PTSP‐UNIT VIII    Questions & Answers 

GRIET‐ECE    1 
UNIT 8
1. A Gaussian random process X (t) is applied to a stable linear filter. Show
that the random process Y (t) developed at the output of the filter is also
Gaussian.
Ans:
A Gaussian random process X (t) is applied to a stable linear filter H (ω) as shown,




Stable filter must produce a finite mean square value, for the output process Y (t) for all t.
The pdf of the input process can be written as

f (x) =
1
¸2 n c
x
2
c
-|
(x-q
x
)
2
2 o
2
]

The output process of linear filter is finite

y(t) = ] b(t -¡)X(¡)J¡
1
0
0≤ t ≤ ∞
To demonstrate that y(t) is also Gaussian, it is sufficient to show that any linear functional
defined on y(t) is also a Gaussian we define this random variable.
Z = ] g
¡
«
0
(t)¥(t)Jt
The mean square value of Z shall be
Z = ] g
¡
«
0
(t). {] b(t - ¡)X(¡)J¡]
1
0
dt 0≤ t ≤ ∞
= ] X(¡){] g
¡
(t)b(t -¡)Jt] J¡
«
0
1
0

= ] X(¡)g(¡)J¡
1
0

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PTSP‐UNIT VIII    Questions & Answers 
GRIET‐ECE    2 
Since X (t) is a Gaussian process, Z is Gaussian random variable. Thus a stable linear filter
always produces Gaussian output whenever its input is a Gaussian process.

2. A signal f (t) = e
-4t
u(t) is passed through an ideal low pass filter with
cutoff frequency 1 radian per second. Determine the energies of the input
signal and the output signal.
Ans:
f(t) = c
-4t
u(t)

F(ω) = ] c
-4t
u(t)c
-]ot
Jt
«


= ] c
-(4-])t
Jt
«
0
=
c
-(4t]æ)t
-(4+]æ)
_( t changes 0 to ∞)
F(ω) =
1
4+]o

H(ω) = 1 -1 ≤ ω ≤ 1








Spectrum of output signal = F(ω) . H(ω)
=
1
4+]o
for -1 ≤ ω ≤ 1
= 0 otherwise
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PTSP‐UNIT VIII    Questions & Answers 
GRIET‐ECE    3 
Energy of input signal, E
i
= ] ¡
2
(t)Jt
«


= ]
{c
-4t
u(t)]
2
Jt
«

= ] c
-8t
Jt
«
0

=
c
-8t
-8
¡ (t changes 0 to ∞) =
1
8
= 0.125

Energy of output signal E
0
= ]
|F
0
(æ)|
2

«


= ] ¡
1
4+]o
¡
1
-1
2

= ]
1
16+o
2
1
-1

= 2]
1
16+o
2
1
0

= 2.2π.
1
2 n X 4
. tan
-1

1
4

=
1
2
tan
-1
1
4

= 0.1225
3. Write short notes on
(i) Noise power spectral density
(ii) Noise suppression in semiconductor devices.
Ans:
(i) Noise Power Spectral Density

Power spectral density is defined as the power per unit bandwidth,
measured in watts/Hz. White noise is the noise signal whose PSD is uniform over the
entire frequency range.


G
n
(f) =
n
2
for -∞ < f < ∞

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PTSP‐UNIT VIII    Questions & Answers 
GRIET‐ECE    4 
Shot noise is present in both vacuum tubes and semiconductor devices. In
vacuum tubes shot noise arises due to random emission of electrons from the cathode.
In semiconductor devices, this effect arises due to random diffusion of minority
carriers and the random generation and recombination of hole-electron pairs. Its
power spectral density is known as,










Where,
¡
q
= Transit time
q = Charge of electron
I
0
= average value of current.
The power density spectrum of shot noise is considered as constant
for frequencies below.

S
i
(ω) = q I
0

Thermal noise arises due to the random motion of free electrons in a
conducting medium. The PSD of current due to free electrons is given by

S
i
(ω) =
2k1uu
2
u
2
+o
2
=
2 k 1 u
1+[
n
o
¸
2

Where,
k = Boltzmann constant
T = Ambient temperature
G = Conductance of the resistor
α = Average number of collisions per second of an electron.

(ii) Noise Suppression in Semiconductor Devices
For an ideal amplifier (noiseless amplifier) noise figure is unity. The
closeness of the noise figure to unity is the measure of superiority of the amplifier
from the noise point of view. However, noise figure measures not the absolute but the
relative quality of the amplifier. It indicates the noisiness source.
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PTSP‐UNIT VIII    Questions & Answers 
GRIET‐ECE    5 
It is evident from the defirmition that the noise figure of an amplifier can
be made extra noise in the source. This is not the proper solution for improving the
performance of the amplifier since this approach merely makes the source so noisy
that the amplifier in comparison appears almost noise free.

The overall S/N ratio at the output, however deteriorates badly and
consequently the output signal is much more noisy. It is therefore important not to
increase the noise in the source in order to improve the noise figure. A step up
transformer used at the input increases the input noise as well as the input signal. The
increased noise at the source makes the amplifier look less noisy without deteriorating
the S/N of the input. Hence, the noise figure is reduced and S/N at the o/p terminals
actually improves.

4. How noise equivalent bandwidth of electronic circuit can be estimated.
Ans:
Consider a system with the available gain characteristic as shown in figure 8.4.1 below






Consider an ideal filter with Bandwidth BN, whose center frequency is also f0. The
Bandwidth BN is adjusted such that the ideal filter and the real system passes the same amount
of noise power. There, this BN is the noise Bandwidth of the real circuit. Thus, the noise
Bandwidth of an electronic circuit is the bandwidth of an ideal system which passes the same
amount of noise power as does by the real circuit. Assume a thermal noise source with two sided
PSD
K1
2
available at the input of the circuit whose available gain.

The output noise power is N
0
=
K1
2
] g
u
(¡). J¡
«


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PTSP‐UNIT VIII    Questions & Answers 
GRIET‐ECE    6 
Assuming the same source connected to ideal system, output noise power (N
0
)
Ideal
is
equal to
2 x (
KI
2
)g
ou
B
N
= g
u0
KTB
N

To define noise bandwidth,
g
u
KTB
N
=
K1
2
] g
u
(¡). J¡
«



Therefore B
N
=
1
2g
c0
] g
u
(¡). J¡
«



5. Derive the equation for narrow band noise and illustrate all its properties.
Ans:
Considering a sample function of noise and select an interval of duration T from that
sample function. If we generate a periodic waveform, in which the waveform in the selected
interval is repeated for every T sec, then this periodic waveform can be expanded using Fourier
series and such series represent the noise sample function in the interval (-T/2 + T/2).

p
t
s
(t) = ∑ (ok cos 2n k A ¡ I +bk sin2n k A ¡ t)
«
k=1

As T → ∞; Af → 0 and the periodic sample functions of noise will become the actual
noise sample function η(t). Consider a frequency f
0
to correspond to K = K
1

i.e., f
0
= K
1
.Af
i.e., 2πAf t - 2π K
1
Af t = 0

Therefore η(t) = lim
A]-0
∑ |o
k
cos 2n|¡
0
+(K -K
1
)A¡]t + b
k
sin2n|¡
0
+
«
K=1
(K -K
1
)A¡]t]

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PTSP‐UNIT VIII    Questions & Answers 
GRIET‐ECE    7 
=lim
A]-0
∑ |o
K
cos 2n(K -K
1
)A¡t. cos 2n¡
0
t -
«
K=1
o
K
sin2n(K -K
1
)A¡t. sin 2n¡
0
t +
b
K
sin2n¡
0
t. cos 2n(K -K
1
)A¡t +
b
K
sin2n(K - K
1
)A¡t. cos 2n¡
0
t]
= p
c
(t) cos 2n¡
0
t -p
s
(t) sin2n¡
0
t
Where,
η
c
(t) = lim
A]-0
|∑ (o
K
cos 2n(K -K
1
)A¡t + b
K
sin2n(K -K
1
)A¡t)]
«
K=1

η
s
(t) = lim
A]-0
|∑ (o
K
sin2n(K -K
1
)A¡t - b
K
cos 2
«
K=1
n(K -K
1
)A¡t)]
Properties
1. E|p
c
(t) - p
s
(t)] = 0
2. E|p
c
2
(t)] = E|p
s
2
(t)]
3. p
c
(t) and p
s
(t) are of same autocorrelation function.
4. p
c
(t) and p
s
(t) are Gaussian processes.

6. Describe a method to determine the internal noise of an amplifier?
Ans:
Internal noise is nothing but the noise created by the amplifier itself. This can be
determined by modeling using thermal noise. Consider the block diagram for calculating the
internal noise power.






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PTSP‐UNIT VIII    Questions & Answers 
GRIET‐ECE    8 
The amplifier has an input impedance R
t
and output impedance R
L
and voltage
gain A. H is fed from a source of internal impedance R
s
. Define equivalent noise resistance that
does not incorporate R
s
.
R
cq
i
= R
cq
- R
s

Total equivalent noise resistance of the amplifier is
R = R
cq
i
+
R
s
R
t
R
s
+R
t

Equivalent input noise voltage is
I

= ¸4 k I A¡ R
The noise output is I
no
= A I


P
no
=
v
nc
2
R
L
=
(Av
ni
)
2
R
L
=
A
2
4 k 1 A] R
R
L


7. Derive the mathematical description of noise figure?
Ans:
Noise Figure
Noise figure F of a noisy two port network is defined as the ratio of total available noise
PSD at the output of a two port network to the noise PSD at the output of the two port network,
assuming the network is noiseless.
F =
u
cc
u
cc
|

Generally 0
uo
> 0
uo
i
, because of the internal noise within the two port network. Hence,
for a practical network, F > 1. If the two port is noiseless, 0
uo
= 0
uo
i
and F =1. Thus for an ideal
network, F =1.
Assume that the two port network being driven by a thermal noise
source. The two sided available noise PSD is
K1
2
. Let g
u
(¡) be the available gain of the network.
Therefore 0
uo
= g
u
(¡).
K
2
(I
0
+ I
c
)
Where T
0
is the noise temperature of the source.
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PTSP‐UNIT VIII    Questions & Answers 
GRIET‐ECE    9 
Considering a noiseless two port network,
0
uo
i
= g
u
(¡).
K1
0
2

Therefore the Noise Figure F =
u
cc
u
cc
|
=
1
0
+1
c
1
0
= 1 +
1
c
1
0

Let input signal PSD be 0

(s)
and input noise PSD be 0

(n)
. Let g
u
be the available gain of two
port network.
The output signal PSD = g
u
. 0

(s)
= 0
uo
(s)

We have 0
uo
= F. 0
uo
i

0
uo
(n)
= F. 0
uo
i(n)
= F. g
u
. 0

(n)

Consider
u
cc
(s)
u
cc
(n)
=
g
c
.u
ci
(s)
Pg
c
.u
ci
(n)

F =
u
ci
(s)
.u
cc
(n)
u
cc
(s)
.u
ci
(n)
=
u
ci
(s)
u
ci
(n)
,
u
cc
(s)
u
cc
(n)
,

In above the numerator is the ratio of the input signal to noise PSD ratio and the
denominator is the output signal to noise PSD ratio.
8. Define signal to noise ratio and noise figure and equivalent noise
temperature of a receiver?
Ans:
(i) Signal to Noise Ratio

Signal to noise ratio of a receiver is defined as the ratio of signal power
to the noise power at the same point in the receiver.
Mathematically, SNR =
SìgnuI powc¡
Noìsc powc¡
=
P
S
P
N

=
v
x
2
R ⁄
v
n
2
R ⁄
= [
v
s
v
n
¸
2

The larger the SNR, the better the signal quality. Hence it serves as an
important measure of noise of a receiver.

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PTSP‐UNIT VIII    Questions & Answers 
GRIET‐ECE    10 
(ii) Noise figure
Noise factor F is defined as the ratio of SNR at the input of the receiver to
the SNR at the output of the receiver.
F =
ìnput SNR
output SNR

=
(SNR)
i
(SNR)
c
=
S
i
N
i

S
c
N
c



(iii) Equivalent Noise Temperature(T
eq
)
It is defined as the temperature at which a noisy resistor has to
be maintained such that by connecting the resistor to the input of a noiseless receiver
it produces the same available noise power at the output of the receiver as that
produced by all the sources of noise in an actual receiver.



Any system produces certain internal noise and thus results in a lower
output SNR than the input SNR.
Hence F > 1 for practical receiver
= 0 for ideal receiver.

9. Describe the behavior of zero mean stationary Gaussian band limited white
noise?
Ans:
Many types of noise sources are Gaussian by virtue of central limit theorem
and have spectral densities-that are flat over a wide range of frequencies. A noise signal having a
flat PSD over a wide range of frequencies is called white noise by analogy to white light. The
PSD of white noise is denoted by

G(f) =
q
2
watts/Hz

The factor 2 is included to indicate that G ( f ) is a two-sided PSD. The auto
correlation function of the white noise is
R(τ) = F
-1
|0(¡)] =
q
2
. o(¡)
I
eq
= I
0
(F - 1)
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PTSP‐UNIT VIII    Questions & Answers 
GRIET‐ECE    11 
Any two different samples of a zero mean Gaussian white noise are uncorrelated and
hence independent. If the i/p of an LTI system is a zero mean stationary Gaussian white noise
V(t) with PSD = η/2, the o/p of the filter will also be zero mean stationary Gaussian process with
PSD of η/2 over a frequency range which will be decided by the system. Since the PSD of white
noise is η/2, its average power is ]
q
2

«

which will be infinity.
As such, white noise having infinite mean power is not
physically realizable. Since the bandwidth of any real system is always finite and their average
powers are also finite, we can restrict the while noise spectrum over a finite band of frequencies.
Noise signals having a non zero and constant PSD over a finite frequency band and zero
elsewhere is called band limited white noise. The spectrum for the band- limited while noise is
written as
S(ω) =
q
2
¡or |æ| ¸ 2nB
       Where B is physical bandwidth. The corresponding auto correlation is
R(τ) = η B |
sìn 2n B :
2 n B :
]
These are plotted as









                          Thus, if the process is sampled at a rate of 2B samples/sec, the resulting noise
samples are uncorrelated and being Gaussian, they are statistically independent. In generational,
a random process X(t) is called white noise process if its values X(t
i
) and X(t
]
) are uncorrelated
for every t
i
and t
j
.

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PTSP‐UNIT VIII    Questions & Answers 
GRIET‐ECE    12 
10. Derive the relation between PSDs of input and output random process of
an LTI system?
Ans:
Consider an LTI system whose input is a WSS process X(t) and output is Y(t). Let
h(t) be the impulse response of the system.
Y(t) = ] h(z). X(t -z) dz
«


R
YY
(t
1
, t
2
) = F|Y(t
1
). Y(t
2
)]
= F|] h(z
1
). X(t
1
-z
1
)dz
1
«

. ] h(z
2
)X(t
2
-z
2
)dz
2
«


= ] ] h(z
1
). h(z
2
). F|X(t
1
-z
1
)X(t
2
- z
2
)]dz
1
dz
2
«

«


= ] ] h(z
1
). h(z
2
). R
XX
(
«

«

t
2
- z
2
-t
1
+ z
1
)dz
1
dz
2

R
YY
(z) = ] ] h(z
1
). h(z
2
). R
XX
(
«

«

z -z
2
+ z
1
)dz
1
dz
2

Take Fourier Transform on both sides
F|R
YY
(z)]= S
YY
(m)
=
] |] ] h(z
1
). h(z
2
). R
XX
(
«

«

z - z
2
+ z
1
)dz
1
dz
2
]e
-jmz
dz
«


= ] h(z
1
). e
jmz
1
dz
1
. ] h(z
2
)e
-jmz
2
dz
2
- ] R
XX
(z -
«

«

«

z
2
+
z
1
). e
-jm(z-z
2
+z
1
)
dz
S
YY
(m) =H
-
(m). H(m). S
XX
(m)
Therefore S
YY
(m) = |H(m)|
2
. S
XX
(m)






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PTSP‐UNIT VIII    Questions & Answers 
GRIET‐ECE    13 























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