additional doses on days three. As much as possible of this dose should be infiltrated around the bites. in general within ten days of infection."[23] In the United States. Washing the wound with soap and water between 10 and 15 minutes. September 28 is World Rabies Day. if you see a wild animal or a stray. seven and fourteen after the first. and ferrets against rabies Keeping pets under supervision Not handling wild animals or strays Contacting an animal control officer. mostly caused by bat bites. which may go unnoticed by the victim and hence untreated. and contacting your healthcare provider to see whether you need rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. cats.In the USA. and reproduce more stray animals. with the remainder being given by deep intramuscular injection at a site distant from the vaccination site.[22] [edit] Management [edit] Post-exposure prophylaxis Treatment after exposure. aqueous iodine solution. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend patients receive one dose of human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) and four doses of rabies vaccine over a fourteen-day period.

as it may still be effective.[8] In the case in which there has been a significant delay in administering PEP. Begun with little or no delay. the possibility exists that amputation of the affected limb might thwart rabies. This is illustrated by the September 2000 case of a nine-yearold boy from Quebec who died from rabies three weeks after being in the presence of a sick bat.[citation needed] . or finding a bat in the room of a previously unattended child or mentally disabled or intoxicated person.[27] It is highly recommended that PEP be administered as soon as possible. The old nerve-tissue-based vaccinations that require multiple painful injections into the abdomen with a large needle are cheap. recent studies have further confirmed the wisdom of maintaining the current protocol of precautionary administering of PEP in cases where a child or mentally compromised individual has been left alone with a bat. not gluteal area. the treatment should be administered regardless of that delay.Modern cell-based vaccines are similar to flu shots in terms of pain and side-effects. The recommendation for the precautionary use of post-exposure prophylaxis in occult bat encounters where there is no recognized contact has been questioned in the medical literature.[29] Opening the BBB during rabies infection has been suggested as a possible novel approach to treating the disease. the blood-brain barrier (BBB) does not allow anti-viral immune cells to enter the brain.[26] However. is regarded as an indication for post-exposure prophylaxis. PEP is 100% effective against rabies. The notion that a bite or an overt break in the skin needs to be seen or felt for rabies to be transmitted by a bat is a myth in many cases. the dramatic circumstances surrounding our patient's history. even though no attempts have yet been made to determine whether or not this treatment could be successful. where a bite or exposure may occur while the victim is asleep and unaware or awake and unaware that a bite occurred. especially in sleep areas. such that the possibility exists that the virus has already penetrated the nervous system. the lateral thigh is used as for routine childhood vaccinations. This treatment should be combined with an intensive PEP regimen. if the bite or exposure was on an arm or leg. support the current Canadian guidelines that state that RPEP [PEP] is appropriate in cases where a significant contact with a bat cannot be excluded (45). as well as increasingly frequent reports of human rabies contracted in North America. even though there was no apparent report of a bite. In infants. as shown in the following conclusion made by the doctors involved in the case: Despite recent criticism (45).[citation needed] [edit] Blood-brain barrier During lethal rabies infection of mice. Awakening to find a bat in the room.[25] If there has been a delay between exposure and attempts at treatment. but are being phased out and replaced by affordable WHO ID (intradermal) vaccination regimens. which has been associated with vaccination failure due to injection into fat rather than muscle. the primary site of rabies virus replication. based on a cost-benefit analysis.[12] Intramuscular vaccination should be given into the deltoid.[28] This aspect contributes to the pathogenicity of the virus and artificially increasing BBB permeability promotes viral clearance.

[35] [edit] Prognosis In unvaccinated humans.[31] Giese's treatment regimen became known as the "Milwaukee protocol". midazolam. but prompt post-exposure vaccination may prevent the virus from progressing. Colombia.[33] and is used as part of the Milwaukee protocol. Rabies kills around 55. and only one known case of survival in which the patient received no rabies-specific treatment either before or after illness onset. rabies is usually fatal after neurological symptoms have developed. After thirty-one days of isolation and seventy-six days of hospitalization. an eight-year-old girl from Humboldt County.[8][37][38] Survival data using the Milwaukee protocol are available from the rabies registry. ribavirin.[edit] Induced coma See also: Milwaukee protocol In 2004. an eleven-year-old boy was reported to survive rabies and the induced coma without noticeable brain damage. She was placed into an induced coma upon onset of symptoms and given ketamine. became the third reported person in the United States to have recovered from rabies without receiving post-exposure prophylaxis.[34] On June 12. which has since undergone revision (the second version omits the use of ribavirin). There were 2 survivors out of 25 patients treated under the first protocol. 2008 in Cali. A further 10 patients have been treated under the revised protocol and there have been a further 2 survivors. Precious Reynolds.000 people a year. Giese was released from the hospital. California.[30] She survived with almost no permanent sequelae and as of 2009 was starting her third year of university studies. 2011.[36] There are only six known cases of a person surviving symptomatic rabies.[39] [edit] Epidemiology . American teenager Jeanna Giese survived an infection of rabies unvaccinated. On April 10.[32] The anesthetic drug ketamine has shown the potential for rabies virus inhibition in rats. mostly in Asia and Africa. Her doctors administered treatment based on the hypothesis that detrimental effects of rabies were caused by temporary dysfunctions in the brain and could be avoided by inducing a temporary partial halt in brain function that would protect the brain from damage while giving the immune system time to defeat the virus. and amantadine.

[51] After a typical human infection by bite. Once the patient becomes symptomatic. except in Australia and New Zealand.[41][42] Most animals can be infected by the virus and can transmit the disease to humans. producing transverse myelitis. In many cases the infected animal is exceptionally aggressive. treatment is almost never effective and mortality is over 99%. but not always. When the virus reaches the brain. chipmunks.[53][54] [edit] Prevalence Main article: Prevalence of rabies The rabies virus survives in widespread. rabies is considered to be prevalent among bat populations only. weasels. mongoose (normally yellow mongoose)[45] or cats present the greatest risk to humans. This is called the prodromal phase. groundhogs. Indeed the virus has even been adapted to grow in cells of poikilothermic ("cold-blooded") vertebrates.[47] The virus is usually present in the nerves and saliva of a symptomatic rabid animal. and exhibits otherwiseuncharacteristic behavior. dogs. and mice and lagomorphs like rabbits and hares are almost never found to be infected with rabies and are not known to transmit rabies to humans. gerbils. Mandatory vaccination of animals is less effective in rural areas. bears and other wild carnivores.Rabies-free countries (in green) as of 2010 [edit] Transmission Main article: Rabies transmission Any warm-blooded animal (including humans) may become infected with the rabies virus and develop symptoms (although birds have only been known to be experimentally infected[40]).[46] The Virginia opossum is resistant but not immune to rabies.[50] Transmission between humans is extremely rare. the virus cannot be easily detected within the host. and large parts of Africa.[55] In some countries.[52] During this phase. like those in western Europe and Oceania. and is the beginning of the symptoms. the virus enters the peripheral nervous system. A few cases have been recorded through transplant surgery.[48][49] The route of infection is usually. Rabies may also inflame the spinal cord.[43][44] monkeys. cattle. Infected bats. by a bite. rats. coyotes. hamsters. It then travels along the nerves toward the central nervous system. it rapidly causes encephalitis. guinea pigs. It is present in the animal populations of almost every country in the world. raccoons. In Asia. rural fauna reservoirs. may attack without provocation. foxes. varied. wolves. Especially in developing . dogs remain the principal host. Small rodents such as squirrels. and vaccination may still confer cell-mediated immunity to prevent symptomatic rabies. parts of the Americas. Rabies may also spread through exposure to infected domestic farm animals. skunks.

countries. from "lud" or "violent". baits are successfully used on raccoons in the Mont-Royal Park area. and the USA. and Indiana). pets may not be privately kept and their destruction may be unacceptable. the state of Missouri had a total of 66 documented cases of rabies. out of 671 confirmed rabies cases. Therefore. Ohio.[57] India has been reported as having the highest rate of human rabies in the world. "to do violence". which was moving westward into Ohio. Wisconsin. 15 were skunks. Michigan. Kansas. 223 were skunks. this root is used in the name of the genus of rabies lyssavirus. may be related to the Sanskrit rabhas. "madness". and 24. According to the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA).[62] This. rabies has been known since c. followed by Thailand. 50 were bats. and one domestic cat.[64] The first written record of rabies is in the Mesopotamian Codex of Eshnunna (ca. Of the 66 cases.[63] [edit] Impact This section requires expansion with: currently the following web page [1]. the JAVMA found that. there has been a relative decrease in the US midwest in the prevalence of skunks with rabies. Nebraska.[59] Rabies was once rare in the United States outside the Southern states[citation needed].000 in Asia. Iowa. China introduced the "one-dog policy" in the city of Beijing in November 2006 to control the problem. In Montréal. This contradicts the CDC finding that in the midwest most rabies cases are found in skunks.[56] There are an estimated 55. comprising 134 of the 237 documented non-human cases in 1996. dating from the 1970s. and the remaining cases were other animals. skunks are the primary carriers of rabies. which .000 in Africa. with about 31.2000 B. a practice that has successfully reduced rabies in rural areas of Canada. in these countries too the virus is primarily transmitted through canines (feral dogs and other wild canine species).000 human deaths annually from rabies worldwide. Surveying other states in the midwest (including Illinois. primarily because of stray dogs. but as of 2006 raccoons in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States have been suffering from a rabies epidemic. 1930 BC).[58] As of 2007. Canada. 352 cases were bats.[36] One of the sources of recent flourishing of rabies in East Asia is the pet boom.[61] [edit] History [edit] Etymology The term is derived from the Latin rabies. Vietnam had the second-highest rate. in turn. and costbenefit analysis suggests that baits may be a cost effective method of control. and an increase in the prevalence of bats with rabies. Oral vaccines can be safely distributed in baits.C. The Greeks derived the word "lyssa".[60] In the midwestern United States. France. between 1996 and 2009. Vaccination campaigns may be expensive. Because of its potentially violent nature. North and South Dakota. Minnesota.

[63] however.[67] Rabies   "Rabies" is also available in Portable Document Format Versión en español What is rabies? Rabies is a deadly disease caused by a virus that attacks the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).[65] Rabies was considered a scourge for its prevalence in the 19th century. by an application of magical thinking. where Saint Hubert was venerated. this gave Louis Pasteur ample opportunity to test post-exposure treatments from 1885. It is this stage that is often known as furious rabies for the tendency of the affected animal to be hyperreactive to external stimuli and bite at anything near. If another person was bitten by a rabid dog and later died. The third stage is the paralytic stage and is caused by damage to motor neurons. Rabies . the owner was heavily fined. the "St Hubert's Key" was heated and applied to cauterize the wound.[66] [edit] In other animals This section requires expansion with: information from the main article. In France and Belgium. The first stage is a one.dictates that the owner of a dog showing symptoms of rabies should take preventive measure against bites. The second stage is the excitative stage. Fear of rabies related to methods of transmissions was almost irrational. Infected mammals can transmit rabies virus to humans and other mammals. Main article: Rabies in animals Rabies is infectious to mammals. Three stages of rabies are recognized in dogs and other animals. dogs were branded with the key in hopes of protecting them from rabies. Incoordination is seen owing to rear limb paralysis and drooling and difficulty swallowing is caused by paralysis of facial and throat muscles. Death is usually caused by respiratory arrest.to three-day period characterized by behavioral changes and is known as the prodromal stage. which lasts three to four days.

bats. What animals can get rabies? Rabies is most often seen among wild animals such as raccoons. In the case of a bat.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/contact. It may become excited or irritable and attack anything in its path.health. but any mammal can be infected with rabies. gerbils and hamsters. chipmunks. Try to keep track of the animal that exposed you and report this information to your county health department so the animal can be captured safely. only a few human cases are reported each year in the United States. fish and insects do not get or carry rabies. rats. cats are most frequently diagnosed with rabies in New York State. It is possible for these animals to get rabies. such as if they are attacked but not killed by a rabid animal. What should I do if I am exposed to rabies? Wash all wounds thoroughly with soap and water and seek medical attention immediately. skunks and foxes.ny. Report all animal bites to your county health department.is almost always fatal once symptoms appear.htm. mice. you may . Pets and livestock can get rabies if they are not vaccinated to protect them against infection. Reptiles (such as lizards and snakes). amphibians (like frogs). frothing at the mouth and paralysis are sometimes seen. Some animals almost never get rabies. convulsions. even if they seem minor. Staggering. Infected animals usually die within one week after showing signs of rabies. nose or mouth). Among domestic animals. but only in rare circumstances. if possible. Fortunately. These include rabbits and small rodents such as squirrels. How do people become exposed to rabies? People usually get exposed to the rabies virus when an infected animal bites them. Many animals will make very unusual sounds. choking. A wild animal may appear affectionate and friendly. The phone number for your county health department can be found in the government listing of your telephone directory or the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) website at: http://www. What are the signs of rabies in animals? The first sign of rabies is usually a change in an animal's behavior. birds. Exposure may also occur if saliva from a rabid animal enters an open cut or mucous membrane (eyes. The animal may lose its fear of people and natural enemies. guinea pigs. It may become unusually aggressive or tame.

If treatment is initiated promptly following a rabies exposure. stray dogs or cats. Contact your county health department to determine what additional follow-up may be needed. People who have weakened immune systems may require a fifth dose of vaccine. . The first vaccine dose is given at the same time.be able to safely capture it yourself and take it to your county health department where it will be transferred to the state for rabies testing. They do not need an injection of HRIG. Healthy dogs. contact your veterinarian to get medical care. with the remaining injections given on days 3. 7 and 14 following the initial injection.health. A person who has already been vaccinated for rabies and is exposed to rabies must receive two booster vaccine doses three days apart immediately after exposure. What happens if a rabies exposure goes untreated? Exposure to a rabid animal does not always result in rabies. What is the treatment for people exposed to rabies? Treatment after rabies exposure consists of a dose of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) administered as soon as possible after exposure. if possible. Your county health department will assist you and your physician to determine whether treatment is necessary. If an animal cannot be observed or tested for rabies. If your pet has been injured by a rabid animal. To learn how to capture a bat safely. rabies can be prevented. How do I protect my pets from rabies? The best way to keep pets safe from rabies is to vaccinate them and keep their shots up-to-date. If a rabies exposure is not treated and a person develops clinical signs of rabies. treatment may be necessary for the people exposed. the animal did not transmit rabies at the time of the bite.ny. cats. If the animal remains healthy during this period. a booster dose of rabies vaccine may be needed within five days of the incident. as determined by their doctor. the disease almost always results in death. What can people do to protect themselves against rabies?  Don't feed. Even though your pet has been vaccinated. touch or adopt wild animals.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/ . If there is a wound. ferrets and livestock that have bitten or otherwise caused a potential human exposure to rabies will be confined under the direction of the county health department and observed for ten days following the exposure. the full dose of HRIG should go into the wound. Other types of animals that cause a potential human exposure must be tested for rabies under the direction of the county health department. view a short video (1 minute 22 seconds) at www. plus 4 doses of rabies vaccine given over two weeks.

basement. skunks. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/contact. The phone number for your county health department can be found in the government listing of your telephone directory or the NYSDOH website at: www. bats. cats and ferrets as well as horses and valuable livestock animals are up-to-date on their rabies vaccinations. Detailed rabies information is also available at the following websites:   NYSDOH: Rabies Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Rabies Last Reviewed: October 2010 Last Updated: October 2010 Revised: September 2011 What is rabies? Rabies is a preventable viral disease of mammals (including humans) most often transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. who work on a fee-for-service basis. Don't leave them outside unattended or let them roam free.ny.health. do not let any animal escape that has possibly exposed someone to rabies. If nuisance wild animals are living in parts of your home. Bring children and pets indoors and alert neighbors who are outside. skunks and raccoons. consult with a nuisance wildlife control expert about having them removed. Cap your chimney with screens. If possible. Teach children not to touch any animal they do not know and to tell an adult immediately if they are bitten by any animal. Animal rabies is reported annually in New York City and State. primarily in bats. let it wander away. Don't attract wild animals to your home or yard. Tightly cap or put away garbage cans. Report all animal bites or contact with wild animals to your county health department.       Be sure your pet dogs. The vast majority of rabies cases in the United States each year occur in wild animals like raccoons. and foxes. porch or garage. in your telephone directory under pest control. New York City . Feed pets indoors. Board up any openings to your attic. You may contact a nuisance wildlife control expert who will remove the animal for a fee. Vaccination protects pets if they are exposed to rabid animals. You can find wildlife control experts. Keep your property free of stored bird seed or other foods that may attract wild animals. Keep family pets indoors at night. Pets too young to be vaccinated should be kept indoors and allowed outside only under direct observation. Where can I get more information about rabies? The county health department is your best source of additional rabies information. Rabies is almost always fatal once symptoms appear.htm. If a wild animal is on your property.

rabies rarely infects humans because of companion animal vaccination programs and the availability of human rabies vaccine. The one time dose of RIG and five vaccines administered over the course of one month is referred to as post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Table 1: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City and New York State 2003-2008 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 New York City New York State 6 14 28 44 44 19 429 546 565 612 515 496 Table 2: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City by Borough. In the United States. The human rabies vaccine is given in a series of five vaccinations along with one initial dose of rabies immune globulin (RIG). and continues to every year. can prevent infection after a person has been bitten or otherwise exposed to an animal with rabies. There have been no human cases of rabies in New York City for more than 50 years. Human rabies vaccine. New York State has reported 14 human cases since 1925. 2004-2009 Borough Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 13 0 0 0 26 1 0 1 6 0 1 2 14 0 0 1 13 1 0 1 15 0 12 1 .first saw rabies in animals starting in 1992. especially among animals in the Bronx. if administered promptly and as recommended.

can get rabies. back to top . 1992-2009 1992-2007 Bronx Queens Man SI Bklyn Total Raccoon Skunk Opossum Bat Dog Cat Groundhog Coyote Total 163 40 0 8 0 2 0 1 214 9 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 13 20 121 0 0 7 0 1 0 0 2 2 5 0 7 1 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 6 313 42 2 29 0 11 1 1 399 28 138      Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2009 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2008 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2007 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2006 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2005 back to top Who gets rabies? All mammals. bats. including humans. fox and coyotes. but it most often seen among wild animals such as raccoons.Staten Island 1 0 35 29 4 1 Table 3: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City by Species and Borough. skunk.

raccoons are the principal reservoir of rabies and primarily transmit the virus to other raccoons. In all cases involving rodents. but quite rare. as of January 2007. For more information on bats. foxes and coyotes are considered high-risk sources of virus. Every known or suspect encounter with a bat is considered a possible rabies exposure and is treated as such. back to top . raccoons may infect other animals such as cats. Rabbits and small rodents (such as chipmunks.e. a person that is sleeping or intoxicated). and squirrels) are rarely found to be infected with rabies and have not been known to transmit rabies to people. rats. which have occasionally been reported to have rabies. back to top How do people get rabies? People usually get rabies from the bite of a rabid animal. 263 animals have tested positive for rabies since 1992 when the virus was first introduced. On occasion. nose. when raccoon rabies is widespread in an area. skunks. see the link to the NYS DOH website listed below. rabies and advice on how to capture a bat. 32 were due to bats. Anyone who thinks they may have been exposed to a bat or a rabid animal should contact their physician or their local health department for advice. results will determine whether the person exposed needs PEP. or an open wound. suggesting that even limited contact with bats may be associated with transmission of the rabies virus. bats. dogs or other mammals. and the person exposed should receive PEP. and none occurred in New York City. While raccoons. guinea pigs. foxes and coyotes. for people to get rabies from a scratch or from direct contact with a rabid animals saliva or nerve tissue if it gets directly into their eyes. mouth. Two of those occurred in New York State. If the bat is not available for testing. The vast majority of those were raccoons. From 1990 to 2003 there have been 38 human rabies cases acquired within the US. gerbils. In the eastern US. an infant. A history of having had contact with a bat could only be documented in approximately half of the cases. the health department should be consulted before a decision is made to initiate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). hamsters. The one exception has been woodchucks or groundhogs. It is also possible.Which animals get rabies? Animal species most often diagnosed with rabies in the United States are wild and include raccoons. skunks. Bat bites may not be obvious as their teeth are small and very sharp. A suspect encounter would include any scenario in which a bat is found in an enclosed setting with a person who may not be fully aware of its presence (i. bats are the most common source of infection for people across the United States. In New York City. If the bat can be captured safely and tested. Of the 38 cases. while only 7 cats. the bat is assumed to be rabid. Bites by these animals are usually not considered a risk of rabies unless the animal appeared sick or was behaving in an unusual manner. 2 opossums and 1 coyote were reported. mice.

back to top . fever. such as petting a rabid animal or having contact with the blood. back to top What are the symptoms of rabies in animals? Animals with rabies most often exhibit behavior changes such as a friendly dog that becomes withdrawn or belligerent. hydrophobia (fear of water). A nonbite exposure could include a scratch. convulsions. Occasionally non-bite exposures are treated with PEP. confusion. with a throaty bark or snarl. stones. hallucinations.Can I get rabies in any way other than an animal bite? It is extremely rare for a person to get rabies from an exposure other than an animal bite. More recently. Rabies has been transmitted through organ transplantation. There have been eight well-documented cases of rabies transmission through corneal transplantation. excitation.g. headache. include irritability. vacant stare. and or impaired locomotion. They may eat or chew things such as wood. an aloof animal that becomes suddenly affectionate. guano or skunk spray) of a rabid animal. Inhalation of aerosolized rabies virus is also a potential non-bite route of exposure. agitation. dilated pupils. hypersalivation. plants. open wounds. One of the most recognizable signs is excessive drooling or foaming at the mouth. does not constitute an exposure and is not an indication for PEP. anxiety. and sometimes discomfort or tingling at the site of the bite or exposure. Other signs may include a change in voice so that it is hoarse. malaise. but this is extremely rare. varying degrees of paralysis frequently beginning at the head and neck causing jaws to hang open. delirium and death.. Other contact. urine or feces (e. but other than laboratory workers who work with the rabies virus. difficulty swallowing. which may last for several days. Within days the patient may develop slight or partial paralysis. muscle tremors (especially in cats). four persons became infected and died from rabies after receiving solid organ donations from one infected donor. abrasion. back to top What are the symptoms of rabies in humans? Early symptoms. most people are unlikely to encounter an aerosol of rabies virus. or mucous membranes of the nose or eye that gets contaminated with saliva or other potentially infectious material (such as brain or other nerve tissue) from a rabid animal. or other foreign objects. soil. or an animal that demonstrates unusual aggression.

If the animal does NOT develop rabies illness during the 10 days observation period.How soon after infection do symptoms appear? Typically. they were bitten by a skunk. This protocol may not apply to all animal species. In these animals. should be discussed with a medical provider. raccoon or bat that either has tested positive for rabies or the animal is not available for rabies testing 2. symptoms of rabies may start to appear within 1 to 3 months of exposure. rabies virus is present in saliva only a few days prior to the onset of their illness and up until their death. It is at this time or soon after that the animal begins to shows signs of illness. or a bat is found in an enclosed setting with a person that may not be fully aware of it's presence (i. Animal bites from animals other than ferrets. back to top . an infant. cat or ferret for 10 days to determine whether it could have been shedding rabies at the time of the bite. or exposure to a bat within the household. back to top When and for how long is an animal able to spread rabies? An animal can only transmit rabies through a bite when the virus has infected the animal's brain.. cats. the animal begins shedding the virus in its saliva. coyote. Once the brain is infected. This allows us to observe a biting dog. cats or dogs should be discussed with the DOHMH. although time periods of up to several years have been reported. cat or ferret that is unavailable for testing or a 10 day observation period 3. the animal was not shedding rabies virus and the exposed person does not need PEP. ferrets and some other animals the period during which they can shed the virus has been documented. Prior arrangements must be made through the DOHMH before samples will be accepted. fox. back to top What constitutes a possible rabies exposure? A person is considered to have had a possible rabies exposure if: 1. so any injury from an animal. back to top How are animals tested? Animal rabies testing is done at the New York City Public Health Laboratory.e. they had contact with a bat. a person that is sleeping or intoxicated). they were bitten by a dog. It is sometimes difficult to determine whether a possible rabies exposure occurred. For dogs.

you do not need to start rabies shots. followed by the injection of PEP which includes rabies immune globulin (dosage depending on weight) and four doses of rabies vaccine injected into the arm muscle on days 0. 3. have tested positive. cats and ferrets) vaccinated against rabies. name. If after 10 days the animal is still alive and healthy. 7.What is the preventive treatment for a potential rabies exposure (e. and 14 after exposure. especially those acting abnormally may minimize exposure to rabies. animal bite or bat exposure)? If a physician determines that rabies exposure may have occurred. Rabies preventive vaccine is no longer given in the abdomen. address and phone number. should be discussed with a physician to determine if rabies preventive treatment is necessary. No rabid dogs have been reported in NYC since 1954. although several cats. back to top What happens if I am exposed to rabies but I don't get PEP? Exposure to a rabid animal does not have to result in rabies. click here.. Any animal-related injury. It is also important to have domestic animals (dogs. This will help the DOHMH follow up with the pet owner regarding the 10 day at home observation. Immunosuppressed persons should receive a 5th dose of vaccine on day 28 followed by a blood test 14 to 28 days after the last vaccine to ensure an acceptable rabies antibody response. If preventive treatment is obtained promptly following a rabies exposure. the animal can be watched for a period for 10 days at home by the owner. back to top How can rabies be prevented? Avoiding contact with bats and staying away from all wild and stray animals. the bite victim does not need to get rabies shots. If the animal is available for observation. primarily strays. For the most recent rabies data. they will recommend PEP. most cases of rabies will be prevented. Report the bite to the DOHMH by calling 311. and any household exposure or other direct contact with a bat. Untreated cases of rabies will likely result in death. back to top What should I do if I've been bitten by a healthy dog or cat? Try to get the owner’s contact information including. The health department will attempt to communicate with the pet . Preventive treatment requires prompt washing of the bite site with soap and copious amounts of water.g. Immediately wash the wound with soap and water and consider seeking care from your health care provider. back to top What is the 10 day observation period? After a healthy dog or cat has bitten someone.

skunk. Call 311 to see if arrangements can be made to capture the animal and test it for rabies. If the animal will be tested. consider observing the animal for 10 days where it lives. The rabies virus is usually transmitted through a bite. back to top What if the dog or cat was a stray animal? If the animal is a healthy stray. stray dogs are the most likely to spread rabies to people. call 311 to see if arrangements can be made to capture the animal so it can be observed at a shelter. testing will be performed. coyotes. If during this time the animal develops signs of rabies. in most instances. . or any animal that appears rabid? Raccoons. raccoons and skunks. Animals most likely to transmit rabies in the United States include bats. of Health) • Rabies Information for Children (CDC) Rabies Definition By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies is a deadly virus spread to people from the saliva of infected animals. skunks and bats are known to transmit rabies.owner during this time. immediately wash the wound with soap and water and see your health care provider. foxes. you do not need to start the rabies vaccine. back to top What if I was bitten by a raccoon. but is regularly observed and easy to identy. back to top Related Information     • Rabies: Protecting Yourself and Your Pet • The Veterinary Public Health Service Website • Bat Inspection and Management (New York State Dept. In developing countries of Africa and Southeast Asia. unless the animal tests positive for rabies. bat. If you are bitten by one of these animals. Otherwise. Rabies testing requires that the animal be humanely euthanized.

The virus is spread through the saliva of infected animals. Causes By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies infection is caused by the rabies virus. In rare cases. For that reason. seek medical attention. Symptoms By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies doesn't cause any signs or symptoms until late in the disease. For instance. anyone who may have a risk of contracting rabies should receive rabies vaccines for protection. rabies can be spread when infected saliva gets into an open wound or the mucous membranes.Once a person begins showing signs and symptoms of rabies. If you awake to find a bat in your room. a bat that flies into your room while you're sleeping may bite you without waking you. Based on your injuries and the situation in which the bite occurred. assume you've been bitten. assume that person has been bitten. Signs and symptoms may include:            Fever Headache Agitation Anxiety Confusion Difficulty swallowing Excessive salivation Fear of water (hydrophobia) because of the difficulty in swallowing Hallucinations Insomnia Partial paralysis When to see a doctor Seek immediate medical care if you're bitten by any animal. This could occur if an infected animal were to lick an open cut on your skin. Infected animals can spread the virus by biting another animal or a person. Even if you aren't sure whether you've been bitten. such as a small child or a person with a disability. if you find a bat near a person who can't report a bite. the disease is nearly always fatal. such as the mouth or eyes. Also. . often just days before death. you and your doctor can decide whether you should receive treatment to prevent rabies.

including countries in Africa and Southeast Asia Activities that are likely to put you in contact with wild animals that may have rabies.Animals that can transmit the rabies virus Any mammal can transmit the rabies virus. In rare cases. the virus has been transmitted to tissue and organ transplant recipients from an infected organ. The animals most likely to transmit the rabies virus to people include: Pets and farm animals        Cats Cows Dogs Ferrets Goats Horses Rabbits Wild animals         Bats Beavers Coyotes Foxes Monkeys Raccoons Skunks Woodchucks There has never been a documented case of human-to-human rabies transmission. Risk factors By Mayo Clinic staff Factors that can increase your risk of rabies include:     Traveling or living in developing countries where rabies is more common. which may help the rabies virus travel to your brain more quickly   Tests and diagnosis By Mayo Clinic staff . such as exploring caves where bats live or camping without taking precautions to keep wild animals away from your campsite Working in a laboratory with the rabies virus Wounds to the head or neck.

Rabies shots include:   A fast-acting shot (rabies immune globulin) to prevent the virus from infecting you. Though a small number of people have survived rabies. Procedures for determining whether an animal has rabies vary by situation. Rabies vaccines are given as injections in your arm. If the animal that bit you remains healthy during the observation period. Treatment for people bitten by animals with rabies If you've been bitten by an animal that is known to have rabies. Other pets and farm animals are considered on a case-by-case basis. For that reason. Wild animals that can be found and captured. then it doesn't have rabies and you won't need rabies shots. it's possible to determine whether the animal that bit you has rabies before beginning the series of rabies shots. Treatments and drugs By Mayo Clinic staff There is no specific treatment for rabies infection. For instance:   Pets and farm animals. Tests on the animal's . as soon as possible after the bite. such as a bat that came into your home. But this will depend on several factors. there's no way to know whether the animal has transmitted the rabies virus to you. Part of this injection is given near the area where the animal bit you if possible.  At the time a rabid animal bites you. you'll receive a series of shots to prevent the rabies virus from infecting you. Blood and tissue tests are used to diagnose rabies in people who have signs and symptoms of the infection. Talk to your doctor and local public health officials to determine whether you should receive rabies shots. anyone thought to have been exposed to rabies receives a series of shots to prevent the infection from taking hold. the disease is usually fatal. For this reason. treatment to prevent the rabies virus from infecting your body is recommended if the doctor thinks there's a chance you have been exposed to the virus. If the animal that bit you can't be found. You receive five injections over 14 days. you won't need the shots. can be killed and tested for rabies. A series of rabies vaccines to help your body learn to identify and fight the rabies virus. That way. such as the type of animal and the situation in which the bite occurred. if it's determined the animal is healthy. it may be safest to assume that the animal has rabies. dogs and ferrets that bite can be observed for 10 days to see if they show signs and symptoms of rabies. Cats. Wild animals that can be caught. Determining whether the animal that bit you has rabies In some cases.

Here's how:        Vaccinate your pets. If you're traveling to a country where rabies is common and you'll be there for a long period of time.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=59&Itemid=64 Declaring RabiesFree Zones . Keep your pets confined. These small pets can't be vaccinated against rabies. Seal any cracks and gaps where bats can enter your home. FROM: http://rabiespoi. such as guinea pigs. Prevention By Mayo Clinic staff You can reduce your risk of coming in contact with rabid animals. Consider the rabies vaccine if you're traveling. you won't need the shots. If you know you have bats in your home. If the animal doesn't have rabies. Don't approach wild animals. work with a local expert to find ways to keep bats out. dogs and ferrets can be vaccinated against rabies. it may be safest to assume that the animal had rabies and proceed with the rabies shots.org/index. Keep rabbits and other small pets. Keep your pets inside and supervise them when outside. In certain cases. In other cases. Ask your veterinarian how often your pets should be vaccinated. Report stray animals to local authorities. Keep bats out of your home. discuss the situation with your doctor and the local health department. Protect small pets from predators. It's not normal for a wild animal to be friendly with people. This will help keep your pets from coming in contact with wild animals. Cats. Call your local animal control officials or other local law enforcement to report stray dogs and cats. it may be unlikely that the animal that bit you had rabies and it may be determined that rabies shots aren't necessary. inside or in protected cages so that they are safe from wild animals. Animals that can't be found. brain may reveal the rabies virus. ask your doctor whether you should receive the rabies vaccine. so stay away from any animal that seems unafraid. If the animal that bit you can't be found. Wild animals with rabies may seem unafraid of people.

Rabies Fast Facts .

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Rabies Fast Facts .

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the highest in the region) .2.3.Reported Rabies Cases in the Philippines for 2007 were 833 (with a rate of 1 per 100. Tarlac ranked second at the regional level with an incidence of 30 and a rate of 3.000 population Region IV-A had the highest incidence of rabies (in 2007).4. (rate of 2 per 100.000 population) Bulacan had the highest number of reported rabies cases for 2007 with a total of 126 but the rate was lower at 6. Region X had the 2nd highest incidence of rabies Region III ranked 3rd in national rabies morbidity in 2007 with 190 cases. Reported Rabies Cases in Angeles City for 2007 was 26 (with a rate of 8.

In 2001. there were 833 reported rabies cases in the country with a rate of 1.Reference: Field Health Service Information System Annual 2007 National Epidemiology Center. DOH recognizes that rabies remains a public health problem in the country despite the enactment of Republic Act 9482.000 population. otherwise known as the Rabies Act of 2007 which seeks to eradicate rabies in the Philippines by 2020.ph RABIES: THE PHILIPPINE SITUATION Rabies is a dangerous disease of animals transmissible to humans through bites. In the Philippines. In 2006. . We had gained notoriety among international communities as a nation with high endemicity (or prevalence) of rabies. In 2007. He died in a London hospital. Both countries have declared themselves rabies-free a long time ago. The Department of Health (DOH) estimates that 300 to 600 Filipinos die of rabies each year. In recent years. Department of Health. Manila www. scratches or licks on open wounds. a long-time resident of the UK contracted rabies after being bitten by a dog in the Philippines. the Philippines ranked fifth in the rabies list of the World Health Organization in terms of prevalence in a specific area.gov. At least 50% of victims are children aged 5 to 14 years. The last indigenous case of rabies infection in the UK occurred in 1902 while that of Japan was in 1954. It is transmitted to other animals through contact with virus-laden saliva from a rabid animal.doh. the most common sources of infection are dogs and cats.0 per 100. two Japanese nationals were infected after being bitten by dogs in the Philippines.

Rabies is highly and easily preventable in this day and age but once the signs and symptoms appear. 2541 H. REPUBLIC ACT NO. – This Act shall be known as the “Anti-Rabies Act of 2007”. Poypoy has not died in vain.people believed to have the power to eliminate the virus from the body with the use of a stone (called batong buhay) or by sucking with the use of a carabao horn or an animal bone are widely accepted as a wiser and more economical alternative to post-exposure treatment or vaccination. Last Updated on Wednesday. Rabies is a highly misunderstood disease among Filipinos. Tandoks or faith healers . No. the nineteenth day of February. His shocking and dramatic exit from this world has opened our eyes to the realities surrounding this disease. No.9482 AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE CONTROL AND ELIMINATION OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL RABIES. PRESCRIBING PENALTIES FOR VIOLATION THEREOF AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: SECTION 1. 4654 Republic of the Philippines Congress of the Philippines Metro Manila Thirteenth Congress Third Special Session Begun and held in Metro Manila. . Only a few know that an inch-long scratch or a playful lick on an open wound can cost a person his/her life. Title. 25 March 2009 16:33 Anti-Rabies Act of 2007 Date 2007-06-22 (RA 9482) S. Many. on Monday. rabies is almost always fatal and irreversible. especially those in rural areas. still believe that garlic and a few drops of vinegar can cure rabies. two thousand seven.

transmitted mainly through the bite of an infected animal and is characterized by muscle paralysis. prevention of the spread. and other neurological manifestations. (d) Dog refers to a common quadruped domestic animal belonging to the order carnivora (male or female). markets. police officers or government veterinarians. and eventual eradication of human and animal Rabies shall be provided and the need for responsible pet ownership established. (c) Direct Supervision refers to range supervision where physical presence of the veterinarian within the barangay is necessary. etc. Definition of Terms. (j) Rabies refers to a highly fatal disease caused by a lyssa virus. (b) Concerned Officials refers to barangay officials. the lips. 3. (g) Owner refers to any person keeping. health workers.SEC. 2. scientifically known as canis familiaris. – It is the declared policy of the State to protect and promote the right to health of the people. cuts or grips with its teeth so that the skin of a person has been wounded. care or control of a Dog including his/her representative. – For the purpose of this Act. (i) Public Place refers to any place open to the public like parks. or through contamination with virus-laden saliva on breaks in the skin and of mucous membranes such as the eyes. . the following terms shall mean: (a) Bitten refers to an act by which a Dog seizes. a system for the control. malls. (f) Impound refers to seize and hold in the custody of the law. or the genital organs. harboring or having charge. (e) Euthanasia refers to the process of painless death to Dogs and other animals. Declaration of Policy. hydrophobia and aerophobia. pierced or scratched. streets. (h) Pound refers to a public enclosure for stray animals. (k) Rabies transmission refers to the transmission or passage of the Rabies virus through a bite by an infected animal. Towards this end. the mouth. SEC.

(q) Veterinary or Human Barbiturates refer to drugs that depress the function of the central nervous system. with or without antiRabies immunizing agent. which include local wound care. The program shall be a multi-agency effort in controlling and eliminating Rabies in the country. 4. Stray and unvaccinated Dogs.(l) Rabies Vaccination/Immunoprophylaxis of Humans refers to the inoculation of humans. SEC.P. National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. ( (3) impounding. with modern day rabies vaccines or Rabies immunoglobulin. by a trained doctor or nurse under the supervision of a qualified medical practitioner.) refers to Rabies vaccination administered before an exposure to Rabies to those who are at high risk of getting Rabies. – It is hereby mandated that there shall be a National Rabies Prevention and Control Program to be implemented by a multiagency/ multi-sectoral committee chaired by the Bureau of Animal Industry of the Department of Agriculture. (m) Rabies Vaccination of Dogs refers to the inoculation of a Dog with a Rabies vaccine by a licensed government or private veterinarian or trained individual under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian. . (o) Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (P. (2) establishment of a central database system for registered and vaccinated Dogs.) refers to an anti-Rabies treatment administered after an exposure to Rabies.E.E. (n) Post-exposure Treatment (P. Rabies vaccine. (p) Stray Dog refers to any Dog leaving its Owner’s place or premise and no longer under the effective control of the Owner. field control and disposition of unregistered. Among its component activities include: (1) mass vaccination of Dogs. The services of the said trained individual shall be limited only to Rabies Vaccination Injection in Dogs and only during government mass vaccination campaigns.T.

Responsibilities of Government Agencies. (f) Assist the Dog bite victim immediately and shoulder the medical expenses incurred and other incidental expenses relative to the victim’s injuries. 5. (2) Ensure the availability and adequate supply of animal anti-Rabies vaccine at all times. adequate food and clean shelter. Responsibilities of Pet Owners. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and People’s Organizations (POs). (d) Be a responsible Owner by providing their Dog with proper grooming. as well as Local Government Units (LGUs) with the assistance of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). which shall jointly implement the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. – The following government agencies.) of schoolchildren aged five to fourteen in areas where there is high incidence of rabies as well as the (7) encouragement of the practice of responsible pet ownership. The program shall be implemented by the Department of Agriculture (DA). (b) Submit their Dogs for mandatory registration. Department of Health (DOH). (c) Maintain control over their Dog and not allow it to roam the streets or any Public Place without a leash. (6) provision of free routine immunization or Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (P. report immediately any Dog biting incident to the Concerned Officials for investigation or for any appropriate action and place such Dog under observation by a government or private veterinarian. for accurate record purposes.(4) conduct of information and education campaign on the prevention and control of Rabies. – All Pet Owners shall be required to: (a) Have their Dog regularly vaccinated against Rabies and maintain a registration card which shall contain all vaccinations conducted on their Dog. (e) Within twenty-four (24) hours. Department of Agriculture (1) Improve and upgrade existing animal Rabies laboratory diagnostic capabilities to ensure better services to the people.E. 6. SEC. Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) and Department of Education (DepEd). (3) Undertake free anti-Rabies Vaccination of Dogs giving priority to high . shall be tasked to: A. (5) provision on pre-exposure treatment to high risk personnel and Post Exposure Treatment to animal bite victims.P. SEC.

DENR. DepEd. B. (4) Coordinate with the DA in the development of appropriate health education strategy to inform the public on Rabies prevention and control and responsible pet ownership. POs and other concerned sectors. (10) Encourage collaborative activities with the DOH. (6) Immediately facilitate for the approval of the sale and use of Veterinary and Human Barbiturate drugs and veterinary euthanasia drugs by the DOH and the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA). (2) Provide Post-Exposure Treatment at the minimum expense to individuals bitten by animals suspected of being rabid which will consist of the initial vaccine and immunoglobulin dose. laboratory staff. Department of Health (1) Ensure the availability and adequate supply of DOH pre-qualified human Anti-Rabies vaccine in animal bite treatment centers at all times and shall coordinate with other implementing agencies and concerned NGOs for this purpose. DILG. NGOs. animal handlers. DepEd. vaccinators and other persons working with Rabies virus for free. (7) Immediately approve the registration of Veterinary and Human Barbiturate drugs and veterinary euthanasia drugs in coordination with the PDEA. but not limited to.risk depressed areas. veterinarians. DENR. (6) Encourage collaborative activities with the DA. (4) Maintain and improve animal Rabies surveillance system. (3) Provide Pre-Exposure Treatment to high-risk personnel. POs and other concerned sectors. (5) Establish and maintain Rabies free zone in coordination with the LGUs. (7) Strengthen the training of field personnel and the Information Education and Communication (lEC) activities on Rabies prevention and control and responsible pet ownership. (9) Formulate minimum standards and monitor the effective implementation of this Act. NGOs. Department of Education (1) Strengthen Rabies education program through school health . such as. (8) Conduct research on Rabies and its control in coordination with other agencies. (5) Develop and maintain a human Rabies surveillance system. C. DILG.

DILG. on their own. registered and issued a corresponding Dog tag for every i mmunized and registered Dog. (5) Ensure the enforcement of Section 6 of Republic Act No.That the other municipalities. DENR. (2) Assist in the Dog mass immunization campaigns in the community. in accordance with Section 9 herein: Provided. (12) For purposes of ensuring the administrative feasibility of implementing the provisions of this Act and subject to . (6) Enact additional local ordinances that will support the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program that should include the regulation of treatment locally known as “tandok. POs and other concerned sectors. Responsibilities of the LGUs.teaching/curriculum. city and firstclass municipality: Provided. (2) Strictly enforce Dog Impounding activities and field control to eliminate Stray Dogs. NGOs. (9) Prohibit the use of electrocution as a euthanasia procedure. particularly on the financing of supplies and human and Dog vaccines needed for immunization. opt to share the expense of having a veterinary office. establish a Dog Pound or opt to share the expense of establishing and maintaining a Dog Pound with other adjoining municipalities and/or with private animal shelters and control facilities. (10) Appoint a veterinarian and establish a veterinary office in every province. establish and maintain a Dog Pound where Impounded Dogs shall be kept. (3) Ensure that Dogs are leashed or confined within the premises of the Owner’s house or Owner’s fenced surroundings. (11) Require pet shops to post information regarding Rabies and responsible pet ownership. (3) Encourage collaborative activities with the DA. That the other municipalities shall. in their respective localities. shall. 7. 8485 or “The Animal Welfare Act of 1998”. SEC. shall: (1) Ensure that all Dogs are properly immunized.” (7) Prohibit the trade of Dogs for meat. on their own. (4) Integrate proper information and education on responsible pet ownership in the relevant subjects in the Elementary and High School levels. (4) Allocate funds to augment the implementation of the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. DOH. – LGUs. (8) With respect to cities and first class municipalities.

it is hereby mandated: . 9. Any and all fines collected pursuant to this Act shall be used for the enhancement of the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program within the locality concerned. Stray or unvaccinated Dogs shall be put in Dog Pounds and disposed of. (4) Promotion of the anti-Rabies campaign during pet or any animal shows. Impounding. (5) Surveillance/reporting of Rabies cases in animals and humans. or otherwise disposed of in any manner authorized. with the assistance of an animal welfare NGO. 10. 8485.paragraph 8 of this Section. – Unregistered. (3). as well as the achievement of the objectives envisioned in this Act. As such. when feasible. Dog Population Control. (3) Mass anti-Rabies campaign. SEC. (2) Impounded Dogs not claimed after three days from the Dog Pound shall be placed for adoption to qualified persons. Stray and Unvaccinated Dogs. Stray or unvaccinated Dogs shall be impounded and kept in the LGU’s designated Dog Pound. Assistance of NGOs and the Academe. (2) Health education/information dissemination on Rabies and responsible pet ownership. (4). (6) Any other activities geared towards the prevention and complete eradication of Rabies. 8. taking into consideration the following guidelines: (1) Unregistered. SEC. – In furtherance of the policy of this Act to eradicate Rabies. The DILG shall ensure compliance of these responsibilities by the LGUs. – The agencies tasked to implement the anti-Rabies program shall seek the assistance and participation of NGOs in any of the following activities: (1) Community mobilization. there is the need to control the Dog population and minimize the number of unwanted Stray Dogs. (5) and (6) hereof. (3) A fee shall be paid by Owners of Impounded Dogs to the LGU concerned. subject to the pertinent provisions of Republic Act No. pursuant to Section 7 hereof. Field Control and Disposition of Unregistered. otherwise known as the “Animal Welfare Act of 1998”. the LGU shall collect the fines imposed under Section 11 subparagraphs (1). SEC.

000. DOH. (9) If the violation is committed by an alien. (2) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog vaccinated against Rabies shall be liable to pay for the vaccination of both the Dog and the individuals Bitten by their Dog. LGUs. he or she shall be immediately deported after service of sentence without any further proceedings. 11.000.000.000.00).00) but not more than One thousand pesos (P1. (5) Pet Owners who refuse to put leash on their Dogs when they are brought outside the house shall be meted a fine of Five hundred pesos (P500.00) for each incident. (4) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog put under observation and do not shoulder the medical expenses of the person Bitten by their Dog shall be meted a fine of Twenty-five thousand pesos (P25. DILG. (6) An impounded Dog shall be released to its Owner upon payment of a fine of not less than Five hundred pesos (P500. (7) Any person found guilty of trading Dog for meat shall be fined not less than Five thousand pesos (P5.00) per act and subject to imprisonment for one to four years. at the expense of the Pet’s Owner.00). (3) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog put under observation after said Dog has Bitten an individual shall be meted a fine of Ten thousand pesos (P10. SEC. (2) That the LGUs shall provide an incentive system whereby Owners of Dogs which have been spayed or neutered will be given a subsidized or discounted pet registration fee. (8) Any person found guilty of using electrocution as a method of euthanasia shall be fined not less than Five thousand pesos (P5. with the assistance of NGOs and POs shall undertake an educational and promotional campaign on responsible Pet Ownership.000. – (1) Pet Owners who fail or refuse to have their Dog registered and immunized against Rabies shall be punished by a fine of Two thousand pesos (P2. (3) That Dogs which have been impounded three times shall only be released after having been spayed or neutered. Penalties. DepEd. including the option of spaying or neutering their Dogs.000.00).00) per Dog and subjected to imprisonment for one to four years.(1) That the DA.00). .

2541 and House Bill No. YABES House of Representatives . For the LGUs. 4654 was finally passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives on February 9. Thereafter.000. whichever comes earlier. Separability Clause. the other provisions shall remain in full force and effect. – The amount of One hundred million pesos (P100. – The DA. such sums as may be necessary for its continued implementation shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act. 2007 respectively. NAZARENO Secretary General OSCAR Secretary of the Senate MANNY President of the VILLAR G.000. DepEd. Implementing Rules and Regulations. SEC. 15. 2007 and February 20. JOSE DE VENECIA JR. 13. DILG and DepEd under the General Appropriations Act. SEC. DA.SEC. in coordination with the DOH. Approved. Appropriations.00) necessary to implement the provisions of this Act shall be initially charged against the appropriations of the DOH. NGOs and POs shall issue the necessary rules and regulations within sixty (60) days from the effectivity of this Act. – In case any provision of this Act is declared unconstitutional. ROBERTO P. 14. the requirements shall be taken from their Internal Revenue Allotment and other local funds. 12. – This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in the Official Gazette or in at least two newspapers of general circulation. Speaker of the House Senate of Representatives This Act which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. DILG. DENR. SEC. Effectivity.

and anxiety and agitation. Health officials say that it is during school vacation time that cases of rabies are on the rise because children play with the unvaccinated animals. pain. fear of air (aerophobia). Later. burning of itching sensation at the site of the bite. heart and respiratory failure. muscle spasms in the face and neck. Human rabies is a deadly disease and over 99 percent of people who develop the symptoms of the disease die. Matibag 20 Views: 630 The health department of the Philippines reported 264 human rabies cases between January and 23 October this year. Region III (36). delirium. abdominal pain. 206 died due to the virus that is transmitted by the infected saliva of animals. paralysis. Of these. especially dogs. coma. fear of water (hydrophobia). For this year. health officials are alarmed of the possible surge in the number of cases. With the Christmas vacation coming. 16 of whom succumbed. . Region V (29). symptoms become more distinctive such as hallucinations. through bites or licking of open wounds. The symptoms of human rabies are trivial such as fever. seizures.Approved: GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO President of the Philippines Rising rabies deaths alarms health dept Manila : Philippines | Nov 18. and Metro Manila (20). the following areas had the highest reported cases of rabies: Region IV-A (49). cough or sore throat. 2010 at 9:34 PM PST By Gino C.

the 10 countries with highest human deaths due to rabies are: India-244. Japan.The disease is also preventable through adequate vaccination of warm-blooded animal pets like dogs. rats. Report Credibility FROM: DOH . chickens. too. rabbits. Bats.900 China-13. Matibag is based in Manila. Do not kill the offending animal. fishes. elephants.377 Indonesia-1.658 Vietnam-5. and is a Stringer for Allvoices.683 Thailand-1. it is strongly advised that the bite wound be thoroughly washed with soap and running water for 15 minutes. Capture the animal and observe for 10 to 15 days for behavioral changes.183 Pakistan-2.042 Myanmar-1. Once bitten.843 Sri Lanka-2. Immediately go to the doctor for medical advice. and reptiles cannot transmit the disease.995 Philippines-5. New Zealand. In 2008. and monkeys. Philippines.208 Some of the countries that have successfully eradicated rabies are Australia. and horses may harbor the rabies virus. cats. National Capital Region. Birds. and the United Kingdom.478 Bangladesh-22. Gino C. Ask a veterinarian or any authorities for further action toward the animal.

responsible pet ownership and dog-bite victim immunization – is still recommended for all government units to control rabies in their areas of responsibility. and the disease almost always leads to death even when vaccination and medical management are given as soon as the symptoms have set in. animal control and other public health measures are undertaken because of the high case fatality rate for rabies. 6 among the countries with the highest incidence of rabies in the world. and the Philippines ranked number six among the countries with the highest reported incidence of rabies in the world. Meanwhile. and the Philippines ranked No. Philippines. Thus. Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Animal Industry. Rabies Although rabies is not among the leading causes of disease and death in the country it has become a public health problem of significance for two reasons: it is one of the most acutely fatal infections which causes the death of between 200-500 Filipinos annually. 2007. the Department of Health. Source: National Objectives for Health. Philippines. Further. Dogs remain the principal animal source of rabies. Prescribing Penalties for Violation Thereof and Appropriating Funds Therefore) on May 27. There is yet no way of immediately segregating those who had acquired rabies infection from those who had been bitten by nonrabid sources. . The battlecry is “SUMUNOD SA BATAS RABIES”. 9482 (An Act Providing for the Control and Elimination of Human and Animal Rabies. Department of Health. Although a great majority of animal bites are non-infected with the rabies virus. all efforts should be made to contain rabies at its source. 2005-2001. with universal immunization of dogs and responsible pet ownership as major preventive measures. It is hard to make a definite early diagnosis of rabies. local government units and partner agencies will advocate for the full implementation of the law nationwide. The rabies prevention and control program received its needed boost when President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed into law the Republic Act No. Manila. A threepronged approach – dog immunization.March is Rabies Awareness Month and September 28 is World Rabies Day! March is Rabies Awareness Month and September 28 is World Rabies Day! Rabies is 100% fatal viral disease affecting the nervous system of humans and animals.500 Filipinos annually. This next three years. the cost of postexposure vaccination against rabies can be prohibitive. the said agencies are also gearing up their efforts towards the goal of declaring the Philippines as Rabies-Free by the 2020. It remains a serious public health problem in the country which causes the death of between 200 .

The observation period for dogs or cats is usually 14 days starting from the day the animal has bitten a person. If the dog is apparently healthy. Do we need to kill the dog immediately? No. which is rabid at the time of the bite usually. it means that it is not rabid and has not transmitted the virus to the person. A rabid person can transmit the Rabies virus to another person and need to be given antiRabies immunization » 1627 reads What is the difference between the observation period and the incubation period? The observation period is the period of time that the dog or cat is observed for signs of Rabies. NCDPC Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given antiRabies immunization? Yes. dies within 14 days. » 1662 reads Do we need to kill the dog immediately? 8.Rabies. it should not be killed immediately and should instead be kept on a leash or caged for observation for 14 days. Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given anti-Rabies immunization? Yes. » 1285 reads Is rubbing the bite wounds with garlic and vinegar useful in the prevention of Rabies? . If it remains to be alive within that period. A rabid person can transmit the Rabies virus to another person and need to be given antiRabies immunization » 972 reads Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given antiRabies immunization? 10. Studies have shown that a dog or cat.

the risk of Rabies infection will be greatly reduced. The effect of the immunoglobulin is only short term. Rabies. multiple/single deep bites. By administering vaccine and immunoglobin at the right time to an animal bite victim. lips and mouth) in order to provide immediate protection against Rabies. » 1526 reads Is Rabies curable? No. irritation. which should be administered within the first seven days of active immunization. further introducing dirt into the wound). Passive immunization is the process of giving an antibody to persons with Category III exposure (head and neck bites. By washing the wound immediately with soap and clean water.No. Once signs of brain involvement are manifested. licks of the eyes. the Rabies victim dies within 1-3 days. contamination of mucous membranes. » 1254 reads Is “tandok” effective in the prevention of Rabies? No. “Tandok” is folk medicine done by placing a deer horn over the wound. » 1725 reads What is active and passive immunization? Active immunization or vaccination aims to induce the body to develop antibodies against Rabies whose effect lasts for 1 to 3 years. One important measure that will be of big help in reducing the risk of getting Rabies is by immediately washing the bite wound with soap and water. which only means that “tandok” is not effective. » 1257 reads Is Rabies preventable? Yes. This is believed to suck out the Rabies virus. Garlic and vinegar need not be applied on the bite wound for they will cause more injury (swelling. Records have shown that patients who received “tandok” treatment died either of Rabies or Tetanus. Rabies can be prevented. NCDPC What is Rabies post-exposure treatment? .

To determine whether a biting dog is rabid or not. what should be properly done? a. confine him in a cage or at least leash him in an isolated area. Carefully observe the animal for 14 days for physical symptoms described .Post-exposure treatment is given to persons who are exposed to rabid animals. Since rabies is a fatal disease which can kill those who get infected with it. » 1298 reads If bitten by a stray animal. with approximately 600 citizens dying of it every year. It consists of local wound treatment. Consult a physician or go to your nearest Animal Bite Center for immunization. if indicated. isolated places. The most obvious sign would be the hanging of the tongue and continuous drooling. Dogs with the furious type of rabies become wild and uncontrollable. It can also enter the body through a person’s eyes and mouth. It roams around aimlessly and will snap at or bite anyone who crosses its path. Rabies is a rampant health problem in the country. a person should seek treatment immediately after bitten by a rabid animal. A dog with this type of rabies will die suddenly without any indication beforehand. lethargic and tends to hide in quiet. The Department of Health (DOH) and other public health organizations hold annual seminars to educate the people about rabies. A dog becomes depressed. Dogs are the main sources of rabies in the country. Immediately wash the bite wound with soap and clean water. which is why households are always encouraged to have their dogs vaccinated and restricted within their properties. The lack of discipline towards animal care and the fact that animals are allowed to roam around freely in the streets are the main culprits behind the high incidence of rabies in the Philippines. and symptoms include the absence of appetite and difficulty in breathing. Of course. Antiseptics may be applied. Consult a veterinarian for the management of the biting dog. Let us examine the various rabies symptoms. b. active immunization (vaccination) and passive immunization (administration of rabies immunoglobin). Rabies is usually transmitted from a dog’s saliva and enters the body through breaks in the skin. the most obvious and popular symptoms of rabid dog is the continuous foaming of the mouth. There are two types of rabies: the furious type and the dumb type. The dumb type of rabies is the total opposite of the furious type. The victim may also be given antibiotics and anti-tetanus immunization. A dog becomes restless and has difficulty eating and drinking. even though they normally have a friendly disposition. c.

If the dog dies within two weeks. make sure to have your dogs vaccinated every year and keep them within the confines of your home or property. An infected person will experience dysfunction in the nervous system such as hallucination and paralysis. In humans. it is most likely rabid. nausea. To prevent the incidence of rabies in your area. vomiting and headache. If bitten by a rabid dog. bring the dog to a veterinarian for proper observation. make sure to get medical attention immediately. . Better yet. the signs of infection include: fever.above.

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