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ThisreportexplorestherelationshipbetweenCoachingandNeuroLinguistic Programming (NLP). What is Coaching? What is Neuro Linguistic Programming? What are the presuppositions of NLP? Where does NLP comefrom?WhatarethefoundationstonesofCoaching?HowisCoaching enhancedbytheuseofNLP?

Introduction

NLP fascinates me. I am currently at Practitioner level and enjoy incorporatingNLPtechniquesinmycoachingpracticeand,itisforthisreason, thatIwanttoexploretherelationshipbetweencoachingandNLPinmythesis. ThisisnotadefinitivestudybetweenthetwoprofessionsasIamstilllearning butIwouldliketotaketimetoexplorethewaysinwhichNLPcanbeusedin coachingsessionswithClients.

My experience to date shows that NLP accelerates the results for Clients withincoachingandthatNLPtechniquesaddanexcitingdimensiontochange andbridgingthegapbetweenwheretheClientisnowandwheretheywantto be.Sometimes,asaCoach,youcanfeelstuckastowhatcoachingskillto deploy effectively and, for me, NLP is a great tool to use with Clients. By suggestingatotallydifferentwayofapproachingasituation,youimmediately move the Client out ofbeing stuck andinto a more flexible frame of mind. WhenyouencourageClientstobringalltheirsensorymodesintooperation, the process of change has begun without them actually realising it. The desiredoutcomeisinvariablepositiveandlesshardworkthantheClienthad originallythoughtandcanbringaboutincredibletransformations.

ItmightsoundoddbutNLPisplayfuland,attimes,lighthearted.Itcanhave anamazingimpactthatgetsrighttotheheartofthematter.JosephOConnor in his NLP Workbook, I think, agrees when he says that NLP is a way of thinking,aframeofmindbasedoncuriosity,explorationandfun.

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WhatisCoaching?

CoActive Coaching by Laura Whitworth, Henry KimseyHouse and Phil Sandahlfordefinescoachingasapowerfulalliancedesignedtoforwardand enhancethelifelongprocessofhumanlearning,effectivenessandfulfilment.

You almost have to experience coaching to understand how unique and special the ClientCoach relationship can be because coaching creates a relational synergy. Together the Coach and Client define needs, wants, ambitionsanddesiresinanatmosphereoftrustwheretheClientfeelsfreeto discussanythingheorshewants.

Curly Martin in The Life Coaching Handbook stresses the job of the Life Coach is to get results results, result and nothing but results! She also addsthatcoachingisnotaboutadvisingyourClientstheCoachsstrength liesinallowingyourClientstofindtheanswersforthemselves.

Coacheswhoarenondirectionaldonottell,adviseorsuggesttoClientswhat they should do, but through questioning and listening to raise awareness, drawoutfrom themthesolutionsthatliewithinthem.

IlikeTimGallwayscoachingformulathathetalksaboutinTheInnerGame ofTenniswhenhesaysthatPotentialminusInterferenceequals

Performance and it is the job of a Coach to help a Client identify the interferenceandremoveit!

Clients come to coaching because they want to move forward in their lives and Coaches work with Clients to enable them to overcome their blocks, to help them realise their potential and to become the person that they are capableofbeing.

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WhatisNeuroLinguisticProgramming(NLP)?

The great thing about NLP is that there is no one set definition! It is constantly evolving and contributors to the field quotedifferently themselves. Forexample,RobertDiltssaysNLPiswhateverworks!JohnGrindersays that NLP is an acceleratedlearning strategy forthedetection and utilization ofpatternsintheworld.RichardBandlersaysthatNLPisanattitudeanda methodology,whichleavebehindatrailoftechniques.

NLPtrainersoftentellstoriesasameansofconveyingamessage.Hereis oneaboutNLP:

Aboyaskedhismother,WhatsNLP? Hismothersaid,Iwilltellyouinamoment,butfirstyouhavetodosomething soyoucanunderstand.Seeyourgranddadoverthereinhischair? Yep,saidtheboy. Goandaskhimhowhisarthritisistoday. The boy went over to his grandfather. Granddad, he said, hows your arthritistoday?

Oh, its a bit bad, son, replied the old man. Its always worse in damp weather. I can hardly move my fingers today. A look of pain crossed his face. The boy wentback to his mother. He said it was bad. I think it hurts him. AreyougoingtotellmewhatNLPisnow? Inaminute,Ipromise,repliedhismother.NowgooverandaskGranddad whatwasthefunniestthingthatyoudidwhenyouwereveryyoung. The boy went over to his grandfather, Granddad, he began, Whats the funniestthingIeverdidwhenIwasveryyoung? Theoldmansfacelitup.Oh,hesmiled,therewerelotsofthings.There wasthetimewhenyouandyourfriendplayedFatherChristmasandsprinkled talcumpowderalloverthebathroompretendingitwassnow.Ilaughedbut Ididnthavetocleanitup.Hestaredintothedistancewithasmile.

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Then there was the time I took youout fora walk. It was a lovely day and youweresinginganurseryrhymeyouhadjustlearned.Loudly.Amanwent past and gave you a nasty look. He thought you were being too noisy. He asked me to tellyou to be quiet. You turned round and said to him, If you dont like me singing, you can goand boilyour head. And carried on even louderTheoldmanchuckled. The boy went back to his mother. Did you hear what Granddad said? he asked. Yes,hismotherreplied.Youchangedhowhefeltwithafewwords.Thats NLP.

While this is by no means a complete description of what NLP is, it does illustrate how you can help someone change their state and, in NLP, calibratingthestateofaClientandelicitingachangeofstateisessentialto afirmunderstandingofNLPandallowsusaninsightintothemodelsofhow individualsstructuretheiruniqueexperiencesoflife. WhatarethePresuppositionsofNLP?

ThedevelopmentofNLPhasresultedinanumberofpresuppositions.These include:

1. The map is not the territory whatever the world is like we use our sensestoexploreandmapit.Thesortofmapyoumakedependson whatyounoticeandwhereyouwanttogo. 2. Thereisnofailure,onlyfeedback. 3. Themindandbodyaffecteachother. 4. Youareinchargeofyourmindandthereforeofyourresults. 5. Peoplehavealltheresourcesthattheyneedtomakethechangesthat theywant. 6. Itisbettertoincreaseyournumberofchoices. 7. Ifwhatyouaredoingisntworkingdosomethingdifferent. 8. Themeaningofthecommunicationistheresponseyouget. 9. Respectotherpeoplesmodeloftheworld. 5| P a g e CoachingandNLP(c)NobleManhattanCoachingLtd

10. Language does not describe reality. It is a result of an external stimulus,followedbyapersonalinternalrepresentation. 11. Thepersonwiththemostflexiblebehaviourwillcontroltheoutcomeof aninteraction. 12. Thehighestqualityinformationaboutotherpeopleistheirbehaviour. 13. Apersonsbehaviourinagivensituationisthebestchoiceavailableto them. 14. Apersonsbehaviouriscontextualandisnottheirselforidentity. 15. Thereisnosuchthingasaresistantclientonlyalackofrapport. WhataretheOriginsofNLP?

NLPcoversthreemainareas:

Neurology Linguistic

themindandhowwethink howweuselanguageandhowitaffectsus

Programming howwesequenceouractionstoachieveourgoals.

Going back to its origins NLP has an intellectual history and philosophical basis and an understanding of this enables you to see where the NLP presuppositionshavecomefrom.

MajorinfluencesonNLPhavecomefromvariousschoolsofthoughtincluding Pragmatism, Constructivism, General Semantics, Person Centred Therapy, TransactionalAnalysis,theToteModel,Cybernetics,SystemTheory,Gestalt Theory,EricksonianHypnotherapyandtheworkofVirginiaSatir.

It was the work of John Grinder and Richard Bandler in the 1970s who specificallycreatedNLPandtheyspenttimestudyingandmodellingthework ofthedifferentschoolsofthought.

The theory of Pragmatism, devised by the American philosopher and psychologist William James, looked at what it was like to be inside an

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experience. JamesworkisprobablythecloselyforerunnerofhowNLPdeals withtimelinesbecausehespokeaboutthesubjectiveexperienceoftime

TheConstructivistargumentsaysthatweeachmakeourown mapofreality because we experience the world through our senses what we see, hear andfeel.Also,ourculture,values,expectations,preoccupationsandsociety

Filter what and how we experience reality. We are responsible for how we perceiveandhowweactonourperceptions.

General Semantics, founded by Alfred Korzbyski, coined one of NLPs presuppositions,themapisnottheterritory,thatis,ourwordsarefarmore limitedthantheexperienceitself.Hesaidthat,asindividuals,wemakemaps ofrealitywithourlanguageandthentakethatmapforrealityitself.

KorzybskisworkwasfurtherdevelopedbyGeorgeLakoffandMarkJohnson who developed the idea that all language speaks in metaphors and that we canonlyspeakofwhatthingsarelike,andnotexactlyhowthingsare.NLP oftentakeslanguageliterallyasacluetothethoughtprocessbehindit.

NLPabsorbedtheworkofCarlRogersandPersonCentredTherapythatall listeningshouldbenonjudgementalandthattheClientslanguageshouldbe reflectedbacktothemasawayofexploringtheirbeliefsandpresuppositions toleadtoanunderstandingandaresolutionoftheirproblem.

Transactional Analysis from Eric Berneintroduced theidea that people have threeprincipalpartsoftheirpersonalitythatthinkandreactdifferently,thatis, the parent, adult and child. Grinder and Bandler studied videotapes of Berne doing psychotherapy and took for NLP the metaphor of personality parts. This idea is useful in NLP terms because people often feel split by conflicting desires and emotions and exploring parts is a useful way of dealingwithproblemsanddifficultdecisions.

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TheTOTE model,introducedin the 1960s, says we act toreducedifference betweenapresentstateandadesiredone.ItisstillusedinNLPbecauseit

NLPisacyberneticmodel,thatis,theresultsononeactionarefedbackinto thesystemandusedasthebasisforthenextaction.

ThefourpeoplewhohadthemostinfluenceonthedevelopmentofNLPwere GregoryBateson,FriedricPerls,MiltonEricksonandVirginiaSatir.

Bateson was an English anthropologist but his work touched on many fields including ethnology, psychiatry, psychology, cybernetics and systems theory andhiswritingsformtheintellectualbasisforNLP.

Fritz Perls was originally trained asa psychoanalyst and went on to develop Gestalt Therapy which proposed that people should trust their own instincts and enjoy their experience. He believed in the integration of mind and emotionsandpersonalgrowth.

Like Perls, Virginia Satir used a persons senses (their representational systems) of visual, auditory and kinaesthetic, in therapy to help clients experience solutions to their problems. She was a family therapist whose work concentrated onincreasing selfesteem and understanding the point of view of other people. She worked closely with John Grinder and Richard Bandlerintheearlyseventies.

Milton Ericksons background was in medicine and psychology and he went on to become a hypnotherapist. He was fascinated by the uniqueness of everypersonandhowtheywereabletodowhattheydidsohelettheClients dictatetheformoftherapyratherthanusingasystematicapproach.Bandler andGrindermodelledhisworkandEricksonslanguagepatternsaretaughtin NLPastheMiltonModel.

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WhatarethecornerstonesofCoaching?

CoActiveCoachingdefinesthefourcornerstonesofcoachingas:

1. TheClientisnaturallycreative,resourcefulandwhole. 2. CoachingaddressestheClientswholelife. 3. TheagendacomesfromtheClient. 4. Therelationshipisadesignedalliance.

Withinthis,CoActiveCoachingreferstothefivecontextsofcoachingas:

Listening Intuition Curiosity Action/Learning SelfManagement

Coachingskillstypicallyusedinclude:

o Articulating o Clarifying o Metaview o Metaphor o Acknowledging

CoActive Coaching also identifies other coaching techniques used and theseincluderequesting,brainstorming,intrusion, asking permission, bottom lining,championing,clearing,reframing,challenging,tellinganddemanding,

Inquiry assignment, learning from failure as from success and noticing, recognisingandnamingthegremlinsoitbeginstolooseitspower.

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CoachingModels

There are various coaching models in use, two popular ones being the TGROWandtheICANDOmodels.

TRGOWstandsforTopic,Goal,Reality,Options,WayForward. ICANDOstandsforInvestigate,CurrentSituation,OverallAims,Numberof Options,Date,Outcome.

The Coachs place in either model is to create an environment in which Clients are able to focus entirely on their fulfilment, balance and process. Within each session, a particular goal or aim is highlighted and the Coach usesdifferenttechniquestoelicitClientawarenesssothattheClientcanfind theirownanswers.

AnEffectiveCoach

CoActive Coaching refers to the effective coach as having the ability to danceinthemoment,thatis,thereisnopresetformulatofollowbutrather the Coach must wait to hear the Clients response before deciding in which directiontomovetheconversationforward.TheCoachmustkeeponhisor her toes to move gracefully into the next question or to employ a coaching skill.

AnEffectiveCoachNeedsListeningSkills

An effective Coach listens equally to the words that the Client is saying as wellastothosewhichareunsaid.Incoaching,youaretaughtthatthereare three levels of listening the first is typical of a normal conversation where both parties share viewpoints, the second is focused listening whereby the CoachfocusesexclusivelyonwhattheClientissaying,and,thethirdisglobal listening in which the Coach picks up on emotion, body language and the

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environmentitself.Thisincludesthesensorydataaswellasmood,paceand energy.

Acoachneedstobeabletolistenactivelyandthisinvolvesclarifyingwhatthe Client says, noticing body language, being aware of the feelings behind the wordsandbeingsensitivetothecontextoftheconversation.ACoachtakes in theinformation, responds and notices theimpact on the Client. A Coach hastobeabletoreadtheimpacttheyarehavingontheClientandadjusthis orherownbehaviouraccordingly.

AnEffectiveCoachNeedsIntuition

WhenaCoachlistensatlevelthreethisislisteningwithtrueawareness.This involvestrustingourownintuitionandoperatingatasubconsciousleveland beingawareofourowngutfeelings,thoughtsandhunches.

AnEffectiveCoachNeedstobeCurious

CoActive Coaching states that the coachs job is to ask questions powerful questions that break through old defences. A Coach has to be curioustobeinterestedinfocusingatlevelthreeononepersonforaperiodof time. The task as a Coach is to encourage the Client as well to become curious about him or herself in a safe and confidential environment. If a CoachscuriositycanhelpraiseaClientsselfawarenessthat,inturn,raises hisorherownselfdisclosure,thisisapowerfulsteponthepathtochange.

An Effective Coach Needs to Promote a Clients Action and Learning

CoActiveCoachingstressesthatthepurposeofthecoachingconversation istoforwardtheactionanddeepenthelearning.TheTGROWmodelisa useful coaching tool in that it enables a discussion to take place about the way forward for a Client. After the goal has been set and the reality of the situation explored, options are encouraged which lead to an actionplanning 11| P a g e CoachingandNLP(c)NobleManhattanCoachingLtd

stage.TheseshouldbeSMARTthat,is,specific,measurable,achievable, realisticandtimeoriented.Coachesshouldseekalevelofcommitmentfrom a Client which encompasses commitment, intention and motivation. This is often done on a scale of 110, and taken that change will take place if the Clientratestheirscoringasa7orabove.

In subsequent coaching sessions,itis valuable toreview progress tohelp a Clientlearnmoreaboutthemselvesandhowtheycouldbemoreeffectivein helping themselves achieve their goals. This might lead to the use of other coaching techniques to help a Client move forward, such as a review of values and beliefs as well as other issues, such as the wheel of life, what drainsaClient,lookingatdailyhabits,timemanagement,gremlinclarification andsayingyessayingno.

AnEffectiveCoachNeedstoManageThemselves

ACoachsabilitytomanagehimorherselfismorethanjusttheabilitytolead a coaching session. I like the quote by Laura Whitworth in CoActive Coaching that says, in order to truly hold the Clients agenda, the Coach mustgetoutoftheway!ThismeansthataCoachmustnotbringtheirown issues or their own map of the world into a coaching session, rather the Coachisthere100%fortheClient.ItisimportantforaCoachtobecoached themselvesasthisnotonlysetsagoodexampletotheClient,butenablesa Coachtolearnmoreabouttheirownselfawareness.

OtherEffective Coaching Skills: Articulating, Clarifying,Metaview, Metaphor,Acknowledging

AlthoughIhaveputthesecoachingskillstogethertheyareimportantintheir own right. Articulation is the ability of a Coach to describe in a succinct mannerwhatisgoingonandtomirrorbacktotheClientwhattheyhavejust saidtoyou.ItisaskillwhichaffirmstheClient.Sometimes,justtohearback to us what we have said is all we need to lead to greater selfawareness. Clarifying is allied closely to this because it is a means of checking 12| P a g e CoachingandNLP(c)NobleManhattanCoachingLtd

understanding and itis essential that a Coach never assumes what a Client hasmeant.

Metaview opens up the big picture for a Client and enables a Client to see themselves or their situation in a new light. Sometimes, a different perspective is all that it needs to facilitate a different thought process in a ClientthatthenleadsontotheClientgivingthemselvespermissiontochange or to do something differently. Metaphors are a wonderful technique to use with Clients because, although they are expressed in words, they draw on imageryandexperiencetohelpaClientcomprehendmorequicklyandeasily. SometimesthetruthforaClientisintheirheartorintheirgutandnotintheir mind. Metaphors allow the meaning to be more expansive than the literal meaningoftheindividualwordsused.

Clientscometocoachingbecausetheyrealisethereisagapbetweenwhere they want to be and where they are now. It takes courage to open up to another person and to make changes in ones own life. It is, therefore, so importanttoacknowledgethisandtopraiseaClientforbeingthemselves,for being honest and open, for wanting to move forward towards their dreams and goals. Also, it is important to acknowledge a Client for trying and not always succeeding as there is always learning in action. I find that when I acknowledge my Clients, although I might not see them because we are speaking on the phone, I can detect a movement / a change in them, as thoughthroughmysimpleacknowledgementofwhotheyare,ithashelpedto increasetheirselfesteem.ItalsogivesaClientencouragementtocontinue ontheirjourneyandthisissoimportantwithincoachingasClientscanoften experiencesetbacksontheirpathtowhattheywantinlife.

HowisCoachingenhancedbytheuseofNLP? NLP explores how your thoughts (neuro) are affected by words (linguistic) leadingtoaction(programming). IfthepresuppositionsofNLParecombined

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withthecornerstonesofcoaching,thismakesforapowerfulcombinationand givesboththeCoachandClientaddedresourcesforelicitingchange.

Inmyopinion,theuseofNLPcanenhancecoachinginthefollowingways: ManagingyourownstateasaCoach EnhancingrapportwithaClient MonitoringaClientsstate UnderstandingaClientsviewoftheworld ChangingaClientsstate Improvingquestioningskills Coachingatanunconsciouslevel SettinggoalswithClients HelpingClientsdealwithdifficultandstuckissues ReplacingaClientsselflimitingbeliefswithempoweringones IdentifyingthelevelatwhichClientsneedtomakechanges ManagingyourownandaClientslearning IncreasingproblemsolvingtoolsandstrategiesforClients

MANAGINGYOUROWNSTATEASACOACH

In coaching, it is important to focus 100% on a Client. This means leaving behind your own issues, concerns, judgements and prejudices. NLP helps you learn how to manage your own state. This means having a good awarenessofyourownbeing,thatis,yourphysiology,yourthinkingandyour emotionssothatyouarebetterabletoputthemasidewhencoaching.Ifyou are aware of your ideal coaching state you can make sure you are in this statewhenworkingwithClients.

ENHANCINGRAPPORTWITHACLIENT

There are verbal and nonverbal ways of communicating. Using nonverbal techniques of matching, mirroring, pacing and leading as well as crossover 14| P a g e CoachingandNLP(c)NobleManhattanCoachingLtd

matching,youcanbuildandmaintainrapportwithaClient.Incoachingyou usetheserapportskillsandNLPtakesthisfurtherbyincreasingthedetailat whichrapportcanbebuiltandmaintained.

In Influencing with Integrity, Genie Laborde describes unconscious visible responses which should also be noticed and this includes changes in skin colour, facial muscles, the lower lip and breathing. She says you should notice these changes, not to make judgements about your Client, but to increaseyoursensoryskillsfromawarenesstoacuityaswellastoincrease yourchoiceofbuildingrapport.

Other ways in which NLP helps you to enhance rapport with a Client is throughnoticingtheuseofaClientslanguage.Everypersonhasapreferred styleof communication and this revolves around the senses of sight, sound, touch, taste and smell. Our language reveals our preferred senses through theuseofwords.Observingthisparticularsensoryacuityisabasicskillin NLPandhelpsimmenselywithcoaching.

Recognising a Clients preferred predicate, ie. sensorybased words, allows theClienttofeelthatheorsheiscommunicatingwellwiththeCoachandthis makesiteasierfortheClienttodiscloseinformationabouthimorherself.If, asCoaches,wehavetheabilitytodothis,Clientswillfeelmorecomfortable talkingtousandthiswillhelpbuildtrustandstrengthenthecoachingalliance.

InNLP,oneofthepresuppositionsisthatthereisnoresistantclient,onlya lackofrapportandthismeansthatitistheresponsibilityofthepractitioner/ coachtobuildagoodrelationshipwithaClient.

MONITORINGACLIENTSSTATEBYNOTICINGTHEIRPHYSIOLOGY

In NLP there is a model of communication which says that if a Client thinks differently,heorshewillalsoactdifferently(andviceversa).Incoaching,it is important to be observant and NLP helps you understand how the mind

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processes information and how this manifests itself by changes at the physiologicallevel.

TheNLPpresuppositionthatthemindandbodyaffecteachotherencourages theCoachusingNLPtoworkholisticallywithaClient.AshiftinaClients physiologyindicatesthattheirinternalprocessingofinformation,ie.hisorher thinking,hasalsoaltered.

Through the study of NLPthe Coach becomes more tunedinto eliciting and calibratingstatesinClientsandthattherearemorewaysofjustworkingwith a Client other than communicating through words. Actions play alarge part aswell.

Another way NLPhelps Coaches to notice whatis happening with Clientsis through the use of eye accessing clues. By observing the direction of a Clientseyemovements,youcanpickuponthekindofthinkingthatisgoing onandwhethersomeoneisthinkinginavisual,auditoryorkinaestheticway. Thisisoftenbackedupthroughotherbodylanguagesignalssuchasthetone, volumeandpitchofourvoice.

UNDERSTANDINGACLENTSVIEWOFTHEWORLD

Most people listen at a superficial level. Coaching trains you to listen on a globallevel,thatis,withyoursenses.NLPtakesthisfurtherbygivingyouan increasedunderstandingofthemeaningofaClientsuseoflanguagethrough submodalitywork,thatis,thesmallestbuildingblocksofthoughtsthatreveal moredetailsabouthowapersonsees,hearsandfeels.

Knowledge of submodalities canincrease aCoachseffectivenessin helping aClientchange.Examplesofsubmodalitiesinthevisualfieldincludecolour, brightness,size.Auditorysubmodalityexamplesinclude,forexample,tone, pitch, volume and, kinaesthetic submodalities include such things as texture andtemperature.Submodalitiesalsoexistwithintasteandsmellbutthemain onesthatNLPemphasizesarevisual,auditoryandkinaesthetic. 16| P a g e CoachingandNLP(c)NobleManhattanCoachingLtd

Learning about the NLP presupposition that language does not describe realityalsoenhancesaCoachsskillincommunicatingwithaClient.Thisis because our language is less rich than the way our senses experience life andwehavetousefiltersofdeletion,distortionandgeneralisationtohelpus communicate with others. This explains why a Coach should never make assumptionsbecauseeachpersoncreatestheirownmeaningofawordand anexperience.

A Coach who appreciates that it is really important to understand a Clients viewoftheworldandthereasonsbehindthis,will,inmyopinion,beamore effective Coach. We each have our own reality which is a result of an external stimulus, followed by our own personal internal representation and whenwecoachweneedtoputourownmapofrealitytoonesidetobefully presentintheClients.

CHANGINGACLIENTSSTATE CoachingisconnectedtohelpingClientsmakechangesintheirlivesand,as individuals,weareallabletomanagethesebetterifweareinaresourceful state.Anchoringisaprocessoflearningtoholdontoemotionalstatesthat are crucial to our outcomes. We all have natural anchorsbut, at times, we needtechniquestohelpusbemoreeffective.UsinganchorswithourClients helps them to tap into their inner potential and choose the best emotional statetosuittheircircumstances.

Workingwithanindividualssubmodalities,aCoachusingNLP,cancreatea rangeofanchorstoincreaseaClientsabilitytoleadhimorherself.There aremanydifferentwaysofusinganchorsbut,asOConnorandSeymoursay inIntroducingNeuroLinguisticProgramming,theimportanceofanchoringis that is enables us to increase our emotional freedom by escaping from the tyrannyofpastnegativeexperiencesandcreatingmorepositiveones.

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HELPINGWITHQUESTIONINGSKILLS Good coaches pay attention to questioning skills because the right question canmakeallthedifference.WhenaClientrespondstoaquestionthereare often different questions a Coach can ask in return. NLP helps you decide whichquestiontoaskbecauseyouhaveagreaterunderstandingoflanguage, howpeopleprocessinformationandtheeffectthatcertaintypesofquestions might have on Clients so you can choose your questions with more confidenceandcare.

Intermsofquestions,NLPalsohelpsyou,asaCoach,maintainrapportwith your Client as you ask questions. You can do this by noticing the Clients state and representational systems, that is, the preferred sensorybased wordstheClientisusing,andaskingquestionsthatreflecttheClientswords back to them. At its simplest, Clients often talk in terms of what they think, feel, see, etc, and it is good practice as a Coach to use these words in the questionsweaskbacktotheClient.

NLP can also enhance a Coachs technique by exploring further the use of language. The linguist, Noam Chomsky, identified different layers of languagefromsurfacetodeepandaCoachneedstobeawareofthisin order to ask questions that help to recover information which a Client has filteredthroughaprocessofdeletion,distortionorgeneralisation.

The surface structure is everything we say, either to ourselves or to others, andthedeepstructureistheunderlyingmeaningofwhatwesay,containing informationneitherexpressednorknownconsciously

InNLP,adistortioniswhenyouchangeanexperienceandmakeitdifferentin someway.Adeletioniswhenyoumissoutaportionofanexperienceanda generalisation is when one specific experience comes to represent a whole classorgroupofexperiences.

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Chunking is another NLP language technique that is helpful in forming coachingquestions.Youcanchunkup,downandsideways.Chunkingupis connectedto the Milton Model and chunking down is connected to the Meta Model. Sideways chunking relates to metaphors that Clients use to make sense of their experience. In coaching thisis a valuable technique because through the use of metaphors a Clients mind is opened to many possible meaningsfromtheonetheyoriginallyhad.

COACHINGATANUNCONSCIOUSLEVEL

SueKnightinherbookNLPAtWorkexplainsclearlyhowthepowerofthe voiceandtheinfluenceoflanguagehelpwithcoachingskills.Shesays:Our consciousmindsareobedienttocommandsweseekoutthecommandsin asentenceandignoretherest.Tellingsomeone,Dontworry,willnotstop that person from worrying because the unconscious responds to indirect ratherthandirectcommunication!

Familiarity with the Milton Model, so named by John Grinder and Richard Bandler from modelling the hypnotherapist Milton Erickson, illustrates the importanceoftheuseofourwordsandthemannerinwhichtheyaresaidto ourClients.

Understanding this helps us be more effective Coaches and gives us the abilitytopaceandleadourClientsusingartfullyvaguelanguageinorderto accesstheunconsciousmindanddistractandutilisetheconsciousmind.

AsOConnorsaysinIntroducingNLP,theMiltonModelfollowsthewaythe mind works naturally . you are highly motivated to learn from your unconscious in an inner directed way. You do not tell a Client what to do ratheryoudirecthisorherattentiontowhatisthere.

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SETTINGGOALS

Coaching stresses the importance of goal setting and the TGROW model endorsesthisapproach.SomegoalsClientswishtoachievemaytakeashort orlongtimeandsometimesagoalchangesalongtheway.Whatiscrucialis thatagoalissetsothattheClienthasadirectiontofollowandthecoaching processtakesaccountofreviewinggoalsandlearning.

NLPisareallyusefultoolwithgoalsettingbecauseitencouragesClientsto usetheirsensesintheprocess.Thisisreferredtoasawellformedoutcome. GenieZLabordieinInfluencingwithIntegritysaysthatbyusingthesenses in this way, it impacts significantly on your thinking process: what you think aboutarethepictures,words,orfeelingsyouhaveselected.Youwillnotice whatisavailableinyourimmediateenvironmentandamongpastexperiences toassistyou.

There is a series of twentyone questions which you can go through with Clients in forming outcomes. These questions cover the senses, negative and positive consequences and synaesthaesia. Synaesthaeisa questions makethebrainworkatprocessinginformationandinclude:

Whatwouldhappenifyoudidgetthatoutcome? Whatwouldhappenifyoudidntgetthatoutcome Whatwouldnthappenifyoudidgetthatoutcome? Whatwouldnthappenifyoudidntgetthatoutcome?

As a Coach, you can use a great NLP technique to consolidate wellformed outcomesbytheprocessoffuturepacing.Thisinvolvesmentallyrehearsing an outcome so that it is more compelling and selffulfilling for a Client. This can be done on a timeline, that is, the line that connects our past with our futureandtheplacewestorepictures,soundsandfeelingsofourpastand future.

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MOTIVATINGCLIENTS

Clients often come to coaching because they need greater accountability in theirlivestoachievetheirgoalsandtheylooktotheCoachtohelpthemfind waysoffulfillingtheirdreams.ThroughtheuseoftheMetalModel,ifaCoach canlearntoidentifythemotivationtraitsofaClientand,inturn,speakinthe Clients own personal style, the Coach will be more influential in helping a Clienttohelpthemselves.

Shelle Rose Charvet in her book Words that Change Minds says that the important point in helping Clients motivate themselves is to listen to how people answer, instead of what they say. In this way, after asking a few simplequestions,youcandeterminewhatwilltriggerandmaintainsomeones motivationandhowtheyinternallyprocessinformation.

People have different patterns of what motivates them. One pattern is towardandawayfrom.So,forexample,ClientAismotivatedtoachieve a goal by sorting out the problems (away from) and Client B is motivated to achievethesamegoalbytherewardattheend(towards).

In coaching both Clients you would raise different issues with each, thereby reflectingtheirownuseof motivatinglanguageandconcernsandyouwould need to be careful not to stereotype Clients as individual patterns vary dependingonthecontext.

DEALING WITH DIFFICULT ISSUES / HELPING CLIENTS BECOME UNSTUCK

IthinkNLPoffersimaginativesolutionstocoachingClientswhentheystumble across difficult and unresolved issues. As long as you are confident that coaching rather than counselling is appropriate, there are a variety of NLP techniquesthatyoucouldconsiderusing.Theseincludeswish,disassociated /associated,visualisation,timelinesandeyemovementintegration.

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If a Clientis finding change difficult, suchas giving up smoking, dieting, etc, the use of swish can replace unwantedbehaviour or habitsin favourornew onesandtheNLPCoachworkswithaClientssubmodalitiestoelicitchange.

IfaClientfindsrevisitinganexperiencedifficultorpainful,theNLPtechnique of helping a Client disassociate their emotions from the experience is really usefulandcanhelpwithdeepseatedfearssuchasphobias.

In NLP, time is experienced subjectively as distance and each person has theirownindividualtimelineofthepast,presentandfuture.Incoachingyou canusetimelinestohelpClientsresolveissuesinthepastasawayforward toamorecompellingfuture,toaccessresourcesandtoorganisetheirlives.

Eye movement integration is a simple, clever NLP technique that helps Clientsidentifywheretheyarestuckonaparticularissueandhelpsthemdeal withitinadifferentandnonverbalway.TheCoachmetaphoricallyholdsthe Clients problem while the Coach moves his / her hand through the visual, auditory and kinaesthetic eye movements until the Clients gaze remains steadythroughout.ThisenablestheClienttobringmanydifferentresources and ways of thinking to bear on a problem in different and creative combinations.

CHANGINGBELIEFS

Incoaching,yourClientsgoalsaremorelikelytobeachievediftheirvalues areinalignmentwiththeirbeliefs.Animportantpartofcoachingishelpinga Clientdiscoverwhattheirvaluesareandwhatbeliefsareneededinorderto help a Client succeed with their outcomes. Often selflimiting beliefs hold Clients back with managing change and NLP helps Coaches work with changingaClientsselflimitingbeliefs.

UsingNLP,therearevariouswaysofworkingwithbeliefs.Severalofthese models involve the splitting up of a belief to identify different components whichareholdingaClientback.Forexample,onesuchmodelsplitsabelief 22| P a g e CoachingandNLP(c)NobleManhattanCoachingLtd

intorealistcriticdreameranotheronehasdifferentcategoriessuchas, oldlimitingbeliefpositivepurposeredefinenewempoweringbelief.

These are particularly effective because they help a Client break down a problem or belief into more manageable chunks. Also, using these

techniquesallowaClientsunconsciousmindtocometotheforeincreating positivesolutions.

IDENTIFYINGTHELEVELATWHICHCHANGENEEDSTOTAKEPLACE

I really like the impact that Robert Dilts has made on NLP. His model of neurologicallevelsismasterfulandreallyhelpsaCoachworkwithaClientto identify the level at which change needs to take place. His model is straightforwardandeasilyexplainedtoClients.

At the core of Dilts model is spirituality/identity, followed by beliefs/values, capabilities,behaviourandthenenvironment.AsaCoach,youcanworkwith aClientbyseparatingtheselevelsandaskingClientsquestionswhichrelate directlytoeachone,therebygatheringusefulinformationtohelpwithchange work.

Diltsmodelillustrateshowchangecantakeplaceatdifferentlevelsbutthatif you can make a change at one of the inner levels such as identity and beliefs/values, this will in turn change all the other outer levels and have greaterimpact.

MANAGINGYOUROWNANDACLIENTSLEARNING

CoachingisconcernedwithmanagingaClientsactionandlearningandNLP offersusefulinsightsintothisprocess.NLPsaysthatlearningtakestheform of four steps from unconscious incompetence, conscious incompetence, consciouscompetencetounconsciouscompetence.

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NLPoffersothervaluablelearningmodelsasaCoachthatyoucanusewith Clients such as selfdevelopment and generative learning. Self development is helping Clients to understand the link between acting differently,thinkingdifferentlyandfeelingdifferently.Generativelearningis takingintoaccountyourbeliefsandassumptionswhenreviewingandmaking decisions.Ifyoucanincorporatethisfeedbackintoyourownlearningmodel, youwillgainmoreasaresult.

Another great NLP technique for a Coach is perceptual positions. This involves looking at other peoplespointsof view to aid understanding to any
st nd rd st given situation. There are 1 , 2 and 3 positions, the 1 being your own nd rd viewpoint,the2 oftheotherpersonandthe3 beinganobjectiveobserver.

Taking note of these different learning models relate to many of the NLP presuppositionssuchasincreasingflexibility,thereisnosuchthingasfailure onlyfeedback,respectingotherpeoplesmodeloftheworldandapersons behaviouriscontextualandreflectsthebestchoiceavailabletothem.

PROBLEMSOLVINGTOOLS People often come for coaching because they have problems they cannot solve easily. The Coach, trainedin NLP,willlook forthe difference that will makethedifferencetohelptheClientfindthesolutionandbecomemoreself reliant.

NLP is concerned with modelling that is, the process of how rather than why. As Sue KnightinNLPAtWork says, If someone can do it, anyone can do it. By decoding a Clients successful strategies, you can coach someone to learn how to put these effective techniques into play for other situations.

Knight also refers to the point that, We are creatures of habit. Our lives followpatterns..Itisourpatternsinthinkingandbehavingthatcreateour

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responsetocircumstances,notthecircumstancesthemselveslookwithin touncoverandreviewthosepatternsthataremakingourliveswhattheyare.

I think NLP has the most wonderful range of problemsolving tools and strategiestohelpClientsinacoachingcontext.IalsothinktheyhelpClients lookforethicalsolutionstotheirproblemsbecauseNLPisnotjustconcerned withtheindividualoutcomebutlooksathowyourdecisionsimpactonothers. Conclusion

NLPencourages a Coach tolook beyond the words of a Client, not to mind read,buttoexploreaClientsphysiologyandsenses,tounderstandbettera Clients map of the world effectively, their perception of reality. NLP believesthat,likeincoaching,aClientiscreative,resourcefulandwholeand lendsitself to the task thatif something a Clientis doingis not working,itis bettertomakechangestoreachthedesiredoutcome.

Likewise,itistheClientwhodetermineswhattheywantandNLPhas many tools atitsdisposaltohelpa Client find outwhat they are searching forand the means to help them achieve their ends. Using the power of the unconscious mind helps a Client realize goalsin compelling ways. Working withaClientsvalueandbeliefsystemencouragesClientstobelievethatthey canachievetheiroutcomes.

IthinkoneofthepowerfulpresuppositionsofNLPisthatapersonsbehaviour isnottheiridentityorselfratherallbehaviouriscontextualsoNLPworks ondifferentlevelstohelpClientsdiscoverwheretheirissuesareand,therein, where the solutions lie. NLP helps a Coach work in detail with a Client to isolate problems which a Client may be experiencing and help them find the resourceswithinthemtoleadtoamoredesirablestate.

Likewise, with coaching, the relationship is a designed alliance because the Coach and NLP practitioner act as facilitators to change. It is through respecting a Clients model of the world and through the use of skilled 25| P a g e CoachingandNLP(c)NobleManhattanCoachingLtd

questioningandlisteningthatClientsareabletogrowinselfawarenessthat leadstochange.

In my opinion, NLPmakes coaching more fun, more effective andincreases yourownlearningaswell.Agreatcombination! Bibliography
CoActiveCoaching,LauraWhitworth,HenryKimseyHouse,PhilSandahl, TheLifeCoachingHandbook,CurlyMartin,CrownHousePublishing,2001 TheTaoofCoaching,MaxLandsberg,HarperCollins,1996 NLPAtWork,SueKnight,NicholsBrealeyPublishing,2002 TheStructureofMagic1,RichardBandler/JohnGrinder,ScienceandBehaviourBooks,1975 IntroducingNLP,JosephOConnorandJohnSeymour,Thorsons,1995 WayofNLP,JosephOConnorandIanMcDermott,Thorsons,2001 InfluencingwithIntegrity,GenieZLaborde,CrownHouse,2003 WordsthatChangeMinds,ShelleRoseCharvet,Kendall/Hunt,1995 UsingYourBrainforaChange,RichardBandler,RealPeoplePress,1985 TheNLPWorkbook,JosephOConnor,Thorsons,2002

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