Heresy is the obstinate post-baptismal denial of some truth which must be believed with divine and Catholic

faith. Apostasy is the total repudiation of the Christian faith; Schism is the refusal of submission to the Roman Pontiff or of communion with the members of the Church subject to him" (CCC 2089). In schism, one separates from the Catholic Church without repudiating a defined doctrine. An example of a contemporary schism is the Society of St. Pius X—the "Lefebvrists" or followers of the late Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre—who separated from the Church in the late 1980s, but who have not denied Catholic doctrines. In apostasy, one totally repudiates the Christian faith and no longer even claims to be a Christian. To commit heresy, one must refuse to be corrected. A person who is ready to be corrected or who is unaware that what he has been saying is against Church teaching is not a heretic. A person must be baptized to commit heresy. This means that movements that have split off from or been influenced by Christianity, but that do not practice baptism (or do not practice valid baptism), are not heresies, but separate religions The Athanasian Creed • Often known by the name of the opening Latin words Quicumque vult (“whoever wishes*to be saved+”) • Like the Nicene Creed and the Apostles’ Creed-it is a profession of Faith that the Church strongly affirm. • It was written in the 4th or 5th century to combat heresies present at the time in both the East and the West. • Principally expressed in 3 divine persons of the Blessed Trinity and the Incarnation of God the Son, the 2nd person of the Trinity • Emphasizes the equality of the 3 different Persons of the Trinity and their exact relationship with each other • The other aspect which sets apart from the Nicene and Apostles’ Creeds-are the anathemas at the beginning and the end. • An anathema is a condemnation solemnly pronounced by ecclesiastical authority and at times accompanied by exocommunication. MATERIAL HERESY -it is possible to enter into heresy through ignorance of the truth, misunderstanding, or noncomprehension of particular aspects of the Faith, erroneous judgment, or the like. 2. FORMAL HERESY - it is also possible to freely choose, with full understanding of the teaching of the Church, hold to tenets or doctrines that are clearly contradictory to those of the church and even doctrines that have been condemned by the Church as false. The Circumcisers (1st Century) 1.

"But some men came down from Judea and were teaching the brethren, ‘Unless you are circumcised according to the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved.’ (Acts 15:1) Circumcision had been required in the Old Testament for membership in God’s covenant, many thought it would also be required for membership in the New Covenant that Christ had come to inaugurate. They believed one must be circumcised and keep the Mosaic law to come to Christ. In other words, one had to become a Jew to become a Christian In Acts 10, it is stated that the Gentiles are acceptable to God and may be baptized and become Christians without circumcision. The same teaching was vigorously defended by Paul in his epistles to the Romans and the Galatians—to areas where the Circumcision heresy had spread. GNOSTICISM "Matter is evil!" was the cry of the Gnostics. It stood against Catholic teaching, not only because it contradicts Genesis 1:31 ("And God saw everything that he had made, and behold, it was very good") and other scriptures, but because it denies the Incarnation. If matter is evil, then Jesus Christ could not be true God and true man, for Christ is in no way evil. Many Gnostics denied the Incarnation, claiming that Christ only appeared to be a man, but that his humanity was an illusion. Some Gnostics, recognizing that the Old Testament taught that God created matter, claimed that the God of the Jews was an evil deity who was distinct from the New Testament God of Jesus Christ • Many of the later heresies are derivatives of Gnosticism. Generally, a Gnostic religion holds the following beliefs: 1. Matter is a corruption of spirit, and thus the world is corrupt; 2. Man must seek through knowledge to overcome this fallen state and return to God; and 3. God has made this possible by sending a savior (usually held to be Jesus) MARCIONISM • Marcion founded his heretical movement very early in the life of the Church, and it lingered well into the 5th century in the West and for centuries longer in the East. • He started his own community and was formally ex-communicated in 144. • Adapted important ideas from Gnostic beliefs to form his own theology-from Gnosticism he took the idea of the Demiurge, whom he identified as the jealous, revengeful God of the Old Testament • The Jewish God, the Demiurge, the God of the Law • The God of Jesus Christ is the God of Love who has no connection with the Law. • This dualism of Law and Love is the main thesis of Marcion’s system. • Marcion recognized only St. Paul as a legitimate Christian authority because of his teaching regarding freedom from the Law.

• •

The Apostles, in Marcion’s view, did not fully understand the mission of Christ being blinded by Judaism and its Creator God. Therefore, only ten of St. Paul’s Epistles and a modified version of the Gospel of St. Luke were given canonical status in Marcionism. Marcion helped the development of the Catholic Church’s canon of Sacred Scripture. The Church gradually determined the canon: the official, inspired writing of the New Testament. He admitted people from all backgrounds, just as the Church did, but by the 3rd century, most of Marcion’s followers were incorporated into Manichaeism. His followers had to practice a most rigorous asceticism, fasts were multiplied, and eating meat was forbidden. Many orthodox writers of the period fought Marcionism, including St. Irenaeus, Tertullian, St. Hippolytus, Pope St. Clement I, and Origen.

Manichaeism • Manichaeism was probably the most elaborate and polished branch of Gnosticism. • Its founder, Manes (ca. 216-276), was born in Persia • conflict between darkness and light • Denied the Blessed Trinity GOAL: • To share the secret knowledge which liberate this light so it could return to its original source. Montanism • Apocalyptic movements founded by Montanus in Phrygia • Worked with two female prophets -Prisca -Maximilla • Central principle: New heavenly Kingdom was about to begin in Pepuza. • Believed that they were directly inspired by the Holy Spirit • Rejected the authority of the Church • Rejected the Catholic Christianity Docetism • Another Gnostic heresy riding from the presupposition of the corrupt nature of matter • Maintain that Jesus was not truly HUMAN and did not actually suffer the pain of crucifixion and death • Derives from the Greek word “dokesis” meaning appearance or semblance • Often taught that someone else (e.g. Judas Iscariot or Simon of Cyrene) miraculously switched places with Christ just before the crucifixion and suffer death in Christ’s place. • Crucifixion and Human form of Jesus Christ was an Illusion

There are not three Gods." • . Human and Divine • emphasized his full divinity and humanity • Mary being the Mother of Christ WHAT IS FALSE ABOUT IT? • Mary not being the Mother of the Divine Nature of Christ • Mary not worthy of being called the Mother of God • Jesus Christ is the result of the union of two separate persons. but merely makes easier an otherwise difficult task. God’s grace is not truly necessary. who is Jesus Christ TEACHINGS THAT DISPROVE ARIANISM • CCC 253 (The Trinity is One). Indeed "everything (in them) is one where there is no opposition of relationship. He became truly man while remaining truly God. that all need salvation and that salvation is offered to all through Christ. "Son" and "Holy Spirit" WHAT FALSEHOODS ARE IN ARIANISM? The "Son" had a beginning and was at one point. Augustine had a debate about original sin and free will • -Pelagianism was condemned at Carthage at 416 -At 431 the Council of Ephesus condemned the Pelagians -After it still continued and died out -A heresy that does not accept original sin -Also the need for grace in mans salvation -Questioned the necessity of the sacrifice of Christ for us He denied that we inherit righteousness as a result of Christ’s death on the cross -Pelagians believed that all men are sinners by choice so all men are criminals -Believed that holiness can be achieved with our own human effort to do things claimed that we become sinful only through the bad example of the sinful community into which we are born We become personally righteous by instruction and imitation in the Christian community. one man and one God WHAT IS TRUE ABOUT WHAT IT STATES? • Jesus Christ's Existence • maintained that Jesus Christ has two natures. man turns toward God and away from sin. • It was defeated at the Fourth Council of Chalcedon. • States that Jesus Christ did have a human nature.aspects or offices of one person. who has always existed is superior to the lesser "Son". knows very well that we cannot tamper with the revelation of original sin without undermining the mystery of Christ. thus accepting forgiveness and righteousness from on high.Jesus Christ is not part man nor is He part God. greatest Father of the Church stood against the heresy -The Pelagians charged St. but two. The Church.CCC 464 & 466 summarized . effecting justification in accordance with Jesus' proclamation at the beginning of the Gospel: "Repent. and became man. i. Augustine about original sin -Pelagius and St. for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. Mary truly became the Mother of God by the human conception of the Son of God in her womb. • Arianism stated that God the Father always existed and that Jesus was a lesser being and was born only before creation • The son was finite and he could not possess any knowledge on the Father • It was therefore Arius' teaching that only God the Father was a supreme being • Believed that God the Father and Son did not exist together eternally WHAT TRUTHS ARE IN ARIANISM? • God the Father is all powerful and almighty and is asupreme being • Christ is the "Son of God" who came down to Earth • There exists a "Father". an English monk -St. so to speak. the "reverse side" of the Good News that Jesus is the Savior of all men. but one God in three persons. the three persons of the Trinity exist only in God’s relation to man. not in objective reality. by nature one God. Augustine of Hippo. though before time began. one man and one God.D. but it was "incorporated"into His Divine Nature. Each of them is God whole and entire: "The Father is that which the Son is. Egypt in the 4th century A." PELAGANISM HISTORY -Named after Pelagius. CATHECHISM OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH ." • CCC 255. created • The "Son" was subservient to the "Father" • The Holy Spirit was created by the "Father" through the "Son" • The Holy Spirit was subservient to the "Son" • God the Father is the only true God • The "Father". ARIANISM • Was started by Arius. . which has the mind of Christ.CCC 509 . a Divine Nature • Christ's human nature was absorbed by his Divine Nature • Christ's human nature was lost in his reincarnation • Christ human nature was not identical to our human nature PROOFS • Nicene Creed " by the power of the Holy Spirit he was born of the Virgin Mary. but also the sanctification and renewal of the interior man.e. . According to him. a Christian priest that resided in Alexandria. Pelagius stated that man is born morally neutral and can achieve heaven under his own powers." "Because of that unity the Father is wholly in the Son and wholly in the Holy Spirit. the Father and the Son that which the Holy Spirit is.CCC 723 . . According to them.CCC 1989 Mary is the mother of the Human Nature of Jesus but not the mother of his Spiritual Nature • Jesus Christ is the result of the union of two separate persons. who is God himself. a Divine Nature. WHAT IS TRUE ABOUT MONOPHYSITISM • Christ has a Divine Nature • Jesus was born through the Immaculate Conception of Mother Mary • Both Christ's natures coexist with one another WHAT IS FALSE ABOUT MONOPHYSITISM • Christ had only one nature. following the example of Christ. the Son is wholly in the Father and wholly in the Holy Spirit. FALSEHOODS? • Denied that there is original sin • Believed people can be redeemed without grace • Believed orginal sin cannot be passed down from generation to generation • Humans are born in a state of innocence with a pure nature • Man has free will in moral issues PROOFS The doctrine of original sin is." Moved by grace.Mary is truly the "Mother of God" since she is the mother of the eternal Son of God made man. the Holy Spirit is wholly in the Father and wholly in the Son. "Justification is not only the remission of sins. . • This was a heresy that came from the Eastern part of the Empire. • • • NESTORIANISM WHAT DOES IT STATE??? MONOPHYSITISM It is the heresy that states that there is only one Nature in Christ.CCC: 389 The first work of the grace of the Holy Spirit is conversion.Sabellianism (Early 3rd Century) The Sabellianists taught that Jesus Christ and God the Father were not distinct persons. the Son that which the Father is.the Virgin conceives and gives birth to the son of God.

consubstantial with the Father as to his divinity and consubstantial with us as to his humanity. human. France. He likewise understood people's secret thoughts and he knew fully the eternal plans which he had come to reveal.92" OTHER PROOFS Apostle's Creed.. his followers denied that Christ died for all men. Jesus Christ is true God and true man. Augustine to their dogma who was their chief opponet that time THEIR FOUNDATION • They believed that the early priest's. D. and in favor with God and man. • . which redefined the doctrine of grace. the same truly God and truly man. He was begotten from the Father before all ages as to his divinity and in these last days. he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness. • Originated with the emperor (Heraclius) in A.Donatism is the heresy that rejected the validity of sacraments celebrated by priest and bishops who formally betrayed their faith .. . who were some a Traditor . knew and showed faith in itself everything that pertains to God. Damascus I: DS149 CCC: The human nature of God's Son. died. but rather the character proper to each of the two natures was preserved as they came together in one person (prosopon) and one hypostasis." -"He descended into hell On the third day he rose again. is to be acknowledged in two natures without confusion.91 We confess that one and the same Christ.CCC464 "He became truly man while remaining truly God. Among other doctrines. our Lord Jesus Christ: the same perfect in divinity and perfect in humanity. despite the fact that in the Bible. Our Lord" -"the resurrection of the body" -"He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary. 680 to 681. in other words.Cf. "increase in wisdom and in stature. soul.48 They are efficacious because in them Christ himself is at work: it is he who baptizes. • he did not live a complete human life. the Mother of God. Holy Bible: If we confess our sins. However. Lord. . but also as man and Son of God had an intimate and immediate knowledge of God his Father. • Church Leaders that renounce their faith or who put it aside just for a while who still practice as ministers of sacraments are not anymore valid upon exercising it to the receivers of the sacrament. VERITAS: CHRIST HAD A HUMAN BODY The human body of Christ is an accepted truth not only by Apollinaris but definitely also by the Church and Christians everywhere. division or separation. • Believes Christ has two natures: human and divine. who claimed that it was sinful to make pictures and statues of Christ and the saints. Jansenism (17th Century) Jansenius.when God became man.". PROOFS CCCC: 1127 Celebrated worthily in faith. THE FALSE • Any head who is contaminated by sin should be rejected forever. for us and for our salvation. • They believed that a sacrament issued by a minister who is in a state of sin is not valid among all the people who had received it in that same time THE TRUTH The saints should be holy and avoid sin at all times and at all cost. • Monothelitism was finally condemned in the Sixth Ecumenical Council of the Church (the third at Constantinople) between A. God had commanded the making of religious statues including symbolic representations of Christ Protestantism (16th Century) Protestant groups display a wide variety of different doctrines. and was buried. PROOFS AGAINST MONOTHELITISM • CCC 90: Did the incarnate Son of God have a soul with human knowledge? • The Son of God assumed a body animated by a rational human soul. Hence. This and other Jansenist errors were officially condemned by Pope Innocent X in 1653. was born as to his humanity of the virgin Mary." • Iconoclasm (7th and 8th Centuries) This heresy arose when a group of people known as iconoclasts (literally. Marius the Confessor MONOTHELITISM IMPORTANT FACTS • Believes Christ only has one will. • CCC 91: How did the two wills of the incarnate Word cooperate? • Jesus had a divine will and a human will. actions should be rejected by the members of the Church." Constantinople III: DS536 Luke 2:52. "icon smashers") appeared. DONATISM . who was a bishop elected in opposition to the legitimate one. we unanimously teach and confess one and the same Son. The soul was therefore inferior to Christ's divinity. initiated this heresy with a paper he wrote on Augustine.The heresy was suppressed or defeated in 411 because of the damage done by St." -"He suffered under Pontius Pilate. it was subjected to it. bishop of Ypres. he who acts in his sacraments in order to communicate the grace that each sacrament signifies..John 1:9 APOLLINARIANISM APOLLINARIS OF LAODICEA THEIR MAIN ARGUMENT: Christ had a human body but the divine Word replaced Christ's rational and human soul. The human will of Christ followed without opposition or reluctance the divine will or. change.Donatists were highly opposed to the ordination of priests as they felt to consecrate any human being was blasphemous. and only-begotten Son. virtually all claim to believe in the teachings of sola scriptura ("by Scripture alone"—the idea that we must use only the Bible when forming our theology) and sola fide ("by faith alone"— the idea that we are justified by faith only). • They believed that the heads of the Church which were the bishops and priests should be pure in a way that they have to be free from sin. • Christ fulfilled our salvation by dying on the cross.Founded by Donatus." CCC: "the eternal Son also assumed a rational. the sacraments confer the grace that they signify. TRUTHS IN MONOTHELITISM • Jesus Christ existed in history • Christ had two natures: human and divine. • • THE HUMAN MIND AND WILL DID NOT EXIST IN CHRIST • Since Christ did not have human mind and will.In his earthly life the Son of God humanly willed all that he had divinely decided with the Father an d the Holy Spirit for our salvation. • This was why it was easier to believe that Christ had accomplished our salvation which drew believers to Monothelitism. composed of rational soul and body. His only Son. "like us in all things but sin". D. SOURCES AGAINST APOLLINARIANISM: CCC: "Christ's Human will does not resist or oppose but rather submits to his divine and almighty will. Ecumenical Councils What is an Ecumenical Council? • • • • . Christ did not have a human mind and will. was crucified. PROPOSITIONES PERFIDAE • CHRIST DID NOT LIVE A COMPLETE HUMAN LIFE. • Derived from "monos" meaning alone or single. not by itself but by its union with the Word. -"I believe in Jesus Christ." • CCC467 from the council of Chalcedon " Following the holy Fathers. FALSEHOODS OF MONOTHELITISM • Christ only had one will: his divine will • It was believed that Christ had no free will and only lived for the will of His Father." St. With this human intellect Jesus learned many things by way of experience. The distinction between the natures was never abolished by their union. but claimed that he died only for those who will be finally saved (the elect). 624 in an effort to rid the Church of Monophysites.

Vatican II (1962-1965)  addressed pastoral and disciplinary issues dealing with the Church and its relation to the modern world including liturgy and ecumenism.  repudiated rationalism. Lateran III (1179)  restricted papal election to the cardinals. . Constantinople I (381)  repudiated Arianism and Macedonianism. Basel-Ferrera-Florence (1431-1445)  addressed church reform and reunion with the Eastern Churches. 15. ( as an ursuper and reinstated his predecessor Saint Ignatius). Trent (1545-1563)  addressed church reform and repudiated Protestantism. 5. meaning “the whole inhabited world”. 4. crusades  addressed Papal primacy and clerical discipline. as in the case of Professor Detwiler.most famous of the Western Christian military orders. .  Ecumenical from Greek word “oikoumene”. materialism and atheism. 1.Frederick established in Sicily and southern Italy something very much like a modern. Monophysitism and Imperialpapal relations). Ephesus (431)  repudiated Nestorianism and Pelagianism .  instituted the levy to support the Holy land.called by a contemporary chronicler stupor mundi (the wonder of the world). clerical celibacy  addressed investment of Bishops and the Holy Emperor. His political and cultural ambitions. and even to Jerusalem.  approved Franciscan and Dominican orders.  Admonished Pope Honorius I 7. However. 18.  condemned simony. Constantinople III (680-681)  repudiated the Monothelitism and Monoenergism. 6. 10. declared that Christ is “homoousios with the father”( of the same substance as the Father). interpretation of scripture and relationship of faith and hope. Vienne (1311-1312)  disbanbed the Knights Templar. Constantinople IV (869-870)  deposed Patriach Photios I of Constantinople. Constantinople II (553)  repudiated the Three Chapters Controversy: (Nestorianism. Nicaea II (787)  restored the veneration of Icons. by Nietzsche the first European.  Photian Controversy . “Godbearer”. which was the theological breaking point in the eleventh century Great East-West Schism. Lyons I (1245)  Deposed communicated and Emperor Frederick II • Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250). 8. 2. Lateran I (1123)  Investiture Controversy. and his dynasty collapsed soon after his death. “Mother of God”)  reaffirmed the Nicene Creed.  Renewal of the Church in the modern world . especially the popes. Lateran II (1139)  reaffirmed Lateran I and addressed clerical discipline ( dress and marriages). 20.  defined the role of canon of scripture and the Seven Sacrament. Historians have searched for superlatives to describe him. albigensianism and waldensianism. 9.  Adopted the Chalcedonian Creed which describe the hypostatic union. and by many historians the first modern ruler -. bring bishops and others entitle to vote from all over the world to discuss central issues of the church. Lateran V (1512-1517)  addressed Church reform especially the discipline.  repudiated Iconoclasm. Chalcedon (451)  repudiated the Eutychian docrine of Monophysitism. Vatican I (1869-1870)  defined Pope’s primacy in church governance and his infallibility. 16.  Arnold of Brescia’s (twelfth century heretic who condemned all clerical material possession) teaching and criticism of the Church.  introduced minimum ages for ordination (thirty for Bishops) 12. energy.  Began conciliarism.addressed church reform. 17.  Divinity of the Holy Spirit 3. a tithe to support crusades and conclave procedures. his enemies. Constance (1414-1418)  Resolved the Great Western Schism and condemned John Hus. prevailed. centrally governed kingdom with an efficient bureaucracy. as well as a doctrinal dispute over the word "filioque" (meaning “and from the Son”) that had been added to the Nicene Creed by the Latin church.  adopted the original Nicene Creed and fixed the Easter date. 14. and ability -. Lyons II (1274)  Healing of the Great Schism with Constantinople  attempted reunion with the Eastern churches. were enormous.  addressed revelation. put an end to papal schism 11.involved Eastern and Western ecclesiastical jurisdictional rights in the Bulgarian church.  Council of Siena.  proclaimed the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos(“Birth-giver to God”. 21. Nicaea (325)  repudiated Arianism.declared that Christ is “born of the Father before all time”  revised the Nicene Creed in regard to the Holy Spirit. was one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen. based in Sicily and stretching through Italy to Germany. who wrote: • A man of extraordinary culture. 13. Lateran IV (1215)  defined transubstantiation of the eucharist  Annual penance  Suppression of Albigenses. simony. 19.

.

.

%  °¾n¾¯ ° ¾ ½ff ¾€¯ .

fn.

fn  €  ¾ ½ff €¯  .n  ½ f°–f €°  n°   ° f¯½ €fn° ¯½f¾n¾¯¾ n €  9¾O    € ¾¾ € ¾€ f  n ¾½.

n° f ¾  f ° °  .

fn n° ¾   °f½¾f¾ ° f ½ f ¾ .

¾f°€f f° °°–   °nf¯¾ f.

¾f°  @n¯¯  ¾ ° ¯¾ €¾  n n  ½ ¾°¾ f  n n ¾°ff  ff f¾ °¾f°–¾f–f°¾.

n fn°– ¾°f  n   ½ ¾°¯¾  f½ n¯¯  ¾ @¾ ¯ f°¾f¯ ¯ °¾ff ¾½€€€¯ ° °€ °n  .

¾f°  f °½fnn  f½¾¯% °½fnn f  f½¾¯% f °   ¾ ¾  ¾ ½ff  –°¾ @ f°f¾f°.

  W € °°°  °f¯ € ½ °°– f° ¾.n¯ %#   ¾ ¾  ¾f #% W   -n ° .

 f°  ½¾ ¾# .

 ¾f½€ ¾¾°€ff  .

n¾°–f€€¯    W f¾ °°   n ° n¯ f  ¾ ¾½ ¾ °f ¯ °   f¾f°  J ¾  W 9°n½f ½ ¾¾ ° ° ½ ¾°¾€    ¾¾ @°f°  °nf°f°€ °   °   ½ ¾°€ @° W ¯½f¾ ¾  f€  €€  ° 9 ¾°¾€ @°f°   fn  f°¾½ fn  W @  f¾½ nn¾ ¾f½f€¯  -n ° f° ½¾ ¾#.

 ¾ f   f°f ¯f¾f  –°°°–f°   °  W °f°f ¯f¾fn° ¯°f°¾ ¯° ½°°n   nn ¾f¾nfff°  f¯ ¾fnn¯½f°   n¯¯°nf°     .  ¾f¾½¾¾  € n¾ € ° ¾f° °–€  fn°–€ .@  ¾½¾¾   ° °  ¾– –°f°n €  ¯¾° ¾f° °– °° n¯½  °¾°€½fnff¾½ n¾€ f  ° ¾© –¯ °     .

n    ° ¾ n° ¾ff n fn°f n ¾ € nnf°   ° n° ¾ff  ° n° ¯°   .

nf¾€f¾   @ .

n¯n¾ ¾%¾.

¾ ¾ nf°°  ¾f #%n¾ % . °% ¾¯ ¯ °nf¯  °€¯ ff°     fn°–    ° #D° ¾¾f nn¯n¾  fnn °– n¾¯€.

n¯n¾°f  °  °  @ ¾f¯ ° €¯ ¯ ¾½° #¾n °f° ¯f°–  f¾   €¯ ¯ ¾½° -  .

 °f°f.

¾f n¯ °f–f  @    ° ¯¾ nn¯n¾ f°  ½  .¾fnfn¯ .

¾ °  ¾ ° f   n¯ f  n¯ f.

¾f° °n¾ ¾¾f f  ° ¾f fnn ½f    f° ¯f  f½ f°  n¯ .

¾f°¾ nn¯n¾° @ ¾f¯  fn°–f¾–¾ € °  9f°¾ ½¾ ¾ ¯f°¾f°   fff°¾ f f¾   .

n¯n¾°  ¾f  ¾½ f   -@.

 .f ¾ " f¾ n€ °¾n¾ ¾  f–f°¾..

fn fn°– °° nf¾  n°f n¾ ° ¾¾ % °  ¾f  °–f  f ¯f f°   f¾ – %f°   ¾n½ ¾   nf¾  ° ¾ °nf°f° € ¯f ¾   ° ¾¾.

¾n °    f°  ¯f° €.

f°°¾n¾ °  °nf°f° nf¯°–f .¾¾°°f   .

¾°f½½ f  f¯f°  f¾¯f° f¾f°¾° ¯ °¾n¾  n–°°–f   @ ¾f¯ °f–f n f ¯f  nf¯ f   €  ¾f¾f°  f¾ ¾°n €¯ - @ ¾f¯ ° € ¾¾.

f°¯¾¾ –° –   n¯ ¾€f °¾f f°  °  f°     f¾¯f ¾½¾¾   ¾ ° °–f ¾f%¾f    ¾¾%  .¾ W ..f°€ f   ¾ ¾f  f ¾€ °¾n¾¯  ° f f°¾n –°  ¾ €°–  €¾    .f ¾fn½°€¾½ f° ¾   ¾n½    .

fn°€° ¾  nf¯ ¯ °   f° € € . W .-.

n f°   °–   °  n °° J ¾ f° €n ° ¾°– ° f¾  W  ¾f ¾°n¯¯°f° f¾ €¯f  n¯¯°nf °  W  f½ ¯½f° f¾€¯°¾n  €¾ €¯¾° – €¯°¾n¾¯    f€  ¯– ¯   °€ f¾ © f¾   °– € €   @ ¾f¯ ° W @  ¾   ¯–   €  f W @  € ¾¾.

¾¾  €  f¾°n°° n° f  W @¾ f¾¯€ff°  ¾ ¯f°  ¾¾€.fn° n–° ° 9ff¾f  –¯f .fn°#¾¾¾ ¯  W .

¾f°f nf¾ €¾  fn°– –f °–€ ¯€¯ f  W W W W W W @ ½¾ ¾ °.fn°#¾    °€ ° ¾f°  ¯¾¾°€.

¾ °– °   f¾¯f° ¾.

fn°¾¯  . f  @  € ° °€ 9f#¾½¾ ¾f° f ¯ €  ¾°€ ¾½ €     – °nf°°nf¾f¾°.fn° ½    ½¯ °€  .

fn.

n#¾nf°°€fn n½  @ .

n–f f  ¯°  nf°°   €€nf °¾½ °–€ -  @ ¾f¯ °   f ¯ ½ ½ €¯f fn–° ¾   ©¾f¾ .

n      n °  ¯¾€.f°nf ¾¯  ¾€ ¾f ½fnn f¯¾–¾ f¾n n¾¯ €f¾¾  ¯½ f°  f°– ¯ ff¾€  °  .fn°#¾€ ¾   °n½f °.fn°¾¯ °n °–  °f ¾  @ f°  ½½¾ 9½  .f°  ¾€ ½  €– .

f° ¾%nf  % f¾ °° 9 ¾f W n°€n  ° f° ¾¾f° – W  °    ¾¾ @°   W @¾f  ¾ n ° – n f  ¾–¾n  °¾–°f ¾n   .f¯f W .f°nf ¾¯f¾½ f  ¯¾ f f f° ½¾  f°n€°¾n¾¯  W ¾€°  .°f°¾°9–f W J € ¯f ½½ ¾  9¾nf . ¯ °  f° – °   .f°nf ¾¯ W .°f°¾¯ W ½nf½n¯ ¯ °¾€°   .

°f½°n½ -  f °°– ¯ f¾f  –°°9 ½f  W   f     n°¾½    ½ W  © n  f€ .

n W  © n  .

fn.

- f°   °fnf¾€€  ½f°€ nn€°f°  f W   ¾€¯   #  ¾¾# ¯ f°°–f½½ ff°n ¾ ¯ f°n  W € °f–f¾¯ °  ¾ % –  f¾ ¾nf¯°€.f°f°f ¾¾f¾°D.¾f°  n ¾¯ W ° °¾n  ¾ °–€¯  ½ ¾½½¾°€ n½°f € ¯f  W .

 ° %¯fn¾ ¾n ½fn ¾.

¾©¾ €   nn€°f° ¾€€  f°.

¾#¾½fn  W .

n€°f° ¯f°€¯€ ¾¾.

¾ f¾f°¾°  .

f f°¾¯%f .

°% @ f f°¾¾f–f ¾¾.

 W Jf¾¾f  ¾ f.¾f°    f   ° ¾°n½ ¾°¾   f¾½ n¾ €€n ¾€° ½ ¾° nn °– ¯    ½ ¾°¾€ @° ¾°° #¾ f°¯f°  °° © n  f   -.

" W   f ¾f½ €f° f¯–f°  ¾f¾½ ¯  °– W .¾f°½ ¾f  ¾ ° f° f –½° n °    W f°¾¯¾f f  f ff¾ ¾ f° f ¾¾f¾f ¾¾  °–f°  f¾ °° € n f° W @ ¾°f¾€° f°  n °½¾¾ ¾¾f° ° – ° f  W f¾  € ¾  fn°–f°   f f¾f¾½ ¯  °– W   f  f f° °  ° ¾–    °f J@@D@--.

¾¾  ° € nf¯  °f W @   ¾¾f f   ° f°  ½  J@--."  W @  ° f f –°°°–f° f¾f° ½°  – € ¯  –f° n f  W @  ° f¾¾ ¾  °  f   W @ ½f¾n f    f   –  °  W @ ½f¾¾ ¾  °  °  W   f ¾ °   W @  f  f¾ff¾ ¾ ¾¾½   ¾¾  ° ¾ ¾¾.

¾ @.

-@@9I-. W .

.

.

%@ @°¾° % @  f °   ¾  °  ° ½ ¾°¾ fn€  ¯¾  f°  °  @ f ¾ fn °¾  °fn  f ¾  f f°  °fn  ½¾   °f °   W .

.

.

 °   °–%° ¯%¾°      ¾°½½¾°€ f°¾½  nf¾ €f° f ¾°  °f° °  ½  °¾° f  f° ° ½  ½ ¾° f f° ° °   9-. @ -f¯ f€ 9 f–¾ f°°–¾¯°  –¾° €½½ – f ¾f €  .

n¾ f–f°¾   ¾ @ 9 f–f°¾nf–  –¾° f  –°f¾° 9 f–¾f°  –¾° f f f f  –°f¾°f° €  W W 9 f–f°¾¯f¾n° ¯° f.

ff– f   .

°n€½ ¾¾n° ¯°   9 f–f°¾ € ¾n°° f°      ¾f  ¾°fnn ½–°f¾° ¾ ° €–fn °¯f°¾¾ff° . ¾°  ° n ¾¾€ ¾fn€n € .

¾€¾   ° f ° – ¾° ¾¾f¾f  ¾€.

¾#¾ f° n¾¾ 9 f–f°¾   ff¯ °f ¾°° ¾  nn ¾f¯ °f n¯°f¾   f° ¾¾nf° fn   °¯f° €€ °–¾nf¯ f  n¯ ¾°€°–  f  f¯½ €  ¾°€n¯¯°°n f  °  J  n¯ ½ ¾°f– ¾ °¾n° f° ¯f°° .

¾f°n¯¯°  €°–  f¯½ €.

¾   9 f–¾¾f f¯f°¾ °¯f° f f° nf°fn   f °° ¾°½ ¾  nn °–¯  #¾–fn ¾° ° n ¾¾f  ¯  ¯f ¾ f¾ f°  ¾  €€nf¾   " W ° f  ¾–°f¾° W   ½ ½ nf°  ¯  –fn  W   –°f¾°nf°° ½f¾¾  ° €¯– ° f°– ° f° W¯f°¾f  °°f¾f €°°n °n  f½ °f  W.f°f¾€ °¯f¾¾ ¾  9 @  n° €–°f¾°¾ ¾¾½ f     ¾ ¾ €  - ¾f ¾¾¾  f€f¯ ° ff° ¾ff° f° f¾ff°¾€€  f– .

¾ @ .

n nf¾ ¯° € .

¾ °¾  f nf°°f¯½     f°€–°f¾° ° ¯°°– ¯¾ €.

¾  .

.

.

  @ €¾€ –fn € ½¾ n° ¾°  €€ n°–©¾€nf°° fnn f°n  ¾¾ ½nf¯f°f  –°°°–€ ¾½    ½ ° €  °– ¯€ f °¾ff° .   –fn ¯f°°¾f  f° ff€¯ ¾° ¾fnn ½°–€– ° ¾¾f°  – ¾° ¾¾€¯°–  ¾€nf°¾ °°  ¯¾¾°€¾°¾  f¾  ¾f°n€nf°f°  ° f€ ° ¯f°  .

.

.

f¾ ¯ € ¯f°-f €  ¾¾ ° ¯ €¾½f -f  W  ¾¾. J@@@@""" .    -@-.

¾¾  ¾€ °°€ ¾ ½ff ½ ¾°¾ ° ¯f°f° °   J@@D D@J@@@@" W  ¾¾.

¾ ¾¾ °n  W ¯f°f° f ¾¾.

 €.¾f¾°f ¾  ¯f°f° °  W ¯½f¾ ¾€ °f° ¯f° W .f °– .

¾ J@ D@@" W . € °  -f €.f° °– .

 €   W  ¾¾.f°€ °–nf  .¾ W .

¾¾  ¾€ °°€ ¾ ½ff ½ ¾°¾ ° ¯f°f° °    .

@.

@..

@.

.

D.

 .

.

.

 .f¾  . €  ¾°n ¾ ¾ ¯ €   °f°€  ¯f ¯f° ¾ ¯¾ €   .

.

.

  I–°n°n  ¾f° – ¾   ¾°€   .

.

.

 ¾¯¯f   ¾¾.

¾¾° ½f¯f°°¾ ½f   nf¯  ¯f°  ¯f°°–   .-9@. W ¾   ¾f¾f ¾f  ¾° ° -f °. €    ¯f°n°n ½°€ °€ °  ¯     .f nf¯  .

¾ f° -f  W f ¾f ¾¾.

¾  f f¯f° °f  f¾ °n½f °¾ ° -f  W @¾f¾f  ¾fnf¯ €¯  f¾ °½f€ ¯½  W f¾ € f f .

°n€ .

 W .fn °  J@@D D@.-9@.

¾f¾f° -f  W  ¾¾f¾ °– ¯¯fnf  .

f W . .°n ½°€.

¾ ¾°f ¾n ¾ ° f°  J@ D@.-9@. W .

¾f °° °f f° -f  W .

¾ ¾¯f°°f f¾f ¾  ¾ ° -f  W .

¾ ¾¯f°°f f¾¾° ¾ °nf°f° W .

¾¯f°°f f¾°  °nf¯f°°f  9 W -n ° .

    ½ € ½  f¾ °€ I–°.f  f°  nf¯ ¯f°  W .

.

.

.

   nf¯ ¯f°   ¯f°°–  ¾¾.

¾¾   f°  ¯f°  W .

.

.

€¯ n°n€.

fn ° °– f ¾  °f°¯¾  fnf° n°€ ¾¾° f°  ¾f¯ °    ¾¾.

f  . €  J n°€ ¾¾f° f°  ¾f¯ .¾  ¾f¯ ½ € n° ° f° ½ € n°¯f°  ¾f¯   f° ¯f° n¯½¾ €f°f¾f°    n°¾ ¾f°f f f¾¾ °f° n°¾ ¾f°f¾f¾¾ ¯f°   ¾°f°–¾ ¾°  f¾ – °€¯ f  € ff– ¾f¾ ¾ °f° ° ¾ f¾ f¾ €¾f° € ¾ff° f¾ °f¾¾¯f°€  –°.

¾   f° ° – °° ¾ fn° –  °°f ¾n°€¾° nf°–  ¾°¾ ½ff° @  ¾°n°  °  °f ¾f¾°  f ¾   °°  f  nffn ½½  fn€  °f ¾f¾½ ¾  f¾ nf¯  –  °° ½ ¾°%½¾½°%f° °  ½¾f¾¾   @9 ½¾ ¾.

      ° ¾¾.

¾ ¾°°      ¾ n°€       f¾n°n    ½ € ½ f°  °€ I–°.f    ¾€€  ° 9°¾9f  f¾nn€   f° f¾      ¾n ° °  °   f ¾ f–f°  W n°nf¾¯%f° .

° ¾% @¾  ¾f¾  °f–½€½ ½ °°f¾ n°nf¾¾% f  n°¾¯f¾ ¾ %f½½ f  nf¯ ff¾¾°€¯f ½n ¾f° ¾f ¾ €.

¾f°  ¾f°¾  ¾½  €fnf°     f n¯¯f°  ¯f°–€ –¾ ¾f ¾°n °–¾¯ n ½ ¾ °f°¾€.

¾ 9 ¾f°¾¯%.

°% 9 ¾f°–½¾ ¾½ff f € €€  ° n° ¾    ffnf¯   °   fn°–¾€¾f¾n½f% n½ f°    ff ¯¾¾ °     °€¯°–  –%f° ¾f€ % €ff°   ff  f ©¾€  €f°%  f°¾ °¾¯%.

°% f°¾ °¾  ¾½€½ ¾ f°n °f ¾  ¾ f½f½   °–¾° n €°    n° €–fn ¯°–  n° ¾ ¾ € ¾ ° f.

¾  €f¯ °   nf¯ f   °€¾  €°f ¾f %   n% @¾f°  f°¾ °¾ ¾   €€nfn° ¯°  9½ °°n °O°  -@. °f¾¯¾   ¾f © n  f € ¾fnf¯ °¾n  f  ½ ¾f°  ¾½¾ €¯f f  €f °  °f¾ f¾f ¾½  n ° ½½¾°  –¯f °  W °f¾¾  –½½¾   °f°€ ½ ¾¾f¾ € n°¾ nf f°¯f° °–f¾ f¾½ ¯¾  @   ¾f¾¾½½ ¾¾  € f ° nf¾ €  f¯f–  °   –¾°   –¯ff¾ n €½½° f¯  @D-@- W @    f  f½ ¾ ¾    ¾¯ f@f  fn°¾¾   © n    ¯ ¯ ¾€ .

n  W @    f  f ¾€ .

nn     ¾½¾f° ½ ¾¾¾  ½ °f ff f  € €¯¾°  W @    ff¾fnf¯ °¾¾  f ¯°¾ ¾°f¾f €¾°¾°f f¯°– f ½ ½ f  n  °f¾f¯  ¯   @@D@ W @ ¾f°¾¾  f° f ¾°ff ¯ ¾f° ffn¾  @ W ° f ¾n°f¯°f  ¾° ¾   © n €    W .

n f ¾f °°n  €f ½f¾ ©¾€f  ¾½fnn f¾¯°¾ ¾€¾fnf¯ °¾ f °f°¯ f ½°  n¾°–   n  ¾€ ¾fnf¯ °  9 .

.

.

.

.

 f °€f   ¾fnf¯ °¾n°€  –fn f ¾–°€  @ f  €€nfn¾ nf¾ ° ¯.

 9-.¾ ¯¾ €¾f ¾  f½ ¾   fn¾°¾¾fnf¯ °¾° n¯¯°nf   –fn f fn¾fnf¯ °¾–°€ ¾     € n°€ ¾¾¾°¾  ¾€f€ f° ©¾f° €– ¾¾°¾f° ½€¾ €¯f°– ¾° ¾¾  °   9--.

-D. @.-@  W .

¾f f¯f°     ° J   ½fn .

¾ ¾f°ff° ¯f°¾   W @ ¾f¾  € °€ .

¾ ¾ °   W  °n .

¾  °f f¯f°¯° f°    I@  .

@D.-  @ ¯f°  €.

¾¾f°fnn ½  °° ½°f¾  €° f¾   .

nf° .

¾f°¾     99@-9 W .

@-@I.

.--J-@ O@-.9@ D.-  W  W @D.-.

@ W °n .

¾  °f ¯f°¯° f°    W    ° fn¯½  ¯f°€  D.

-@9--.  .

.

.

 .

¾ ¾¯f°  ¾° ¾¾½½¾  f ¾ ¯¾¾ ° f° f¯–   .

°¾f°°½         °  nf¯ ¯f°  °n f¾ ° ¾ ¯f° °¾f f° °€f f°  ¯f°   .

.

.

    °f°f¾f¾¾¯ ff°f  ¯f° ¾ .

€ f¯f¾n¾  .

.

.

@ ¯f°°f € ¾° ° ¾ €  ¾°° J ° f° ¾  €f°¾ €  °–f½ f°¾   .f¾ .

-@@. .°€ ¾¾  .9@-@.

@ W   ¾.

¾°f¾°   W   ¾.

¾f¾°f ¾ ¯f°f°  °  W   €¯ ¯°¾ ¯ f°°–f° ¾°–  W –°f   ¯½ % fn¾%°   °f° €€  .

°½¾ ¾  W .n€ .° ¾¯f¾€°fn° ¯° °  n¯ °nf.

°n€ .

n%   f.

-@@. W  ¾¾.°¾f°°½ %  °     @D@-.

¾ ¾ °¾ W .

¾f °f ¾ ¯f°f°  °  W .

 W .-@@.¾€€ ¾ff°  °–°  n¾¾  .

¾°f °  ¾ °  W f¾   f.

¾f °€ f°  ° € €¾f   W @¾f¾f¾ f¾    f.

° ¾¯  9-@. W .¾ f fnn¯½¾ ¾ff°n     ¾.-@@.

.

.

   °nf°f °€ f f ¾¯f°° – " W @ °€ f¾¾¯ f   f°¯f  ff°f¯f°¾ J¾ ¯f°°  n ¾¾ f° ¯f°°–¾  f€ ½  °n  f¾f¾¯f°f° °€  f f°°¯f f° ¯¯ f ° –  € ¾f    ¾ ° ¾  ½ ½ ¾¾ n –¾f°  ° €   °f½f°¾n f n¯   f  W .

.

.

    ¾€ °nf°f  J n½ f " W  ¾¾f f ° f° f¯f°  °¾ f€  °€ ¯f°  ff f  °  n   f f°  ½€¾ff° @  ¯f°€.

¾€  ½½¾° nf°n   °  °   ¾ f¾¾ © n   n¯ °nf.

°n¾ Jf¾f°n¯ °nf.

°n" .

  n¯ °nf€¯  #¯ ° #  ¯ f°°–#  °f   #  °– ¾½¾f°  ¾ °  €¯f     ¾n¾¾n °f¾¾ ¾€  nn    -nf f%%   ½ f f°¾¯  nf f.

¾¾ #¯¾¾ €f #%€ ¾f¯  ¾ ¾f°n f¾ f %   f ½  –°f-n ° .

 f° €   f¾  f   .

fn °f°¾¯    nf f.°¾f°°½ %%   ½ f f°¾¯f° .

¾¾# °€ f  € f¯ #   ¾  -n ° .

 ° –f   ½   °€ ½  ½ ¾¾ %%   ½ f - ¾f°¾¯f° 9 f–f°¾¯   ½nf¯  I–°. € #%   f€€¯  -n ° .ff¾  @ ¾%#  –  # # f # #.

   .

°½¾¾¯    ½  .fn °%%   ½ f  nf° n° € .

fn °f°.

 n ¾n  ½¾fn°°   .

°¾f°°½ %%   ½ f  @ .

f½ ¾.

°½¾¾¯f° ¯½ f ½f½f f°¾%   .° ¾  %- ¾f°¾¯ .

° ¾¯f°  .° ° –¾¯    ¯°¾ 9½ °¾  -nf f%%   ¾   ° f°€n°¾    ½ f n°nf¾¯   .°¾f°°½ % %   ½ f  .

°¾f°°½ I% %  ½¾ 9ffn9¾€.

°¾f°°½  %f¾f°¾½ f°  °¾f ¾ ½ n ¾¾f°–°f¾%   9f°.

° ¾  ° f¾ °f° J ¾ ° nn ¾f¾nf ©¾ n°f–¾°  –ff°nn f¾ f¾f n°f ¾½     € %¯ f°°– #f° €¯ °#%ff  °f  -n °  .

   f°nn nf¾  –nf  f°–½°°    °n ° ff¾ J ¾ n¾¯   f f°%%  ° ¾ .

° ¾ ¾¯° n nf n  fn  f  ¾¾ ° ¾¯ °€ ¾½¾f°   ¯½    f f°%%   f€€¯ f f°f° f  ¾¾ n nf ¾n½° %  ¾¾f° ¯ff– ¾%   ° €  ¾nf#¾% €n °  n n° ¯° fn nf¯f f ½¾¾ ¾¾°% fn°–f° nn¾¯€  .

  – ¾f°  f €  ¾ € °¾f€ ° ¾½nff° nf f¯ °¾  f¾ °nf° ¾ n°–– f ¯f° f°   ° ¾f ¯    °¯¾    ¾ ° ¯ ¾  ¾½ nf  ½½ ¾ ½ f f° ¾ °f¾nf½¾ ¾° f€ ¾ f ¾f°¾f ¾ fn € ¾½ f ¾ ¾n ¯ f¾° nf¾ € 9€ ¾¾     W ¯f°€ f °fn  ° – f° f  nf  fn° ¯½fn°n ¾½ ¯° % ° €  %  - ¾n   €¾½ f° f°  ¯f°¾f°¾ €¾ ¯ °   n ¾f ¾ °nf°  ¾ °f¾¯ °– ¯n f¯ °  n °f– ° °– ¯f° €€n °  fnfn   °¾   ¾½½ f°   °¾%%   f°–€  fn¾¯.n ½f° ° ½f½f¾n¾¯  f f°%%   ¾n ½f½f  n° nf °f¾   n° ¯° ¾¯° f – °¾f°¾¯f°  f °¾f°¾¯   ° n ¯°¯¯f– ¾€ °f° %€ ¾½¾%  f f°I%%   €° f°¾ ¾f°f°€  nf¾  °°f½ °f°n   ½½ ¾¾°€ – °¾ ¾ n¾f ¾  f  ¾¾ 9f½f½¯fnf° n nf ¾n½°   °¾%%   ½¾ n¯¯°nf f° ¯½  n W  n% n ¯   n ¯  % f¾° € ¯¾½ €¯f° ¯½ ¾€ .

°¾f°°½   f ¯½  °° f¾ °nn ¾   f½½ f°n¾nf°f° ¯°nf° ¾ f  ¾½½n¾f ¾f° n°nf  ½n  ¾   I °° % %  ¾ f°  °–¾@ ¯½f   ¯¾€f¯¾€ J ¾ °.

¾f°¯f ¾   .

°¾f°n % %   ¾   fJ ¾ °n¾¯f°  n° ¯° °¾   –f°n°nf¾¯   .

°n€ °f f  ¾¾ nn €¯    f¾    f  °n % %  f  ¾¾ nn €¯f°  °°  f¾ °.

n ¾   f f°I% %   f  ¾¾ .

n €¯ ¾½ nf  ¾n½°   @ °% %  f  ¾¾ nn €¯f°  ½ f  9 ¾f°¾¯   €°   €nf°°€¾n½ f°     °fnf¯ °   Ifnf°% %  €° 9½ #¾½¯fn°nn– °f°n f°  ¾°€f     ½ f f°f¾¯ ¯f f¾¯f° f ¾¯   f  ¾¾   f° ° ½ f°€¾n½  f°  f°¾½€€ff° ½   Ifnf°% %  f  ¾¾ ½f¾ff°  ¾n½°f¾¾ ¾ f°–  .

nf° ¾ f° ¯ °  °n °––f°  n¯ °¾¯    ° f€ .

n° ¯ °   .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful