You are on page 1of 560

Ir-

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

A GLOSSABY
OF WORDS USED IN

THE COUNTY OF NORTHUMBERLAND


AND ON

THE TYNESIDE.

BY R-

OLIVER HESLOP

VOLUME

IJ.

Xonfcon:

PUBLISHED FOR THE ENGLISH DIALECT SOCIETY


BY HENRY FROWDE, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, AMEN CORNER, LONDON, E.G.

1893-1894.

V.*

CONTENTS.

THE GLOSSARY, GA
ADDENDA
ERRATA

to

311 to 807

809
-

812

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

[The letters N., S., T., W.-T., when following a word, refer to divisions of Northumberland wherein characteristic variations of the dialect are heard and a word so marked means that the form or sound is proper to the district indicated. N. is North Northumberland, the district north
;

of the river Coquet, including Redesdale. S. is South, or Central, Northumberland, including the part of the county south of the river Coquet and lying between that line and the eastern portion of the Tyne

T. is Tyneside, with Newcastle as its centre, including the valley. valley of the Tyne and both its banks from Wylam to the sea, and a portion of the northern part of the county of Durham. W.-T. is West Tyne, the district west of Wylam, having Hexham as its centre. When

no sign follows a word the form may be understood as common


the districts named.]

to all

GA, gave
before a much as

"

He

This form of the p.t. is used (the a short as in gat). word beginning with a consonant. " Ye ga twice as " Ye it's worth." gav ower much." Ga'd, gave it.

gfl's,"

he gave us (gave me).


gall.

See GAV, Gov.


"

GAA,

or

GAW,

"

As

bitter as gaa."

Nowther gut nor

faa."

GAADGER,
GAADY,
let's he'

a gauger, an exciseman. "

gaudy, garish.

Nyen

o'

yor goody colours, mistor

plain reed an' yalla."

GAADY-DAY, GAWDY-DAY,
"

A gawdy-day

myeks

a holiday. (Obsolescent.) hands merry." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 64.
a'

" There are certain times of the year when the young men and lads refuse to work, and insist on a gaudy-day for instance, the first morning they hear the cuckoo, and when the turnips and peas are at 'A cuckoo mornin,' 'a tormit mornin, and 'a pea mornin ." maturity. Note to Pitman's Pay.
1 1

312

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a soft, or

GAAKY,
GAAKY,
GAAN,
GABY,

awkward

person.

See GOWK.

clownish.
" Aa's gaan"

gaan up."
or

going (pres. part, of gan). Gannin is another form.

"Them

at's

See GAN.

GABY-RIDDLE,

in separating the

a sieve with very wide mesh, used rougher parts of chaff from corn.

GAD,

a rod, a staff, a fishing rod, a cattle goad, a spear. gad o' iron," a nail rod. Compare GORD.
to gather.

"

GADDER,
what a

See GETHER.
an assembly, a crowd.

GADDERIN, GETHERIN,
gttforin'

"Eh,
team

thor wes."

GADMAN, GADSMAN,
of oxen in ploughing.

the

man who had charge

of the

(Obs.)

GAD-SMASH-ME-SARK!
construction.

a minced oath of complicated

GAE
Past

[N.]
tense,

to go. " gaed.

" Gae

doon the toon

We gaed away at a bonny pace."


"Gae
thin."

an' seek the milk."

See GAN.

GAE, somewhat,

very.

See GAY.

GAFF,

the upper shore rope of a salmon net.


lowering, cloudy.
"

GAFFIN,
GAG,

The weather's ower

gaffin."

pumping arrangement of a colliery, "an obstruction in a bucket, or clack, preventing the fall, or lid, from working." E. Nicholson, Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1888.

in the

W.

GAILY,
day,

Tommy"

a variant of gay, which see. that is, pretty well.

Yor lukin

gaily

weel thi

day. rather
'

some

GAINER, GAINOR,

a gander. (Obs.)

GAINSTAND,

to stand against, to withstand.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

313

GAIR,

a strip of verdure on the uplands, generally the outcrop of a limestone. Hugh Miller, Geology of Otterburn and Elsdon. gair is a bright, green, grassy Geological Survey Memoir. Also an irregular strip spot, surrounded by bent or heather. of green turf running down the side of a moorland hill. Above Linnshiels, in Coquet Dale, there is a fairy-looking spot of this kind known as Barty's Gair.

" To the north is the vast and almost pathless solitude of the forest of Lowes, here and there studded with a few enclosures, a farmhouse, or a

shepherd's shield and, in places, enlivened with grassy, limestone gairs, edged about with beds of deep ling, or impassable peat mosses." Rev. John Hodgson, Letters on Housesteads. Archaologia JEliana, vol. i., p. 271.
;

GAIRD,

guard. " The gaird comes


His blasts
like

fleein like the

wind,
Oilin' o' Dicky's

thunner blawin." T. Wilson,

Wig.

GAIRIL,

girl.

GAIRISHON

[N.], a rowdy gang of young men or lads. of rough-looking appearance, when in a body, are spoken of as a gairishon^ but the term is oftener " " or ragged. applied to boys, especially when flig

Sometimes adults

GAIRN
GAIRN,
GAIT.
GAIT,

[N.]

woollen yarn.

to grin, to make a face. See CORN. " Girn'd and laught." G. Smart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,

p. 71.

See GATE.
a goat.

GAIT,

sheaves set up singly in a corn field. A "stook" is a " A group of sheaves as distinguished from the gait. country dotted with rows of shock and gait." See GATEN.

GAIT,

to set up sheaves of corn in wet weather to dry. Halliweirs Diet. See GATED, GATEEN.

GALASH," to mend
part, or
jfamieson.

shoes or boots with leather on the upper

by a band round the fore part of the upper leather undoubtedly allied to French galoche, a wooden shoe."
to

GALE,

ache with cold.

See GEAL.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

GALIC,
is

incomprehensible

talk.

" bad or " bletherin speaker

often told that no sense can be

made

of his talk, as

it is all

galic.

Compare DOUBLE DUTCH.

GALLEY-BAAK,
over the
fire,

the balk or beam fixed across a chimney " " from which a pot hook called a reetin cruck sometimes a tree branch with was hung. The galley-baak was the bark stripped off, but otherwise undressed and unsquared. " that In this case it was commonly called a " peeled grain See RANNEL-BALK. is, a barked branch. (Obs.)

GALLOWAY, a

horse under fourteen hands high, of the sturdy breed formerly common but now almost extinct. They were used on the fells to carry ore over from the mines to the smelt When going loaded the galloways were always muzzled mills. and driven in droves, and in this way they tracked the moors in file. The was called the " raker."
single

leading galloway
a

GALLOWAY PUTTER,

pony

putter.

W.

E. Nicholson,

Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1888.

GALLOW-HILL, GALLOW-LAW,
yet lost their name, parish Gallows-hill, in
;

the spots where unfortunate criminals were executed in such franchises as had the power of the furca, or gallows. have not
for

we have
;

They

Hartburn Ellingham Gallow-moor, in Eglingham Gallows-shaw, in Nether witton and Gallowside, in Haltwistle. Hodgson's
;
; ;

Gallow-hill, in Bolam Gallows-law, in Elsdon and

Northumberland,

iii.,

2, p. 54.

GALLOWSES, GALASES,
GALLOWS-TIMBER,
called

a pair of braces for the trousers.

supported by two upright pieces "

a cross-piece, or crown-tree of timber this arrangement is also a pair of gears."


;

GAM,

a game, fun Of the gams among boys may be specified leap-frog in its form of "loup-the-lang-lonnin" and "cappyback also stotty baal, watch-webs, tripet and quoit, nineholes, cat and dog,
;

duck-styen, spinny-wye, hatty-cappy, pigeon-walk bait the bear, beggarly Scot, cherry- pit, hitchydabber widdy-way, bed-stocks, handy-dandy, pie-ba 1 kitty cat-an -buck stick puss-in-the-corner; all lld,bo g gle-^oot. tiggee,'and fhe many

^'^^hand
bal1 '

ball >

prison

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

315

GAMALERIE
playfulness.

(Obs.)

("gamblery" or "gambolry"), gambolment, Compare GAMEL.


gaiters.

GAMASHERS, GAMASHES,
"

(Obs.)

applied to a kind of loose drawers or stockings worn outside the legs over the other clothing, and much used

The term was formerly

by

travellers."

Halliwell's Diet.

GAMEL,
Watling

to gambol, to gamble.

GAMMELS-PATH,
Street.

the northernmost portion of the See KEMMELS-PATH.

Roman

GAMLER,
GAMMIN,

a gambler.
funning,

making a

fool of.

GAMMY,
leg."

lame.

The same

as game.

" He's getten a gammy

GAN,

to go.

Past, gaid or gaed


''

p.p., gyen.

In the

pves. p.

both

gan and gannin are used. " Gan that as it likes

let

that go as

it

will.

Stuart's Joco-Scrious

Discourse, 1686, p. 5. " Sae weel she ettles what aw get, Sae far she's a'ways gars it gan,

That nyen can say we are i' debt, Or want for owther claes or scran."
T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,
pt.
i.,

v. 80.

This

is

the heed." In narrative, " Aa gans" is often used in a past event. "As seun as aa hard him, aa gans describing up tiv him." When a child acquires its first step it is said to

sometimes spoken broadly

"Gaan about

like a

geuse

nicked

i'

gan.
"

When aw was
The

young they teuk a lang way better plan, bairns was put ta wark as seun as they could gan." George Chatt, "Old Farmer," Poems, 1866, p. 87.

In North Northumberland the forms of the verb are often used as gae or gan p.t., gaed ; p.p., gaen or gane. " Gannen down here,' a vocal signal from the banksmen to the brakesmen that men are going down the pit." Nicholson's Gloss, of Coal Trade
'

Terms.

" Gan yor aan gait," go your own way. "To gan wi'" is to make away with. " The frost's gyen wiv aall the grozers this " His fethor left eer." plenty, but he's gyen wid aall."

GANDY-GANDY,

the farm call to the geese.

See CALLS.

3 i6

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to go.

GANG,
man."

See GAN.
" a wandering person, a

GANGRAL, GANGREL,
(Obs.)

vagrom

GANG-TOOTH,
(Obs.)

a tooth as one of a row, or set of teeth.


or Set, for example, of Teeth or the like. all over England." Ray, 1691.
It is in

Gang, a

Row
"

this sense a general

word

GANG-WEEK,

are lustrated by the

Parish Officers, Rogation Week." Week is the next but one before Whit Rogation Bailey. in that week Rogations and Sunday, and on the Wednesday were formerly used. The Thursday in that week is Litanies Ascension Day, but it is better known in Newcastle as Barge Thursday. See BARGE-DAY.

The Time when

the

Bounds

of the Parishes

GANNER," a
GANNER,
GANNIN,

good goer.

He's a ganger, like Willie Pigg's dick-ass." proverb, " not bonny-leukin', but he's a ganner noo
!

Brockett has ganger, and quotes the " He's

or GANGER, a beggar or poor pedlar and half a beggar. (Obsolescent.)

hawker

half a

moving,

stirring.

GANNIN-BORD,

going board.

When

the crane,

flat,

or

station in a pit is not at the end of the headways course at the face, the coals are brought down a board for one, two, or more pillars, as the case may be, to the crane. This board is called the going (or "gannen") board. Greenwell's Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1849.

GANNIN-HEEDWIS,
GANT, GAUNT,

the going headways in a pit usually the headways course next the face. Greenwell's Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1888.
to gape, to yawn. " It's a wonder he dissent " wi' gantin." get lock-jaa proverb says, The long gaunts o Elishaw were heard at the loans o' Blakelaw." This is now The same or a similar spoken in deriding lover's sighs. saying was current in other localities with similar names on

the

Tweed and

across the

Border.

in Hist, of Bwks. Naturalists' Club, vol. viii., p. 130, note. Gant also means an inhalation caught at a gasp, as a " Aa bad smell. gat a fair gant on't," said in passing a

See note, Dr. James

Hardy,

midden heap with an

offensive smell.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

317

GAN-WIFE,

a female pedlar, going about with a basket or with tinware, containing pins, laces, and nick-nacks brushes, and other domestic articles.
;

GAR,

to compel, to force, to cause. " Gar's an ill weed to grou."


" Sae weel she ettles

local proverb says,

what aw

get,
pt.
i.,

Sae

far she

a'ways gars it gan." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826,

v. 60.

GARBOARD,
The

the planking hoard next the keel of a vessel. garboard strake is the first or lowest streak (stretch or line) of planking or row of plates in a ship.

GARCIL,

underwood.
Brockett.

the garcil"

Garcil-heuk, (Obs.)

"a

bill-knife for cutting

GARDENER'S GARTERS,
dinacea.

the ribbon grass, Phalavis arun-

Called also

ladies' garters.

GARN,

woollen yarn.

In Chaucer garnment

is

used

for

garment.

Gm*-windles, yarn-winders.

See GAIRN.

GARN,

to darn, or mend a woollen stocking with yarn or threads spun of woollen. Hodgson MS.

GARRET,

a watch tower. Describing the walls of Newcastle, the author of an Impartial History of Newcastle adds, p. 47, " It was observed by Mr. Milbank, in the MSS. which he left, that between each of these large towers there were generally two lesser ones, of a square form, with the effigies of men cut in stone upon their tops, as in a watching posture, and they were called garrets, having square holes, or apertures, through which to discharge arrows, stones, and other missiles at a Garir, in French, is to take refuge, and besieging enemy." Our attic storey in a house is from garite is a place of refuge. this word. Some of the old stone men from the town wall may be seen in the dungeon of the Castle at Newcastle. One is a rude figure leaning the chin on a weapon, as if on the look
out.

GARSE, GORSE,
in grass.

grass.

GARSIN, GORSIN,
(Obs.)
a garter.

a grazing, a pasture Also probably gursage.

an ing or enclosure See GYSSURGE.

GARTEN,

The

outer edge of a

web

of cloth torn

off.

g
T

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a vard
re

ofhe CastJ
strong
p.t.

The or any guarded or fenced place. is the Castle-^/, a? Newcastle

a potato field.

A sta'-^,

a stack yard.

GAT, got-the
GAT, GAUT,

Get-p.t., gat ; p.p., getten


is

and

gatten.

a female, pig that

spayed.

See GELD,
[T.]
.

2.

GATE,

a road, a

gate isyett.

See AAL-GATES, GUT, YETT.


1

way

GEYET

[SJ

GYET

Afield

the way. " They asked him if he kend Tho much he thought, yet little he said,

He knew

the gate as well as they." Ballad, Hobbie Noble.

GATE,

From the foregoing word method, manner of going. a person has of doing. as applied to conduct, or "the way" Gan yor aan gate," do your own, or go your own, way. " a sad course of conduct he is he's

bonny

gate

gannin,"

pursuing.

GATE,
of so

a stint or right of pasture, or other way-going. A right five is a stint many stints or cattle gates. A cattle gate make a stint. A cow gate is the stint for a cow plural, sheep " kine gate. For cattle on the Fell, Every gate there is to pay One Shilling." Gateshead Church Books, Order of June 7, 1652. A coble gate is the right of fishing for a coble.
;

GATE," GAIT, GYET,

" Three a journey or trip. gates o' three journeys to the lime-kiln and back that is, lime three goings. In a pit it has the same meaning, a gyet being a journey from the shaft to the flat and back again.
:

GATED,

oats and barley set up in single sheaves. Bailey Culley, General View of the Agriculture of Northumberland.

and See

GATEN.

CATENA GAITEEN,
on
its

or

GAITIN,

a single sheaf of corn set


:

end in a harvest field to dry. The word means to stand " Yor stannin' there singly, and is sometimes applied thus like a gaten," that is alone. A gaten is distinguished from just a sheaf by the band being bound round it close below the ear, and not in the middle, as in a sheaf, by which means the straw is more easily spread out. Before being stacked the band is always removed to the middle part in other words, the gaten becomes a sheaf. Oats and barley alone are thus treated, wheat and rye never.
;

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

319

GATER,

a quoit played in front of the hob, so as to stand on " edge and prevent an antagonist following with a ringer."
;

GATEWAY,

a roadway in a pit, a passage through the goaf, secured by a pack wall on each side, for the purpose of bringing out the coals worked on the longwall system. A rolley-way. W. E. Nicholson, Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms.
fat,

GAUCY,

comely,

jolly.

"A

big gaucy man."

GAUDY-DAY.

See GAADY-DAY.

GAUM.

See GOAM.
silly,

GAUMLESS,
GAUNT,
GAUP,
to

ignorant, vacant, stupid.

Brockett.

yawn.
sighing.

See GANT.

GAUNTIN,

to gape or See GEYEP.

stare.

"What

are ye gaupin there for!"

G AV,
ga

When the word following begins with a consonant, " He ga me." When it begins with a vowel, or mute aspirate, gav or gov is used. " He gav a strait acoont." " He " He See GA, Gov. gav him nowt for'd." gov ower."
is

gave. used.

GAVEL,

or

JAVEL,

a gaol.

See JAVEL GROUP.

(Obs.)

theys said three prisoners into Hexham, to the Queene's Majestie's gavel there." Errington to Forster, Hexham, December 17, I 559i i n Dr. Charlton's North Tynedale, p. 70.

" Sent

GAVEL,
"The
ij.,

a strip of land.

Compare CABLE and KYEVEL.

Town-fields (of Whelpington) made up of numerous gavels, ridges, and buts scattered and intermixed." Hodgson's Northumberland,
pt. vol.
i.,

p. 188, note.

GAVELICK, GEAVLICK, GAVELOK,


term as
"

a crowbar.

It is

common
Ray's

in

Northumberland as across the Border.


to enter stakes into the ground, or the

Gavelock, a pitch,

and iron bar

like uses."

Collection of North-Country Words, 1691.

GAVLE,
GAVY,

or

GEYAVLE,

the gable of a house.

See GEYAVLE.

an ungainly female.

Brockett, third edition.

Probably

a variant oigaby.

^20

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

GAW,

an unusually fine day, or an unseasonably fine day, See WEATHERof bad weather. thought to be a precursor GAW.

GEY, GAY, GAE, "


emphasize.

rather, somewhat, very; or added to " Yor a He's gay aad." gay lang time i' comin." The word is sometimes spoken as if it were gay an'" He was GAIN. gay an' seun here thi' day." See
to crack with heat or frost.

GEAL, GEYAL,
Compare GYLE.

See GELD,

4.

GEALL,
GEAN,

to grieve

Northumberland.

HalliwelVs Diet.
It
is

the wild cherry, Prunus avium.


tree."

usually called

"the gean

GEASSY,

a pig.

GEAT,
GEAT,

pace, motion.

GEED
to

[N.]
fish.

jet.

" Black as geet"

See JET.

GED,

the pike

GEDGE,

make

a wry face.

GEDGIN,

giggling, impertinent.

Probably derived from the


Thropton.
is

foregoing word.
" She's a gedgin,

akward huzzy."

GEE,

a sudden turn, a pique.

Agee, or aglee,

askew, atwist.

GEE

A (the g soft), sometimes gee-y, to go off the straight. " heck " horse is ordered to gee, that is, to turn to the right, as is to the left. In North Northumberland the forms are "
"
(right),

wo-beck

and " heck-wo-heck

"

gee-

(left).

GEE-BALL, JEE-BAL, JIBBLE, GEEBALD, knife


made from

a sickle, and fitted into a long handle, used for cutting small twigs off hedges, or cutting down thistles.

hedge

GEED,
p.t.,

gave.
in

and

N.

Gi, give, the pres.t.,

becomes #i or gav

in the

geed

p.p., geen.

See Gi.

GEED,
GEEG,

See GEAT,
the right

2,

and JET.
anything.
(Obs.)

way

of

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

321
geen

GEEN, "GIEN,
seen'd
I

given;

p.p.

of gi.

"Aa wad
to
;

owt to

would have given anything

have seen
the

it.

GEERS,

a staging, a set of supporting the roof of a pit.


a
;

shearlegs

timberwork

GEEZER,
character.

mummer and hence any grotesque or queer See GIZER, GUIZARD.


a tax.

GELD, GILD, GELT,


taxable.
(Obs.)

Hence

gelddbk

or gildable,

GELD,

to split

open or crack by exposure to heat.


;

GELDEET,

sun cracked or in the case of a butt or water tub cracked badly through and through, and consequently To geld is applied to the cracking of the material leaking. But when the joints only are affected, to gizen is the itself. descriptive word.
a snare for catching birds.
fair,

GELDERT,
GENNIC,

See GILDERT.

genuine,

honest.

See JANIC and JENICK.

GENTIN,
GENZIE,

projecting, in the way.

an engine of war.
"

Wi gun and genzie, bow and speir, Men might see mony a cracked crown."
1

Raid of Redeswin.

GEORDY,

the name by which Tynesiders are known outside the district. Also a Tyne ship. Compare CRANKY, 3.

GEORDY,

George Stephenson's safety lamp.


for bird-catching.

GERN

[N.], a snare called a gildert.


grass.

In

W.T.

this

is

GERSE,

See GARSE.

GESLIN,

a gosling.
catkins or "palms."
(Obs.)
;

GESLINS,

GESSEN,

rare, scarce.

GET-AGATE,

to make a beginning of a work 6r thing to go out again after being confined indoors or otherwise hindered from the ordinary routine of work.

322

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

GETHER,
An

The word also means to suppurate. to gather. abscess is called a getherin and, in the act of forming or " beeld." To gether, in husbandry, swelling, the place is said to is the first half of the operation of forming a rig by the plough.
;

GETHERIN -COAL,

a large piece of coal generally put on the fire just before going to bed, so that it may be heated on When broken up in the morning it the under surface. speedily forms a good fire.
tucks, or folds, plaited in

GETHERS,
GETS,

women's

dress.

the nett payment received by a blacksmith under the Crowley system of working. The smith received from the warehouse a certain quantity of iron. This was charged to him at a fixed rate of eleven shillings per 6olbs. weight half a cwt., long weight and he took it to his smithy, where he fashioned it as ordered by his overseer. On returning his finished work, the weight was taken and put to his credit at a price fixed for each kind of finished article. Then an allowance of so much per cwt. was also put to his credit for waste in the fire, &c. The balance between these two credits and the original charge for the material was called " the gets," being the nett earnings of the smith on each job. By this system at Swalwell and Winlaton a peculiar relationship between master and workman was originated, as different as Each man was possible from the modern factory system.

recognized in the individuality of his

own

smith's hearth.

GETTER,

a man employed in breaking down the coal which has been previously kirved (only applied where holers or kirvers and fillers are employed). Nicholson's Gloss, of Coal

Trade Terms, 1888.

GETTS, young

children.

GEUFISH,

flighty

or unstable in

mind.

"He's

rether

gcufish chep."

GEWGAA, GEWGO, GEWGY, GEWGIE,


GEY,
very, somewhat.

the Jew's harp.

See GAY.
a gable.
,

GEYAVLE (pron. ge-yavle), GEYEN [S.] GYEN [T.]


,

gone ( P r.t., gan).


t0

See GAN.

E ?J get.

Y P [T Q ^' See GANT, r GAUP.


[

'

'

gaP^e g Bunded hard as in

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

323

GEYEST
GEYPIN,
"Aw

[S.]

GYEST

[T.]

a ghost

the

g sounded hard.
See GEYEP.
Geo.

gaping, and hence soft or rustic

like.

cood gar the geypin lads work oot their varra leyves." " Old Farmer," Poems, 1866, p. 86. Chatt,

GEYUS

[S.]

GYUS

[T.]

a goose.
in.

GEYUS-CREE,

a pen, or shelter to put geese

GEYZENED,
GHENT,
GHYEST,
a

dried up, parched.

See GIZEN.
" He's a greet, muckle

tall

and thin person.


See GEYEST.
i

a ghost.

GI, to give.

very short on Tyneside, but in North spoken broadly, as gee-ah, or gee. Gi is generally used before a word beginning with a consonant. When the word following begins with a vowel giv is used. In the p.t. the forms are gee-a^ or ga and gav, which are used as euphony suggests. Gied, p.t., is used in North Northumberland instead of the strong forms, ga, gav, or gov.
is

The

Northumberland

it

is

GIANTIC,

gigantic.
'

" In the Newcastle dialect the adjective is formed not from the " classical gigas, but from the English giant, as a giantic chep or fellah.' Dr. Embleton, Archaologia JEliana, vol. xi., p. 145, note.

GIB

(the g soft as in jib), to refuse and shrinks from pulling. Gilbert.


at the

to draw, as a horse that gibs

GIB,

GIB, a hook, the bend


crook in a stream.

end of a stick or

staff,

a bend or

GIB, a

knitting hook, a crochet hook.

GIBBY-STICK,
GIB-FISH,
fish

a stick with the end bent for a handle.

a male salmon during the spawning season. The being then in a poor condition, its lower jaw assumes a gib form, being quite turned up and elongated.

GIENEEGITE, GIENIGYTE,
gienigyte"
it

gone wrong.

"It's a'

has

all

gone agate.

GIEST, JEEST,

a joist.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
if.

GIF,

GIFF-GAFF,
way

either in talking or in a helpful give and take, of mutual assistance.

GIFTS,

white specks on the finger nails. When these grow to the end of the nail a gift is expected to come from some
quarter or other.
"

A gift on the thoom comes soon, A eift on the finger comes nivver."
Old Proverb.

Another version says


"
Gifts

But

gifts

on the fingers lingers, on the thooms syun comes."

GIFTY,
gifty.

prolific.

When

corn thrashes well out

it is

said to be

GIGLET,
GILD,

a giggling girl

suggesting also a wanton.

body full o' gild" is a cheery play, high spirits. Gilt, or gilded, was also person, one full of mischievous fun. In the former sense it is still a current expression for drunk.
See GUILD.

"A

in use.

GILD,

light hearted, mirthful.

GILD,

to skylark, to play pranks. aal through gildin"

"

He

fell

an' hort hissel

GILDERT, GILDART,
birds.

See GERN.

a noose or snare used for catching

GILL

(the g hard), a place hem'd in with two steep brows or banks, usually flourishing with brushwood, a rivulet running between them. Tomlinson. Quoted by Ray, Collection of Mr. J. V. Gregory, in his PlaceNorth-Country Words, 1691. Names in the County of Northumberland, Archaologia ^E liana, new series, vol. ix., p. 65, notes the occurrence of the word in three places only in Northumberland. He adds " This word has come into Northumberland from the Norwegian
:

settlers of

Cumberland."
to gabble.

GILLABER,

GILLIHOWLET,
GILRAVISHIN,

the yellow owl, Strix flammea, Linn.

a tumult, a row.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

325
(?

GILSE, an

intermittent or temporary spring of water.

Obs.)

GILTY,

gilded, gilt.

GIMALICK, GIMLICK, GIMLEEK,


GIMALICK-EYE,
Gloss, vehicle." contrivance.

a gimlet.

a squint eye.
light

GIMCRANKS, GIMCRACKS, "a


to

or

Pitman's Pay.

Any

novel sort of novel or curious

GIMMER
gimmer"

(g

soft),
is,

that

" the fork of a tree. Tyek off that See JIMMER. cut off one of the forks only.

GIMMER

(g hard), a

young ewe.

and second shearing.

sheep between

its first

gelt-gimmer, a barren ewe.

GIMMER, a low woman. GIMP (the g soft), thin, neat


GIN,
GIN,
if.

in figure.

See JIMP.
is

alternately with gif,

This (The g sounded hard, as in get.) which has the same meaning.

used

a machine, a contrivance; short for " engine."


"

Compare

COG-AND-RUNG-GIN, WHIM-GIN.

GING,
o'

to join in

whusky."

frolicsome

Co'wa, ging in an' ha' a jirt company with. The word is generally used for a sportive or " One of the party. merry ging."

GING,
move
with

dung.

Probably a variant of goung.


the circular track in which horses machine. Also applied to the

GIN-GAN, GIN-GAUN,
it.

in turning a threshing

entire machine, with the building

and everything connected

GINIFER,

the juniper plant, Juniperus communis. A place in *' is known as " The Ginifevs" The It is marked " since Ordnance surveyors corrected the vulgar Junipers speech.

Hexhamshire

GIN-RACE,
GIP,

the horse track round a gin.

See GIN-GAN.

to punish.

"

I'll

gip ye."

GIPSEY,

wooden peg.

226

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a giddy, thoughtless girl.

GIPSEY,
GIRD.

See GORD.

GIRDLE,

a very thin, compact band or stratum. Girdles, in mining, are beds from about three inches to two feet or more but the term is usually applied to beds varying in thickness from three inches to nine or ten inches thick. When the stratum is of a distinct character, as in the case of the layers which divide the upper from the lower portions of a seam of " band." " Bands" vary from coal, it is generally called a A yet thinner half an inch to six or seven inches in thickness. " " deposit is called a parting." Girdles are also called lumps," " when formed of ironstone, " catheads." A " whin girdle and, " " Post of excessively hard stone. is a. girdle composed girdles "Metal girdles" are of hard, coarse are girdles of sandstone. A " brass girdle is one of pyrites. shale.
;
9 '

GIRDLE, GORDLE,

a flat, circular iron plate with a bow handle. It is set on the open fire and is used for baking " singin-hinnie," the accompaniment of all high festival in the homes of the people. The commemoration of a birthday, a christening, or a wedding is always kept with the honour of " " settin on the gordle and the baking of a "spice singin-hinnie." A girdle was formerly made from a flat stone. See previous

word.

Compare BAKSTONE.
'
'

bakstone was often three or four feet in diameter, capable of holding two cakes, and fixed upon three or four low pillars: the girdle was less and lighter, and stood upon an iron called a brandreth.' tripod, After iron plates began to be used for the same purpose, the larger one continued to be Called the bakstone,' and the smaller the girdle." Hodgson's Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. ii., p. 306, note.
'

"The

GIRDLE-CAKE, GORDLE-KEYEK,
baked on a
girdle.

name

for the

cakes

See SINGIN-HINNIE.

GIRDLEY,
GIRN,
GORD.

stratified in girdles.

to grin, to leer, to

make

wry

face.

See GAIRN, CORN,

GIRN,

a snare for catching


grass.

game
very

or trout.

GIRSE,

word

in

See GERSE, GARSE.

common

use by old people.

GIRSEL,

gristle.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

327

GIRSOME,

a fine on renewal of a lease. Lands " leased under annual rents, and, by the payment of a fine, called a girsome fine, at the end of every twerfty-one years." Hodgson's See GRESSOM. Northtimberland, pt. ii., vol. iii., p. 32.

GIS, GIZ, GFES, or GEE'Z, give me.

See Gi'.

GISS-GISS, the

call to a pig.

GISSY,

a pig.

GISSY-PIG,
to children.

little pig,

or the

name

of a pig

when spoken

of

GISTING,
GIT,

the agistment of cattle.

(Obs.)

in a mould, the narrow neck or channel through which the metal is poured. It is generally applied as the term for the superfluous piece of metal which is left in the neck of the mould after a casting is made.

GITE,
is

deranged, daft, mad.

G I YENS AGYEN,
back

a rebate on a price, or a price fixed which understood to be subject to a certain sum being handed
to the negotiator.

G1VE-OWER, give over, be done. GIYEN, GIEN [T.] given, p.p. of gi.
,

In S. Northumberland two syllables are distinctly pronounced, as: " He's gi-yen far ower much for the mear." The form goven is also occasionally
to disguise. On going out for a poaching expedition, near Rothbury, a man of notoriously dirty appearance asked '* his wife, " Hoo mun a gize mesel ?" Wesh thee fyess," was

used.

GIZE,

the prompt reply.

See GUIZARD and GUIZED.


to dry up, to crack open with drought. sun becomes gizened that is, dry

GIZEN, GYZEN,
empty cask lying
shrunken.

An
and

in the

GIZER,

a masquerader, something extraordinary or akin to the miraculous. See GUIZAR and GEEZER.
" the " pluck of an animal or the gizzard of a fowl. Also, by application, the life principle in a human being. A maddened opponent sometimes threatens his enemy to pull

GIZZERN,

his gizzern out. B

328

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

GLAIKED, GLAIKEED, GLAICKET, GLAIKET,


GLAIKY,
unsteady.
giddy, foolish, thoughtless,
inattentive to duty,

GLAIKEDNESS,

giddiness.

GLAIR, GLAUR, GLOAR, GLAR, liquid mud of the filthiest " sort. Gloar, mud, shining dirt, filth." In its common use
now-a-days, however,
;

it

is

simply applied

to
if it

the

most

offensive dirt something worse than "clarts," to conceive of depths of shade in such.

is possible

GLAIRED, GLARRY,
filth.

or

GLORY,

shining with

mud

or

GLAMS,

the hands.

Halliwell.

GLAND,
GLASP,

the space for packing round a piston rod or other

similar parts of an engine or machinery.

a clasp, fastener, or iron shackle.


or

GLAVE,

GLASE, smooth. Glavering is generally used for with smooth speech. A glaveving fellow, a smoothtongued, flattering fellow. Ray's North-Country Words, 1601. See CLAVER.
flattering

GLAZENER, GLASONER,
GLEDE,
GLEE,
a falcon.

a glazier.

See GLEEDE.
See GLEED,
2,

to squint.

and GLYME.

GLEECE,

a surprise.

See GLIFF.
(Obsolescent.)

GLEED, GLEDE,

a red-hot coal or peat.

GLEED, GLIDE,

crooked or twisted, not straight

wk

hence

GLEED GLEDE
>

>

* falcon, Faho

GLEE-EYE,

squint eye.

A glee,

asquint.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

329
acute in

GLEG,

Gleg at the uptak" quick, smart, acute. perception. 41 Mony a cap was cock'd to catch me Gleg was mony a wily e'e."
:

"

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

pt. Hi., v. 8.

GLEG,

worn smooth; hence

too easily and leaks from wear

loose fitting. tap that turns is said to be getting gleg

Compare GLID.

GLENT,
GLENT,

to glint, to flash.

a glance.

"

Aa

seed

it

bi the glent o' yor ee."

GLENT-STONES, GLENTERS,

stones inserted at a corner or along the side of a narrow street to fend off the wheels of passing vehicles.

GLETTY,
GLID, GLID,

green and slimy, applied to the appearance of stagnant water.

smooth, polished.
to slip smoothly, to glide.

GLIDDER, GLITTER,
"

didders are a loose rolling stone, the similar to the Cumberland and Westmoreland "screes" talus of loose stones at the foot of a precipitous place.
rolling
falls away in a very steep descent, covered with loose Canon Greenwell, stones, here called glidders or glitters." Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club, vol. vi., p. 18.

The ground

GLIDDY,
gliddy.

slippery.

An

icy road or

pavement

is

said to be

GLIFF,

a sudden fright.

GLIFF,
GLIFF,

a glance, a glimpse.
to frighten, as with

an apparition.

GLIFFY,

easily frightened, nervous in disposition, timorous.

GLIME,

to glance slyly.

Hodgson

MS.

See GLYME.

GLISHY,
GLISK,

glistening, as in the glittering effect

produced by

sunshine after rain.


a glance of light; a transient ray, a transient view.
2.

Compare GLIFF,

330

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a clyster.

GLISTER,

GLITTERS.

See GLIDDERS.
filth.

GLORE,
GLOSS,

shining

See GLAIR.
"

a glow; applied to a bright red fire. the cyek noo the fire hes a fine gloss."
;

Ye can bake

GLOTTIN,

thawing.

GLOUP,

to gulp, to swallow.

GLOUPIN,

sulking moodily.
to gaze with wonderment, to stare with wide-open places in Northumberland that have a high and

GLOWER,
eyes.

extensive view are called " Glower-ower-him," " Glower-or'" Glower-a.t-him." him," and Hodgson MS. Glororum, townm. S.W., and in the parish of Bamburgh. The ship, i place-name may, however, be a corruption of another word A glower is also used as the name for an than glower. intense stare.

Many

GLOWERY, GLARRY,
wet mud.

smooth and shining See GLAIR and GLAIRED.


[N.]
,

in surface, like

GLUMMOR
GLUMP,
GLUMPS,

a glimmer, a gleam, a faint light.

to look sulky.

the sulks.

GLUNCH.afrown.

GLUT, a
GLUT, GLUT,

piece of

wood
"

to

fill

up behind cribbing or tubbing.

Mining Glossary, Newcastle Terms, 1852.


a drink.

Tyek

a glut or twee an' ye'il be bettor."

to swallow.

GLUTEN EEN
SEA FRET.

(W.-T.), a valley fog from the sea.

Compare

GLUTTY,

gluttonish.

GLYME,

to look slyly.

See GLIME.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

33!

GOAF, " a part of the mine from which all the coal has been worked."- Mining Glossary, Newcastle Terms, 1852. See GOAVE
" In course of time the whole of these pillars are brought off, and this vast district becomes a precarious goaf." Robert Scott, Ventilation of Coal Mines, 1868, p. 14.

"It is usually a large dome, resting upon the wreck which has fallen from the roof of the exhausted space." Greenwell's Glossary of Coal
Trade Terms, 1849.

GOAM, GOME, "

to take notice

of,

he took no notice goamed you." of any one." The word also means to notice with surprise and fear; used negatively, as " He never goamed it." " How did that young horse behave ?" " O, well, aa drave him a' " that is, he had never been day, an' he nivver goamed at it startled or surprised as he was driven.
never goamed anybody

He

to recognise.
"

"

never

GOAT.

See GOTE.
streaky or cirrus clouds.
the nightjar, Caprimulgus Euvopaus.

GOAT'S-HAIR,
NIGHT-HAWK.

GOATSUCKER,

See also

GOAVE,
GOB,

space cleared of coal. See GOAF. inaccurately, as goaf.

Usually

printed,

but

the mouth. Gob also means speech, power of expression. George Stephenson on one occasion had in vain endeavoured to controvert Dean Buckland on a point of argument, when a lawyer present picked up the engineer's case and completely overturned the Dean's theory. Stephenson admiringly " It's a exclaimed, grand thing the gift o' the gob!" Gob becomes the term also for bragging speech, or insolence. *' To set up his gob " is to set up his impudence, to
talk
"

impertinently.

The form

gab

is

quite

unknown

in

Northumberland.
Aall gob an' guts, like a

young craa."

Proverb.

GOB,
talk.

to talk impudently, to brag.

GOBBY,
GOBBY,

the mouth, a variant of gob

generally used in child's

an unfledged bird.
impudent.
"

See GORLIN.

GOBBY,

gobby brat."
or

GO-BON,

equivalent to

"go bond,"

"you be bound."

3^2

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a spoon. a bridle. or
Brockett.

GOB-STICK,

(Obs.)

GOB-STRING,

GOCKS, GOX,
heard as
disguises the

BEGOX,
of

an exclamation
swearing.

(in

some
It

dialects

cocks in cocks -wunters, cocks-nuns, &c.).

very thinly

name

God in

See also Gox, GOSH,

and EXCLAMATIONS.

GODSAKE,
"

" for Godsake "

is for

charity.

(Obs.)
appeareth by Mr.

Item, Maior's bill, los."

paid to

James Watson

for Godsaike, as

Newcastle Municipal Accounts, Oct., 1566.

GOFFER,
shirt.

to crimp the frills of a woman's cap or a man's See next word, also TALLY-IRON.

GOFFERIN-FRAME,
sticks or canes
in

a frame made for holding a series of between which a frill is worked in and out waving form. The whole is clamped by a screw.
a boy's marble, or

GOG,

taw

in ring in the

game

of boorey.

GOGGLES,

a disease in sheep.

See STURDY.

GOING-BOARD.

See GANNIN-BORD.
the

GOLDILOCKS, GOLDYLOCKS,
Ranunculus auricomus, Linn.

wood ranunculus,

GOLDSPINK, GOOLDSPINK, GOUDSPINK, GOLDFLINCH,


the goldfinch, Carduelis elegans.

There

is

a house

near Newcastle called Goldspink Hall.

GOLDY,
hue.

golden.

GOLLAN, GOLLAND, GOWLAN, " "


As
yalla as a gollan
is

flower of a golden expression. The following plants are included under the term gollan, or gowlan (usually distinguished as "white" or "yalla," as the case The common scentless May weed, may be) Pyrethrum
a

common

(called gollan, horse gowan, horse gowlan, and the dog-daisy, Chrysanthemum leucanthemuw, Linn. the corn marigold, Chrysanthemum the common daisy, segetum Btilts perenms (called gowan in North Northumberland and in Scotland) also the buttercup, Ranunculus bulbosus. The marsh mangold, Caltha pdvstw, is called the waiter gollan or yalla go wan.
horse daisy)
; ;
;

inodorum,

Sm.

white

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

333,-

COLLAR, GOLLER, GOLLOR, to


GOWLY.

growl or shout violently to speak in a loud, angry, or threatening tone. See GOWL,
a growl, a gesticulation

GOLLAR,
manner.

a rough, uncouth, scolding

"Between the Megstone Rock at the Fame Islands and the House Island, the opposite currents frequently cause a short, and to small boats a rather dangerous swell, like breakers. This ripple is known to the fishermen of the neighbourhood by the very significant name of the S. Oliver, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 204. gollors."

GOLLUP,

to sup hastily

and

noisily.

"

Dinna

gollup yor

broth like that."

GOMMEREL, GUMMERAL,

a foolish body, a stupid fellow.

GONIEL, GONNERIL, GONNERHEED,


"
It's aal

a fool, a rustic or stupid person; one easily imposed upon. The " goniel to a Tindale man, is the district about Ponteland. country," them
greet goniels that drove us away." James Horsley, Geordy's Dream, 1880.

GOO
bias

[W.-T.]
off 't"

an offensive smell. said of tainted meat.


,

" Set-it ootside

till

the goo

GOOD-DOWTOR,
win her

a daughter-in-law.

good-dowtor ."

Heard
number.
"

in

Hexham

"She's gyen
in 1891.
is

ti

leeve

GOOD-FEW,
used.

fair

"A

canny-few"

similarly

GOODISH,

rather good. the meetin'."

Thor wis

a goodish congregation at
/

GOOD-KING-HENRY,

wild spinage; called in the North, mercury or Good King Henry. Hodgson's Northumberland, iii., The Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus, is also known as 2, p. 324. flowery -docken and smiddy leaves.

GOODLIKE,

good looking.
the

" She's a goodlike lass."

GOOD WEDNESDAY,
GOOL.
See GOWL.
a sovereign.

Wednesday

before Easter Day.

GOOLDY,

The

goldfinch.

334

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
silver

GOOSE-GRASS,
brome
grass.

weed,

Potentitta

anserina.

Also

the

grass, Bromus

mollis.

is also dicks), briza media,

The trembling grass (dothenn called, among its many titles, goose

GOOSE'S-FLESH,

a term used to denote the state of the skin when it is raised into small tubercles, in consequence of cold or fear, so as to resemble that of a plucked fowl. a newly-hatched bird.

GORBIT,

See GORLIN.
scoticus, Brisson.

GORCOCK,
GORD,
"

the red grouse, Lagopus

Known

also as moorcock, moor-game,

and

muir-fowl.

The

a hoop. "The gords is aall comin' off the rain-tubs." bairns hez all getten gords ti play wi' !"
"

Has your wine

barrels cast the girds ?" Ballad, Fair Annie.

GORD,

to gird, to jeer.
dirt,

GORE, GOR,

anything rotten or decayed.

B rockett.
;

GORE,

a tapering strip of land pointed at one end


cloth.

a wedge-

shaped piece of

Compare SWIM.
garment.

GORE,
GORE.
pit of

to insert a tapered piece of cloth in a

In the New World of Words, ed. 1706, " Gone, a pool, or water to keep fish in also, any stop in a river, such as wears, mills, stakes, &c., which hinder the free passage of
;

ships or boats."

"Gore is the modern French gour. The Old French form was sometimes gorg, and- sometimes gort, and the derivation is from Latin accusative gurgitem, from gurges, a whirlpool. The plural, gores, was gora.and then mistaken for a singular, and a new plural, gorces, arose."
Prof.

W. W.

Skeat.

GORE-BLOOD,
" I've spurred

blood.

my

beast

till

he's gore bleud"

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious

Discourse, 1686, p. 9.

"Gore, or gore
7.706.

blood, clotted or

corrupt blood."

New World
Embleton.

of Words,

"

But applied

to either fluid or clotted blood."

GORE-CHOWER,
defect in its food.
its

a sheep which, owing to some structural mouth, is unable to retain or properly masticate This defect is not always immediately fatal.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

335

GORL, GURL, "


Aa
bird.
}it,

to rush and roar, as wind does in a storm. could't sleep a wink the weind (wind) gorl'd see."
;

GORLIN, GORBIT, or GOBBY, a newly-hatched or unfledged


In
its first

state

it

is

usually called a raa gorlin, raa

or raa gobby.

Compare FOOT,
"

GORLY,
"Aa

wild, windy.

What

a gorly day."

See GORL.

GORMER,
A

the cormorant, Phalacvocorax carbo.


;

ye what a gormer, iv a pick black neet, '11 find his way Fahren islands; an what dis he knaa aboot nevigation eh ah?"
tell
'

ti

'

Fisherman's Discussion.

GORN,

to grin, to

make

a face.

See GAIRN.

GORNY, GIRNY,

ill-natured.

GORNIGAA, GIRNIGAW,
used by children.

the cavity of the mouth.


a term of reproach, often

GORNYGIBBY, GIRNEYGIBBY,
GORT,
great.

GOSH, GOSHCAB,
See EXCLAMATIONS.

very

common

oaths in Northumberland.

GOTE

[N.], a stream of water approaching the sea through

sand or slake.

Compare GUT.

GOTHERLY,
"

kind, sociable.
with
its

The ewe

is gotherley

lamb."

Brockett.

GO-TO-BED-AT-NOON,
Linn.

goat's

beard,

Tragopogon pmtensis,

GOV, gave. Used as the p.t. of common form of the same p.t.
whilst gav
is

gi or give.

Gav

is

also a

Although gov and .gav are used interchangeably, gov expresses emphasis on the word,
usually less emphatic.'
given, the p.p. of gi or give.

GOVEN,
GOWxAN,

See GIVEN and Gi.

the common daisy, Bellis perennis, in Tynedale and North Northumberland. Called also the ewe-gowan, as in Scotland. Gowan is a variant of words meaning golden [see GOLLAN and GOWLAN] and is applied as a generic term to a large class of plants which are of this hue.

33 6 or lockev-gowlan,
Troilus Euvobceus.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
is

the

name

for the
is

Yalla-gowan

the

mountain globe-flower, marsh marigold, Caltha

palustns.

gowan. as horse gowan.


"
all

The white clover, Trifolium npens, is called sheep s The scentless May- weed, Pyvethrum modonim, is known

This, to in the parish of Haltwhistle. Gowan-syke' is a place-name the prevalence in the haltappearance, derives its prenomen from History stagnant marsh or syke of Caltha palustris."'Dr. James Hardy,
vol. of Berwickshire Naturalists Club,
ii.,

p. 19-

GOWAYES-DAY,
"

Nov. sth, and Candle light, 00.04.02."

in the following on Gowayes-day for ringing Oyle 1627, paid to the Ringers
for

Guy Fawke's day

Gateshead Church Books.

GOWD, GOUDY, wanton, lascivious. GOWD, to toy, to play with. Hodgson MS. GOWDSPINK, the goldfinch. See GOLDSPINK.
GOWDY, GOWDY,
Dutch
cheese, generally
;

or specially

Gouda

cheese.

the fish Gemmeous Dragonet, Callionymus lyra, Linn. "The'Gowdy" occurs occasionally in great plenty at Cullercoats.
vol. x., 1890, p. 350.

Richard Howse, Natural History Transactions,

GOWDY, GOWDY-HOOSE,
;

a sort of

bower that children

form to play in, composed of figures made with shells or broken crockery or a gowdy-hoose is a toy-house erected by children with small wooden bricks or other material when at

play.

GOWDY,

frolicsome, festive.

"

Ye

he'

been hevin a gowdy

time on't."

GOWDY-LAKIN,

a child's toy or plaything.

GOWK,

the heart or pith of a plant. "An apple gowk"the seed cases and the seeds in the heart of an apple. The centre piece in a stack of hay left after the outside has been cut away all round. The bottom sheaves in a stack of corn set upright to form a foundation, or more properly, a nucleus The part of an animal's horn beneath the shell for the rest. is called the gowk, or flint. The matter which has obtruded or filled in the space between the edges of a hitch or trouble found in mining is called the "gowk of the trouble."
a cuckoo.

GOWK,

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

337

GOWK,
is

a simpleton, a countryman.

April gowk

an April fool.

GOWK-AN'-TITLIN,
a

an incongruous pair of any kind.

Gowk

cuckoo, and titlin. the little meadow pipit, Anthus The disproportion in size between the two pratensis, Linn. birds when seen in company suggests the phrase. GOWKISH, fond, foolish. " He's oney a gowkish kind o' a chap."

GOWK-OATS,
sowing
is

late

usually during the

sown oats. The season for sowing oats is month of March. When by chance the

delayed until April they are gowk-oats.

GOWK'S-CLOVER, GOWK'S-MEAT, or CUCKOO'SMEAT, wood sorrell, Oxalis acetosella, Linn. GOWK'S-ERRAND, a fool's errand. GOWK'S-SIXPENCES, or GOWK'S-SILLER, the yellow
rattle,

Rhinanthus

crista-galli,

Linn.

Called also hen-pen and

henny-penny.

GOWK'S-SPIT,
hills.

cuckoo-spit.
a hollow passage or pass between
slain

GOWL, GOOL, GYLE,


Kidland
district

Lord Francis Russell was

on the mountain

in

called the Windy Gyle, and where the pile or cairn of stones raised in his memory is still called " Russell's cairn." " The fortresses of Carrow and Sewing Shields stand in such a Goole
passage, or

common

entry of

all

from Tindale lying both north from the said two fortresses." Survey, 1542. Hodgson's Northumberland, iii., i, 229.

the thieves of Liddisdale in Scotland, or Bowes'

GOWL, GOUL, GOOLE,


like the north

to make a hollow and fitful sound, to wail, to growl, to scold. In Hampole a child is said to be no sooner born than it begins to " goule and cry." Edition Morris, 1. 477. Compare GORL and GURL.

wind

GOWLAN, GOWLON, golden


familiar flowers

but applied specially to those

which are of a yellow or golden colour.

See

GOLLAN, GOWAN.
" In the vicinity of Newcastle this plant [the corn-marigold, Chrysanthemum segetum] is entitled the marygowlon, and in other parts of Northumberland the gowlon. At the present day, in the Northern parts (of Northumberland), the yellow gowlon is the term by which the various tribe of crowfoots [Ranunculus acris, L., R. Bulbosus, L., and R. repens, L.~]
is designated. gild the plain Passing the Tweed we find the appellation still retained, but altered by the omission of a letter (to White gowlans is a generic term for the various plants in the gowan).

that

'

'

common parlance of Buttercups Und Daisies.


p. 14.

the North of England, termed big daisies.' History of Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, vol. iv.,
'

338

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
gold.
like

GOWLD, GOWD, GOOLD,

GOWLY, GOOLEY,
boisterous, stormy.

howling

Compare GORLEY and

a dog or the wind; see GOWL, 2.

GOWP

[W.-T.]

to gulp.

GOWPEN,
o'

the hollow of both hands placed together. As much as both hands can lift, the thumbs fowpen each turned to the side and the hollow of the hands being side. bowl-shaped by placing the little fingers side by " nief full " is one hand full, but a gowpen full is invariably both hands put together and filled. Hence in the phrase " Goold i' gowpens" the term is applied figuratively to mean a very large quantity or untold wealth.
yetts."

"A
A

"

gowpen o meal."

Hodgson MS.

GOWSTY,

It is frequently used as dreary, frightful, ghastly. dismal or uncomfortable, and applied to a dwellingsignifying A gusty, that is, a draughty house without ceiling, &c. " Gan roon' the corner it's ower is said to be gowsty. place, gowsty here."
;

"

What

a gowsty hole he lives in."

Brockett.

GOWSTY,
GOX,
a
cocks,

gusty, tempestuous.

common oath. This appears to be the local version of as heard elsewhere in the exclamation cocks-wunters, It is really a corruption or purposed disguise cocks-body. of the name of God.
41

By

cocke

they are to blame."

Hamlet,

iv., 5.

GRACE-WIFE, "
observes,

a midwife. Brand, vol. ii., p. 362, note, Feb., 1645, a mid-wife is styled grace-wyfe" (Obs.) a trench, a place graved or cut out.
Graft,

GRAF, GRAFT,
a grave.

See GRAIF and GROVE.


rough, sturdy, short, thick-set.

GRAFFY,
GRAIF,
They go

stone.

a grave. At Alston the word gre-af means to dig. to grave peat. A miner is called a greaver. Adit levels in many parts are known as grove holes. The meaning of cutting is present in all the kindred words grave (engrave), graf, grove, groove. Graif means any kind of cutting, either with pick-axe or spade, and they go to graif or greave peat or

See GRAF.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

339

GRAILING,
ground.

a slight Brocket^.

fall

of hail

which barely covers the


Todd.

"Grail, small particles of any kind."

GRAIN,

a branch or fork of a river or a tree, or anything that turns or springs into two parts hence to grow into grains, as that of wood. Hodgson MS. A grain is thus a branch of a " tree, and a peeled grain" is a grain stripped of its bark. A grain in a chimney is a tree branch laid across the flue for suspending the pot-hooks. A grain is also the branch or tine of a fork. From the branch of a tree or river the term grain, or grayne, passes to mean the branches of the ancient and powerful families who inhabited Tynedale and the branching valleys of the district. Grain is thus in Northumberland equivalent to the word clan.
;

The grains in Tynedale and Redesdale are the river branches of the North Tyne, and so, too, the grains and hopes of the country on the South of the Coquet. Northern Tribune, 1854, vol. i., p. 159.
' '

GRAIN,
little

to groan It labour.

making a needless noise and trouble over a


is

usually applied to the kind of groan to

which people give utterance in lifting heavyweights. a grain he gav when he lifted the seek o' floor !"
" "

"What

Pantin an grainin

like

a soo at a yett."

Old proverb.
p. 45.

He peght and grained."

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,

GRAIP, GRAPE,
one cannot
see.

to grope, to feel

by groping,

to feel

where

GRAIP,

to gripe, to pain internally.

GRAIP, GRAPE, GRIPE,


or delving fork.

pronged shovel for lifting a mixture of A twostraw and dung from the cow byre or stables. pronged implement is always called a fork, whilst one with three or more tines is called a graip. Compare HACK.

a three, four, or six-pronged dung

GRAITH,

It lather from soap. the dirt in water after washing.

is

also used as the term for

GRAITH,

The word in N. gear, equipment, riches, furniture. is applied to rank in life, as in the expression, "Ye cannot expect iz ta mix wi' thame graith," where the allusion is to the superior rank (graitti) of the persons spoken of. It is also used in speaking of an inferior graith as well
Northumberland
as of a higher social rank.

340

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

GRAITH,

" Aa to harness, to equip, to accoutre, to dress. to graith is to In colliery work see y'or graithin yor scythe." " Weel clack or bucket. a replace the worn leather in " pump weei gmithed for claes." He's graithed "well provided.
"

Round them cam


All riding graithed

the Croziers keen,

and

in array."

Death of Parcy Reed.

GRAITHER,
pumping

who changes and

the ''changer and graither" in a pit is the man replaces or puts in order the leather of the buckets.

GRAITHIN,

equipment, trappings.

GRAITHLY,
is

trimly, tidily. In the Pricke of Conscience, graythely used in the sense of carefully. Edition Morris, 1. 645.

GRANGE,
,

"a barn, originally the granary of a monastery [or but now often a modern name of a small mansion manor] Anick Grange." J. V. Gregory, Place-Names in Northumberland. Mr. Gregory counts nineteen places in which grange is found

in

Northumberland.
complaining
neither well nor
ill.

GRANKY,
Brocket*.

See CRANKY.

GRAP, GRAFT
GRASS,
"

(p.t.

of gripe), clutched.

the grazing season.


Advertisement, Newcastle

gelding five years old the last grass." Courant, December i, 1722.

GRASSMEN.
lands.

" the gentlemen acting for the borough were called grassmen," and had charge, with the lord's steward, of the common

At Gateshead Common, before

its

enclosure,

GRASS-NAIL,

the stiffening piece of iron at the end of a scythe, crossing the angle where the scythe is fixed into the end of the shaft, and connecting the head of the scythe blade with the sned.

GRAT,
The

wept, regretted. strong p.t. of greet.


a cravat.

"

Aa

grat sair aboot

it

at the time."

GRAY AT,
GRAVE,

to dig.

See GRAIF.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

341
adit
level.

GRAVER, GREAVER,
GROVER, GRAIF.

worker

at

an

See

GRAY.

See GREY.

GRAYNE, a clan or family. GREAP, GRIPE, GRUP, a


GREAVES, GROVES,
GREE,
GREE,
to agree.
gvee-ah.

See GRAIN,

i.

gutter in a cow-house or stable.

tallow-chandler's refuse.
e is

The second

sounded

like ah, or a short

a position of superiority, a prize. " Of aw the pipers I did see This piper Tony wan the gree."
G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,
p. 20.

GREEDY-HOUND,
a hound.

one bolting or swallowing his meat

like

GREEN,

to

wish

for, to

long

for.

GREENBONE,
Flem.

a fish of the genus Muraena. Rambles in This is the Northumberland, S. Oliver the Younger, 1835. garfish, or sea needle, Esox belone, Linn., or Belone vulgaris,

"The bones
of boiling, as
Club, vol.
i.,

is

are grass-green naturally, and the colour is not the effect usually stated." History of Berwickshire Naturalists' Field

p. 173.

GREEN-CROP,

a turnip crop.

GREEN-DRAKE, the may-fly. GREENED, a term applied to


greened potatoes.

sun to harden them before storing.

seed potatoes exposed to the They are then termed

GREENEY, or GREEN LENNART,the


chloris.

greenfinch, Ligurinus

GREENEY,
in

a greenhorn.

GREEN-GRAVEL, the name applied

to the central personage a child's game. All but one join hands in a ring, one stands in the centre, and the rest go slowly round him or her, chanting a peculiar song, each verse of which begins with " " !
Green-gravel, green-gravel

342

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
longing.

GREENING,

GREENLEIGHTON,
a foolish person.
It is

to people who make ridiculous action.

a place-name, also a name applied to used in a mild or jocular way of rebuke a foolish remark or indulge in some

GREEN-LENNART,
chloris.

the green linnet or greenfinch, Ligurinus

GREEN-MOOD,
slime

confervoid growth in the water, the green found in streams in hot weather. commonly

GREEN-PLOVER,

the lapwing or peesweep.

GREEN-TOP-YALLA,

Dale's hybrid turnip.


fly.

GREENWELL,
See next.
trout

a salmon

So

called from its inventor.

GREENWELL'S-GLORY,
fly,

the

name

invented by

Canon

of a celebrated artificial Greenwell, well-known to

Border anglers.

GREESH,

grease.

GREESHY,

greasy.

See CREESHY.

GREET
weep

or greeten), to cry, to fret, to (p.t., grat; p.p., gratten or bewail piteously.


great, large.

GREET,

" " duplication greet big in describing anything of very great size.

The

is

common

GREET, GRIT>
"
,

kind, friendly, companionable.


fain to get greet wi'
J.

Young Johnny was

wor Sal." P. Robson, The KUtliri Legacy, 1848.

GREEVE, GRIEVE,

an overseer, an under-steward. It is generally applied to a resident agent who has charge of


property in his locality.

GREEVESHIP, the district under the charge of a greeve. GREG. In the game of " spell and oar," to " greg a sack " was
to pretend to seek it, but to walk, into the earth out of sight and to
it

upon

it

and

gveg or drive

it

come afterwards and take

away.

GRESSOM, GRYSSOM, GIRSOME,

an ingoing fee on entering upon the rental or renewal of the lease of fields. (Obs.)

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

343

GREW,
GREY,
" "

a greyhound.
grceg,

From Anglo-Saxon a badger. from his colour. Compare BROCK.


Gray as a badger." Proverb. Gray, a wild beast call'd a badger."

gray

(in colour)

Bailey.

GREY,

a greyhound. From Icelandic connection with grey, a badger, above.

grey, a

dog.

It

has no

GREY, the young of the


nest of greys."

black grouse. In their callow condition they are gray in colour, and are commonly spoken of as "a

See GREY-HEN,

2.

GREY-BACK,
Corvtis comix.

or GREY-BACKED-CRAA, the hooded crow, Called also hoody and corby.

GREY-BEARD,

a brown stone-ware spirit bottle. It has a wide belly and a narrow neck, with a curling ear on one side and a man's face with flowing beard on the other. Once a familiar object in cottage homes, it is now found in the

cabinet of the collector.

GREY-BEDS,

the many-bedded alternations of sandy shales and shaly sandstones, generally micaceous, which form much of the main bulk of the Upper Carboniferous series. Professor G. A. Lebour, Geoloay of Northumberland and Dtwham,

ed. 1889, p. 40. "Grey-beds, arenaceous shale, generally grey or buff-coloured. Hugh Miller, Geology of Otterburn and Elsdon, Geological Survey Memoir, 1887.

GREY-BORD, GREY-BIRD,

the song thrush, Turdus mucicus. Called also mavis, thrissel-cock, and throssel, but never spoken of as the thrush in Northumberland. By thrush the missel thrush is always understood.
a strange and evil
grey-gate

GREY-GATE,
"Aye,
he's

way
ee

gyen a

sin

or course of conduct. left us" said of a

prodigal.

GREY-GLED,
cinereus.

the hen harrier, Circus cyaneus, Linn.


or

GREY-GOOSE,

WILD-GOOSE,

the grey-lag goose, Anser

GREY-HEN,

the black grouse, Tetrao

tetrix.

Called

also

black-cock, black-game,

and brown-hen.

GREY-HEN,
c

a large stone-ware bottle,

344

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
See GREY-GOOSE.

GREY-LEG.

GREY-LENNART,

the linnec, Cannabiita linota, Gucelin. This species has the breast sometimes red, sometimes grey, and consequently, a few years ago, individuals so differing were described as two species, and named respectively the brown and grey linnet. Males never regain the red on the breast after moulting. John Hancock, Birds of Northumberland and
p. 53.

Durham,

GREY-MEAL,
grey colour.

oatmeal.
a slightly silicious indurated clay of a light

GREY-METAL,

See GREY-BEDS.
grey metal, very silicious and gritty.
a sprinkling, a smirch.

GREY-METAL-STONE,
Compare GRIME.
"

GREYMIN, GRIMIN, GRYMING,


The sun was na
It

up, but the


o'

moon was down,


fa'n

was the gvyming

new

snow." The Ballad of Jamie

Telfer.

GREY-POST,
Brockett.

sandstone of a grey colour.


coarse
mill

GREY-STONES,

stones,

for

common

meal.

See GREY-MEAL.
a very hard, dirty,

GREY-WHIN,
GRICE,
GRIG,
a

brown quartzose stratum.

little pig.

a cricket, a

merry companion.

GRIME, the black ashes upon wood which are in a state between soot and charcoal. Any black smudge is called a gnme mark. Lignite, or wood coal, is sometimes called
grime.

GRIME,

to blacken with grime, to smirch with soot or any black substance. Hence, a grimin is a smirch.
to grind the teeth.

GRINCE,

GRINDSTONE-SILL, m

the thick sandstones whence the celebrated Newcastle grindstones are cut. It is on the whole i fane grained, moderately hard, light-yellow stone but it is places porous enough for the manufacture of filter stones, which were formerly extensively made from it
;

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

345

GRINSTAN,
GRIPE,
GRAIP.

grindstone.

See GRUNSTAN.
litter,

a pronged lifting fork for dung,

coke.

See

GRIPE,
GRIPE,

a drain.

See GRUP.
;

to grip, to clutch

p.t. grap, p.p. gruppen.

GRIP-GRASS, the Galium aparine of Linnaeus; familiar as it clings to and climbs up the hedge side, or grips and holds to .the dress of any one touching it. Its familiarity is shown by the various names under which it is known, among which are Robin, or Lizzy-run-the-hedge, RoUn-nm-the-dike, bluid tongue, or tongue bluiders. It is elsewhere called goose grass, but in Northumberland that term is applied to the little silverweed, Potentilla anserina, and to the quaking grass, Briza media.
GRIPY,
grasping, avaricious. speckled.

GRISLY,
GRIT,
"

See GRIZZLED.

He

pith, as applied to a man's mind, robust character. hes some grit in him."

GRIZZLED,

speckled with black and white.

GROANIN,

a lying-in; sometimes called the cryin-oot. Groanin-breed, or groanin-cyek, is the cake provided on the occasion. Groanin-chair, the chair on which the matron is set after a child-birth to receive her gossips and friends. Groanincheese, cheese to be eaten with the cake prepared for the It was on the same gossips at a woman's confinement. occasion a custom to brew as much groanin-ma.lt as was required to serve round with the other items of the birth time.

GROATS,

fragments of broken food, such as are


in the byre.

left

when kept

by

cattle

GROGRAM.
stiffened with
" Stuff

"

gum."
of silk

Grograin, a coarse kind of silk taffety, usually HalliweWs Diet.


'

made

and hair."

Bailey.

GROIN, GRUIN, GROYNE, the snout of a pig.Brockett. A breakwater or pier of piles projecting from the shore to
deflect the wash of the sea, or otherwise to protect the land from erosion. The fork of the body or thigh. Bare groins

are naked thighs.

In the last sense compare GRAIN.

346

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a growl.

GROONGE,
GROOP,
Newcastle.

See GROUNGE.

a drain, as the Gaol Groop,

now

the Javel Groop, in

See GRUP.
the hawfinch, Coccothraustes vulgaris.
It is

GROSBEAK,
GROSSER,
" Grocer.

a grocer.

constantly pronounced grosser in


Todd.
sylvestris,

Northumberland.

Grossers, groceries.

This should be written grosser."

GROUND-ASH,

the wild angelica, Angelica

Linn.

Called alsojeelico.

GROUND-COAL,
also bottom coal.

the lowest portion of a seam of coal.

Called

GROUNGE,
GROUSIN,
chilled or
"

to growl as a dog.

Brockett.

used to describe the feeling of the skin when under the influence of severe cold.
chill before

Togrowze,to be

the beginning of an ague-fit."

Ray, 1691.

GROUT,
GROVE,

to run in thin fluid lime

between rubble stones.

a groove.

GROVE, GROVE-HOLE, MOUTH-GROVE,

an adit level

driven in from the surface for coal or fire-clay. Sometimes this is called a grove-hole, but the common term is a drift. A See grove-seam is a bed of coal worked by an adit level.

GRAIF and GRAF.


"

coal."

Mouth-groves are short levels, generally entering upon the crop of a Hugh Miller, Geology of Otterburn and Ehdon, 1887.

GROVER,
syllables.

a miner
in

The word

who works in an adit level or a lead mine. West Tyne is pronounced greaver, in three

See GRAIF.
to growl.
fit.

GROWEL,
GROWZE,
GROZER,

to be chill before the beginning of an ague Scotch, grue, growe, groue.Jamiescn. See GROUSIN.

a gooseberry, the fruit of Ribes grossularia. is said to "Jump like a cock at a grozer." N. Northumberland the term is grozet.

An
In

eager person

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

347

GRUBBER, GRUB-SCUFFLER,an

implement, with broadfaced curved teeth, used for cleaning drill crops. It is furnished with " stilts," or handles, like a plough. It is a modern improvement upon the old wooden scufflev.

GRUFF, to snatch. See GRUMPHEY. GRUFF-NOR-STYE. See BUFF-NOR-STYE.

GRUMEL, GRUMLE,

In words like grumble, to grumble. jumble, stumble, humble, tumble, rumble, mumble, &c., the b is silent.

GRUMLY, fault-finding, grumbling. GRUMMET, an iron thimble shaped like a U. GRUMPHER, to clear the voice. GRUMPHEY, GRUMPY, surly, bad-tempered;
disposition.

of a piggish

Grumphey, a pig.
to snatch craftily.

GRUMPHEY,

To

grnmphey marbles

is

to

clutch and steal the pool suddenly.

GRUN, GRUND,

ground, the earth.

GRUND,
gnmnen

is still

to grind, to grate or make a grinding noise. occasionally in use.

The p.p.

GRUN-DAVY,

ground

ivy, Nepeta glechoma, Bentham.

GRUND-FOOR, "

the last foor (furrow) in a lea-rig. After the takin-up foor" (the last full furrow) is turned, the plough returns and takes a light furrow back. This narrows the open furrow and is called the grund-foor. Stubble, generally speaking, is not grund-fcor'd. It is only so when wanted for sowing, and is, properly speaking, ploughed with a sub-soil furrow.

GRUNDIT,

grounded, foundered. Any animal or a cannot stand is described as grundit.


[N.]
,

man

that

GRUNDY-SWALLOW

GRUNSEL

[S.]

the

common

groundsel, Senecio vulgaris, Linn.

GRUNSTAN, GRUNSAL, GRINSTAN,

GRINSIN, a grindstone. The very common proverb tells us that "A Scot, a rat, and a Newcastle gvnnstan are found in every part of the world."

34.8

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to grunt or

GRUNTLE,
"

grumble

sullenly.

gruntl'd like a 1686, p. 45.

He

sow

wi' piggs."

G. Stuart, Joco-Senous Discourse,

GRUNTY, discontented. GRUP, GRUAP, GREAP, GRIPE, GROUP,

the

place

between the double rows of stalls in cowhouses for receiving It is also applied to stables built in the the dung and urine. manner of cowhouses, but single.
;

GUDDLE,
in

a favourite pastime to catch fish with the hands Rede water and Coquetdale. Gumph and thrimmel have the same meaning, The process is also called ticklin or kitlin.

GUDGEON,
on which a moves.
.

a pivoted axle, sometimes removable, as the axle bell swings or the trunnions on which anything

GUESS,

Familiar now as an to suppose, to believe. " "/ It is curious to find Americanism. guess innocently used in a Newcastle book of the seventeenth century.
"/ guess they've heard what this day's vote is, We'll paik their hides, let them take notice." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, i686 p. 43.
;

GUESSING-STORY,
nights in

conundrum

or riddle.

many country houses were passed by

The winter the fire-light, The guessing


-

and guessing -stories often relieved the graver talk. stones had a narrative form, and were not mere
*

puzzles in a sentence. Such a one as the following is a common instance Clink, clank doon the bank, ten again fower, splish, splash in the dish, till it run ower." Answer, the milking of a cow. Both hands are required that is, ten fingers against the four teats. Another " As green as grass, as white as milk, and bearded like a pard." Answer, a turnip.
: :

GUEST,

ghost

an incorrect spelling.
a

See GEYEST and

BAR-GUEST.

GUESTIN,
GUFF,

hospitable

welcome,

warm

Brockett, as guesting.

reception.

a foolish,

silly,

or ignorant person, generally the latter.

GUGGLE,
GUIDE,
tendon
is

to gurgle

the sound of a stream or of liquid.

a tendon or muscle. dislocated.

"The

guides off"

that

is,

the

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

349
"

GUIDE,

to treat, to use.

"

Weel

guided:'

Badly

guided."

GUIDES, the

of a pit shaft run.

framework or the ropes stretched down the sides on which the ascending and descending cages
old wethers kept on purpose to guide and

GUIDE-SHEEP,
direct the flocks.

GUILD,

uproar, confusion.

Compare GILD.

GUILD-BELL,

the bell which summons the meeting of the Newcastle Freemen. The assembly of the Incorporated Companies is announced by the tolling of the great bell ("the major," of St. Nicholas' Church), just as the same bell tolls for the death or funeral of some person of

importance.

GUIZARD, GUIZART, GUIZER, a


GUIZEN,
to dry

masquerader, a

mummer.

Compare FULL-PLOUGH and SWORD-DANCERS.


up with drought or
thirst.

See GIZEN.

GULLET,
water.

running

an open fissure or orifice in a stratum discharging Gullety hole in a stream bed is a narrow fissure into a chasm.
a

GULLION,

mean wretch.

Bvockett.

GULLMA,
GULLY,
GULPIN,

the guillemot.

See WULLEMOT.

a large knife.

a greenhorn, a credulous simpleton.


to touch and feel gently, as in the attempt by the hand as boys gumping under stones in a trout. See also GUDDLE, THRIMMEL, TICKLE, and
;

GUMP, GUMPH,
to catch fish

burn for KITTLE.

GURL,
storm.

to hurtle with a

moaning sound, as the wind does

in

See GORL.
the gurnard.

GURNALD,
GUST,

to taste.
Rothbury.

" Gust yor ain gob," do not be beholden to anybody.

GUT,

a narrow stream, a straitened place. gut at Hexham now Hallgate.


;

There was Halig

350

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a voracious eater.
gluttonous, fond of his belly.

GUT-HALLION,
GUTSY, GUTTY,

GUTTER-SNIPE,
Bonaparte,
Heater.

the
is

common

This bird

snipe, Gallinago also called the mire-snipe

and

scolopacinus, heather-

GUY,

a young cow.

See QUEY.

GUZZLE
that

[N.] , to throttle. " Aa'll guzzle ye directly." Spittal.

GWONNY
is,

JOKESANE'S DAY, the ayth day of October The farce of the day after Ovingham October fair. proclaiming a mayor of the village was gone through on this
day.

Compare under DUNT,

i.
;

" It has been so called since the recollection of the eldest living why so is not known." Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div., 1846, vol. Hi.,

p 200.

GY-CARLING,
GYE,
crooked.
to gape.

a sort of mischievous elf

who

guides astray.

See JYE.

GYEP, GYET,

or

YETT,

a gate, a roadway, a street.


hills.

GYLE,
GYLE,

a hollow between
wort.

See GOWL.

GYLE-FAT,
worked.

a wort vat or tub.

The

vessel in

which

ale is

GYTE,

the spawn of herrings. herring gyte fouls the nets.

During the fishing season the

GYZEND,

parched.

See GIZEN.

formerly written hw as hwa', modern who. The aspirate is preserved in the word hit (it), the neuter form of he, and in buz (we or us.)

the aspirate h is always emphasized in Northumberland, and is used with the nicest discrimination. t is especially sounded in which, whe, when, and in all words

The

so "nd of

HAABT CK i

'

of the lyne, 1849,

an uncouth fellow. under hawbuck.

J.

P. Robson, Gloss,

to

Bards

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

351

H AA-CORN-BEER,
HAAD, HAD,
river

a certain quantity of barley, paid by the tenants of Amble to the lord of the manor, formerly for the use of the monastic cell there.

the hold or retreat of a fish under a projecting

bank

(brae).

HAAD, a grasp. HAA-HOOSE, a


from the hinds'

See HAD.
farmer's house. It is always distinguished as the hinds' cottages are called.
a disease of the eye.

hooses,

HAAK, HAAK, HAAL,

or

HOWK,

a hawk.

sometimes pronounced without the

the pronunciation alike of hall and haul. final /, as haa.

The former

HAA-MAIDEN,
Linn.

a maid servant in the farmer's house, in contradistinction to a hind's maiden.

H AA-TREE, H AW-TREE, the hawthorn, Cratcegus, oxyacantha,


The
fruit is called haas

and

cat-haas.

HABER-NATEL, oatmeal cake. See HABNAB, anyhow, in random fashion.


HACK,
a pick-axe.
[S.],

HAVER.

HACK

[N.] a muck fork having three or four which are bent at a right angle to the handle. It is used for drawing litter out of cattle lairs and similar " This implement places, and is sometimes called a drag." is probably peculiar to Northumberland, and is called a " teeming" hack, as it is used in emptying (teeming). There is also a "filling" hack, which is like a four or five-pronged fork bent at the neck to an angle of forty-five degrees with the shank. Both "teeming" and "filling" hacks are used when working among manure. Compare GRAIP.
,

HAWK

tines or teeth

HACK,
or

a surface fissure or chap in the skin produced by cold Black hackt Hacked hands are chapped hands. is applied to hands where from work and dirt the hacks have become black. A deeper fissure than a hack is called a

work.

"keen."

HACK-CLAY, a whitish

sort of clay, found in Northumberland moors, as on the sides of the road about Ottercops and It is tough, unctuous, of a whitish (colour), and Raylees. like rotten clay (or) like that of the decomposed granite kind found in Somersetshire. Hodgson MS.

35 2

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

HACKER BERRY, HACK-BERRY-TREE, the bird cherry a name for the shrub
Prunuspadus, Linn.

Hack-wood

is

itself,

and

hacker, hack,

and hagberry are names

for its fruit.

HACKLE,

an iron comb with very long, sharp-pointed, round The short fibres, teeth used for "teasing" hemp or flax. are combed out and held by the hackle. Hackler, called tow, a hemp or flax dresser. See HECKLE.
as the long pointed a crest of feathers or hair " bonny reed hackle' of the feathers on a cock's neck [the on a dog's back. angler] or the ridge
;
1

HACKLE,
,

HACKSPYEL,

a useless joiner or cartwright.


the place where bricks are laid out to dry in a (Obs.)
,

HACKSTEAD,
brick garth.

HAD, HAAD

[W.-T.] [N.] [T.] " " To tyek had is to take hold grasp, a hold on anything. " " Let's hev a haad together let us wrestle together.
,

HAUD, HOD

HOAD

of.

HAD AW AY,

" Hadaway wi' ye." Or, equivalent to begone. " " as an exhortation of encouragement, equal to go on," hold to an oarsman. Howay is on," as in the "Hadaway Harry" to come. equivalent
the
p.t.

HADDED,
"

of hold.

He

hadded horses for ha'pennies." J. P. Robson, Days and Deeds of Shakspere, 1849.

HADDEN,

the p.p. of hold, is used in the sense of held by necessity; as "He's hard hadden" or "He's sair hadden" " Hoo are ye hodden ?" means how hardly held, sorely held. are you held, how is your health, or your condition, or your It is an idiom always suggesting an environment ailment. of difficulty or necessity.

HADDER, heather. See HEDDER and HATHER. HADDER-UP, holder-up the name for a plater's
;

helper in

an iron shipbuilders' yard.

HADDIN,

holding.

"

He was

haddin on for bare life."

HADE,

intersects strata.

a sloping place, the slope or angle at which a fault In mining (lead) it is applied to the slope of a vein from the perpendicular.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

353
a

HADFASH
HAD-OFF
HADSEE,
had-tyul
;

[S.],

HODEFASH

[W.-T.],

bothersome,

troublesome person.
!

See HAD-TYUL.

hold off keep back. It is the caution shouted by a putter when coming on with a full tub and about to meet The latter must get out of the way. a returning empty tub.
hold so
stop so.

" Fill up (the glass) an' hadsee."

HAD-TYUL
used.

"He's a reg'lar [S.], a troublesome person. aa wish he'd stop at hyem." Hadfash is similarly
"

HAD-TYUL,
"

to hamper, to hinder. See TEALY-TOOM.

Whe are ye haddin-tyul ?"

HAD-WEEL,
Ane
o'

a miserly person.
Proverb.

HadweeVs kind."

HAD-YOR-WHISHT,
commoner
expression.
,

hold your tongue.

Had-yor-gob

is

the

HAEL

[N.]

whole.

HAFFIT,

the side of the head.

HAFFITS,

the undersides of the jaw. a clout tied round a hurt finger.


haffled

HAFFLE, HUFFLE,

H AFFLE,
to

To be to stammer, to prevaricate, to falter. be confused. Raffle has almost the same meaning.

HAG,

a certain division of wood intended to be cut clearing or cutting down of timber.


;

down

HAG, HAGG,
"

a fenced place a wood into which cattle are not admitted. Hodgson MS. Seven place-names in Northumberland have this ending. Compare HAY and HAIN.

The

round."

hays or hags of former ages were grounds that were hedged Hodgson's Northumberland, pt. ij., vol. ij., p. 176.

HAG, HAGG, PEAT-HAG,


mass
of peat forming

or

MOSS-HAG,

projecting

an escarpment on a peat moor, or the peat on high moors left by edges of water gutters. These hags form miniature ravines on the surface.
a mist, and similar to dag.

HAG,

Hodgson

MS.
Compare

HAG,
SAG.

the belly

Northumberland.

HalliweWs Diet.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

HAG,
the

to

wane.

full.

The muin Compare HADE.

"

is

haggin

"the moon
a

has passed

HAGAMANAY, HAGMANAY, HOGAMANY,


gift.

new

year's

See HOGAMANAY.

HAG-BERRY, HEG-BERRY, HACKER-BERRY, HACKBERRY, the fruit of the bird cherry, Prunus padus. HAGGER-MAKER'S-SHOP, a public house. Brocket*. HAGGER'T, beggared. "He wis fair hagger't"he was
completely beggared.

when

cleared out,

is

In boys' games the loser at marbles, said to be hagger't.


tripe

HAGGISH, HAGGISH-MEAT,
HAGGISH,
"

minced small.

to cut up.
gox, 'fore aw's

By

J.

duen ye'll be haggished eneuf." P. Robson (d. 1870), A Cut at Wor Toon.

HAGGISH,
"

a contemptuous term, equivalent to the expression

you baggage."
the blind

HAG- WORM,

worm

or slow

worm, Anguis
vol.
iii.,

fragilis.

See Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div.,

p. 15.

H AID-CORN,
HAIGLE,
iglin

the plants of HalliwelFs Diet. Compare

wheat

in winter

Northumberland.

HARD CORN.
"

to carry with great difficulty. wi a greet bunch o' sticks."

Here she comes


a goal.

HAIL,

a goal at football.
3.

To

kick hail

is

to

make

See

HALE,

HAIL,

to pour (verb intransitive), as perspiration does during severe exertion.


or

HAIM-STICKS,
HAIN,

HAIMS.

See HAME-STICKS.

to keep back, as thrifty people do in husbanding their A man hains his food or drink to make it go as resources. far as possible. man takes work easily and hains himself in order that his strength may endure to the end of the

day. has gone through a long life and presents a fresh said to be " weel hained." A grass field kept appearance back from pasture till late in summer is said to be hained.

A man who

is

HAINCH,

the haunch.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

355
striking the

HAINCH, HENGE,

to throw a stone against the haunch bone and throwing This is called hainchin.

by
it

hand

with high trajectory.

HAINING,
HAIR,

a fenced place.

Hodgson

MS.

a small quantity of anything, as " a hair of salt," " a


Bvockett.

hair of meal."

HAIRN,

the brain.

Nearly out of use except by old people.

See HARNS.

HAIR-TEEMSEY,

a hair timse; a fine sieve with a grating of hair cloth, used in households for sifting fine flour.

HAIRY-HOOBIT, HAIRY-OOBIT, HAIRY-WORM,


" It

the hairy caterpillar. The term is sometimes applied to a showy, See OOBIT. helpless character.
was an

A feckless hairy oubit,

hairy oubit, sae

proud he crept alang, and merrily he sang."


Charles Kingsley, The Oubit.

HAIVERIL,
HAIZY,

a loose talker.
(?

See HAVERIL.
Hasty.)

hasty, excitable.
to sneak or loiter.
to pull or draw.

HAKE,
HALE,

Ray.

See HAAL.

HALE,
HALE,

whole.

See HEYEL.

the goal at football. kick hale is to win the game.

To

hale is to drive to goal.

To

" At Rothbury, the custom of football-play on Shrove Tuesday had been observed from time immemorial until the year 1867. The hale or goal of the Thropton men was the bridge over the Wreigh at Thropton." D. D. Dixon, Shrove-tide Customs, p. 3.

HALF-A-TRAM,

one of two that manage a colliery tram.


half-drunk.
and canty hyem we gat."
T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1829,
pt.
iii.,

HALF-COCKED,
"

HalJ-cock'd

v. 82.

HALFERS,

a cry amongst children claiming half of anything that has been given or found. When an article has been lost, a lad guards against the claim for average by calling " Ne If he finds out, lossie, findie, seekie, keepie." halfers
;

it

after this

he

is

supposed to be

its

undivided owner.

356

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

HALF-HECK, the lower half of a door. HALF-LANG-PLOO, a plough of medium "


A

short-ploo is a plough with a long mould board. ploo the two. is a short metalled one. half-lang is between

length. "

"

lang"

HALF-MARROW,
manage
a coal

one of two boys, of about equal age, who mine tram.


for nothing.

.HALF-NABS,

good

Compare HABNAB.

HALF-NOWT,

" little or nothing. Half-nowt cheese," in the Pitman's Pay, is the description of the cheapest kind of that article as sold by hawkers or street vendors.

HALF-ROCKED,
mind
;

weak applied to a male person of rather the imputation on his infirmity is that he had not been properly attended to in his cradle.
the water shaft in a colliery.
Compleat Collier,
1708, p. 21.

HALF-SHAFT,

HALF-SHOON,

old shoes with the toes cut

off.

HALF-WARK,
shift
;

half through the day's half-time employment through

work the middle of a bad trade.


;

HALF-WAXED,

" " A is a lad in half-grown. half-waxed lad the stage between boyhood and manhood. " A hobbledehoy nouther a man nor yit a boy."
is so-called, it being of about that thickness, but is generally good coal, and better than the three-quarter coal, yet being so low to work in (or but of that small thickness), it is scarce worth while to work it." J. C., Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 16.

HALF- YARD COAL, "which

H ALLAN,

the young of the coalsay, or coal-fish, in their

second stage of growth, when they are about five inches in See COALSAY. length.

HALLAN, HALLEN, HOLLIN,

the partition or screen

between the door and the fire-place, frequently made of wicker-work, and plastered with clay, extending from the front door of a cottage to within the width of a door of the back wall. (Obs.)

H ALLEN-SHAKER, an impudent, presuming beggar.

(Obs.)

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

357

HALLIDAY,

holiday.
a romp, a hoyden.
[N.], a

HALLIG1T, HALLIGATE,

HALLINES,
Pronounced

or

HALINESS
(Obs.)

Sunday holiday walk.

in three syllables.

HALLINGS,

tapestry.

HALLION,

a contemptible person, a clumsy fellow.


"
'

H ALTON SHIELDS.
all

Like the man

at

Halton Shields'

was a saying that was common a while ago. This celebrated personage set off on a journey, and after travelling laboriously
night, found himself at his own back door next morning." Dr. Bruce, Handbook to Roman Wall, 1884, p. 57.

-HAM,

Anglo-Saxon ham. This word occurs about thirty-seven times as an ending to place-names in Northumberland. Nine of the hams are prefixed with " ing," giving the termination
of -ingham. They are Belling/bw, Belting^w, Edling/^w, Egling/kiw, EllingAtfw, Eltring#0w, Ovingham, Whitting/Mwz, and Chillmgham. All these, except the last one, are spoken In three cases there are as injam. [Qvinjam, lE>e\\injam, &c.] hams and "tons" with identical prefixes, namely: ILllmgham,

Ellington, WhittingA^w, Whittington, Ovingham, Ovington. In later spellings, ham has in cases become " comb." Thus

Wink-tez-lee

is

Wincomblee, and Yek-ham


Roman

(or

Oak-ham)

is

now Acomb.
"
folk

When
who

heard, along the


ipsis

Wall, such names as

and Oving/taw sounded with a


are Westsaxonibus

soft g, surely, I said in

my

heart, here are

Westsaxonicres."

Freeman, English Towns

and

Districts, p. 448.

HAME

[N.],

home.

See HEYEM, HYEM.


the arms that hold the

HAME-STICKS, HYEM-STICKS,

traces to the collar in a horse's gear.

HAMMER, "

and to pay " both mean the same thing drubbing or beating to an adversary.
of the handle

To 'hammer to strike in a fight, to beat in fighting. to give a thorough


an implement having a hammer on one and an axe on the other. Bvockett.
side

HAMMER-AXE,
coat

HAMMER-CLAAD," like
is still

called a

formerly

common,

the claws of a nail hammer. A tail hammer-claad cwoat." This " taily cwoat," is now rarely seen in outdoor wear.

35 g

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
stone faced with a pick or pointed

HAMMER-DRESSED,
hammer.

HAMMER-HEEL,
the hand.

the portion of the face of a

hammer

next

HAMMER-NOSE,

the portion of the hammer face opposite to the helve, the "heel." When a hand hammer is held up by " to the observer, of its " face placed opposite and the flat disc the lower, or the upper portion of the disc is the nose, and towards the helve, is the "heel/' The pointed end portion " peen." of the hammer head is called the a sheepish or cowardly person. of the game breed

HAM MY,

In cock-fighting, a
;

hammy was a bird not


ran away.

one that fought and

HAMSHACKLE,
hams
or forelegs.

to fasten the
Brockett.

head of an animal to one of


See HANTLE.

its

H ANCLE,
HAND,

a great many. "

Bwckett.

HAND, HAN.

To

put hand to paper

"to write.
front

the fore upright of a gate.

"Hand and bar"

and back uprights.

See HAR.
" " Belford hand," Ooler hand."

HAND, HAN,

neighbourhood.

HAND-A-WHILE, now

and then.

HANDBRAED, handbreadth. HANDBUN, handbound also


;

used to express a great want of


!

An old bird fancier named Dick Cubbert (Cuthbert) Aa's when asked how he was getting on, replied, " Middlin
anything.
fair

handbun for the want


"

o'

Jack" (jackdaw).
at particular

HANDED.

Weel

handed

"clever

work.
covering

HAND-HATS,

a kind of glove made of thick only the palm of the hand and the fingers.
or

felt,

HAND-PUTTER, "

BARROWMAN,
;

in a colliery,

one

who

puts" without the assistance of a pony.

HANDSPYAKES,
PIKE HANDLES.

handspikes pieces of wood with handles, used for carrying coffins from the hearse to the church, and from the church to the grave, in country places. Compare

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

359
is

HANDSTAFF, "
called the

soople

the handle of a flail. " or " swingle."


a turn of work.

The moveable end

HANDSTURN,
HAND-TIED,
waving

unable to leave a job you are engaged


"

in,

HAND-WAVE, to
HANDY,

" streek a measure of corn with the hand by or passing the fingers over it to leave good measure. a hand-basin
;

" also a small " skeel used for baling or for laving water from a well.

HANDY-DANDY,
HANG. HANG,

a child's game.

See HING and following words.

a snare for catching rabbits of very fine wire or hair.

and hares

a noose

made

H ANG- A-BAAK,
HANG-CHOICE,
used on
field or

a gallows bird, one ripe for the gallows

for

hanging from a balk.

no

difference.

HANGER, HINGER,

a hinge-pin for a gate; as generally

garden gates.

HANGEREL,

a piece of wood, with a bend in the middle, and It is used for notches on the upper side at each end. suspending a pig or other animal after it is killed. a
lazy,

HANG-GALLOWS,
Compare HANG-A-BAAK.

good-for-nothing

fellow.

HANG-LOCK,

a padlock;

still

used, but probably obsolescent.

HANGY-BANGY,
HANK,
a habit.

a big lazy fellow, a good-for-nothing.

Brockett.

The same

as

HANT.

HANKELT, hobbled, entangled. HANKER, to hesitate in speech, to speak with an impediment. HANKLE, to entangle, to ravel. HANNIEL, a lout; a loose, idle, or perverse fellow; a goodfor-nothing.

360

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
handcuffs.
;

HAN-SHECKLES,
HAN-SPAN, very HANT, a habit.

HANSHUN, a wicked grunt


heartily.

a savage

way of

feeding like a pig.

HANT,

to haunt, to accustom, as a pigeon to its dovecot.

HANTLE, a quantity, ever so much, HANTY, wanton, unruly; spoken of


provender pricks him.
1691.

ever so many.
a horse or the like, when North-Country Words,

Ray,

Collection of

HAP,

an overcoat, or coverlet, or any extra article of clothing " " Put a or bed covering. hap on the bed put an extra on it. An ancient Scottish proverb says, " Hap and covering a halfpenny is warld's gear enough."
11

Becaus

With
to

their fatheris purelie

hap,

can begin and halfpenny, and a lamb's skin."


The Thrie Tailes of
the Thrie Priests of Peebles.

" HAP, heap up, to cover. They happed up the taties an' " had his fyece happed wiv a greet tornips wi straa."

He

comforter." "Hap weel up; it's a caad neet." " Gae hap him up i' his lang hame."
to bechance.

Poems, T. Donaldson, Glanton, 1809, P- 62.

HAP,

" Aa'll be there

o'

Monday

as

it

haps"

HAPPIN,

a very similar word, hippen. An impatient audience in the theatre expresses its disgust at " the delay in raising the curtain by cries of Hoist the hien:
is
1

a coverlet.

There

HAR,

the upright pieces of a gate the fore har. Middle

known

English

herre,

as the back har a hinge.

and

HAR, moist, damp. HAR, a sea fret, a drizzling rain or fog. HAR, an army. HARSHIP, or HEARSHIP, an armed raid. into the names of several places in NorthumberCenters land as

//^low-hill, Harbottle, Herpzth (the name of a road dividing the township of Ray and Kirkwhelpington). Hcrfieth and Urpeth are apparently synonymous words

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

361
" Thor's a lot been a grand

HARBERANCE,
o'

rattins this year harberance for them."

harbourage, good shelter. the rough stubbles


;

is

HARD,

a firm foreshore, used for beaching vessels.


(p.k.

HARD

of hear), heard.

"

Aa

hard ye

wor comin."

HARD-CORN,

wheat and

rye.

HARDEN,
HARDEN,
dear.

a coarse cloth made from tow or hemp. Also applied to the tarred tow or oakum used for caulking the seams of ships. See HARN.
as

"the market hardens"


Collection of

Ray's

that is, North- Country Words.


nigra, Linn.

things

grow

HARD-HEEDS,
horse-nobs.

knapweed, Centaurea

Called also

HARDISH,
there when doot."

pretty hard.
" He'd hardlies hardly, scarcely, barely. getten " Ye's hardlies catch the it happened." train, aa

HARDLIES,

HARDY, HARDEY,
in a

a fixed, shouldered chisel, placed upright square hole in the blacksmith's anvil, upon which he

cuts hot iron.

HARDY NUT,

a boyish game played with beech nuts pierced with a hole for a string. Each alternately aims a blow at his opponent's nut so as to break it.

HAREHOOND,
It is

the plant horehound, Marrubium vulgare, Linn. found in waste places on rocks and links at Bamborough, Alnwick, Cullercoats, and Hexham island.
a hair
lip.

HARE-SHED,
HARISHER,

a large quantity;

used to express number in

disarrangement.

HARL, HAURL, an implement for A manure scraper, a col. roads.


are the

cleaning

mud

from the

names

of various
litter.

scraping

mud

Col, drag, hack and harl implements used in drawing or

or

HARL,
mud

to drag, to rake.

"To

harl the

road"

to rake the

off the road.

362

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

HARLE,

"in angling, is the feathery part on each side of the pen of a feather, and is particularly applied to that of the tail feathers of a peacock when employed in giving an iridescent appearance to the bodies of artificial flies, in which case it is " called peacock hark.' Hodgson MS.
'

HARLE,

Little Hark and West a heron or a heronry (?). Hark, townships in Northumberland, and Kirk Hark, parish in the same, give examples of harle, but whether related in any way to this word is doubtful.
to repeat mockingly.

HARM,
name

" Divvent harm

maa words."
cloth.

HARN, HAREN, HARDEN,


is

a coarse

hempen

The

sometimes applied to a coarse thread.

HARNESS-CASK,

a receptacle on board ship where the meat, after being taken out of the pickle cask, is kept ready for use. It is an upright cask with straight, tapering sides, narrowing to the top, which closes with a hinged lid and

padlock.

HARNS,

brains.

HARN-PAN,

brain-pan.
the herring.

HARRIN, HARRN, HEERIN,


HARRIN-GYTE,the

herring spawn found adhering to herring nets during fishing operations.


harsh.
to ravage.

HARRISH,
HARRISH,

HARROW.

The terms used in connection with a harrow are as follows Harrowbreeth, the breadth of a harrow as shown by the mark on the land over which it has been dragged harrow-bulls, the longitudinal beams of a harrow which contain the teeth; harrow-sheth, the transverse framework; harrowsHaikh, the shackle by which a pair of harrows are linked together; harrow-tree, the piece of wood by which the harrow is yoked. Attached to this is the double-tree, and to this are attached the single-trees to which the horses are yoked.
:

person.
"

RYGAD HARRYGOAT [Hexham], pvr A TT, AHADDIGAUD, a HARRYGAUD, T?A blackguard sort of
'

Brocket*.

Compare HALLIGIT.

rigsby, a wild girl."-Ray's Collection of North-Country Words, 1691.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

363

HARTHSTAFF,
the
fire.

a blacksmith's tool for drawing scar from

HASH, HASH,

a sheep's lights boiled, then

minced small and stewed

with onions.
a sloven
;

one who talks hash or nonsense.

HASH,

to bruise.

To

hash corn

means

to partially grind

it.

Hashed oats are in common use for feeding purposes. The word is also used to denote injury to animals, as " The horse was gye sair hashed."

HASHY

[N.], wet, sleety.

Applied to the weather.

"

Eh

what a hashy day." Slushy, dirty. After snow begins to melt upon the ground it is, more especially if rain be falling, hashy The sea agitated by short turbulent waves is walking. termed hashy.

HASK,

the throat.

"Pap

o'

the hask"

the uvula.

See HASS.

HASK,
is

roughened, dried-up. Dry and parched. keen and parching. Hask lips are parched

A
lips.

hask

wind Hask is

applied to the sense of feeling when anything from its touch appears unpleasantly dry or hard. Hask coal is very
als

hard, brittle coal; or coal that


texture.

is

"winded"

or

woody

in

HASS, HAUSE,

the neck, the throat, the windpipe.


a necklet or collar.

HASS-BAND, HAUSE-BAND,
HASS-PIPE,

a hause-pipe on board ship. The wide hole through which the cable or hawser is run out.

"So called because made in the 'neck' of the ship." Concise Etymological Dictionary.

Prof. Skeat,

HASTENER,

a semi-circular tin screen placed behind meat in roasting before the fire, to keep the cold air off and hasten the cooking by reflected heat.

HASTY PUDDING, HYESTY PUDDIN,


HAT,
Hat p.t. of hit ; p.p. hutten or kitten. " Aa hat him he hut me." thep.t., as
;

oatmeal porridge.
hut are used in

and

"

Firing right manfully at her, He hat her betwixt the two lugs."

The Hare Skin.

364

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a "
gate.

HATCH,
Hill."

Near

a wicket

or hatch at

Cockmount

Compare HALF HATCH.


heather,
Calluna
vulgavis.

HATHER, HADDER, common


Called also
ling.

See HEATHER.
Grey,

"In
"

this

North Country groweth plenty of hadder or ling."

Chorographia, 1649.

Erica, which is called in the North of England hather and ling. highest heath that ever I saw groweth in Northumberland, which high that a man may hide himself in it." Turner's Herbal.

The
is

so

HATTER,

to shake up, as

kattevt" is said of a

person circumstances generally.

who has had

on a rough road. " He wis sair a bad time of it in his

HATTY,

a game at leap-frog where each boy leaves his cap on " the back as he leaps over. The boy who " makes the back is called hatty. If a boy causes a cap to slip off as he leaps

he becomes

hatty.

HAUD,
The

to hold.

See HAD.

HAUGH, HAAF,
on a riverside
place-names.
;

alluvial flat or stretch of low-lying land haughs, Dilston haughs, Wide-hatigh. termination occurs forty-four times in Northumberland

an

Derwent
is

Haugh
"

rarely found south of the

Wear.

HAUNCH,
HAURL,
It is

to

speak sharply.

"

He

fair

haunched at me."

Also to snarl.

The dog

haunched at me."

a col or drag, such as is used for scraping a road. a kind of scraper with a long handle. See HARL.

HAUSE,

the neck, or throat.

See HASS.

HAVER,
kist,

oats, A vena sativa, Linn. Havermeal, oatmeal. Haveran oatmeal chest. Haver-cake, or haver-nettle, an oatmeal cake. A haversack was known to the ragged and tanned Borderer in righting trim, as it is to the modern soldier. To the Borderer, however, it was the oatmeal sack.

HAVER,

or nonsense. " or garrulous person, or a rambling or

HAVERS,

havers

"an incoherent
story.

wandering

HAVERIL HAVREL,

or HAIVERIL, a garrulous person, ougntless gossip, a noisy person with little sense.

HAW.

SeeHAA.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

365

HAWK "
A

an implement or hand-tool for filling manure. [N.] teeming" hawk, an implement for unloading manure. See HACK.
,

HAWKIE,
the cow.

a white-faced cow.
"

Also a general pet-name


watter.

for

Ca Hawkie, ca Hawkie,, Ca Hawkie through the

Hawkie is a sweir beast, And Hawkie winna wade the watter."


Old Song.

HAWK-WEED,
Hievacium.

the

various

kinds

of the

plant family

HAY,

a place fenced round.


Hodgson's Northumberland,
rttbetra,
pt.
ii.,

"Hays or inclosures."

vol.

iii.,

p. 89.

HAY-CHAT,
HAZE,
" It hazes,

the whinchat, Pratincola

Linn.

to drizzle, to be foggy.
it

Brockett.
Bailey.

mizzles small rain."

HAZE-GAZE, a show in the A country cousin makes a


street.

sense of an exhibition of oneself. hase-gaze by staring about in the

HAZEL.

See HEZZLE.
sandstone generally of a kind too hard to chisel, or a tough mixture of sandstone
freestone mixed

HAZEL, HAZLE,
"

work freely under the and shale in a pit.


Strong red hazel

with

coal

spar."

Borings and

Sinkings, A.B., p. 159. " The sandstones denominated hazles

metamorphic appearance."
1890, p. 275.

have a highly crystalline and Richard Howse, Nat. Hist. 'Irans., vol. x.,

HAZEL-OIL,
is

chastisement with the rod, a severe beating.

HE, HEH, HAE, HEV,

As an auxiliary verb, have to have. " Aa'w been generally shortened to a mere v sound. there." When emphasis is required the aspirated form is used. See HEV, HEZ.
See HEED.
;

HEAD.
HEAD,

an eminence as Greeuhead, at the watershade between the Irthing and the Tippalt.

^66

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
the Sunday after Old

HEAD SUNDAY,
HEAN, HEEN,
Called also the

Midsummer Day.

the part of a plough


little heel.

which grips the sheth.

HEAP, HEUP,
BEATMENT.
"

a wicker basket, a dry measure somewhat See reference under correspondent to the beatment.Brockett.
Quarter of a pec\t."Halliwell.

HEAP,

a term applied to a slovenly woman, usually in combination with some other descriptive word, as
" She's just a gannin heap o' muck." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt.
i.,

v. 59.

HEAP-KEEPER, the man who overlooks


on the surface.

the cleaning of coals

Mining Glossary of Newcastle Terms, 1852.


the platform at a pit's level to allow the coals to

HEAP-STEED, HEAP-STEAD,
mouth elevated above the surface

be tipped over screens into waggons. The tubs are landed on the heap-steed and run to the screens.

HEARN

(the

same

as harn or harden"), a coarse cloth.

HEARSE,

hoarse.

HEARTGROUEN

(heart-grown),

having

spinal-curvature.

High-shouldered, short-necked people, with a broad chest and slightly round-shouldered whilst the other parts of the body are not in due proportion are said to be heartgrouen.

HEART-HYEL,
grand

in

good health.

"An' hoo are ye?"

"Oh,

just heart-hyel" relating to the spirits.

Heart-hyel is the equivalent of hearty, Hyel is also used when the bodily health is meant, as meat-hyel that is, in good bodily health. " Hoo are " ?" a'am

ye

Oh,

fine,

mea.t-hyel."

"
hal,

Hyel is English hale, which is simply from the Old Northumbrian the equivalent of Anglo-Saxon hal (whole)." Note by Professor Skeat.

HEART-O'-THE-HEARTH,
i, 800

the self-heal, a plant of many virtues, Prunella vulgaris, Linn. Everywhere common in grassy It has a range in altitude places. 1,500 feet on Cheviot and
feet

above Allenheads.
sorrell, leaf.

It is also called prince's feathers.

HEARTS, wood

the shape of the

Oxalis acetosella, Linn. Hearts, It is also variously known as

from

clover, ciickoo's meat,

gowk's meat,

and

sour clover.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

367
Brockett.

HEART-SCAD,

grief,

vexation

the heartburn.

HEARTY.
water
is

Meal that swells much on being saturated with termed heayty.

HEAT,

a charge in a puddling or a ball furnace, a pile in a furnace ready for the forgeman, or a bar in a blacksmith's " Sittin' doon atween heats" that fire ready to weld. is, in the interval between the completion of one heat and the preparation of another.

HEATHER,

the northern name for heath generally. In Coquetdale and various other parts of Northumberland, when the word is used in a restricted sense, it is applied to the

common heath (Calluna vulgaris) only. Calhina vulgaris is the Erica vulgaris of the earlier botanists, and is sometimes called Erica tetralix and Erica cinerea are also known as bee-heather. heather, but when spoken of distinctively are (in the above The Calhina district, at least) invariably designated ling. Erica cinerea and vulgaris is also called he-heather and heath. See LING. Erica tetralix are called she and bell-heather.

HEATHER-BL EATER,
scolopacinus.

the

common
and

snipe,

Gallinago

It is also called mire-bleater

gutter -snipe.

common resident, breeding on the marshy moorland of both counties. The neighing or bleating of the snipe results from the action of the wings." John Hancock, Birds of Northumberland and Durham.

"A

HEATHER-BUZZOM,
HEATHER-COCK,
also ring blackbird.

besom made

of heather.

the ring ouzel, Turdus torquatus.

Called

HEATHER
it is also

LINTY,

the mountain linnet, Cannabina flavirostris.

HEATHER-WHIN,
HEAZE,
HEAZY,
to

the needle genista, Genista Anglica, Linn-

called moor-whin

and

moss-whin.

wheeze.
in breathing.

wheezy
;

HECK,

a rack

the food rack of horses and beasts.

HECK, HECK-DOOR,

the inner door between the entry, or lobby, and the house or kitchen. A half-heck is a door having an upper and lower half. The lower half is generally the Compare HATCH. portion closed by day.

368

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
turn to the
left
;

HECK,

the

command

to a horse.

HECK,

in husbandry, is to proceed in forming a rig by turning the horses to the left hand after it has been half finished by turning to the right. The first operation to the right is called "to gether" the second operation, by turning to the " " the rig. left, is called to heck or felly oot
;

HECK-BERRY,
BERRY.

the bird cherry, Prunus padus.

See HACKER-

HECKBOARD,

the loose and removable boa*rd at the back of a cart fixed to the " shilvins." It is fit in, and thus completes the square form of the cart.

HECKLE,
is

made from

"The bonny reed heckle," usually fly. the red feathers of a cock. Another artificial fly the black heckle or blaewing. See HACKLE.
an angler's
the shades below.
"

HECKLEBARNEY,
wi' ye!"

Can

to hecklebarney

HECKLER,
unsteadily
;

a bad tongued woman a boy's top when a good eater one with a good .appetite.
; ;

it

spins

HED

(a

variant of had),

p.t.

of have.

HEDDER, HADDER, HATHER, heather. HEDGEHOG, to break and turn up the ends of wire
HEDGE-KNIFE,
a hedging
bill.

rope.

HEDGE-RUT,

hedge root. To under the shelter of a hedge.


the hedge s P arrow called spowey and smotty.
>

sit

in the hedge-rut is to sit

HE ?i GjY>
HEE,

Prunella modularis.

It

is

also

high. HE-EST, highest. Hee-up, high up. Healey, a place-name occurs more than once in Northumberland. It is probably high lea (hee ley).
ln

/*"* a stree

Newcastle ^ also used to describe the as " Heed the side -" Jt is als
'

'

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

369

HEEDLAND, HEEDRIG, the rig or ridge

at the termination of both ends of the longitudinal rigs, or sometimes across the middle of a field in like fashion, when the field is divided The heedland or heedvig is the into two sheths or divisions. margin on which the horses turn with their implements when

This portion cultivating the soil. after the rest of the field is finished.

is

necessarily cultivated

HEEDS-AN-THRAAS,
tail to tail,

heads and

tails

head

to

head and

as herring are packed.


fore

HEED-SHEETS, the
work
their long oar.

deck of a keel on which the keelmen

HEEDSMAN, "
chief of a

the
"

name

in

North Tynedale

for the

head or

grain

or clan.

HEEDSMAN,

an elder lad, a putter. The heedsman was a lad of sixteen or seventeen, the elder of two engaged to put a tram where a single hand was not strong enough to put it without assistance. This arrangement was called a " tram of lads," and the younger lad was called a "foal," or, " One of these was yoked in front to familiarly, a foally." the tram by short ropes or " soams." Sometimes the heedsman was thus yoked whilst the "foally" put behind, and in other cases the positions were reversed. See FOAL.
a piece of wood about a foot long set across the head of an upright prop to support the

HEED-TREE, HEAD-TREE,
roof in a pit.

Compare CROWN-TREE.
the head-ache.

HEED-WARK,
a

wark

is

mere aching sensation, inasmuch as an inward pulsating or working pain.


cleat

it is

distinguished from always applied to

HEEDWIS, HEAD-WAYS, " " "


of the coal.

the ways in a pit driven with the " are exploratory Winning heedwis

headways, and when two " such are driven together they are " and " back headways. Compare BORD. called " fore

HEEDWIS,
pit

in a

forward direction, onward.

HEEDWIS-COURSE.

When a set of headings or walls in a extend from side to side of a set of "boards" they are said to be driven headways course.

370

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

HEEL,

also is

the rear point of a plough-sock is called the heel, so the bearance for a lever. any rear projection, such as In a plough, the little-heel, sometimes called the hean, is the part gripping the sheth. The last or extreme end of a of a loaf is the last piece of thing is called its heel. The heel Heel of the evening the latter the outside crust that is left.
part of the evening.

HEESTERIN,
See HEEZE.

a handle for hoisting or lifting.

(Obsolescent.)

HEEZE,

to rock with a swinging movement, to hoist, to " Aa The elevate. gat sic a heezin on the shuggy-shoe." familiar lullaby "Rock a by baby" was always rendered
" Heeze a ba babby on the tree top When the wund blaas the credle will rock."
;

HEFFER, to laugh vulgarly. HEFFERIN, laughing in an imbecile


HEFT,
heft is to let a

fashion.

to hold back, to hold to a place, or to

each other.

To

cow's milk increase for two or three days till her udder gets large and hard, as is done with milk cows taken to market. In that state they are said to be hefted. Another sense of the word is to become accustomed to and
settled in a place generally applied to sheep and cattle. To heft, to keep stock upon a certain pasture until accustomed to go there.
;

HEG,

to rue, to repent of doing a thing.

See HEN.

HEGG-BERRY.

See HECK-BERRY and HACKER-BERRY.


!

HEGH

or the stroke groan uttered by a blacksmith, or the expiration which emphasizes the delivery of a blow. Two men were engaged in working a heavy pavior's mell. One of them was asked if he did not find it very heavy work. " " it Yis," he replied, tyeks the two on us aal wor time. Me mate dis the mell an' aa de the huh /" See BLACKSMITH-OFKIND.
!

HUH

HE-HOLLY, HE-HOLLIN,

the holly, Ilex aquifolium, with When the leaves are without prickles pricks on the leaves. it is called she-hollin. See HOLLIN and SHE-HOLLIN.
to

HELL, HELLE,
See HAIL,
2.

pour out

in a rapid

manner.

Brockett.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

37!
"

HELM,
as
it

the top (crest) or head of a thing. Helm o' the hill," used to be invariably called, is a considerable eminence on the old post road a few miles south of Felton. It commands a most extensive view on all sides, and appears as if it had been in olden times of some importance, for which its commanding situation eminently qualifies it. The helmwind is the phenomenon so familiar on the Cumberland border of South- Western Northumberland. It rushes with the greatest violence over the ridge of the Pennine range.

HELSUM,

wholesome, healthsome.

HELTER, HELTERHEED, a halter. HELTER-FOR-HELTER, an even " swap "


horses.

or exchange of

HELTERSHANK,

the rope from the "halter-heed" to the balance weight that hangs below the manger, and runs through an iron ring therein fixed.
;

HEMMEL,
made

a cattle shed. An outbuilding on a farm formerly of upright posts, with whin or broom interlaced, and a thatched roof; chiefly used in winter and the lambing season. The permanent hemmel, which forms a conspicuous feature in

Northumberland farm buildings, is surrounded by a fold yard, and has in front an arcade of massive masonry, The hemmel-eye is the frequently surmounted by a granary. archway or orifice giving access to the covered arcade. Four inhabited and four uninhabited place-names in Northumberland occur in combination with hemmel. Example, Red
Hemmels.

HEMP, HEMPY,
HEN,

a boisterous or mischievous boy.

" He seun kenned on't " to rue. tired of doing it.

he soon gave

it

up, or

HEN-BAAK, HEN-BALK, HEN-BOAK


roost, the balk or pole

[W.-T.]

hen

on which hens roost.

HEN-FLESH
GROUSIN.

[N.], the condition of the pores of the skin as " Goose's-flesh " is they stand up through extreme cold. also used as a term for this condition of the skin. Compare

HENGE, HAINCH,
"

to

throw underhand.
Jamieson.

To throw

stones by bringing the hand along the haunch."

372

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
or GLED, the Circus cyaneus, Linn. Town Moor. formerly bred on the Newcastle " It has now almost succumbed to the zeal of the gamekeeper. I have not seen a single individual for several years." John Hancock, Birds of
p. 19.

HEN-HARRIER,
It

GREY

Northumberland and Durham,

HENNA, HENNIT, have not. HENNY-PEN, HENNY-PENNY, HEN-PEN,


rattle,

the

common

or cock's crest rhinanthus. The form of hen-penny has been further changed to penny-wort, another name for the plant. Goivk's siller and gowk's sixpences are also terms for the capsules and the seeds of the plant. The rattle of the seeds gives the name of yellow rattle to it. The term gowk is said by Dr. Johnston to be given because, like a fool, it is unable to conceal its wealth through this Gowk Botany of Eastern Borders, p. 156. rattling of the seed. may, however, also allude to the profitless character of this

Rhinanthus christa

galli,

parasite.

HEN-PEN,
value.

sweepings from the fowl house

of great manurial

HENS, HENS-KAIMS,
Linn.
hand.

Variously

known
"

the spotted orchis, Orchis maculata, also as adder-grass and deed-man's-

HEN-SCARTINS,

Hen-scrattings, long pencilled clouds, said to indicate rain or wind." Brockett. Called also mare's tails.

HEP-TREE,
cattle

briar rose.

See HIP,

i.

HERD, HIRD, HERID


keeper.

a shepherd, a [N.], [S.I " I will passage, Ezekiel xxxiv., v. 10, require my flock at their hand," is translated into Northumbrian of the fourteenth century, in the Pricke of Conscience, as
,

HARD

The

"

Lo,

I sal

aske

Of the

my

flok of

shepe
his hand." Edition Morris,
1.

hird that

had tham under

And
is

the passage " There shall be one fold and one shepherd" given in the same poem
"

5,890.

And a

Alle folkes to fald sal falle, hirde sail be to kepe tham alle."
Ibid,
1.

4,637.

HERD'S-MAUD

[N.]

This has a triangular corner wherein the shepherd carries weak lambs, or any food he It is called the maud requires. neuk.

a chequered plaid

worn by shepherds.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

373

HEREAWAY,

hereabout, in this neighbourhood.

HERONSHEUGH, HERONSEUGH, HERONSHUF,


HERONSYUEFF, HEERINSEUGH, HERNY,
The
Ardea Cinnerea, Linn.
a heron, ash-coloured heron or hernshaw.

HERSELL,

a lot or group of sheep. In Northumberland, a whole flock is often divided in two, three, or more hersells, each attended by its own distinct shepherd. See HIRSEL.
!

HET,

an exclamation of impatience. " Het Hets and houts are variants of the word.
of the verb to heat
;

haud yur tongue."

HET, p.t.

p.p. fatten.

HET-HIVE,
edition.

an eruption or small boil on the skin.


ale

HET-PINT, warmed

with

spirit

in

it.Brockett, third

HETTER,
HETTLE,

eager, earnest, keen, bitter, cross, HalliwelVs Dictionary and Ray's Collection.

ill-natured.

hasty, fiery, hot-tempered.

"Hetth tongued

"hot

spoken, irascible.

HETTLE,

A pitman, probably to act in haste or anger. charged with throwing his lamp down the pit shaft, said "He nobbut fattled it away, an' it stotted off the flat sheets an' doon the shaft."
the hooding, a piece of cow-hide lashed on to the " " or " swingle of a flail in the form of an A piece of leather called a " couplin " passes through eye. " the " heudin and connects the movable arm, or " soople," with the handstaff. The word is also given as hunden.

HEUDIN,

end of the " soople

HEUGH,
sides,

a precipitous hill, a cliff, a cleft or dell with steep but without a stream in it. The word enters into the names of twenty-four places in Northumberland. J. V. Gregory, Archaologia Mlicma, vol. ix., p. 66. Redheu^h, at Tarset Linn, and at Gateshead, Painter Heugh, in Newcastle, Robsheugh, Stamfordham Heitgh, Ratcto^A, and Brokente^A, are all local examples of these steep acclivities.
of a keel's mast.
u.

HEUGHN, the upper end


is like

The pronunciation

huun

a long soft

HEUK, HEUCK,

a hook.

See HYUK.

374

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

HEUK, HEUK-BANE, the hip-bone. HEUK-FINGERED, light-fingered, thievish.

HEUK-NEBBED,
HEUL,
HEUP,
HEV,

hook-nosed.
in anything.

an extravagant person

See HifEL,
i.

2.

a measure of a quarter peck.

See HEAP,

word following begins with an open vowel or h mute.

the emphatic form of the verb have.

Used

also

when the

HEW, to work coal. HEWER, a pitman who works coal.

HEWL, HEWEL,
HUEL,
2.
,

a headstrong, ungovernable person.

See

HEWLISH [S.] reckless, lavish. HEWLY, slowly, softly. HEYEL [S.] HYEL [T.], whole.
,

See HUEL.

HEYEL-WATTER, HYEL-WATTER,
HAIL.

a heavy rain.

See

HEYEM

[S.],

HYEM
or

[T.]

comin as nivver was."


construction.

home. Hyem-ma.de
,

"Theyhed
is

sic
;

a hyemof rude

home made

HEYEMS, HYEMS,
irons

HYEMSTICKS. The

bent sticks or

which go round a horse's collar. The hamesticks, from ham, the bend of the leg, are two pieces bent like the ham.
has. "

HEZ,

He

hez nowt."

HEZZLE,

hazel.

hezzle is either

a walking stick or a rod

used for punishment.

Hence

hezzle, to castigate.

HEZZLE-SCOWB,
A

a strong hazel wand of some three or four " crab-creeves " years' growth, used in making (traps for "creeve" has a lattice woodwork bottom, and crabs). into holes burnt along the sides the scowbs are inserted, and

bent over, arch fashion, and then covered with a net.

See

CREEVE,

2.

HEZZLE- WAN,

a hazel

wand

or shoot of hazel.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

375

HICK,

to hesitate.

"

He

kicked at forst, but they gat

him

to

gan on."

HICK,

" to cry intermittently. that is; it's constant kickin on." is said to kick.

What

a discontented bairn child pretending to cry

HICKORY-FYECED,
HICKUP-SNICKUP,
HIDDY-GIDDY,
HIDLINS,
by
stealth.
"

pock-marked,
the hiccough.

ill

visaged.

hither and thither, topsy-turvy.

(Obs.)

secretly, clandestinely, Brockett. (Obs.)

applied to anything done


Bailey.
is

Hidel, a place of protection, a sanctuary."


;

HIE,

turn left used by the driver of a horse. Hup the right. See HYE. Compare HITE and HECK.

turn to

HIKE, HEYK,
motion.

to swing, to sway with a rising and falling nurse hikes her child when she tosses it up and down in her arms. Hodgson. To lift suddenly with a jerk. When a cart jolts, or a boat rises and falls, it is said to hike.

Compare HEEZE.

HIKE,

a swinging gait.
a swing.

HI KEY,

HILL-OAT,
HIM,
gannin'."

the Avena nuda.


he.

used for the nominative singular


a

"Him

an* me's

HINCHY-PINCHY,
gently,

game

in

and gradually increased

play ye at kincky-pinchy." returns the blow, until it becomes a fight. The term is also employed in games of leaping, where the first player gives an easy leap, and each succeeding player exceeds the leap of his predecessor, until the game is left in the hands of the best jumper.

" Aa'll in intensity. Boy Strikes gently his companion, who


:

which the play

is

begun

HIND,

a farm servant hired by the year at so much per week. Hinds formerly had "corn wages," and were mostly paid in kind by the produce of the farm, which included the pasturage of a cow. Money wages are now general. At present sixteen to eighteen shillings per week, with house free, coals

376

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

carted, a garden, and generally some potatoes planted on the Sometimes a cow is kept or farm or "found" for him. "found," and in this case something like five shillings per

This custom, however, is At the hiring a stipulation is often made by the farmer that the hind must furnish a female fieldworker at a stipulated price per day, with extra wage in " harvest time. This extra hand is called a bondager." The "bondager" is either the hind's wife or grown-up daughter, or else, but that rarely, an extra hand employed specially. At Alnwick, a good " bondager," strong and useful, is held in more estimation by farmers than a man. The women do nearly every kind of man's work on a farm, except ploughing and a good deal more hard work falls to their share than to

week

is

deducted from the wage.

falling into disuse.

the

hind's.

HIND-BERRY,

name Hindley probably

a raspberry, Rubus idwis, Linn. The placetakes its name from the plant. Broomley, Farnley, Slaley, and Lingey-field are similar examples of places with plant-names.

HINDERSOME,
KING,
"

hindering, impeding. very hindersome for the harvist."


to hang.
fire

"The bad

weather's

'Fore the Bloomer.

aw

kings the beef."

J.

P. Robson,

Wor Mally Turned

KING,
whip

to incline or dip

a pit term.

HINGER,
is

a loop at the end of a whip shank on

which the

hung.
a padlock.
Hingtr-on, an onsetter in a to shirk work, like a lazy

KING-LOCK,

HING-ON, to start to draw coals. "To king the britchen " is pit.
i'

horse.

HINNEY-HOW,
surprise.

or

HINNEYS-HOW

An

exclamation of

Halliwell.

HINNY,

a term of kindly regard, generally applied to women and children. Like the word canny, this is one of the choicest of our local terms, and they are often used together, as " canny himiy" " Where hest te been, ma canny hinney? An' where hest te been, ma bonny bairn ?

Aw was up and down seekin' for ma hinney Aw was thro the toon seekin for ma bairn."
1 1

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
It is

377

the purest and most lovable sense to sweetapplied heart, wife, or bairn. " The kye are come hame, but I see not my hinnie ; The kye are come hame, but I see not my bairn, I'd rather lose all the kye than lose my hinnie ; I'd rather lose all the kye than lose my bairn." Old song, The Kye's Come Home.
the rear, the back, the hindermost, the very
last.

HINT,
HIP,

the fruit of the wild rose.

Rosa canina, and

Dog hips are the fruit of the cat hips (or cat heps] the fruit of/?. Spinosissima.
2.

Compare HAA.

HIP,

to hop.

Compare HITCK,

HIPPEET, HIPPIT,

the condition experienced when the muscles of the thighs have been over-strained and become painful from much stooping at work. The sufferer is said to be "a' hippeet."
to the curtain of a theatre.

HIPPIN,

a napkin for the hips of an infant. " Hoist the

Also often applied "


is

hippin

the

common

audience impatient of the delay in starting a performance.

cry of an

HIPPIN-STONES,
is

stepping-stones across a stream.

To

hip

to hop, and the action of crossing by stepping-stones is hippintor hoppin from one to the other. " Hope came Mppynge after." Piers Plowman, p. 351. to limp.

HIPPLE,

Compare HIRPLE.
a

HIPPLETY-CLINCH,
HIPPY-BEDS,
player
hips.

lame or halting person.

a child's game, played by hopping or hippin over "beds" chalked out and kicking a broken crock, or " playgin," over the chalk marks with the foot on which the

The game

is

also called hitchey-dabber.

HIP-STEP-AND-LOUP,
HIPSY-DIPSY,

hop, step and jump.

The game

is

also called hitch-step-and-loup.


a castigation, a skelping.

HIRDY-GIRDY,
HIRING,
to be hired.

a disorderly noise, a disturbance.

(Obs.)

a fair for servants, male or female, where they stand

HIRPLE,

to

walk lamely or with

effort.

378

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

HIRSEL,
farmer.

the general sheep stock belonging to a hill stockThe shepherd's portion, grazed on the farm, as his The is called a "pack." pay for looking after the whole, is distinguished by branding the letters vertically or

"pack"
A

crosswise.

"As bonny

a Mrsel o' sheep they war as ivver aa saa Northumberland Shepherd.


;

i'

me

life."

"The term is also applied to a great assemblage of cattle or people, or to a quantity of any other thing as a great hirsel of wood or of corn stacks." Hodgson MS.

HIRSEL,
called

to

move about on
This
is

along the seat.


hirsellin.

move a seat. "Hirsel alang done by a jerky movement which is


to

"

"Hirsel aboot"

move

restlessly about

on

a seat.

HIRST, HURST,

as in Longhirst, enters into the names of three parishes and townships, and into that of eleven other A hurst is a wood, inhabited places in Northumberland.

but its special meaning in Northumberland place-names is probably a "scrub," "thicket," or, as it is generally called, "

"rammel
"

that

is,

natural or self-sown wood.

Scroggy

hirsts of hazel."

Hodgson's Northumberland,

pt.

ii.,

vol.

i.,

p. 100, note.

HIRTLE,
"

to hurry.
clud's gan hirtlin alang the hill side."

The
it.

Cheviot Shepherd.

HIT,

" That's This is in common general use, hit, noo." a survival of the older form of the word, " Middle English hit. Anglo-Saxon hit, neuter of he. The old genitive case was his, afterwards it, and finally (xvii. century) its." Prof. Skeat, Concise Etymological English Diet.

and

is

HIT^the
run,

principal actor in certain games.


all

This
is hit

is

sometimes

decided by a race to the playground,

"Last

there's hit."

The boy who

crying out as they

has either to

catch the others, give a back, or whatever may be required in the game. In the progress of a boys' game the inquiry is frequently heard, "Whe's hit?" meaning who is the player.

HITCH,

a small dislocation of the strata which does not exceed the height of the coal seam. Hitch is also the term applied by sinkers and miners to the inferior or broken coal and stone found on approaching a hitch or trouble.

DYKE.

Compare

HITCH,

a chest.

See HUTCH.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

379

HITCH, to hop on one leg. The word


with
hip.

is

often used indifferently

See HIP-STEP-AND-LOUP.
or

HITCHEY-BEDS,
game.
It is

HITCHEY-DABBER,

children's

See also HIPPY-BEDS.


a strong nail, sometimes called a pit-hitch nail. flat point and a rose head.
is

HITCH-NAIL,

about two inches long, with a


coal or stone that
'

H ITCHY,
trouble.

broken as

if

by a hitch or

See HITCH,

i.

HITE,

means one

as in the phrase, " She wou'd neither Hyte nor Ree," side or the other. G. Stuart, Joco-Sevioiis Discourse,

1686, p. 28.

See HIE,

2,

and HYE.
kit),

KITTEN,

or kitten wiv a pantile."

HATTEN

(the p.p. of

to strike.

"

He

gat

HITTY-MISSY, anyhow,
HIVE, an inward
hives,"

at

random, or haphazard.

There are "chest feeling of enlargement. " bowel hives" &c., descriptive of an inward heaving or swelling. Hives are not usually outward eruptions, but when so they are commonly called het hives hot heaves or hot spots. The term hives is also applied to a species of chronic diarrhoea, or feeling of such in the bowels, common in children.
ivy.
,

HIVEN,

HOAF
hove /"
pail.

[W.-T.]

half.

HOAFY, HOVEY, HOVE,

the call to a cow. " Hovey ! hove ! the milkmaid says to the cow, advancing with her

HOARN,

" horn. cam-mad" is expressive of that state of of a person outrageously vexed. No doubt the "horn passion mad" of Shakspere with the Northumberland pronunciation.

HOAST, HOIST,
specially the

a cough.

Compare KINK-HOAST.

HOAST-HOOS, HOST-HOOS, OAST-HOOS,

an inn, but market house attached to an inn. The inns where farmers put up in coming to market have oast-hooses attached. They are the waiting rooms used by wife and daughters, and the reception place for parcels or goods sent in by tradesmen to go by the farmers' carts.

380

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

HOASTMEN, one of the Incorporated Companies of Newcastle


Freemen. The term hoastman has long ceased to describe the " " engrosser of the commodities profession of coal-shipper or of incorporation. The "coalenumerated in the charter " fitter "fitter") now disposes the sales of coals raised (briefly in the collieries which he " fits." The Company of Hoastmen remains simply the premier Incorporated Company of Newcastle, and election to its membership is a much coveted
honour.
of Henry the Fourth, in his fifth year, cap. 9 (1404), appoints to receive foreign merchants in England. Locally, the stranger arriving in the port of Tyne to buy coals was named the oaste,' and the person of whom he purchased, the oastmen or hostman." Welford's
'

"

An Act
'

hosts

'

History of Newcastle, under date 1516, p. 47.

HOB, HOB,
me

the iron pin at which quoits are aimed in playing the

game.

Compare GAITER, RINGER.


"
?

a greenhorn.

De

ye tyek us for a hob ?"

do you take

for a

greenhorn
the

HOBBIE,

name

of

Robin or Robert.
thistle, left in a

HOBBINS,

rank grass,

pasture by cattle.

Halliwell's Diet.

HOBBIN-STOB,
for

an iron

last.

HOBBLES, HOPPLES,
hobbling a horse.
rough, uneven.

two straps with chain between used

HOBBLY,
HOBBY,

the tool held by a "holder-up" to press and rivet in its hole whilst its end is being hammered up rivetter. "Stob," an article used for a

keep a by the similar purpose in

shoemakmg.
the pit

Compare HOBBIN-STOB.
"This
is

HOBBY JACKSON.
is

when

carried over the pulleys."

OW note.

a person

coming from

HOB COLLINGWOOD, lour


ol hearts in the
it

the

name

given in Newcastle to the

look upon
Newcastle,
"
It is

M.

Old ladies, in general, as proverbially unlucky. Proverbial Folk-lore of A. Denham, 1855. (Obs.)
Jamieson,

game

of whist.

the term in Teviotdale also."

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

381

HOBTHRUSH,
Moat" was
a

"The hobthrush of Elsdon or sprite who performed drudgery of As he wore a tattered all kinds during the night season. old hat a new one was placed for him in his accustomed haunt. Instead of propitiating hobthrush, this action broke
a local boggle.

browney

the spell

and the

"New

sprite disappeared, uttering a piteous cry


kobthrush'll

hat,

new hood,

do no more good."

HOCKER,
HOD,

to ride.

W.-T. the form

" hold, for had (hold). is hode or hoad.


the call to a goose.

Aa canna
See HAD.

get hod on't."

In

HODDY, HODGE,
rise

to shake, to wriggle, as in "hodgin' an' laughin'"


fall

to

and
in

gently with a swinging motion.

See HOTCH.

HOE

place-names is "high heugh," as Cambhoe. Hodgson This word seems to be confounded with how, which has a contrary meaning. See How, 2.

MS.

HOFF, HOUGH,
hough or
thigh.

to throw a ball or missile from below the See HOUGH. Compare HENGE.

HOFFLE,
of
hoffle

a stake on which salmon nets are dried. In a row stakes one is higher than the others, and is called the

bosom-hoffle.

See BOSOM.

HOFFLE, HOUFLE, to shuffle, to walk haltingly, to limp. HOG, HOGGET, HOGGEREL, a young sheep between the
age of
its

weaning and

its first

clipping.

HOGAMADOG,

the huge ball of a snowball over soft snow.

snow made by boys

in rolling

HOGAMANAY, HOGMANAY,
which children beg.

the New Year's offering for In North Northumberland the hogmanay or the is a small cake given to children on Old Year's Day spice bread and cheese, with liquor, given away, on the same
;

day.

HOGGER,
pump
to

the receptacle at the top of a delivery pipe of a receive the water before its discharge into the A spout and pipe lead away the discharged water. conduit. This arrangement is sometimes called a collar -lander. Compare

LANDRY-BOX.

3 82

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

HOGGERS,

footless stockings worn by pitmen at work. sometimes used for riding stockings instead of Hoggers were and they are variously called gaiters by country people
;

looags, scoggers, hoggers,

and

gamashers.

HOGG-REEK,
away on

the light fleecy patches of mist which float with the rising sun. From the resemblance to the fleece of the "hog" or young unshorn sheep.
hillsides

HOGMAGOGE.

This curious word appears in the Newcastle " Paide for keeping municipal accounts in October, 1591. This is the name of the play Hcgmagoge this year, 6s. 8d." annually performed by the Merchant Adventurers' Company " " of Newcastle on copycristy day.
a bad smell.

HOGO,
HOIST,

very

common

expression

is

"The meat

is hogo."

a cough.

See HOAST.
"

HOIT, HOUT,

a contemptible person.

Ye

greet lazy hoit."

HOKY-POKY,

hocus-pocus, a cabalistic expression for anyMore frequently hankything humbuggingly mysterious. panky.

HOLDER-UP, the workman who holds up " a set," or "hobby,"


against the head of a hot rivet, at one side of a plate, whilst its red-hot end is being clinched up by the rivetter at the other.

HOLE,
and

to perforate, to drill a hole, to


in a colliery,

excavate a passage-way.
in kirving

HOLERS,
fillers

men employed

where getters

are employed.

HOLEY-STONE,

a stone having a perforation in it, a hole The stone must be found already perforated, or through it. it has no virtue. These are very commonly hung behind house doors as charms. A sanctity or superstition appears to have been attached to stone implements with holes. They were supposed to have been perforated by snakes. Compare ADDER-STYEN, LUCKY-STYEN, and EARTH-FAST.
diseases.

hung over the heads of horses as a charm against Horses that sweat in their stalls are supposed to be cured by the application of this charm. The stone must be found naturally holed. If it be made it has no efficacy." Hodgson MS.

" Holed stones are

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

383

HOLING-ABOUT,

driving in a pit with bratticed air after a

seam of coal has been won, in order to establish the air communication between the downcast and upcast shafts and to form off the shaft pillars and walls.

HOLLERS, HULLERS,
KOLLIN, HOLLAND,
N. Northumberland,

a great number.

See HULLER.

the native holly, Ilex aquifolium. In and she-hollin are discriminated. The latter is the kind without prickles, and is used for fortune Hollin-bus is a holly tree. Hollin is a survival of the telling. Middle English form of the word. In the modern form holly an n has been dropped. (See Professor Skeat's Concise
he-hollin

Etymological Dictionary, under holly.)

See SHE-HOLLIN.
fowl.

HOLLOW-MEAT, HOLM, flat, damp


;

any kind of edible

land by river sides, especially fields and tracts of rich land that rivers wind around or make insular. Hodgson MS. It occurs in nine place-names in Northumberland but in four cases out of the nine the description of a river island, or a meadow near water, is not applicable. A? liana, vol ix., p. 66. Except in J. V. Gregory, Archaologia the names of places, the word is obsolete in Northumberland.

Compare EALES, HAUGH.

HOLT,
It is

Northumberland) gives

Mr. J. V. Gregory (Place-Names in a wood, a covert. it as twice occuring in Northumberland. pronounced hot, as Birk-hot for ~Birk-holt.

HOLY-BIZEN,

a conspicuous show, a spectacle. Applied to an idolized and over-dressed person who is thus rendered too " Yor conspicuous. myekin a fair holy-bizen on that bairn." " Aa'll It is also used menacingly myek a holy-bizen on ye, ye slut." See BIZEN.
:

HOMECOME,
HOMIL,
HUMEL,
to
2.

arrival at

home.
barley.

humble or remove the awns from


"

See

HOMILT,

hornless.

homilt coo."

See HUMEL'D.

HOMLICK,

macitlatum, Linn. to all the hollow-stemmed umbelliferous Humlick and whumlick "It's hollow as a homlick." plants. See are also names by which this is commonly known.

the

common hemlock, Conium

But applied generally

HUMLICK.

384

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a child's game.

HONEY-POTS,
often
late

HONOUR-BRIGHT, BET- WATT


made
use of by the

common

originated with, and

is still

a protestation of honour people in Newcastle. It retained in commemoration of, a


!

well-known Newcastle worthy. Newcastle, M. A. Denham, 1855, p. 6.

Proverbial Folk-lore of

HOO,

the invariable pronunciation of how. day, lad?"

"Hoo

are ye, the

HOOANIVVOR,
HOOD,

however.

the shelf at the side of a fireplace.

See HUD.

HOODS, HOOD-SHEAVES,

two sheaves placed on the top

of a stook of corn to throw off the rain.

Compare HUD.
Called also the

HOODY,

grey-backed craa

the hooded crow, Corvus comix. Linn. and the corby.


reel in great

HOOLAKIN,

a kind of dance, a Northumberland.

favour in North

HOOLET,
owl
hoot owl,

an owl.

Hoolet-een

large, starey eyes.

The barn
called mouse

(Strix flammed) is called hoolet, gilli hoolet, white owl, and screech owl. The tawny owl (Syrmum aluco) is called brown owl,

and Jenny

hoolet.

The

short-eared owl

is

hawk.

HOOLY,

softly, gently.

See HEWLY.

HOOND,

a hound, a dog; a low,


to put the

mean
law

fellow.

HOOND-THE-TYKE,
hoond-trail at

in execution.

HOOND-TRAIL, DOG-TRAIL,
until the last race there in 1853.

a drag hunt. There was a Alwinton Races in Upper Coquetdale each year

HOONY,
HOOSE,

houndy, gaunt, ghostly.


its

a house. Also to house, to put into shelter, but in verbal form always spoken as hooze. See HOUSIN.

HOOSED,

gone within doors into the house. " the clergyman ?" No he mun be koosed."
;

Have you seen

HOOSEN,

houses.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

385

HOOSIVVER, HUSIVVER, however, any way. HOOT! HOOTS! HOWT! HOUT! HUT! HUTS!
expression of impatience.
varied.

an

Sometimes

hoot-toot t

or otherwise

HOOT-OWL.
HOO-TREE,

See HOOLET.
the top framing of a coal waggon.

HOOZLE,
HOPE,

a socket.

See HOUSEL.

a smaller opening branching out from the main dale, to the mountain ranges as the burns branch W. M. Egglestone, out, or are tributaries to the main stream. Weardale Names of Field and Fell, p. 50. The upland part of a mountain valley. The inch ordnance map of Northumberland In gives seventy-three place-names having this termination. the county of Durham forty such occur.

and running up

HOPPELT,
HOPPLE,

hobbled, as the legs of animals when fastened When a person is together to prevent them from straying. See entangled, he invariably says he's "getten happeH."
2.

HOPPER,
HOPPER,

a dancer

one that dances at a country dance.

a large boat or keel used on the Tyne and Wear for carrying out to sea mud and sand dredged from the river beds or refuse material from factories. a seed basket used in sowing corn.

HOPPER,

HOPPER-GAWED,
or handful
is

corn badly sown.

distinctly

marked

it is

When every "cast" termed hopper-gawed.

HOPPIN,

an annual festival, at which shows, roundabouts, and stalls of all descriptions attract the holiday-makers. In Newcastle the Easter hoppin was the most famous. But the hoppin of present day memory was but a relic of a former
greatness.
to hobble, to trot.
to tie the legs of an animal so as to to encumber with anything that hinders the rope, strap, or shackles used in

HOPPLE,
prevent

HOPPLE, HOBBLE,
its

straying
Hopples,

progress. hoppling.

HOR,

her.

386

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
"

HORL,

Where ye gan ti horl to whirl, to wheel, to trundle. Where are you going to trundle your hoops ? ?" yor gords
a wheelbarrow.

HORL-BARRA,

HORN,

Harnham

It occurs in the place-names a corner. or Hornham, and other places.

Wood/wm,
the tip of

HORNEY, HORNEY-TOP,
a cow's horn.
Brockett.

a boy's top

made from

HORNEY,
left

a delusion, a hoax.

"Fair homey"

fair play.

HORNEY- WAYS, "


HORNY-TRAM,
HORSE,

equivalent to the cant phrase of "over the that is, " I believe the statement the homey-ways" meaning that it is a hoax or an imposition.
in a pit, a tram with four or more upright for conveying rails, props, &c.

arms of iron used

the frame with a cross-piece atop, against which cut boards are rested in a timber yard. a portion of the roof or floor of a pit which obtrudes into the coal. Called also a roll and a balk.

HORSEBALK,

HORSE-BAZE,

wonder. According to Halliwell Northumberland word, but see HAZE-GAZE.


[W.-T.]
,

this

is

HORSE-COUPER, HORSE-COAPER
dealer of the tinker kind.

horse

HORSE-DAISY,
pit.

the dog daisy or large white daisy. the

HORSE-FETTLER,
HORSE-GAN,

man who

has care of the horses

in

the circular track for horses threshing machine. See GIN-GAN.

when

driving a

HORSE-HOLE,

at a colliery, an entrance into the shaft, level with the surface, where horses are netted and put in, or landed when drawn out timber and rails are also put in at the same But formerly applied to a passage way hewn out of place. the coal inbye at the flat for the purpose of bringing the horse round from the head of the flat to the outbye end, instead of passing by the side of the tubs as at the present day. John Rowell, in Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, September 12, 1891.
;

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

387

HORSE-HOOF,

the colt's-foot, Tussilago farfara, Linn.

HORSE-KEEPER,
FETTLER.

the person in a pit

who

attends to the

feeding and grooming of the horses and ponies.

See HORSE-

HORSE-LOUSE,
HORSE-MINT,

the wood-louse, church-louse, or millepede.

wild mint, Mentha hirsnta, Linn.

HORSE-NET,
them out

a net for lowering horses into of a mine.

and drawing

HORSE-NOBS, HORSE KNOTS, knap weed. The Centaurea


nigra of the

hedgebanks and meadows, or the Centaurea cyanus, which is an occasional weed in cultivated fields in Coquetdale, Another name for this is &c., and is also grown in gardens.
hard -heeds.
or HORSE-BLOCK, the stone steps formerly set at or near a house door to enable Also called a crupper, or a person to mount on horseback. crupple-styen, and a mount.
(p.p., horten), to hurt.

HORSE-STYEN, HORSIN-STYEN,

HORT,

"He's

horten his heed."

HORTER, HURTER, HORTLE,


HOST.

the shoulder of the axle against which the nave of the wheel knocks. Brockett.
to crouch as in pain.
hurtful.

Compare HIRTLE.

HORTSOME,
HOTCH,

See HOAST and following words.

"Aa fairly hatch* t agyen." to shake with laughter. up, especially to shake lead ore together in a buddle or bucket in the process of washing and sifting it. The bucket containing the ore is suspended from a long lever by which a boy jerks or hatches it in the water.
To shake
swarming.
"Hotchin wi' maggots."

HOTCHIN,

"The

place

is fair hotchin

wi' rabbits."

HOTTER, to jolt or shake up, road. A variant of hatter.

as in a conveyance over a rough

HOTTER

[S.]

to halt in the gait, to

walk lamely.

388

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
swarming.

HOTTERIN,

"The dog
is

wis

fair hotterin o' fleas."

Compare HOTCHIN.

HOTTERY,

jolting. tottering in walking.

"This

a tarrible hottery cairt."

Also

HOT-TROD,
spear and

a wisp of straw or tow mounted on the top of a on fire and carried through the Border country. Its display was the signal for every man to arm and follow the pursuit on the track of a marauder, the "war path" of the Borderers. Compare TROD.
set

HOUGH,

the back of the knee where the hough sinews are. familiar in the common invitation "cruck yor hough," Very equivalent to sit down or bend your legs.

HOUGH, HOGH, hollow. " A hough belly." See How, 3. HOUGH-BAND, a band tied round the hough to prevent
animal straying.
(Obs.)

an

HOUGHEN-MOUGHEN, or HOGHEN-MOGHEN, greedy,


ravenous.
(Obs.)

HOUGHER,

one of the inferior officers, appointed by the Corporation of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. He was called also Whipper and Hougher. "He is called hougher from the power he is said to have had formerly of cutting the houghs, or sinews of the houghs of swine that were found infesting the Brand's History of Newcastle, vol. ii., streets of the town." The hougher was still in 1827 a regular I ?89j p- 365, note. officer of the town with a yearly salary of \. 6s. 8d.

HOUGHLIN, HOUFFLIN, shuffling, limping.


2,

See HOFFLE,

and HAFFLIN.

HOUKA,
p.
1

an aromatic plant (Meum athamanticum) found "on the basaltic ridge a quarter of a mile north of the village of Throckrington." Natural History Transactions, 1867, vol. ii.,
80.

See SPEKNEL.
;

HOULD,
as

hold a variant of had. The word is familiarly used " imperative order equivalent to stop instantly." the use of AAD, OULD, CAAD, and COULD. Compare
the
shattered. In a pit, when a shot has fissured the stone, the cracked and shattered place is said to be
houltered.

HOULTERED,

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

389

HOUSE-BOTE,

an allowance of timber out of the lord's wood to support or repair a tenant's house, And to burn Bailey. in the house. Blackstone in Todd. (Obs.)
is

HOUSEL, HOUZLE, HOOZLE,


shaft

the eye or hole inserted in a hoe or other implement.

where a

HOUSIN,

a capability of holding much, as, "

He has a

good

housin for drink."

HOUT

or

HOUTS
!

See HOOT

HUTS

an exclamation of impatience or and HETS


!

dissent.

HOVE, HOVEN

(p.p. of heave), swollen up. The act of swelling with suppurating secretion is called "beeldin." When the bowels of cattle or sheep are distended the animals are said to be hoven. Bread that is unduly raised by fermentation and

so swelled

up

is

hoven.

HOVE, HOVEN
away.
that
is,

(p.t. and p.p. of heave), threw and thrown "Hoven away" also denotes anything sold too cheap thrown away, given away.

HOVER,
stay,

to wait.

frequentative of Middle English houen (hoven), to tarry, wait, originally to dwell, a verb formed from Anglo-Saxon Prof. Skeat, Concise Etymological Dictionary. hof, a house, a dwelling."

"Hover, English.

HOW, HOW,

a hoe

HOW,

to hoe.

a hollow, a depression. hollow at the back of the neck.

The how

of the neck

is

the

HOW, HOUGH, HOGH, hollow,


It is also

deep; used in conversation. applied to place-names, as in Howstonemouth near Rochester, Howford on the Tyne. Howden similarly appears to be from the same word, hollow dene. How-foor, the lowest open furrow. How-drill, the hollow between two drills in a field. How-backt, sunken in the back. A how or hough belly, a hollow or deep belly.
!

HOW

the reply, interrogative, of " What cheer, hinney ?" " Ki Geordy, how, where are ye gannin'?" Bob Cranky' s 'Size Sunday,
1804.

marra ?" or "How there, lads?" the The emphasis being invariably on the exclamation how. ordinary formula of the salute is "How there, marra ?" with

a salutation. It salutation "How there,

is

used alone, or in the very

common

HOW,

to hurry

away.

3go

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
!

HO WAY

down, is given to the In North Northumberland the call "haway!" farm hands by the woman-steward at starting or yoking time,
so that all the

or quicken its

come away. Howay, in a pit, means lower the cage, movement if it is already being lowered.

women

start together.

HOW-DEE-DOW,

the equivalent of namby-pamby. A girl in described: the lower grade of life apeing gentility is thus oot a reg'lar faw-de*-dow" "She's turn't

HOWDON-PAN-CANT,

an upset, a

tilt

over.

HOWDY, a midwife. HOWDY-HORSE, a


case of emergency.

pit

horse kept on the surface for use in

HOWDY-MAW,
corf.

G loss,

to

the conclusion of the day's labour; the last Pitman's Pay, 1843.

HOWF,
man.

the hock of an animal, the lower part of the thigh in See HOUGH.
a meeting place for converse or gossip.

HOWF,
How,

HOW-FOOR,
3.

hollow furrow, the track of the plough.

See

HOWFSENNEN,
part of the thigh.

the hock sinew, the sinew of the lower back

HOW-HOW,
STROW.

equivalent to a charwoman.

Compare How-

HOWK,
It
is

an excavation.

"

What

a howk they've

myed

there."

also used for the dint or impression caused

by a heavy

blow.

HOWK

[N.,

excavate. anunder't

" Are ye on howkin taties ?" ye'll fetch the waal doon."

S.,

and T.]

HOAK

[W.-T.]

to dig up, to " If ye howk mair


,

HOWKS,

or

HAAKS,

a disease of the eye.


to a pitman,

See HAAK.

HOWKY,
hewer.

a cant

name given

meaning a digger or
an empty

HOWL,
belly.

empty.

"Howl

kite" or

" howl keslop"

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

39!
that
is,

HOWL-O'-WOUNTER,
mid-winter.

the hollow or lap of winter

HOWM,
is

a depression, a hollow.

Compare How,

2.

HOWSTICAAD,
your what d'ye

" extended, is How is't ye caa'd ?" The word the correct name of anything has slipped interpolated when " the memory. " Bring us yor howsticaad means " Bring me
call it."

HOWSTROW, HOG'S-TROU,
a chaotic
litter.

a confusion, an untidy scene,


is hogstrou,

At Winlaton the word


"

which

appears to point to a pig-trough as the origin of the term.

HOWTHERY,
kind
o'

untidy, slovenly.

She myeks oney a howthevy


essence
of

wife."

HOWTHERY-TOWTHERY,
topsy-turvy.

the

untidiness,

HOWTS, "

howts shaff

an expression of impatience. "


is

Sometimes the form

heard.

HOXTER,
HOY,

one given to hoaxing people.

An

impostor.
is

to throw, to stone.

heave up.

To

hoy a stone

to

throw a

HOYT,

a lazy fellow.
riotous

See HOIT.
Bvockett.

HOYTIN,

and noisy mirth.

HUBLYSHEW, HUBLYSHOO,
disorderly persons.
"

tumult,

crowd of

Hobleshof, a great confusion."

Halliwell.

HUCK
bush.

(the strong p.t. of howk), dug.

"He

huck

up the rose

HUD, HOOD,
HUD,

the "hob" or the shelf at each side of a " on which pans and kettles can be placed when on fireplace the boil." They are allowed to simmer on the hud.
a lime-hod.
[N.]
,

HUDDLE
F

a hurdle.

HUDDOCK, HUDDICK,

the cabin in a keel.

3Q2

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
the widgeon,

HUE,

Manca

Penelope.

HUEL, HU-WUL, HYUL,


nut, of grain, or of a pea.

the hull, outer skin or shell of a A pea-te/ or pea-swad is a

pea-pod.

See HULL.
person,
in a

HUEL, HEUL, HEWL, HEWEL, an out-of-the-way


one that acts

headstrong and extraordinary manner.

Compare HEWLISH.

HUEL,

a delicate or ailing person, especially one who is An expostulation to one nervously morbid or "hipped." " Had talking too freely in presence of an invalid is yor he's nobbut a huel" tongue
:

HUELLY,
like

delicate, sickly

hence of a complaining character,

an invalid.
to affront, to offend.
old sense
is

HUFF,
"

The

to puff,

hu/at draughts simply means


the piece removed."

hence to bluster, vapour. To it was customary to blow to blow' upon Professor Skeat, Concise Etymological Dictionary.

blow hard
'

huff

is still

accompanied by a puff on the piece

HUG,

to carry with laboured effort. The term is applied to the action requiring a strong embrace, as in carrying a box or other heavy weight.

HUGGER,

a line of cleavage in coal, a


vast,
is

"back" or

"cleat."

HUGIOUS, prodigious, HULE. To play hule

enormous.

to injure, to disorganise.

played hule wi' the hyel consarn arrangements. Compare HUEL, 2.

"he

has upset

all

" He's the

HULE,

a husk or pod.

See HUEL,

i.

HULE-DOO, HE-YUL-DOO, YULL-DOO,

a gingerbread or dough, rolled out flat, and cut arms, and body. The arms are laid as if the in front, and two eyes made of currants are

figure

made in

out with head,


inserted.

hands touched See

HYUL-DOO.

HULK
HULL,
"A

[W.-T.]

Middle English hulke, Anglo-Saxon distinct from hulk, a heavy ship.

a cottage or small house. The word is from hulc, a hovel, and is quite

a crib in which animals are fattened.


hull."

"A

swine

hull."

duck

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

393
case, to shell.

HULL, HYUL,
"She's
hyullin'

to

the peas."

remove the hull or outer See HUEL, i.

HULLER, HOLLER
"A
greet huller"

[N.], to heap on indiscriminately. a large quantity.

HULLY,

and crabs

the perforated box in which fishermen keep lobsters in a live state.

HUMEL, HOMIL,

In breaking to break off, to break down. stones for macadamised roads, to humel means to break the lumps into smaller sizes preparatory to their being made Humlin barley the requisite size by a smaller hammer. is breaking off the awns, or horns, with a flail or other instrument. See HUMELER.
a contrivance used

HUMELER, HUMLER, HUMBLER,


for taking the

awns

off barley.

HUMELER-MEL, HUMBLER-MELL,
for

wooden mallet

breaking clods.

HUMELIN-HAMMER,
HUMELT,
broken
"

a heavy hammer used in stonebreaking to break the stones down before the small roadmetal hammer is used.

broken small applied to stones which have been time prior to their being napped into the diamonds used for road metal.
for the first

Humeldor

homilt, is hornless; without horns."

Hodgson MS.

HUMLICK, HOMLECK, HUMLEEK,


common hemlock

and

WHUMLICK,

(Conium mactilatum) or any of the hollowstemmed umbelliferce. The sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata, Linn.) is called sweet humlick. It was formerly cultivated among the
simples in old gardens.

HUMMA

[N.]

a pinch, a very small quantity.

HUMMING,

strong, heady.
"

An

earthen pot with humming beer


little

Stood on a

table near."
Colliers Wedding, 1735.

Ed. Chicken, The

HUMP,

" He's the temper. getten his hump up has got his temper roused.
[N.]
,

"that

is,

he

HUMPH
backed.

hump

a bad smell.

Humphy-backeet, hump-

394

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
[N.], stinking.
is

HUMPHY
HUND,
his

A shepherd to hound on, to encourage. dog when he directs it. See HOOND.
flail.

said to hund

HUNDEN,
of a

the leather straps or thongs joining the two sticks See HEUDIN. (Obsolescent.)

HUNDER, to hinder. HUNDRED-LEAVED GRASS, the


millefolium, Linn.
It is also

yarrow or milfoil, Achillea called thousand -leaved clover and

wild pepper.

HUNDRED-FALD,

the yellow bedstraw, Galium verum.

HUNK, a large, mis-shapen piece. " A hunk o' breed." HUNKERED, elbowed, bowed, crooked. Brockett. HUNKERS, haunches. HUNTLANDS, hunting grounds.
grants.

huntlands of Tindale are often spoken of in ancient deeds and large proportion of these lands are Huntlands to this day, as far as regards grouse and black game ; but goodly flocks of Cheviot sheep have replaced the red deer and roe that formerly tenanted these wastes."

"

The

Dr. Charlton, North Tynedale, 1871, second edition, p. 15.

HUNTSUP,

an old pipe tune.

HUP

[N.], the call to a horse in driving, equivalent to right turn. Wo-hup is used when it is necessary to stop and then turn to the right, as in ploughing. Heit, hye. heck, and hup are all terms of identical meaning. Hup-howay! is a common drover's cry in urging on his cattle.

HURCHIN, HURCHEON, the hedgehog. HURDIES, the loins, the buttocks. HURDY, a mischievous or abandoned person. HURL. SeeHoRL.

HURPETH,

at Hartburn, one of the names for the Roman road which branches from Watling-street, called at various parts of its track Devil's Caasey, Cobb's Causey, Hurpath, Kemmell's or GammelPs path. See HAR.

HURROCK,

a pile of loose stones, a loose material. Compare RUCKLE.

heap of rubbish or other

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

395

HURRY-BURRY, hurly-burly, noise, confusion. HURST, a copse or thicket. See HIRST.

HURTEN, HORTEN,
HUSBAND-LAND.

various expressions, as " He's hurten his hand," " sleep, me heed wis horten that badly."

injured.

The p.p.

of hurt, but used in Aa couldn't

The husbands of land, mentioned so frequently in deeds respecting Northumberland, contained twenty acres, and at times twenty-four or thirty.
a great rush of water. This is produced artificially districts so as to bare the surface of the rock in order to discover indications of ore in the face of a hill side.
in

HUSH,

mining

HUSH,

great plenty.
strange,
is

HUSSELY-FARRANT,
looking.
" Hustle -j'arrant,

ill

put together, uncommonJamieson.

one who

clothed in a tattered garb."

HUT,
HUT,

a heap. A muck hut is a heap of manure. " a heap of turnips. turnips


to pile in heaps.

"

hut of

"

Wor

busy

huttin

wor tormits."

HUTCH,
town

an ark or treasure chest, specially applied to the town treasure chest, which was called " the toon hutch."
" In 1713, there
s treasury."

remained a balance of 2,152. 133. od. in the Hutch or Mackenzie's History of Newcastle, 1827, p. 641.

At Morpeth " each of the aldermen keeps a key of the town's or corporation's hutch or box, on which there are seven different locks, and in which box is contained all the cash, books, papers, and records belonging to the borough, so that without the consent of the seven aldermen
this

box can never be opened."


l-

Mackenzie's History of
office.

Northumberland, 1825, v

ij-'

P- I 93> note.

The Morpeth

hutch

now

stands in the town clerk's

HUTHER,
HUT-ON,

whether.

to keep on a peevish, continuous complaining.

HUTS

an exclamation of impatience.

See HOOT, HOWTS.

HUTTEN,
chance
is
ti

the p.p. of hit. " He'd fatten him afore he'd ony fend." Hut is used as an occasional p.t., but hat "He hat him fair atwix the ees." the common form.

396

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

HUTTOCK,

a pile of corn sheaves, made of twelve sheaves, ten of which are set upright, two and two together, whilst two are laid on the top as hood or covering sheaves. A stook consists of twelve or more upright sheaves and two hood sheaves.
a hoof.
(it),

HUVE,
HUZ,

Like the aspirate in hit us. It is in survival of an ancient form.

common

huz represents the constant use.

HUZZY,

It is a mistake to say that a woman of any age. It is only this when a qualifying huzzy is a term of reproach. " An ill-demised " huzzy" A bad adjective makes it so, as is housewife, and huzzy the short pronunciation huzzy" Huzif of the word housewife.

HWICK,

The word illustrates the change from quick, alive. the initial k sound heard in quick to the aspirated softer sound of hw. " A Northumbrian countryman still deems it necessary to call a thorn hedge a which (i.e. quick) hedge by way of " distinction from a stockade or dead hedge. Bates, Border
the

Holds, p. 224, n.

HWICKENS, QUICKENS,
creeping grass and the out of the soil.

underground

many weeds which

stems of a farmer clears

HWICKS,

quicks,
a

young sprouting hedge


;

plants.
It
is

HWOLE,

hole

HWOLEY,

holey.

difficult

in

ordinary spelling to convey the sound of these words. The aspirate is much prolonged and the sound becomes something like hoo-wul.

HYE,
"

a call to horses, meaning "left turn." Wo-hye means left turn," the opposite direction to wo-hup or wo-gee, which means " stop right turn."
stop
! !

HYELL
HYELL,

[T.]

whole.
coal, as distinguished

whole

from coal that has been

partly worked.

HYEM,

home.

"

Gan away

hyem,

ma man."

HYEMLY,

homely.

HYEMMELT,

tame looking.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

397

HYEMS,
at the

the two pieces of crooked wood or bent iron hinged bottom and held together with a strap atop. They are passed round the collar of a horse, and are furnished with an eye in each side to which are attached the chains to draw the load. See HAMESTICKS.

HYEMSPUN,
HYEST,
haste.

homespun.

HYUK,
angle
;

a hook, also a sickle. "cruck" is bent to a right a hyuk is bent round like a loop. See HEYUK.

HYUL,

a hull or casing.

See HUEL,

i,

and HULL,

2.

HYUL-DOO,

a figure made of gingerbread. This word is sometimes spelt yule-dough, and is described as a "Christinas cake," or rather a little image of paste studded with currants and baked for children at this season of the year.
to

HYUP,
I',

hoop a cask.

used before a consonant. Before a vowel it becomes iv. f the warld are ye gannin ? Aa's iv a horry, ye see." See also the usage ofwi, wiv, he hev,gi' give, bi, biv, fre, See frev, ti, tiv, where the same rule of speech is observable. IN iv and Iv.
in
;

"

Where

ICCLE, IKIL, an

icicle.

See ICESHOGGLE.

ICE-CREEPER,

a contrivance fixed below the instep of a It is made boot, for walking securely in slippery weather. of a single piece of sheet iron, two pieces of which are turned up at the sides to form ears, whilst four points are turned down so as to touch and grip the surface of the ice below the

foot.

in

This little contrivance has long been made and worn Winlaton.

" Shod with this little article the most timorous pedestrian might almost walk down an iceberg." Newcastle Daily Chronicle, December 29,
1886.

ICESHOGGLE,
IDLE,
immoral.

an
"

icicle

An

idle

huzzy."

IDLENESS,
IFFY,

wantonness, wickedness.

the shortened form of the Christian

name Euphemia.

398

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

ILK, ILKA,

each, every. Chiefly now used in N. Northumberland and Redesdale. Ilk and ilka are sometimes regarded as but they are frequently heard South specially Scottish forms, Nor have they been introduced by Scottish of the Tweed. form wkilk, common immigrants, for they appear, like the throughout the kingdom of Northumbria in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The Pricke of Conscience, written by Richard Rolle, of Hampole, near Doncaster, some few years before A.D. 1349, contains examples of both ilk and whilk.
disease. diseases common

ILL, a

The "milk ill" and the "quarter ill " are " among sheep. The loupin ill" is a curious
and

disease which attacks sheep, pigs, and other animals, causes them to leap up and stagger.

ILL-DEMISED,
ILL-FYECED,

malevolent.

of evil countenance.
dissatisfied at or with

ILL-HUNG-ON,

any occurrence.

ILL-THROVEN, ILL-THRUVEN,

any living creature whatever having an unhealthy or evil appearance. It is a common term of contempt. " He's an awd ill-throvjn thief." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay.
peevish, bad tempered.
unwilling.

ILL -TWINED,

ILL-WULLANT,
IMP,
sense.

a mischievous child. Used invariably in a scolding "What are ye dein, ye little imp?" The word

originally a child."

meant "a

(Wedgwood.) The old sense of something grafted on survives in " Imp, an addition to a beehive " (Brockett) and in " Imp, one length of hair twisted, as forming part of a Whether will ye put five or six hairs in the as, fishing line
'

scion, shoot, graft, figuratively offspring,

imp?'"

IMPARFIT,

untidy woman.

imperfect, but always used to denote a dirty,

IMPRUVE-UPON,

to

approve

of.

-IN, the usual printed termination of the present participle of verbs. In Central Northumberland the sound is een in other parts it is a mere n sound preceded by a short sharp e or a. The termination ing for the present participle is never heard.
;

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
Thus we have
;

3QQ

find'w, for finding hit'w, for hitting;

biudeen and bindX for binding fmdeen and sitt^w and sitt'w, for sitting hitt^w and and so on. The Anglo-Saxon form was
; ;
;

thus bindend-e, binding. This in Northern Middle English (thirteenth to fifteenth centuries) became and thus bindand The form was afterwards (about A.D. 1300) corrupted into ing-e, the Modern English ing, as heard in binding. (See
end-e
;

Prof. Skeat's Principles of English Etymology, p. 250.) The participial termination and was still found in the sixteenth It will be thus seen that our and seventeenth centuries. forms een and an or are survivals of the archaic form of the
'

participle.
" The sound of ing is absolutely never heard in the popular Northumbrian, except in accented syllables, such as bring, king, ring making is instinctively pronounced makan or makun." Ralph Carr,
:

the Present Participle in the Northumbrian Dialect, in Bwks. Naturalists' Club, vol. iv., 1856-62, p. 364.

On

the History of the

"

His glittered armour shined

far

away."
I.,

Spenser, Faerie Queen, Bk.

canto

vii.,

29.

IN, a meadow by the water

side.

See INGE.

IN AA,
is

also, too.

"Him

the

common sound

an' his brother wis there in aa." In of the abbreviation of and. See AN' AA.

INATWEEN,
the barn."

between.

" Ye'll find

him

inatween the cairt an'

IN-BYE, INBYESIDE, within. In the workings of a way inward from the shaft. A common inquiry at
door
afar
is
>

pit,

any

house.
off.

"Is thee fether in-by hinney ?" that is, In-by also means near, as distinguished from "oot-by," In the fields a man "oot-by" is a way off, and in-by

a house within the

he

is

about the premises.

An

in-by is also

an inner room.

INCENSE,
way

to cause to understand.

See INSENSE.
rolley-

INCLINE, INCLINE-BANK,
or on an

an inclined plane on a underground roadway.


;

INCOME,

an ulcer something that has come in from an outside cause as distinguished trom a "gathering" caused by internal bad blood, which is called "bred-venom." Compare

BRED-VENOM.

INCOMING,

coming next

in order.

"

The

incoming week."

INCOURISH,

to encourage.

400

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
addicted.

INDICTED,

INFANGENTHEOF, INFANGTHEFE,
judgment upon any
utfangthefe

a privilege to pass

committed within the jurisdiction of the lords of certain manours by their own servants, as
theft

signify'd

the

like

liberty

when

theft

was

committed by a stranger. Compare FANG. (Obs.)

Moderne World of Words, 1696.

ING.
is

in place names, and in Northumberland it by ham or the prevalent ton, as in Walh'wgton, Where the place takes Bavington, Ovingham, Belhwgham. " son of." its name from a family the affix ing means topping means the son of Eoppa, and Oving the son of Offa, and thus so on. Twenty-six places in Northumberland end in ing, twelve in ingham, and forty-eight in ington. J. V. Gregory, The numerous ingions Archaologia JEliana, vol. ix., p. 66. and inghams of Northumberland may have been imported in Further comparison their present form by Anglian settlers. See with Continental place-names is much to be desired.

This occurs

often followed

also INGE.

INGANNIN,
wor entry."

ingoing.

"

He

fell

doon

just at the ingannin o'

INGATE,
at the

the

way

in

specially applied to the


;

way into

mine

bottom of a shaft, or at any point in a shaft where the cages are stopped to enter a seam or to the way by which the air enters the workings of a pit.

INGE, ING,
(anciently

a meadow or pasture. In place-names, Ingo Inghou) Angertou, in Hartburn, Angerton, in Blenkinsopp, and Ingram are conjectured to belong to the
root.

same

INGRAM,

ignorant.

humorous perversion

of the word.

INGRATSOW,

ungrateful.

INGRINDEET,

ingrained; as

when

fixed in the pores of the skin from cleanliness.

particles of dirt become work or from neglect of

INHARIST,
IN

to enhance, to increase in cost or price.

HIM (pronounced in 'im). There is a very curious old saying current, "It's in 'im 'at ails him" something within him that ails him, some mental or occult trouble that is going
on.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

40!

IN

IV,

in.

"

Yor

in iv a greet horry."
Still in

INKHORN,

an ink-bottle. an

general use.

INKLE, INCLE,

inferior kind of tape.

INK-STANDISH,

(Halliwell as ink-standage.) as standish in the church books of St. " Paid for a bottle for Nicholas', Newcastle, where the entry, the standish" occurs. See STANDISH.

an ink-stand.

The word appears

INLUTE,
INSENSE,
INSIGHT,
"

wooden bar

in a boat.

See INWIVER.

to drive an

argument or persuasion into a person.

household goods. Lord of Mangarton complains against Cuddie Taylor, and others, for two hundred kine and oxen, insight 20 sterling." W. Hutton, History of
Wall, 1802, p. 74.

Roman

INSPRESS
common

In [N.J, household goods, linen, furniture. use at Spital, more particularly amongst old people. Compare INSIGHT.
the entry from one mining royalty into another.

IN STROKE,

INSTROKE-RENT,

a rent charged by the lessor of a royalty whose pit is in another royalty to break the barrier between the two.
for allowing a lessee

INTAK,
intaks,

land taken

in.

The Town Moor

at

where portions of the land are fenced

Newcastle has in and let for

stated periods.

In mining, the ingoing airway.

INTAKERS.
and so
sort of Thieves heretofore frequent on the Borders of Scotland, call'd from their being the Receivers of such Pillage or Booty as their Accomplices, nam'd Out-partners, us'd to bring in." The Moderne World of Words, 1696, ed. 1706.

"A

INTI, INTIV, into. The vowel or a mute aspirate.

v is

used when the word precedes Compare INTIL.


oot
o'

INTID,

into

it.

"Are ye comin

the hoose or gan intid?"

INTIL, into. " Put them in till a poke." The use of this, like the use of other particles, is decided by euphony. See INTI.

INTI-THE-HOOSE,

the upstroke of a

pumping engine.

4 02

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
into.

INTIV,

Used when the next word begins with a vowe


under, below.

See INTI, INTIL.

INUNDER,

See ANUNDER.
a bar of

INWIVER, IN WAVER,
the inwivev.

for the seats or thofts to rest

wood put inside of a cob Within recollectic upon. no fishing boat was without a "holey-stone" suspended fro]
" cat-heads." nodules of iron, or

IRON-BALLS,
IRONS,
spurs.

IRONSTONE-BALLS.

See IRON-BALLS.
"

IS, used as the first person singular of the verb. am. " Is aa reet, or is aa not ?" 's

Aa

"
is
<

"I

ISBIL,

Isabella.

ISCA

ISCA

a Northumbrian shepherd's call to his dog.-

Brockett.

IS'T, is it. Is't is used in the strong "affirmative sense thus" Is't fower o'clock yes, indeed it is. yit ?" "Aye is't

IS TA, art thou. Used only in addressing a person young< than the speaker or one most intimate.

ISTEED,
IT, or

instead, in place of.


(or,
is

AT

as a

final,

or d only), that.
it

It is

used when

assertion

repeated, to give yormuthor; it will aa."

increased force, as -'Aa'l


"

te

IT, the person in a game who is in or has the innings. you're it (or hit)] gan on wi' ye." See HIT.

No

IV, in; used before a vowel. See word beginning with a consonant.

I',

which

is

used before

IVIN, the North-country name

for ivy.

See HIVIN.
L.

IVY OWL,

the tawny owl, Symium Jenny -hoolet and wood owl.


ivy bush.

aluco,

Known

also

IVY-TOD, an
IZLE,

a live ember of wood.

The embers

of a fire.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS

403

IZZARD,
JAA,

the letter

z.

JAW,

wave

or a breaker.

JAA, the jaw.


JAA,
talk, conversation,

impertinent talk.

JAABATION,
JAA-BLADES,

a jobation, a rigmarole and scolding discourse.

the jaws, the chafts.


a long and high-sounding word.

JAA-BREAKER,

JAAK
JAAP

or

JACK,

the jackdaw, Corvus momdula.

Called also

jack-cvaa

and jack-jaa.
,
,

[S. and T.] JAUP [N.], JAIP, JOPE [W.-T.] to smash by a sudden blow, as when two eggs are knocked The word occurs in old writing as jaip. Compare together.
"I'll garr thy harns jaip again" ("beat out all thy brains," in the margin). G. Stuart, Joco-Senous Discourse, 1686, p. 44.

JAP, JAUP.

JAB, a sharp

thrust, a prick, or peck.


for sinking.

JACK, an old name used when gins were doubled Where two were in use together, one of them,
mistakes,

to prevent

was usually

called a jack.

JACK,

riding coat.

iron plates within a occurs frequently in the Musters for Newcastle and Northumberland in 1539, &c.

a coat of armour

made by sewing

The word

JACK,

a jackdaw. See JAAK.

Sometimes

called a jack-jaa or jack-cvaa.

JACK-A-LEGS,
century ago.
"

a large, single-bladed clasp-knife, generally with a broad and square-ended blade. These formidable knives were much in vogue among Tyneside keelmen half a
Jack-a-legs, a large knife

pocket.

with a joint, so as to be carried in the Generally supposed to have obtained this name from Jacques
Brockett.

a Liege, a famous Flemish cutler."

JACKALALLY,
rope
rolls

a foolish person.

JACKANYEPS, JACKANAPES,

small rollers between the


pit

and pulleys of a whim on which a

rope runs.

404

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

JACK-AT-THE-WAT,
JACK-BAAL,
a boys'
flog

or small bag of a pig's intestines.

JACKET-THE-WAT
Compare JAWDY.
" rounders."

[N.],

the

game resembling

JACKET,

to

or thrash.

"A

good jacketing"

a sound

thrashing.

JACK-JAA,

a jackdaw. the

See JAAK.
of "follow

JACK-MAN,
It is

game

my

leader."

JACK-NECK,

the top or ridge tile of a sandstone roofing slate. a squared slate about fifteen inches deep by eight inches wide, with a deep notch cut on each side near the upper end. each side of the roof Jack-necks are arranged alternately on ridge, laid on with each notch fitting into its neighbour, and so cut in size that, when fitted close, they form a continuous The self-supporting ridge with a cock's comb-like apex. Rev. W. Featherstonhaugh, Proceedings of Newcastle Society of

Antiquaries, vol. v., p. 98.

JACK

O' LATTIN, a bright spot of reflected light, such as is " " produced by a small mirror or a tin or lattin reflector. It is played by boys as a practical joke to startle the passer-by.
a winch, consisting of a cylinder

JACK-ROLL, JACK-ROWL,
of

wood with a handle at each end, such as is seen in old draw wells. It is used in shallow shafts for winding and in other places where hand power only is available.
the rope used on a jack-roll.
or

JACK-ROLL ROPE,

JACK-RUN-THE-DYKE,
goose grass, Galium aparine.

ROBIN-RUN-THE-DYKE,

JACKS,

large fissures or cracks in the roof of a mine.

JACK-SNIPE,
It is

a small snipe.

JACK-STRIKE-UP- A-LIGHT,

a boys' game, played at night. a kind of nocturnal " fox and hounds." The " fox," after getting away, strikes a light, generally with flint and steel, at short intervals, and the chase is continued until the " fox " is
a worn-out horse, a useless

captured.

JADE,
JAG,

woman.
JAB.

to prick, to peck.

Compare

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

405

JAG,

a small watery blush.

See

WATER

JAG.

a goad used for urging on a donkey. J AGGER, now. Also a staff with an iron prong used for See also STEEKER.

Seldom seen
lifting turnips.

JAGGER-GALLOWAY,
carrying lead, &c.
smelting mill."
Grose.

a pony with a peculiar saddle for (Obs.) "The Derbyshire jagger is one who carries ore from the mine to the
Brockett.

JAIBLE,
JAIP,

to shake

water to and

fro in a vessel.

Brockett.

to dash, to smash.

See JAAP.

JAISTERIN,

swaggering, gesturing, gesticulating.


the jambs of a doorway or of a fireplace.

JAMB-STYENS,
JANIC,
JAP,
fair,

honest, genuine.
Japeet
[N.]
,

See JENICK.
spotted all over with any wet JAAP, JAUP, and JAA, i.
"

to splash.

adhesive substance.

Compare

JAP

[N.]

the strong jU. of jump.


;

He jap

the burn."
in long grass after

JARBLE,
dew

to wet, to bedew or rain. Brockett.

as

by walking

JAR-HANDLES,
ears.

a colloquial

name

for

large or prominent

JAR- WOMAN, an
of

occasional assistant in the kitchen

a sort

charwoman.

Brockett.

JASAY, JASEY,
or ja-say.
jazey.

wusset or wusted, but

Worsted was always pronounced better known by the name oljasey worsted wig was formerly called, for brevity, a
worsted.
it

was

JASAY-NEET-CAP, JASEY

NET

CAP,

a knitted cap

made

of worsted material, not unlike the conventional smuggler's cap.

JAUNIS, JENIS

[N.], JAANIS [T.] In early literary forms of the jaundice. iaunis, the d being excrescent.
,

JONAS
word
it

[W.-T.] occurs as
,

JAUP

adhering to any article. A spurt of water. "The sound of water agitated in a narrow or irregular vessel."

[N.]

a splash or smut of

mud

or dirt of

any kind
Brockett.

406

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to

JAUP,
JAAP,

move

liquid irregularly, to splash.

Compare

JAA,

i,

and JAP.

JAVEL,

a gaol. The term is obsolete in colloquial language, but survives in the " Javel Group," the name of the lane or watering place between the Close and the river at Newcastle.

JAWDY,

the first stomach of an animal. The "chawdron" used by Shakspeare in the witches' scene in Macbeth may be synonymous. The term is applied to the edible entrails of

the pig, ox, and sheep, especially to the large bag of a pig.

Compare JACK-AT-THE-WAT.

JAY-LEGGED,
bent-legged.

small or feeble in the legs.

Query,

for jee, or

JAY-PIOT,

the jay, Garrulus glandavius.

magpie

is

called a

piot or planet.

JEAT, JEAD, JIT,


GEAT, JET.

cannel coal, bituminous shale,

jet.

See

JEE,

stop

the word to a horse, meaning turn to the right. turn right.


;

Jee-wo

JEE, JEE-Y,

bent, atwist, crooked, disorganised.

JEEBAL, JIBBLE,

or GEEBAL, a sickle mounted on the end of a pole, and used in fields as a "thristle cutter" for cutting down thistles. See GEEBALL.

JEELYCO,
JEEPS,

the

wood

angelica, Angelica

sylvestris,

L.

Called

also ground-ash.

a severe beating
a
joist.

a sound thrashing.

Brockett.

JEEST, JEEST,

just, nearly, close.

JEMMISEES,

hinges. Jimmies is still the term applied to a pair of hand-cuffs, which are hinged to admit, and then close round, the wrists.

JENICK, JENIC, JANNOCK, JANIC,

genuine, honest.

JENK,

to jink, to play a tune smartly, to rollick.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

407
;

JEN KIN,

a passage driven in a pillar of coal or a slice taken A loose-jenkin is a similar place driven along the side of a pillar, and open to the bord along that side. To The attenuated jenkin means to reduce the size of a pillar. " stook " pillar thus left is called a
off a pillar.

JENNY-CUT-THROAT, JENNY-CUT-THROATER,
whitethroat, Curruca
cinerea.

cut-throat, lady -lint-white,

the variously called white-kitty, and what-e-whey-bird, or whushie-whey


It is

beard (hear the Border).

"This

is

the

distributed."

commonest of our warblers, and is very generally John Hancock, Birds of Northumberland and Durham, p. 72.
a flounder.
glacialis,

JENNY-FLUCKER,
JENNY-FOSTER,

the long-tailed duck, Harelda

L.

JENNY-HOOLET,
JENNYPER-BUS
GlNIFER, JlNIFER.
insect
orelaela,

the tawny owl. Hoolet, only, is most frequently heard in North Northumberland, where the prefix Jenny is not common.
[N.]
,

the juniper, Juniperus communis.

See

JENNY-SPINNER,
called

or

LANG-LEGGED TYELEOR,
the

the

L.

daddy-long-legs or Harry-long-legs, Jenny -spinner, a teetotum.


will-o'-the-wisp.

Tipula

JENNY-WI'-THE-LANTERN,
called Kitty -wi -the -wisp.
1

Also

JENNY-WREN, JENNY-RAIN,
JESP
,

the wren, Troglodytes parvulus.

See KITTY-WREN and KITTY-MA-RAIN.


[N.] a gap, hole, or flaw in a texture. signs of wear are also termed jesps.

Spots of dirt and

JETHART LA A,
afterwards.

Jedburgh justice that is, hang first, try Elsewhere similar expressions prevail, as at

Lydford

" First hang and draw, Then hear the cause by Lydford law ! "

And
The

at Halifax

" Lidford law

expression,
like
is

despatch of justice in criminal causes in those parts." Words, 1696.

(from Lidford, a town in Cornwall), a proverbial signifying to hang men first, and judge them afterwards said of Halifax in Yorkshire, probably from the quick
;

Moderne World of

408

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to

TEW,

but always used in the appear sensible of pain, " He never an animal indicates jewed it." When negative. The phrase in any member it is said to "mean" it. pain " " He niver is used when after any heavy trial or jewed it or when after heavy bodily grief a person remains undaunted,
fatigue a person
is still fresh.

JEWKRY-PAWKRY,
PAWKRY.

underhand

dealing.

See

JOOKERY-

JEW-LIMESTONE,
sill

in the lead-mining district. stone.

a bed of limestone lying below the whin Query, dhu, or black, lime-

JIGGER,

applied as a cant phrase to an out-of-the-way person.


,

JIGOT

[N.]

a leg of mutton.

JIMCRANK,
JIMMER,

a cranky contrivance or loose-jointed machine.

See GIMCRANK,
a pair of hinges.

See JEMMISEES.

JIMMER, GIMMER,
JIMMIES,
JINIFER,
hand-cuffs.

one of the pairs of a forked branch.

See JEMMISEES.

juniper, Juniperus communis,


Jenipev barry

L.

North Northumberland the form

is jeniper.

See GINIFER. In Jeniper bus

juniper bush.

juniper berry.
of

JINK, a slip, an when struck.


JINK,
to clink.

escape. "

The sound

any metallic substance

They jinked

thor glasses."

JIRBLE,
JIRT
JIRT,
[N.]

to jumble.
,

Halliwell's Diet.

See JAIBLE.

dram

or small quantity of drink.

to jerk.

See JORT.
,

JIT

[S.

jit"

and T.] jet; also a coarse cannel coal. "Black as In general use. In North Northumberland jeet, geat.

JOB,

to thrust with a stab, as when a sudden stroke with a sharp instrument is given. Compare JAB.

JOCK AND JOCK'S MAN, " follow my leader."

a children's game, generally called

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

409

JOGGLE,

a "shake" or Z-shaped crease made in any flat surface, especially in a bar of iron where it is required to make the bar fit close upon a surface. This is seen where a flat bar or an angle bar is made to fit the surface of over-

lapping plates.

The overlap makes


is

a step, and the bend

made

to

fit

the step

called a joggle.

JOHNEE-DORIES,

the fish

known
See

as pout and sooter.

JOHNNY JACKSON'S DAY.


JOIT, a sudden
stop.
,

GWONNY

JOKESANE'S DAY.

Halliwell's Diet.

But see JORT.

JONAS

[W.-T.]

jaundice.

See JAUNIS.

JOOK, JOUK, to duck one's head so as to avoid a blow. An old woman gave her son, who had joined the army, much wise
council as to his conduct and general behaviour and added, "When thoo sees a cannon baal coming, jook, Jimmy, jook."
;

See JOWK and DOOK.

JOOK,

to overreach, to deceive.

JOOKERY-PAWKRY,
to mystify or mislead.

hocus-pocus, humbug, something used

JOPE

[W.-T.] to clash together, as paste eggs are struck in the endeavour to find out the harder one. See JAAP, JAUP.
,

JORT, JIRT,

to jerk.
fall

JOUKINS,

grains which

from the sheaves in carrying them

into the barn to be threshed. of the carriers of the sheaves.

The joukins are Compare JOOK,

the perquisite
i.

JOWEL,
JOWL,

a small rippling wave.


;

to strike two substances together especially to strike the wall of a coal-pit by way of signal. It is used to ascertain the relative positions of one working party by another. Imprisoned pitmen, after an accident in a colliery, are heard jowlin to indicate their position to the relief party.

JOWLIN,

the cracking, rending sound heard are removed from a mine working.
the jaws.

when

the props

JOWLS,

Compare CHAFFS.

4IO

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
dubious.
is

JUBUS, JUVUS,
JUD,

the portion of coal at which the hewer down. nicked, and ready to be brought
to butt as a sheep.
Brockett.

working, kirved,

JUDD,
other.

or more JUD-NUT, JUDDY-NUT, two dud-nut.

Brockett gives this as

nuts united to each See ST. JOHN and

ST. MARY.

JUG,

to

roost on the go to rest; as partridges when they


Brockett.

ground."

JUMLY,

applied to a liquid " disturbed. Jumly coffee."

where

sediment has been

JUMLY-BED,

or undulates to the tread. See also SHOG-BOG.


;

a soft bed of peaty moss or bog, which jumbles Joggle-bog has the same meaning.

JUMP,

to agree in conclusion. to meet with has been made, the parties are said to jump

When
if

a bargain

their reckoning

agrees.

JUMP,
its

to jerk a hot bar of iron on an anvil, so as to increase thickness by repeated blows, or jumps made by knocking the bar itself against the face of the anvil. Or to drill a hole with a heavy drilling tool having a chisel point. It is raised, or jumped up, and allowed to descend with its own weight.

JUMPER,
the

a long drilling rod worked by hand. found in cheese and bacon are called jumpers.

name

The maggots Jumper is also

of a short jacket.

JUNK,
pool.

a sheer descent or precipitous drop in the bed of a river ; is formed by the edge of a line of rocks where the gradual slope suddenly drops down as a step, making a deep

such as

See CANCH.
a basket for catching fish.
to

JUNKET,
JUSTIFY,
a

execute.

On

the Borders the execution of


led
to

rough
"

and ready

justice

somewhat summary

proceedings.
or executed on the spot."

Robert Robson was at once and for the terrifying of others justified, Dr. Charlton, North Tynedale, p. 42.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
JYE, AJYE, wry and awry
JYE,
to turn aside.
"
,

4!

crooked.

Aa cannaj^ me

neck,

it's

that

stiff."

Brockett.

KAA,

to drive, to impel, as to turn a wheel, or drive anything forward. " Kaa me, kaa thee," or " Kaa me an' aa'll kaa thee," a common saying, meaning "Help me and I'll help you," or " One good turn deserves another." See CAA, 3.
!

KAA

An exclamation denoting impatience or often spoken of as gah or gaa, and geh, a " shortening of get away."
!

KEH

go

contempt.

It is

KAA-WAA,
KAB,

crooked, twisted, awry.


as " go kdb" or " gosh cab," an exclamation.

KEB

See

EXCLAMATIONS.

KABBISHIN,

a bridle used injiorse-breaking.

KAFF,
hoose,

chaff.

Koff-cutter

a straw-cutter, a hay-cutter.

Kaff-

a corn-threshing machine for receiving the chaff as it leaves the fanners of the " dighter," or winnower. See CAFF.
a

compartment

connected

with

KAFF,
calves.

where

calf. Kaff-hoose, a house with pens for rearing Kaff-yaird, calf-yard ; applied in speaking of the spot " a person is born and reared. canny kaff-yaird"

Wor

See CALF-YAIRD.

KAG, CAG,

a keg, a cask.
,

" Paide for a cagge of struggen [sturgeon] Accounts, October, 1594.

125."

Newcastle Municipal

KAICKEL,
KECKLE.

to cackle.

"

The hen myed

sic

kaickelin.''

See

KAIL,

a turn

so used

among schoolboys

in their

games.

" It's

my

kail."

Brockett.

KAIL,

cabbage, greens.
kail,

Brockett.

"Kail, kale

Manx

Northern English from Gaelic (Celtic). Welsh cawl. Cognate with Latin caulis."

and Irish
Skeat,

cal,

Concise

Etymological Dictionary, third edition.

4 I2

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

KAIL, KYEL,
house.
soup.
"
is

After a marriage ceremony there used broth. to be " a race for the kail" from the church to the bridegroom's

broth made with oatmeal. Tatie kail, potato the same of fish. Spice kail, broth with See KYEL. raisins or currants in it.

Meal

kail,

Fish

kail,

The first person arriving there is entitled to the kail. This custom disused in this neighbourhood." Note to Collier's Wedding, edition 1829.
"

Your bonny grey mear has


An' yor aad
wife's

lost
1

her

tail,
1

drown'd wi a pot o het

kail."

R. Surtees, "Life."
Surtees Society,

No.

24, p. 47.

"

Geea ne

better kail nor ye can sup yorsel."

Proverb.

KAIL-BLADE,
"Get a cauld

a cabbage leaf.
kail-blade .an'

lay

on yer head."

James Armstrong,

Anither Sang, 1872.

KAIL-GARTH,
KAIL-POT,
pots

a kitchen garden, any cottage garden.

It is specially applied to any a pot for broth. The of the antique shape which yet survives. body of the pot is almost spherical, the upper portion terminating in a broad lip or collar, at the sides of which ears The pot stands on three feet, like for suspension are cast. When in use it is suspended by a bow handle over spikes. the fire, and is familiar as the gipsy kettle. It is still in

made

common

use in

many

farmhouses.

KAIM

[N.], a comb, crest, ridge.

See CAM, KEYEM, KYEM,

KAME, and the next word below.

KAIMS,

ridges or elongated mounds of gravelly matter, more or less irregular in shape. The words comb, kayme, and cam in such place-names as Comb-hill, Kayme- ford, Caw-hill, are all variant forms of kaim, that is comb, a crest or ridge. Comb in Acomb, Wmcomblee, etc., is a misspelling for ham as

Akham,

KAINGY, KEENGY,
when one
is
11

cross-tempered, irritable,
cat left the lad but a shillin."
J.

uneasy

as

suffering.
kaingy

The

awd

P. Robson, " The Kittlin Legacy." Bards of the Tyne, 1848,


is

p. 56.

KAIRN, KIRN,

a churn. A crooked sixpence put into the kairn to avert witchcraft.

sometimes

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

413

KAIRN, KIRN,

to churn.
"Butter guid as ere was kiyn'd." T. Donaldson, Poems, 1809,
p. 79.

KAIRN-BABBY,
KAIRN-MILK,

or

KAIRN-DOLLY,
2.

the kirn-baby.

See

MELL-DOLL and KERN,

butter-milk.

KAIRN-SUPPER,
KAIRT, CAIRT,

the kirn or harvest supper.

a cart.

See KAYRT, CAIRT.


;

KAI STOCK,
kail-staak.

a cabbage stalk See CASTOCK. a colander.

probably a shortened form of

KALENDER,
KALL,

a waterfall.

See CAAL,

3.

KALLUST,

callous, hard. a runched or kallust place.

hard lump in the flesh

is

called

KAME, KAIM,

a comb.

See CAM and KAIM,


in his wild "
1

i.

"There the muircock he becks

of the heather ye ken his red kame. Wanny, 1879.

mossy hame; o'er the tops James Armstrong, Wild Hills o'

KAMMEL,
PENCIL.

probably

soft slate.

Compare CAM and CALM


p. 76.

" Blue kammel, 2 feet 3 inches."

Borings and Sinkings, L.R.,

KAMSTEERY, KAMSTARIE, KAMSTARRY,


perverse,

wild,

unmanageable
" Ses Willy

as

"a

kamsteery

horse."

See

CAMSTARY.
Dean
to loyal

Tom,
;

Yor words is awl a joke, man For Geordy winna he' yor help,
Yo'r
sic kamstarie folk,

man."

Song, The Pitman's Revenge, 1804.

KARS, KERSE,

cress.

WATTER-KARS,

water-cress

also

called well-karses.

KASILTY, CASILTY,
"

in doubtful health or condition; applied to sheep, etc., when their strength is precarious. "Some o' the lambs is nobbut casilty"
ties."

Kazzardly, adj., cattle subject to die; hazardous, subject to casualRay's Gloss., E.D.S.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

KAVEL,
fixed
;

the ballot by which the working places in a pit are also the strips of tillage land in the common fields. See CABLE, CAVEL, KEVEL, and Casting kavels casting lots.

KYEVEL.

KAYRT,
gal."

a cart.

See CAIRT.

" Nickel

Urn was driving away and whistlin in his kayrt leyke a nightenThomas Bewick, The Upgetting, edition 1850, p. 14.
a heave up.
"

REACH,

the blue, the bonny,

bonny

blue,

And I wish the blue may do weel, And every auld wife that's sae jealous

May

she get a good heach

o' her dochter the creel." Song, The Reach i' the Creel.
i'

READ, RAED,

a sheep's louse.

The muck that

infests sheep.

REAHM,
" Aw's

a comb.

See RYEM.
this

warn a keahm hessint been in't Bewick, The Howdy, etc., edition 1850, p. 10.

twe months."

Thomas

REAV,

bounce and bang about. " dingin iverybody ower." See RYEV.
to

He

gans keavin aboot,

REAVE,
REVEL,

a large,

awkward

foot.

"

The

heaves o' Lorbottle,"

jocose saying used against the Lorbottle folks, alleged to have huge, shapeless feet. Compare
3.

who were RYUTS and

REB,

to drop a called a fobbed

dead lamb. When a lamb dies in birth it is lamb and tbe mother a fobbed yow. On these occasions the skin of the fobbed lamb is flayed and put upon a strange lamb. This is brought to the foster mother to be suckled, who, smelling the skin of her own progeny, allows the stranger to approach her and take her milk.
to turn in the knees or toes in walking. bowdykite wis gan alang fobbin his feet."

REB,

"

The

little

REB, an Go CAB.

exclamation.

"Go
Brockett.

fob,

gan oot

ma

road."

See

REBBUCR,

a cheese.

REB-HOOSE,
partitions

lambing season.

the shelter erected for the young lambs in the The keb-hottse is divided by small stalls or called "
perricks.''

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

415

KECKLE, KOCKLE,
fully, to

to cackle, to laugh, to chuckle boast-

make

a noise in the throat

when swallowing.

KECKS, KEX,
;

hollow-stalked plants in general, but especially the cow-parsnip, Herackum sphondylium, L. "What a smell " Aa's what are ye deein ?' thor is oney boilin' kecks for the
pigs."

See COW-KEEKS.
fill

oneself with meat. Ray. KEDGE, to KEDGE-BELLY, a large protuberent stomach,

a glutton.

KEED-UP,
horse.

get

up

Generally addressed by a driver to his

KEEK,

the soup formerly served out to poor people. "Did ye no knaa that he was browt up on keek?" J.
a peep, a prying glance. " Tom Cavers and me, fra West Moor,

L. Luckley,

Alnwick Language.

KEEK,

On

a kind of a jollification,
folks call a tour, keek at the state o' the nation."

Yen day myed what some


For a
R. Gilchrist,

d. 1844, Collier's

Keek at

the Nation.

KEEK,

to look at, to peep, to pry.


"

spy-glass."

Wi
1

" " Keekin looking round a corner. by that can tell what's i' yor heed, Chaps
keekin at the nobs without."

''Just keek through the

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. go. " Forst aa keek'd this way, then aa keek'd that way then aa torns half roond an tries to keek ower me showlder." His Other Eye, 1880, p. 2. " We'll keek into the linty's nest." James Armstrong, Charms of the
;

Coquet.

KEEKER,

an overlooker at a pit, whose business examine the "coals as they come out of the mine.
the eyes.

it

is

to

KEEKERS,

cant term.

KEEK-HOLE,

a peep-hole. a looking-glass.

KEEKIN-GLASS,

" There's blythesome Tibby Richison, she is a bonny lass; The water-trough, where oft aw drank, may serve as keeking-glass." " Robin Spraggon's Auld Grey Mare." Northumbrian Minstrelsy, 1882, p. 135.

KEEK-KEEK,
seek.

the

word used by children

in playing hide-and-

416

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to cool.

KEEL,
11

"

Keeling the pot


'

"

is

game played amongst

children in

Northumberland.
'

girl

comes

The answer is, Then


'

the ladle, which joiner is either sick or dead."

in exclaiming, Mother, mother, the pot's boiling ower.' The difficulty is to get get the ladle and keel it.' ' is up-a-height,' and the steul wants a leg, and the
'

Bvockett.
fele

" For na licour sal thai fynd to

That thair

threst

mught

sleke

and thair hertes kele." " The Pricke of Conscience"


Morris,
1.

6,763.

KEEL,
and

soft,

red,

ochraceous shale, used for marking sheep,


joiners.

for

making the large red pencils used by " Aw paints wi' chalk an' keel my feyce."
J.

P. Robson, Billy Purvis's Bundle, 1849.

KEEL,

The keel on Tyne and a large cargo-carrying boat. formerly used for the conveyance of coal from the dykes, or staiths, in the upper and shallower reaches of the river, to the collier ships at their various berths in the harbour.

Wear was

" Weel

may

the

keel

row

That

my

laddie's in."

Song, The Keel Row.

KEEL,

a measure of coals, equal to eight Newcastle chaldrons or twenty-one tons four hundredweight. The carrying capacity " She carries of vessels is frequently stated in keels. twentyfive keels."

KEEL-BULLY,

mate or comrade on board a keel. term used for this species of watermen bullies is also a common appellation among the people concerned in the coal works for brothers." Brand's History of Newcastle, 1789, vol. ii., p. 262, note.
a
" Keel-bullies is a
;

KEEL-DEETER, KEEL-DIGHTER, a keel tidier or cleaner. "


The wives and daughters
'

of the keelmen were, in old times, called


'

because they had the privilege of dighting,' or sweeping up, and taking away the sweepings for their pains." R. J. Charleton, Newcastle Town, 1885, p. 327.
keel-deeters,'

KEELER,
"

an ancient name

for a

keelman.

serve in the barges who are called heelers." Tynemouth Gibson's Monastery of Tynemouth, vol.i., p. 139. Chartulary, A.D. 1322.

The men who

KEELMAN,

one of the crew of a keel.


a keelman.

KEELY, KEELEY,

KEELY-HAAK, the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, L., the commonest


it

falcon in the North of England. the name of keely-hawk.

" Its note " keely-keely gives

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

417

KEELY-VINE,

a pencil, originally a pencil made from keel, but applied generally to " vines" or pencils. A preacher, annoyed by seeing a shorthand writer at work below him, proceeded in his sermon till he had delivered a very emphatic " Man wi' sentence, when he leaned over the pulpit and said, the keely-vine ! put that doon."

KEEN,

an oblong a crack in the skin caused by frost bark, wood, earth, stones, strata, or ice. Hodgson MS. " Keen, caustic applied to wens or ulcers." Brockett
;

slit

in

KEEPIN-HOGS,
KEEPIN-PIGS,
them.
"

sheep which are kept on to the second or third year before they are fattened for the market.
pigs suitable for keeping in order to fatten
Pigs.''

For

sale

Eight Keeping

Advt., Newcastle Daily Journal, April

8,

1891.

KEEPS,

the parts that hold down an axle in its bearing on the cod. The catches which fall out after the passage of a cage in a pit and support it till ready to be lowered, when they are withdrawn by a lever. See KEPS.
to play at a game in which each keeps his turn in rapid succession.

KEEP-THE-POT-BOILIN,

KEEP-WALL,
KEERN,

an old term
"

for the

Roman

Wall.

a grain of corn.

keern o'

wheat."

KEG-MEG, CAG-MAG,
KEID, KYED,
KEIL,
a large hay-cock.

meat of

inferior quality.

fastened with a key.

See KYE,

2.

See KYLE.

KELD,

the smooth part of a stretch of water. A slight roughness on the surface of water is called a "lepper," and a " caal " when roughened by the wind.

"The watermen about Heworth Shore call the smooth, oily, and unrippled parts of the surface of the Tyne by the name of kelds."
Hodgson MS.

KELD,

to

thump

Northumberland.

Halliwell.

Compare KELK.

KELE, WILD-KELE,

wild kale, Brassica okracea, L.

KELK, KELKER,

a severe blow.

418

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to strike strongly.

KELK,

KELK,

the roe or milt of a

fish.

KELKS,
KELT,

plants with hollow stalks.

See KECKS.
fish.

a salmon that has just spawned, an unclean

KELTER,
KELTY,

money, condition.
to

" In good

falter

"

in

good form.

unwilling." (Obs.)

" to persuade one to it, tho' give one falty, G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, margin, p. 32.

KEMB,

a stronghold

a term used by the Borderers.

Brockett.

Compare KAIMS.

KEMMEL'S-PATH, GAMMEL'S-PATH,

the

name

of the

northernmost portion of the Roman Watling Street which leads from High Rochester (Bvemenium), crosses the head of Coquet at Chew Green camp (Ad Fines], and thence passes
into Scotland.

pp. 208-211.)
Gamblespath.

(See Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. iij., vol. ij., It is also spelt Campespeth, Kemylpethe, and

KEMP,

an impetuous youth.

Compare HEMP.

KEMP,

to contend or race in shearing corn. The use of reaping machines has put an end to this competition, or nearly so. " The stormy kemp, or emulous struggle for the honour of the ridge
end."

Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div., vol.

ij.,

p. 372.

KEMPIN,

a contest between reapers in the harvest


fighting cocks, the
lanceolata.

field.

KEMPS,

stems and seed heads of the are called by children famps or soldiers," and are used to kemp or fight with. One holds out a stalk and his opponent strikes, the object being to decapitate the adversary.
Plottage "

They

KEMPS,
KEN,
11

hairs amongst wool.

to

know, to be acquainted with.


kens the
1

Compare KNAA.
;

bauds on Tosson hills, he kens the holes at Rae there's no' a den roun' the kailstone but he kens weel, I trow, an' a' the holes on Lanston he kens them thro and thro'." James Armstrong, Kielder Hunt.
1879.

He

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

419

KENGUD,

mark

left

on the face from a blow.

KENNER

An expression used at a pit, signifying time to give up work, shouted down the shaft by the banksman where practicable, and conveyed into the workings from mouth to mouth. Greenwell's Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1849.
!

KENNIN,

a measure; half a bushel that the Inventory of Norham Castle, 1344-5, it

is,

two pecks.

In

is spelt kenine.

KENSPECKLE, KENSPECKLED, "


known, easy
"

to

be recognised.

Thon chep

conspicuous, wellwi' the white

hat's kenspeckle eneuf."

By

Jove,

last year.

it's Burnt Tom,' the very fox that beat the dogs so often Yonder he goes, with the beauties at his kenspecklt brush."
'

James Armstrong, North Tyne Hounds,

1879.

KENT

[N.]

a pole used for leaping

and

for setting a boat.

Compare POWEY. " When the stream

is of equal depth, a kent or pole is used." Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div. vol. ij,, p. 175. " Whante, or qvante, long sprete or rodde." Quante, or sprete, rodde. Prompt. Parvulorum. Quont, a pole to push a boat onwards (E. Anglia and East Sussex). Quant, a walking stick (Kent). Way." Note to above.
t

KENT,
"

to propel a boat with a kent.

A man had just

been kented over the Tweed."

Richardson, above.

KEP,

same

to catch in falling, or to catch time.

and retain

at

one and the

" This place (Kepier) takes its name from the Yare or Wear, the dam, which there was built across the river, and which contained the trap for kepping (catching) the fish." Rev. Canon Green well, Transactions of
Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club, vol.
vi., p. 9, note.

KEP,

to intercept, to meet.

"

Aa

kept 'im

comin thregh (from)

the market."

KEP,

KEPEET

[N.],/.*. of keep; p.p. keppen.

KEPPER,

a spawning fish or kipper.

KEPPIN-POST,

which fastens the gate,

the gate post at the side where the chain, is looped. It is the " catching post." Its counterpart, the post on which the gate hinges, or from which it hangs, is called the " hingin-post."

420

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a

KEPPY-BAA,

ball, a ball made to catch, or kep. called a " stotty-baal," but a keppy-baal is of leather, sewn together and generally made of segments stuffed with sawdust or "chisel" (bran), and frequently

hand
is

rebounding ball

"crulled" with coloured wools. Keppy-baals are generally " of girls. the " play lakins They are thrown up and caught in the hand to a child's rhyme
:

"

Keppy-baa, keppy-baa, corban tree, Come doon the lang lonnin, an' tell Hoo many 'ear aad aa he' ti be."

ti

me

kepper

Each time the ball was kepped counted for a year, and if the was clever she was sometimes promised patriarchal

years.

KEPS,
form

the catches or rests at the top of a pit shaft on which the cage is caught and rested whilst the tubs are being This word is often written keeps, but its spoken changed.
is keps.

KERB,

to cut.

variant of

kirve.

KERN, KERN,

a churn.

See KAIRN.
"

" To is the term the finish of harvest. get their kern used when shearers talk of finishing the harvest. The "last " cut of corn was the object of a struggle among the shearers. It was made into the form of a large doll, dressed with

ribbons,
melt-doll.

The

and called the kern-doll, kern-babby, corney-doll, or It was borne in triumph at the head of a procession.
is

last business, before

kirn" when a verse

" shout the leaving the fields, is to repeated, such as the following from the
;

Wansbeck

" Blessed be the day our Saviour was born For Master 's corn's all well shorn, And we will have a good supper to-night, And a drinking of ale, and a kirn !

A him !

ahoa

"

All uniting at the close in a simultaneous shout. In Glendale a somewhat abbreviated version of the harvest is in

rhyme

use

"

The

We

master's corn is ripe, and shorn, bless the day that he was born.
!

Shouting a kirn

a kirn

ahoa

"

In South Northumberland the rhyme used " Our master kind has cut his corn, God bless the day that he was born.

was

Many

Good crops

years yet may he live, of corn to cut and sheave."

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

421

KERN-SUPPER,
MELL-SUPPER.

the feast at the finish of the harvest.

See

KERSE-CROSS,

chris-cross.

KERSEN, KORSEN, KIRSEN, to christen. KERSMAS, KORSMAS, KAIRSMAS, KERSENMISS,


Christmas.

KERSTY, the Christian name Christiana. KERVE, to cut. See KIRVE and KIRVIN.
" Avoutrie
kerveth

atwo and breketh

at wo

hem

that

first

were made

on

flesh."

Persones Tale, p. 104.

KESLUP, KESLOP,
41

the stomach.

the Keslop snug an' tight." T. Donaldson, Poems, 1809, P- 106. " Kittle a Newcastle trope for chastisement. Warm your keslop a metaphor for a hot-pot." Brockett. your keslop
i'
*
'
'
'

Taut

KESSEN,
REST.

the p.p. of

cast.

Sometimes the form

is cassen.

See

'

KESSLE,
KEST,
syun
the

the stomach.
p.t.

of

cast.

In general use.

"

He

kest his claes

ower

an' gat caad."


"

That infernall Monster having kest His wearie foe into that living well."
Spenser, Faerie Queene, bk.
i.,

canto

xi.,

stanza 31.

KET,

But applied also to the stinking, unhealthy, diseased. carcases of animals dying a natural death, and dressed for the market without being bled as ket meat or deed ket. "Ah, " an exclamation of disgust on sniffing a bad smell. kitty ket !
"
Ket, putrid meat, chiefly that of horses given to hunting hounds."

Hodgson

MS.

KETMENT,

a dirty mixture, any sort of

filth.

Brockett.

KETTLE, a feast at which salmon is the chief item on the bill of fare. Kettles are often held in pic-nic fashion on the Tweed or on the coast, and the board is spread before the fish is caught.

KETTLE,
river

a pot-hole or circular hole, scoured out in a rocky

bed by the swirling action of pebbles which have lodged From their resemblance to the form originally in a crevice.
of cauldrons, these holes are known as pot-holes or kettles. " The Kettles " is the name of a tract of land, which abounds in pot-like cavities, near Wooler.

422

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
[N.], an egg-ended

KETTLE-BOILER
'

steam

boiler.

KETTY, disgusting, nasty. "A ketty butcher" meat. See KET. supposed to deal in diseased "
A
hefty

one who

is

cur'

a nasty, stinking fellow."

Ray's Glossary, E.D.S.

KEUSTRAN, KEVEL, KYEVEL,


field.

a " fulsom sloven."


a
lot,

(Obs.)

a strip of tillage land in.the

common

See KYEVEL, CAVIL, CABLE.

" We'll cast hevels us amang, See wha the man may be

The kevel fell on Brown Robyn, The master man was he."
Robin Hood.

The sense of lot Icelandic kefli, a bit of round stick. arose, I think, from the practice of drawing cuts 'that is, each person drew a bit of stick from some one's fist, and he who drew the shortest was successful." Note by Professor Skeat, May 27, 1891.
"
'

'

Compare

'

KEVEL, KEVIL, KYEVEL,


hammer.
"

a sound like the blow from a

She cowped him ower the kail-pot with a kevil." " Sawney Ogilby's Duel." Bell's Rhymes, 1812.
a stone

KEVEL, KYEVEL,
KYEVEL-HAMMER.

hammer, the common gavcL

See

KEVEL, KYEVEL,
like the

to break with a hammer, to make a noise " sound of a heavy blow. " Kevellin sty ens breaking

stones for

macadam.
See KECKS.

KEX,

hemlock, the cow parsnip.


[S.]
,

KEYEM
loading

a comb.

See KYEM.
in

KEY-LOKE,
it.

an armful of hay put on each corner of a cart

KEYS,

the fruit of the ash tree, Fraxinus excelsior, L. A bunch of these keys carried in the hand was supposed to be a charm
against witchcraft.

KI, KIV, quoth. Either form is used, as euphony suggests. This is one of the many instances of modified particles, which are affected by the open sound following them. TV 'and tiv,
wi'

and

and biv, all follow a similar usage. wiv, he and hev, Ki Geordy, " How where are ye gannin ? " " Bob J. Selkirk, Cranky's 'Size Sunday."
!

Thomas

" Kih she, yeh

fancy." The same. may say what yeh leyke, but Aze suer aw's reet." Bewick, The Howdy. The Teyne-Seyde Dialect Sixty Years Seyne,

Kiv aw, " Lass, thou's myed to

maw

Allan's Collection, p. 318.

reprint 1850, p. 9.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

423

KIBBLE,

a small tub, containing about twenty gallons, used in a pit for sinking purposes, or for conveying rubbish from one place to another, in which case it is run on a tram.
to thrash.

KIBBLE,
From

" If aa catch ye, aa'll kibble ye weel."

kevel,

a stick.

See KEVEL,

4.

KICK,

the top of the fashion in other language, quite the Brockett. just the thing. Compare KICKMASHAW.

go

KICKMASHAW,
"

extravagant, foppish.

has long been thought odd, for his kickmashaw airs." R. Gilchrist, d. 1844, When Sir Tommy was made an Oddfellow. "Kickshaw, a dish in French cookery; applied metaphorically to a
fantastic

He

coxcomb."

Halliwell.

KICK-UP, an

apparatus at a

cradle, by which a on to the screen.

tram

is

pit bank, made like an iron tipped upside down and emptied

KICK-UP, any
turmoil.

kind of disturbance, as a house cleaning or a

KIDDY,

"

a son, a native or familiar. Show what noted kiddies fre Newcastle toon hes

flit."

W.

Armstrong,

" Newcastle Worthies," Marshall's Songs, 1825, p. 196.

KIDGEL,

a cudgel. To "tyek defence of an argument.

up the

kidgels" is to stand in

KIDNEY-IRONSTONE,
KILL-COW, "
Ye needna mind, I'm

ironstone nodules.
; ;

a matter of consequence a serious affair as sure it's nae sic great kill-cow." In reference most probably to a blow that is sufficient to knock down or kill a cow. Jamieson.
of
killed.

KILLEN, p.p.

KILLIN-STYUL,
scraped.

a killing-stool. It is made with four legs at the ends, like a handbarrow. Pigs, etc., after being killed, are laid on the Mllin-styul to be dressed or

and with handles

KILLOGIE,
kiln,

a small recess in the fire-hole of an oat drying fire is usually fed with the " sheelin-seeds," or outer husks of the grain.

where the

424

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
an upset heels over head.

KILLY-COUPER,
"

Killie is a plank or beam placed on a wall so Killicoup, a somerset. A child then that one end projects a good way further than the other. the long end, while two or three press down the places himself upon short end, so as to cause him to mount." Jamieson.

KILLYMAUKEE,
common
KILT,
in

N. Northumberland.

a blue, freckled variety of potato, once very It resembles the forty-foal.

to gather up, to tuck up. Applied to the action of a horse in gathering up his heels to kick, or to the gathering up of a woman's dress. Formerly to hoist up or hang.
if.

KIN,

Compare GIN.
Thomas Bewick, The
Upgetting,

"Shouting as kin yen was deef."


edition 1850, p. 12.

KINCH-PINCH,
is

"time" cried in a contest. cry kinchThis is a quite recent to call for breathing time. pinch" The form was originally king's introduction in boys' play.
speech.

"To

KIN-COUGH, hooping-cough. See KINK-HOAST. KINE-GATE, KINE-GEAT, KYE-GATE, the


of cow-gate
11
;

plural forms

stint or

pasturage for cows.

Thomas

said four closes."


vol. in., p. 369.

Riddell shall have four kine-geats to go and depasture in the Award of 1605.- Richard Welford, History of Newcastle,

KJNEY, sly. KING-CUP,

"

He just

teuk a kiney leuk."


Called

the marsh marigold, Caltha palustris, L.

also watter-gollan.

KING'S-CUSHION,
child's

a sort of seat made by crossing their hands, on which to place a third.

two persons
Brockett.

game.

KING'S-HOOD, the wood geranium, Geranium sylvaticum, L. KING'S-SPEECH, a truce called in a boys' game. When an
is desired during the course of a game, a truce calls out " King' s-speech an' The formula secures .him immunity, and he barley bay." cannot be caught out till play is resumed. "There is another common expression in boyish sports, which, if

adjustment or stoppage

the one

who

desires

confined to the North, I should be inclined to connect with Border ' It is the cry of 'kings-speech,' or king's-play (now queen's-play in Newcastle) which, the moment it is heard from either is a stopper to all the party, advantages common to the game in neglect of any rule, and a signal for five minutes' truce. The game of Scots and need hardly be mentioned as another instance." W. H. D. English Longstaffe, Observations on Martial Mottoes. Richardson's Reprint of
recollections.
1
' '

Denham's

Slogans, p. 27.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

425

KINK,

to catch the sides, as in a spasm with violent laughter. " Wey, smash maw skin, aw kink'd an' laft, When roond an' roond she swaggerin' waft." J. P. Robson, Wov Molly torned Bloomer.

" It is spoken of children eager crying or coughing."

when

their breath is long stopp'd through

Bailey, from Ray.

KINK-HOAST, KIN-KOUF,
COUGH.

the hooping-cough.

See KIN-

KINLIN,
KIP,

kindling, light fuel for fire-kindling.

to thrash with a stick.


calf.

KIP, an overgrown

Bwckett.

KIRK,

a church. This Northern form of the word obtains in North Northumberland but on Tyneside chorch is frequently heard, like the duplicate forms Ust and chist (chest). The harder form of the word is found in the Pricke of Conscience "Haly kirk" lines 2,132 and 3,684.
;

KIRKEET

[N.]

churched.

KIRK-FOLK,

church attenders.
[N.]
,

KIRK-GARTH, KJRK-YERD
KIRK-HOLE,
a grave.

a churchyard.

Bvockett.

KIRKMAISTER,
KIRN,
a churn.

a churchwarden. The churchwardens of All Saints', Newcastle, are so styled in an indenture dated 1521.

See KAIRN.
See

KIRN,

the finish of the harvest. words.

KERN and

following

KIRN-BABBY, KIRN-DOLLY,
KIRN-STAFF,

the last handful of corn cut, dressed up to resemble a female figure. See KERN. the old-fashioned staff used like a piston-rod in the antiquated vertical churn. a supper and dance to celebrate the end of See KERN-SUPPER.
to christen.

KIRN-SUPPER,
harvest.

KIRSEN, KIRSTEN,
KIRSEN,
the

name

Christiana,

426

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
crisp.

KIRSP,

KIRSTY,
first

Christopher.
to cut.

KIRVE, KERVE, KERB,


operation in

Specially applied to the

hewing

coal.

KIRVIN-AND-N1CKIN,

in coal mining, the preparatory operations for bringing down thejud or top. A nick is made down each side of the coal " face," and these deep grooves are called the nickins then a deep wedge-shaped groove is carved or cut at the floor level called the kirvin.
;

"

For what he gat was very sma Frae out the kirvins and the nickins.'' T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt.
1 ,

ii.

1827, v. 37.

RISEN ED.

Children are said to be kisened when from a weakness or being pampered they loathe their food Hodgson MS. See KIZZEN.
dried

KISENT, KIZZENT,

up with drought or over-cooking.


;

KISSING-BUSH,

a Christmas tree

so called in former times.

" At York and Newcastle-upon-Tyne this ancient token of a mirthful The bush and, I hope, innocent custom, is still to be seen at Christmas. is formed of mistletoe, evergreens, ribbons, and oranges." M. A. Tract x., pt. iv. p. 17. Denham, 1858, Folk Lore,

KIST, CIST, a box

deputy 's hist" is the chest wherein he keeps his tools, " Coffin plate nails, brattice nails, and other requirements. a hearse. Prehistoric burials are sometimes found in kist" regularly made boxes of stone, four or more of which are set on edge, whilst one or more form a close cover or lid. These
or chest.

"

used by the deputy in a coal

pit,

are

known as

kists

by Jhe country people and as

cists

by the

archaeologist.

KIST-LOCKER,
for

the small compartment^at one end of a chest, holding valuables etc.


tub, bucket, or pail.

KIT. a small wooden


also to a small barrel
"
Kit, a small

Formerly applied
is

used

for

packing pickled salmon.


which Newcastle salmon
sent

wooden

vessel, in

up

to

town."

Todd.

KIT, the

stool

on which a cobbler works, including all his

tools.

Bvockett.

KIT, the entire number or quantity of a set " Tyek the hyel kit on them if ye like."

of persons or things.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

427

KITCHEN,
etc., laid

a dainty of any kind, such as butter, cheese, jam, on and eaten with a slice of bread. " We hed bare breed an' ne kitchen" " Bessie's butter 's made me up
;

It kitchens roots

sae fine."
79.

T. Donaldson, Poems, Glanton, 1809, p.

KITCHEN, KITCHEN, "

a tea-urn,

Brocket*.

We mun kitchen the broth,

to serve out with care, to save in serving victuals. or it'll not gan roon'."

KITE, KYTE,

the stomach, the belly.

" He's 'nee kith o' wors." KITH, acquaintance. common phrase " Kith and kin," acquaintances (kith)
to be distinguished from relatives (kin).

In the

appear

KITH, KYTHE,
"

the appearance of growth.

The

tender shoots or blades of herbs or trees."

See KYTHE. Hodgson MS.

KITICANS,
kiticans."

gaiters.

"What

a swell! wiv eez white hat an' "

See CUTE-SKINS.
to kindle, to bring forth young.

KITTLE,
agyen."

Wor

cat's kittled

KITTLE,
the
fire.

to tickle, to touch lightly.

" Kittle the coal"

stir

KITTLE,
kittle

delicately balanced, easily upset, precarious. " Kittle as a " Kittle cattle." " kittle job." horse." "Kittle weather." razor."

"A

KITTLE-BOARD,

and on which the animal sets which holds the spring down.

the plate in a trap on which bait is placed its foot, releasing the catch

KITTLE-BUSY, officious, interested about trifies.Brockett. KITTLISH, uncertain. See KITTLE, 3. KITTLY, easily excited to laughter by tickling.
KITTY,
KITTY,
"At
a straw
filled

with gunpowder.

Used

as a fuse for

blasting in mines.
a lock-up, a prison.

the cummyng yn of the same priory is a gatehouse. In the northe syde of the same gatehouse ys there a prison for offenders* within the towne called the kydcott" Pollard's Survey of Bridlington
Priory (dr. 32

...

Hen. VIII.).

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

KITTY,

" Aa'll breed." gie ye a kitty bit o' KITTY-PEARTY, and KITTY-WREN. KITTY-FINGER,
little.

Compare
boys.

KITTY-CAT-AN'-BUCK-STICK.

game played by

KITTY-CROP, a closely cut or cropped head. Jocularly used in allusion to the close crop given to a felon on entering the
kitty

or prison.

KITTY-FINGER,

the

little finger.

KITTY-PEARTY,
meaning

the

name

applied to a bright

little

bairn

"little pert

one

"always used in

an approving sense.
Also called

KITTY-WI'-THE-WISP,
Jenny -wi'-the-lantern.

the will-o'-the-wisp.

KITTY-WREN, KITTY-WRAIN, KITTY-MA-WRAIN, JENNY-WRAIN, the wren, Troglodytes parvulus. Sometimes


called (but rarely) tomtit.

KIVER-AWA

An exclamation familiar at the drill of the Newcastle Associated Corps of Volunteer Infantry, Loyal See the song " Kiver awa!" in Bell's Rhymes, p. 14. 1804.
!

Also the following:


"

'Twas worth a crown to hear him, too, '" Exclaiming Kiver awa /
'

J.

Shield,

" Blackett's Field."


Bell's

Rhymes, 1812,

p. 13.

KIZZEN, KISON, to parch or dry up, as in overcooking. " She's Uzzened the Bacon or ham when overcooked is pot." said to be kizzencd.
"

Pampered and
a peg or

sickly children,

whose appetite loaths

their food, are

said to be kisoned."

Hodgson MS.
for

KLICK,

knob

hanging anything upon.

See CLECK.

KLICKER,

one who stands at the door of a shop, especially at the door of a shoe shop, to catch and bring in customers. An occasional advertisement still reminds of the common use of the word by the formula, " Wanted, a good klicker."
a large barbed hook for landing salmon

KLICK-HOOK,
KNAA, KNAW,
perception.

used in poaching.

See CLEEK.

" Thoo knaas aa like te he' thee to know. near." Ken means to be acquainted with a person or thing from observation or from outside view. Knaa refers to mental

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS

429

KNAAIN,
awake
"

knowing, cunning.

"

He

fellow.

An

old

meaning of knaain

Thar

thai fand

nan o thair knaing."

a Unaain chep" a wideis acquaintance. Cursor Mundi (dr. A.D. 1320).

Visit of the

Wise Men.

KNAB,
in

or

NAB,
to

hill.

" Calder's Knob " in Old Bewick.

KNACK,
the Words.

speak Southern

finely. dialect.

And

it is used of such as do speak Ray's Collection of North-Country

KNACK,

to crack together, as a finger and thumb are cracked, or as the heels are knocked together in dancing. Knack-knees are knees knocking against each other.
"

The
She

knack' d her

pipes scream out her fav'rite jig, thumbs and stood her trig." E. Chicken, The Collier's Wedding, 1735.

KNACKERS,

the two bones or pieces of hard wood charred at the ends, used like castanets. These -were in common use long before the "bones" and "tambourine" of Christy Minstrels were heard of.
[N.],

KNACKET
nacky.

KNACKEY
a contrivance

[T.]

the same as knacky or

KNACK-REEL,
"broaches"
" cut."
fifty

for

winding

yarn

off

the

into "cuts." It knacked, or clicked, at each Previous to the introduction of the knack-reel, about

or sixty years ago, the yarn was wound on another system, and was counted by the tick of a clock and with

this

rhyme

" That's one,

That's not one, That's one oot, That's one off."

Twenty "cuts" a day (120 threads or revolutions winding reel) was considered a big day's work.

of the

KNACKY,

Used in a disparaging" clever, cunning, s^mart. sense, as when a self-conceited person is showing off his cleverness.
a small hammer, sixteen to twenty ounces in weight, used in breaking stones to lay on the highways.

KNAPPIN-HAMMER,
:

KNAR,

The word occurs in Knaresdale and in two rugged. other place-names in Northumberland*

430

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to

KNAW,
KNED,

know.

See KNAA.
p.t.

the strong

of knead.

"Kned-kyek"

a cake richly

kneaded with lard or butter.

KNEDDIN, butter or fat used in making cakes. KNEEIZER-BREECHES, breeches reaching to the
there fastened with buttons, buckles, or strings. now rarely seen.

knee, and They are

KNIFLE,
when

to steal, to pilfer, to cut

away

in portions almost

imperceptibly.

KNITTIN-SHETH,
knitting.
It

a sheath

for

holding knitting needles

was stuck
It is

in the girdle.

KNOCKER-AND-ROULER,
of dress or wear.

a mangle used for small articles extemporised by using a bake-board

and a

rolling-pin for the purpose.

KNOCKET
OCKET,
i.

[N.]

a farm servant's meal, 9-30 to 10 a.m.

See

KNOCKIN-MELL, a mallet formerly in general use for beating


the hulls off barley.

KNOCKIN-TROW,

a stone trough, or mortar, used in creeing or hulling barley. The barley was prepared for the pot by steeping it in water in the knockin-trow, and then by beating it with the knockin-mell till the husks came off.

KNOCKLE, the knuckle. KNOCK-OFF-HEUK, a


wagons
in motion, or a

detaching hook, by which a set of cage in overwinding, can be instantly

detached from the rope.

KNOCK-STONES,

loose surface stones in a ploughed field.

KNOLLER,
KNOOL,
See NOOL.

a heavy blow.

to assuage,

" Aa'll tyek summic

ti

knool the pain."

KNOOLED,
spiritless.

or expression.

broken down, dispirited, of troubled countenance "A knooled dog" is one that is cowed and
the
cloudberry,

KNOT-BERRY, KNOUT-BERRY,
chamcemovus,

Rubus

L.

See NOOPS.
haver grass or oat grass,

KNOT GRASS,

A vena

elatiov,

L.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

43T

KNOTTY-TOMMY,
name.

an ill-made crowdy; full of knots. The coagulations or knots in porridge are also called by the same
the cloudberry.

KNOUT-BERRY,

See KNOT-BERRY.

KNOWE,

a parting in the coal (a back or knowe) which sets the coal down with little trouble after the kirving and nicking of the jud have been completed by the hewer.
"

A back

or know

myeks hewers

glad."
pt.
iii.,

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

1829, v. 64.

KNOWE, KNOWL,
eight

a knoll, a rounded hillock.

Twenty-

The place-names in Northumberland end in knowe. Waal Knowk, or Wall Knoll, in Newcastle, is the rising knoll east of Pandon Dene, on which the mediaeval Town Wall and
the yet

more ancient Roman Wall

alike crested the hill,

KNUPES, the cloudberry. See NOOPS and KNOT-BERRY. KNURL, a dwarf Northumberland. Wright's Provincial Diet.
Halliwell.
" Knor, or knunr, a short, stubbed, dwarfish man a metaphor from a knot in a tree. In the South we use the diminutive knurle in the same
;

sense."

Grose.

KOCKLE,
KOO-KOO, KOPE, the
keep!"

to cackle.

See KECKLE.

the call of the'cushat or


call to a horse.

wood

pigeon.

clerkes run
(line

up and down

In Chaucer's Reeve's Tale the shouting after their horse "Keep!

In Northumberland "Kope! kope!" is 4,099). called to horses when grazing, to fetch them to bridle.
the cap, or coping stone of a

KOP-STYEN, COP-STYEN,
dyke.

KOTTY, QUOTTY,

a short coat.

KOW, "

a boggle, 'or local apparition, as "The Hedley kow." lonely part of the road where the kow used to play many of
S. Oliver,

his

tricks."

Rambles in Northumberland, p. 101.

KRAKE,

to croak, to complain.

KRIBLE, or CRIBLE, to curry favour KURB. See KIRVIN and NICKIN.

with a superior.

KURTCHER, KORSHER,
common form
of the word.
;

a kerchief.

This

is

still

the

"Two night kurtchers, 2s. two hand kurtchers, 35." Will of John Welford's History of Newcastle, vol. iii., p. 195. Hutton. Februaiy 20, 1612.

432

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

KWOAL KWOAT

KWOL [N.] the pronunciation of [W.-T.], KWOT [N.], coat.


[S.]
, ,

coal.

" His hands in his kwoat pockets."


1850, p. 10.

Thos. Bewick, The Howdy, edition

KWOLLY [N.] a colley dog. KWOT [N.] See COATS.


,

KWOT-HOOSE,

a cottar's house.

KWOTTER, a cottar, the occupant, under a farmer, of a bondage


house. The house is let under conditions of service to be rendered by the tenant, in return for which the terms generally include rent and coal leading free, together with an allowance of potatoes to the kwotter.

KYE,

kine.

Kye-gates' (pi.

of cowgate), pasturage

for

cows.

See KINE.

KYE

[N.], to fasten with a key or wedge. up, as a rail is keyed in a railway chair.

Kyed-up, wedged

KYED, CADE,

a sheep louse.

See KEAD.

KYEDGY,
KYEK,

wanton, lascivious.

cake.

KYEK-TOASTER,
KYEL,
it

a cake-toaster.

At the time described in The Pitman's Pay broth, kail. was not uncommon to mix raisins with the broth this was known as spice-kyel. See KAIL, 3.
; *'

"

Then helter-skelter in we bang The dinner waits we snuff the smell And a' sharp set, we warrent lang In dashin' in amang the kyel."
;

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

pt.

iii.,

v. 84.

KYEM,

a comb; to comb. Used metaphorically, as " Aa'l " I will punish kyem yor toppin you. A comb is generally called " a reddin kyem" that is, a tidying comb. In North Northumberland, kaim; in South Northumberland, keyem or keahm on Tyneside, kyem. See KAIM, and compare KAIMS.
;

KYEPS,

ears of corn broken off in threshing.

See CAPES.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

433

KYEV,

to toss or paw the ground. Kyavin, the action of a See horse, stamping with the foot and throwing up the dirt.

CAVE, KEAV, KEAVE.

KYEVEL,
in
life.

a lot

drawn

in ballot.

It is also

applied to one's lot


easily

See CABLE, CAVEL, KAVEL, KEVEL.


coal in

"The

some parts
;

of the pit

is

softer

and more

wrought

than in others, and, to prevent quarrelling and partiality, that to be hewn is divided into lots the colliers draw their lots once a quarter. This is called kyeveling, and the place or lot assigned to each man is called his kyevel." Dr. R. Wilson, Transactions of Tyneside Naturalists'
Field Chib, vol.
vi., p.

203.

"

What aw
for

felt

When
Nay,

Sail

was

ma

not to be telt, Sic happiness aw'd never knawn." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt.
a*

ma joy's

kyeval

drawn

in.,

1829, v. 66.

KYEVEL-HAMMER,
termed and 3.
It
kyevellin.

a heavy hammer used by stone-breakers to break up the large blocks of road metal. The operation is

Compare HUMELIN-HAMMER and KEVEL,


;

KYLE, KYLEY,

a large hay-cock used in doubtful weather. contains about as much hay as a man can fork in two lifts. small hay-cock is called a foot-cock.

KYLE,
cattle.

a wedge.

" Is thor a

kyle

i'

this mell,

Bob

"
?

KYLEY, KYLA,
"

a kyloe, one of the small breed of Highland

They've stock'd us with Highlanders' horses. Like kyleys for madness and size."
<

.y.

Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 175.

KYTHE,
The p.p.
Morris.

to tell of, to show, to discover, to manifest oneself. It occurs frequently in the Pricke of this was kyd. of

Conscience (A.D. 1349). " They salle be knawen and kyd

known and

discovered."

Line 7,138,

" Aw'll
like ours."

nit believe

but there's fairies, though they dinnit kythe to een Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div.,vo\. ii., p. 136, 1. 6

"

And aye she eyed


An'

the grey sloth-hound,

As he windit owre Deadwater Fell, Till he came to the den wi' the moss inbound,

but

it

kythed a lonesome dell." Hogg, Sir David Graeme.

KYTHEN,
_

the knot of sand thrown up on a receding tide by The worm thus discovers its position to the fishermen, who then and there dig them up for bait. See

sand worms.

KITH,

2.

434

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
the cud.

KYUD,
"

"

The

coo's chowin' the kyud."

KYUTS,

CYUTS, CUTES,

the

feet.

Used
way."
is

derisively.

Tyek them greet KEAVE.

kyuts o' yors oot o' the

Compare
fly

LAA, LAW,

liberty,

freedom.

When
it is

a bird
"

allowed to

a distance before being shot at

termed " Givin't law."

LAA,

he was in very low doon In South Northumberland no difference is heard in spirits. the sound of laa (law) and laa (low). See LAIGH.
low.

"

He

wis varry

laa

" " Outher heghe or laghe (outher

hee or laa
wall).

The

latter

word rhymes with waghe (waa


1.

either high or low). Hampole, Pricke of

Conscience, edition Morris,

6,620.
hill.

LAA, LAW,

LAWE,
,

a roundish

See LAW.

LAATER
t

pigs in one litter. as laa that which


looter,

the eggs laid by a fowl at one time, or all the The word is probably from the same root is laid. It occurs in Northumberland as See lawter, lafter, and louter, and in Scotland as lachter.
[T.]
all

LAFTER.

LAAYOR,
LAB,
to
labbin the
lab in

lawyer.

devour by pecking or plucking. " The cushats is " the pigeons are pecking the young young bagies

turnips, or plucking large pieces out of their leaves.

Ducks

feeding upon vegetables.


to dabble

LABBER,
"

and splash

in water.

They'll labber in our swine troughs." G. Stuart, Joco-Serions Discourse, 1686, p. 34.

" I stripped

and had a good labber in the Coquet." James Armstrong, Wanny Blossoms, 1879.

LAB-BOARD,

a lap-board, such as tailors use to lay the seams on which they iron with their " goose."
a large irregular piece.

LAB1E, LABBY,
"

With knives as keen as Hector's sword, They cut each man a labie." Genuine Tom Whittle,

1815.

LABIES,

a store, plenty, abundance.

From

lay-by.

Bwckett.

LACE,

to

mix

spirits

with tea.
of

See LYECE.

LACKITS,
Brockett.

small
(Obs.)

sums

money

odd things generally.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

435

LAD,

a sweetheart. " She wis gan a waak wiv her lad" Also " Sarvin-/^5 hez an unmarried farm servant. getten good weyges thor hirin." Compare LADS.

LADE, LODE,
to a mill.

an aqueduct or channel which carries the water


occurs in place-names, as in West-lade,

The word

on the Tweed. Weetslade, or Weetsleet, is also the name of a township in the parish of Longbenton. " Unum ductum aquae nomine West-lade" (a water-channel by the name
of West-lade).
''Lode,

Dugdale, Monasticon, 308. a vein of ore, a water-course." Skeat.

LAD-O'-WAX, a strong, mettlesome fellow. wax /" a common exhortation to rally for a
effort.

"

Howay,

lads-o'-

charge or a fresh
not necessarily See &c.

LADS,

young men. also LAD.


"

a following a company of comrades " Haaks's lads" " Backworth


;

lads,"

Hey, Willie Ridley, winna ye stay ? Featherston's lads ha' gotten the day." R. Surtees, Life. Surtees Society, No. 24, p. 47.
!

LADS-ALIVE

an exclamation. frequent preface to a sentence.

Like

man-alive

this is a

LADS'-LOVE,

southernwood, Artemisia abrotaneum.

LADY.

See LEDDY, LYEDDY.


;

The word

is

found in many-

Ladies' fingers, the purple foxglove, Digitalis plant names. also the woodbine. Ladies' purses, a name for sheppurpurea herds' purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris. Ladies' mantle, the common alchemil, Alchemilla vulgaris, L. Ladies' thimbles, the harebell, Campanula rotundifolia, L. Ladies garters, or gardeners' garters, ribbon grass, Phalaris arundinacea, L. Lady's hair, or dotherin' dicks, the quakegrass, Briza media, L. Lady's soap, thus called at Rothbury, Conferva rivularis, a silky green weed which abounds in streams during a continuance of dry weather in summer. The ladies, in all these plant names, are no doubt " the " little ladies or fairies.
1

" Fairies use flowers for their charactery."

Merry Wives of Windsor,

act

v., sc. 5.

LADY-LINT-WHITE,
' 1 '

one of the names for the little warbler the whitethroat, Curruca cinerea. Compare JENNY-CUT-THROAT. In appearance and attitude not unlike linnets, hence their popular Dr. James Hardy, History of Bwks. Nat. Field name, Lady Linty White.
Club, vol.
x., p.

561.

436

/NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
having ears hanging over the eyes, as in

LAEV-LUGGED,
pigs.

LAFTER, LAWTER
wife.

LOUTER [N.], the whole [T.] " She's sittin on the laftev" decking of eggs laid by a hen. " Aa hevn't a neebor '11 len us a lafter of eggs," said a farmer's
,

" The Louior [N.] is also applied to a litter of pigs. soo hes a good loutor o' pigs." The Scottish form is lachtev.

See LAATER.

LAGGIN,

the projecting part of the staves at the bottonr part of a cask or other hooped vessel. The pendant part of the hay in a stack, corresponding with the eaves of a house. The cavity round the bottom of a hay-stack boiler. Brockett.

"The angle between the side and bottom of a Northumberland. Wright's Glossary.

wooden

dish."

L AID-IN.
kind

When a colliery has ceased working from being exhausted, or from any other cause, and is dismantled, it is
said to be laid-in.

when permanently stopped are Hence the end of all things, death.
loathsome.
"

Gnenwell's Glossary, 1888. Works of any also said to be laid-in.

LAIDLEY,

Word went east and word went Word is gone ower the sea,
That a
laidley

west,

Worm

Would

in Spindleston

Heugh

ruin the North Countree."

Rev. R. Lamb, Ballad of the Laidley Worm.

LAID-OUT, put to one side. excess of small coal or stones,

When
it is

a corf or tub contains an

forfeited, or laid-out.

LAIGH

[N.]
"

low.

She whispers

See LAA, 3. laigh down

till

hersel."

Poems, G. Donaldson, 1809, p. 70.

LAIGHLY,

lowly.

"Shelaighly baiking" (lowly bowing) "


Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 50.

made her Honour. "

G. Stuart,

LAIGISHIN

[N.]

a large,

sic a laigishin o' things of a bride whose outfit

cumbersome quantity. " She teuk " away wuv her as aa nivver seed (said
had been unusually extensive).
how he

LAINCH,
"

a long stride.
lainch he.

What a

has got

lainches

out his legs."

Brockett.

LAINCH,
her foot.

to lash out, to strike out.

"

The coo

lainched oot

wiv

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

437

LAINGER

(g

sounded hard), to saunter


lingering.

idly,

LAINGERIN,
LAIR, mud,
surface.

" sleek," quicksand, or any soft and yielding In place-names, lair probably occurs in Learmouth, Learchild, Leyrbottle (now Lorbottle), Dinmont Lairs, and other places.
to
"

LAIR, LARE,
laired iv

smear with

mud

to sink in

mud.
..;

"
;
;

He was
';*

a bog

stuck fast in a mire.

>*

LAIR,
land.

the interior fat of a pig melted.

LAIRD,

a landowner residing upon and cultivating his own to be especially common in North Cumberland, and formerly in North- West Northumberland. Laird is sometimes applied simply to denote a person of some

The term used

position.

"Doddington Moors were held by small proprietors, of whom thete were thirty and mo're who were called 'lairds'; and who, besides
possessing their cultivated lands, enjoyed the right of common over those wild moors." George Tate, in History of Berwickshire Naturalists'
Club, vol. v., p. 153.

"An what did they toak about? Wey, they spak about Weylam Engine, the lairds oh. Ryton, an of the great Swire's deeth ith nwoarth tKe other day." Thomas Bewick, The Upgetting, edition 1850, p. 13.
Denham, Folk
" Ye're like the laird o' Butterbura, Lore, 1851, p. 6.

'Whatever

is, is

"
right.'

M. A.

LAIRDED, LAIRED, LARED,


a bog, or stuck fast in any way.

stuck in the mud, caught in See LAIR, 3.

LAIRK,

a fold, a wrinkle.

See LORK.

LAIRK.

See LAVEROCK.

LAIRN,

LARN

[T.]

to teach, to learn.

LAIRSTONE,
LAIRY,
"

a tombstone. a bog-hole.

See .LARESTONE.

LAIR-WHOLE,

miry. See LAIR, 3. They run me to the lairy

bog, and round about the lea."

Robin

Spraggon's A-uld Grey Mare.

LAITH
'

[N.J,

LEATH

[S.], loth,

unwilling.

"

Aa wad be
it

laith

In South Northumberland gan win him." pronounced in two syllables, lee-yaith.


ti

is

438

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
rest,

LAIVE,

remainder.

See LAVE.
Seefye-lake, under the

LAKE, LAIG,
word FYE.

a cry in driving geese.

LAKE-WAKE, LAY-QUAKE, LYIK-WAKE, LYKEWAKE, the wake, or watch, held over a corpse between
the time of death and the funeral.
lyik-waik, pronunciation the commonly spelt form lake.
is

The Northumberland

which

is

hardly represented in

customary among the lower classes in Northumberland for and neighbours of the deceased to sit up each night S. Oliver the in the same room with the body until it be interred." Younger, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 91 and note. "Auld Lucky's former companions come to baud her lay-quake." Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div., vol. iij., p. 69.
"It
is

several of the friends

places, of watching the dead every night Dictionary, second edition, 1724.

" Liche wake, a custom anciently used, and still practised in some till they are buried." Bailey's

LAKIN,

or

PLAY-LAKIN,

a plaything.

Lake, to play,

is

not

heard in Northumberland, but lakin, a plaything, is used with the prefix play, forming the pleonastic word play- lakin, suggestive of an imported or unfamiliar term.
" Leikin, a sweetheart, Northumb. ab Ang.-Sax. lician, placere." Bp. Kennett, Lansd. MS., 1033, quoted Way, Promptorium, p. 285, note i.

L ALEEKIN,
LALEEKS,
LAM,

boisterous.

" That dog's a greet laleeUn animal."


"

play, frolic.

Run away oot and

get your laleeks."

to beat severely, to strike black and blue. " He's wife." getten a good lammin."
11

"

He

lams his
a

Lam-pay, to correct

principally applied to children

to beat with

ferula. "Brockett.

LAMB-HOG,
its first

a young sheep between the age of weaning and

clipping.

See HOG.

LAMBS' TAILS,
L.

the catkins of hazel. the

LAMB'S-TONGUE,

common

See FIGHTING-COCKS.

plantain, Plantago lanceolata,

LAM-LAKINS, the flowers of the Arum maculatum.


AND-COWS.

See BULLS-

LAMMAS, "

to

Lammas, lads

run away in alarm, to disperse at a signal. lammas /"


;

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

439
"

LAMP

A lampin walker [N.] to walk with a long stride. one who goes up and down in his walk owing to the length of
,

"

his stride.

LAMP,

a fire of coals burnt in a suspended iron grate or frame. in the rear of the early railway trains was a coal It is sometimes called a fire-lamp, fire of this description. and may yet be seen in use about colliery railway cabins.

The lamp

LAMPET, a limpet. LAMPY, having a striding gait. See LAMP. LAND, unploughed earth. The term is used
where the
left

in ploughing,

that is, the side on which the earth is yet unploughed is called the land side. Giving a plough too much or too little land in the beam is when it is In Scotland they say set too much to the right, or vice versa.

or near side

"mairjmT'
LANDRY-BOX.

for

"more

land."

LANDER, LAANDER,
LANDIN, LAND-END,
ploughing, or of a

a gutter or channel for water.

See

the end of a ridge or of a furrow in hoeing, little-ploughing, or scuffling, where it meets the heedrig or the end of a rig in To " go to a landin " means once across the full harvesting. of a furrow. To go to the far end and return again is length to " gan time aboot."
drill in drilling,

LAND-LARK, the common sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos, L. LANDRY-BOX, a box at the top of a set of pumps into which
the water
is

delivered.

LANDS ALE,

coals sold to the country in the neighbourhood of the pit, as distinguished from coals sold for shipment or landsale colliery is one doing delivery by rail to a distance. a home trade in house coals which are loaded into the carts

on the spot.

LAND-SERJEANT,
the public peace.

one of the officers of the Border watch, under the Warden of the March. To the land-serjeant was committed the apprehending of delinquents and the care of
(Obs.)
is langar,

LANG,

long; the comparative

usually pronounced

lang-ar, or lang-or.
" Whether he lyf lang or short while." Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, Morris, 1. 632. " Here-on wille I na langer duelle." Hampole, 1. 927.
I

4^0

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to long.

LANG,
"

"

Lang

sair

"greatly

desire.
Upgetting,

langed for some edition 1850, p. 13.

Aw

oh the collops."

Thomas Bewick, The

" But

now we can tauk about mairage An' lang sair for wor weddin day." W. Mitford, Pitman
"
along.

Courtship, 1818.

LANG,
Bob
hay,

occasionally used for

He

wis

'lang

win aad

at the time."

LANG-CAIRT,
etc.

It is fixed rigidly to

this respect is

the long cart used by farmers for leading corn, the frame and shafts, and in from the short or " cowp-cairt," distinguished
tilted

which can be
COWP-UP-CAIRT.

up

to discharge its

load.

Compare
resulting in

LANG-CANDY,
complete
failure.

an abortive attempt, an

effort

LANGISH,

longish,

somewhat

long, tedious.

LANG-LANDIN,

a long single journey in field employments, A double journey is extending from heedrig to heedrig. called " a time aboot."

LANG-LAST, at length, in course of time. L ANGLE, LANGIL, to hobble or fetter an


fore

animal by tying a
tailor

and hind

leg together.

LANG-LEG'D-TYELLIOR
LANG-LENTH,
the slidey."
their return
full

(long-legged
"

or jenny-

spinner), the insect daddy-long-legs, Tipula orelacla,

L.

length.

He

fell

down

his lang-lenth

on on

LANG-LOANING-CAKE,
home

cake made

at the vacation.

for schoolboys Brocket! .

LANG-NEB,
i

a prominent nose or beak. Hence applied to " Keep yor lang-neb oot o' this." any impertinent intrusion. a long-metalled plough, principally used for " " ploughing lea. A half-lang-ploo is a moderate sized metal plough for general use. Plough is pronounced ploo, and in

LANG-PLOO,

South Northumberland ploo and

pleuf.

See PLEUF.

LANG-QUARTERED, "
quarter,"
or
front.

applied to shoes made with the upper part, lengthened so as to leave an unusually long open space towards the toe, with a corre" spondingly short vamp," in order to display the stocking in

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

44!

LANG-SAIDLE
settle, or

[N.],

LANG-SETTLE

[S.

and

T.],

along

long seat, with a back to it. In an open room, such as a kitchen or common living room, a lang-settle was made " at the back to keep off the draught. To with a " brattish " si' doon ahint the brattish " is thus to set oneself on the
lang-settle.

LANG-SIDE,

alongside, parallel.
long-sided, long-ribbed, long-bodied.

LANGSIDEET,

LANGSYNE,

long since, long ago.


[N.]
,

LANG-WUNDEET
winded, talkative.

LANG-WINDEET

[S.],

long-

LAN KEY,
is

a native of Lancashire.

LANTERED,

hard pressed, distracted, harassed. The word from the game of loo, in which the loser is said to be A gardener with a small garden, and with too many lantered. " upon a given space, says they are too clumpert," as Elantslantert for room. e is
"
Lantered, hazarded

Northumberland.'

Halliwell.

LAP,

LUP

(the/.*, forms of loup), to leap.

LAP-BANDER, that which binds closely one thing to A tremendous oath is frequently called a lap-bander.
LAPSCALLION,
LARE, LEAR,
"

another.
Brockett.

a harum-scarum or dare-devil character. variant of rapscallion.


learning, education, letters.
bits o' late,
iii.,
1

For aw'd picked up some

tendin close the skuil at neets." Pitman's Pay, pt. " Alle the clerkes that ever had wytt. That ever was or that lives yhitt,

Wi

v. 100.

Couth noght telle ne shew thurgh tare, How mykel sorow and payne er thare." Hampole, Pricke of Conscience,
A.D. 1349, edition Morris,
1.

6,467.

"

This

is still

her sick niece,


l ea

a Scoto-Northumbrian word. Old Betty Hill said about I land her lessons twice a day, but she's varra hard at

y?

"Hodgson MS.
to learn, to teach.

LARE,

Land, learned.

442

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a tombstone.

LARESTONE,

" Latten on the larestones, 55." [that is, brass on the tombstones.] Richard Property of the Monastery of the White Friars in Newcastle, 1538. Welfotd, History of Newcastle in XVI. Century, p. 239.

"James
Accounts.

Cole, for his

Ant Jane Cole her


viii.,

larrestone, 35.

^."Gateshead
aisle

Archceologia Mliana, vol.

1880, p. 235.

" The Ancient Chapel of south side with very old Northumberland, vol. iii., pt.

Hayden (Haydon Bridge) has an


lairstones
ii.,

built

up

in its walls."

on its Hodgson,

p. 382.

LARICK,

larch

fir.

LASHER,
LASHINS,
LASS,

a thing of great size and weight. " Thor wis lashins lavish quantities. Tongue-lashing, invective.
o'

meat and

drink at the dinner."

a female sweetheart, a maid-servant.

Compare LAD.

LAST-BAT-POISON,
player

a game at tig, played as school children arrive at the parting of their ways in going home. The object " is to give a " bat without being touched again, and the on and off calls out " Last -bat

touching

running

-poison."

LASTY, LESTY,
well are
lasty.

lasting, enduring.

Coals that burn long and


is lasty.

Anything that wears well


" Lat an' plaster."
for

LAT,
"

a lath.
1631,

paid

spares,

latts,

and daubing of a chimney

in

the

Almeshouse,

8s. id."

Gateshead Church Books.

LATE-WAKE.
"
1694.
1

See LAKE-WAKE.
a ladder.
lathers

LATHOR, LETHER,
Churchwardens Books,

For making three

out of one old broaken

lather, 6s."

St. Nicholas, Newcastle.

LAT-RIVER,

a lath render.

LATT-BROD,
"
1648.
Itt.

a lath nail.
pd. for 400 of

(Obs.)
latt brodds,

is."

Gateshead Church Books.

LATTEN, LATTIN,

metal. The in old writings. It is now obsolete, except in its application to very thin iron sheets (from 24 wire gauge and thinner), which are called by the trade term lattin sheets, or lattins.

brass, any kind of very thin sheet word is not local, but is common everywhere

or

"A lamp
latten

of latten, isd.

The

latten

basons; 6 lavers of

latten."

Friars, Newcastle, in 1546. Century, p. 239.

Richard

on the larestones, 53. Three old Inventory of Monastery of the White Welford, History of Newcastle in XVI.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

443

LATTISH,

a lattice.

LAUGHING-GOOSE,

the white-fronted goose, Anser

albifrons.

LAVE
lave."
"

[N.]

the rest, the remainder.

" Put him in

amang

the

LAVEROCK,
LAVROCK,
LAVY,
willock,

the skylark, Alauda arvensis. Lark is but this word contracted." Ray, Glossarium Northanhymbricum.
a leveret.
[Harbottle.]

the guillemot,

Una

troile,

L.

Called also wullemot,

and

scoot.

LAW,

a roundish hill or eminence. The word enters into one hundred and fourteen place-names in Northumberland, eight of which are parishes or townships, sixty-two other inhabited Low, another form of law, places, and forty-four uninhabited. occurs, beside, in five other place-names as in Har/ozdiill. " The Law" " The Lawe" at opposite to Holy Island, and South Shields, are examples of the use of the word in a distinctive manner.
"

Anglo-Saxon hlaw,

hlcew,

hill

properly, a slope."

Skeat, Concise

Etymological* Dictionary,

under Low,

3.

LAWING,
"
I'll

reckoning.

(Obs.)
G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,
p. 62.

pay the lawing."

LAWTER, LAUGHTER,

a brood, a decking, a clutch. A turkey or a hen is said to have laid her lawter when she has as many eggs as she can hatch. See LAATER, LAFTER.

LAY,

a piece of iron welded to the worn edge or point of an implement. When a plough kooter (coulter) or sock becomes worn, it is necessary, in order to repair it, to wall (weld) a piece of iron on to it. This is called a lay, and the process is " or " layin a kooter." called " layin a sock Implements which have undergone this repairing process are said to be " new layed." Edge-tools are similarly renewed by layin.
to salve or
is

LAY,

besmear sheep with ointment.


wool of a sheep that has been smeared or
laid

"Laid wool
salve."

with

Hodgson

MS.

LAY,
to

to mix dough for bread making. "Lay the breed" mix the flour with the yeast, to make the dough.

444

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to allay, to retard.

LAY,

"Then snuffs and sneers Suin stop yor gob, and lay yor braggin." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt.

i.,

1826, v. 47.

LAYING-STOOL,

a stool of a peculiar form used by butchers, on which sheep or pigs are laid when killed or being killed.
lilac.

LAYLOC,

LAYNE,
LAY-ON,
on for a

to conceal.

(Obs.)

to put into the

" way, as in the phrase Aa

laid

him

good thing"

put him into the

way

of obtaining a

good thing.

LAY-POKE,
GRAIP.

the

abdomen

of a duck, hen, goose, &c.

Compare

LAZY-BEDS, "
the " sets

potatoes planted by cutting a trench, placing and covering them up level with the soil taken from the next trench, thus leaving the soil fast between the rows. They are well named lazy-beds.
therein
(lazy bones), a lazy fellow.

LAZY-BYENS

LEA, LEE, LEY,

grass or pasture ground, either the open unploughed field or land that has been cultivated and afterwards allowed to go back to grass. Leeland is contrasted with hieland, as lea or meadow land with the wilder uplands. " Riving lea "ploughing lea land. In place-names ley occurs about a hundred and twenty-five times, and the forms lea and lee occur about fifty-five times in Northumberland. Gregory,
ix., p.

Archaologia sEliana, vol.


"

67.

Ploughing lea means ploughing for the first time over such land as has been for some years lea that is, in grass or pasture." Hodgson,
Northumleyland, pt.
"
ii.,

vol. i, p. 304, note,

They

And
" I'm a

hackit off his hands and feet left him lying on the ka."

Border bairad, Death of Parcy Reed.

North countryman, in Redesdale born, Where our land lies lea, and grows ne corn." Border song, Denham's Folk-Lore, 1851,

p. 3.

LEADAGE,

cartage.

LEADIN-BELT,
LEAL,

a leather strap with a chain attached.

faithful, honest.

See LEIL.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

445

LEAM, LEMING,

terms very commonly applied to ancient roads or places situated on such roads as the Learn Lane leading from South Shields to Gateshead Fell, in the county The two learns in Redesdale are on the side of of Durham. the Roman Watling Street.
to separate, as a ripe nut separates

LEAM, LEAMER,
its

from

husk.
"

North of England the terms as applied to a hazel nut when it becomes brown and mealy ended, ripe and ready to fallout of its husk." Hodgson, Arch&ologia, JEliana, vol. ii., p. 132.

Well known

to every schoolboy in the


'

a brown

learner

or

'

it

learns well,'

LEAP,
"

to parboil.

See LEEP.

LEAPYT,
strenkle

ov sugar ont." Thomas Bewick, leapyt Teyne-Seyfo Dialect Sixty Years Seyne, edition 1850, p. 10.
a

a lappet, a covering. Bring him a shive oh butter an breed

cut

him a good counge, an


The

Howdy.

LEASH, LEESH,
from anything.

a lash, a thong for a whip, a smart blow

LEASH, LEESH,
flick

" Leesh to whip. yor horse up, man." with a whip, a thong, or anything of the kind.

To

LEASHER,
tops.
J.

a long leathern thong used by boys to whip their L. Luckley, Alnwick Language.

LEAT,

a thin, compact layer, a lamination. The sections of a long stack, built one after another, are called leats. Compare

FLEECY.

LEATH, LAITH,
gan."

loath, unwilling.

"

Aa

wis

leath (lee-ath) ti

LEATH E,
corn,

and

cattle in winter.

a barn, a grange, a walled house for storing hay, Hodgson MS. (Rare or obs.) a person of strength or stature. a sorry hack, a poor horse.
a clumsy, noisy dancer.
bat.

LEATHERER,

LEATHER-PLATER,

LEATHERTY-PLATCH,

LEATHER-WING,
LEAVY, LEAFY,

the

common

that is, in thin folds or leaves. constantly used by sinkers.

The term

is

446

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

LEAZES, Lammas

stinted grass pastures, "hained" from Lady Day to Lease originally means to glean, for the hay crop. to gather. The Leazes in Northumberland have all been grass reserved for hay at stated pastures, or Lammas meadows, times each year. They have commonly a distinguishing as Shaftoe-L^^s at Hexham, Waddow-L^^s at
prefix,

Corbridge,
at

Heather-L^^s

at

Warkworth, and Castle-L^^s


;

Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

" He schal and he schal fynde lesewis." go yn, and schal go out Wycliffe's version (A.D. 1383), John x., v. 9.

"Two selions, called Leasses, in Gesmpnde Field." Conveyance dated 1556. Archaologia JEliana, vol. i., new series, p. 32. " two winde mills, called the Easter and Wester Mills, with a close perteyninge to the Easter Mill, and fower leazes whereupon the Wester Will in same, p. 42. Mill doth stande."

Two

My

"

Two

garths, with three riggs or leazes."

The same, p. 43.

stinted pasture called The Leazes, alias Enclosure Award of Corbridge, 1779.

"The

Waddow

Leazes."

LECKY,
"

Applied to the weather when rain falls in leaky. " A intermittent showers. lecky summer."

To

leek

on, to pour on." "

Bailey's Dictionary.

A lecky May, A lecky June,

plenty plenty

o'
o'

hay

coorn."

LED,
the

led tub or corf means a spare one, for spare, extra. to leave empty with the hewer whilst the full one is being put to the flat or crane.

barrowman
a watery To run lee,

LEE,
"

fluid

discharged from badly healing wounds.


lee

to discharge

as above."

Brockett.

LEEDS,

shallow, tapering troughs, lined with lead for the purpose of cooling milk and allowing the cream to rise.

LEEDEATER,
"

indiarubber. lead-pencil marks.

Originally used for rubbing out

blether

aw

call

For

o' silk,

it, by gocks, aw am reet, dipt iv leedeater melted, its myed." W. Midford, Bob Cranky's Account of Mr. Sadler's Balloon, September i, 1815.

LEEK-TAILS,

the leaves of a leek.


!

LEE-LAA-LET

alight.

"

Lee-laa-let,

imperative and duplicated chasing a butterfly.

form

ma bonny pet," an used by children when

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

447

LEEP,
To

leep meat is to boil so as to preserve it. to parboil it so as to prevent its falling. Gooseberries are leeped in like manner, and then bottled for

to parboil.

To

leep

salmon

is

preservation.
"

To

leep

onions."

Hodgson MS.

LEESH, LEISH, "LISH


youthful vigour.
"

[N.]

LEESHIN,
chep."

lithe,

full

of

He's a

leeshin

See the

lish

James Armstrong, The

yald shepherd lads how Monkside heights they climb." Kielder Hunt, 1879.

LEETNIN,

daybreak.
a vessel in ballast.

LEET-SHIP,

LEE-WAJTER, LEY- WAITER,


which flows from a wound See LEE.
after

the thin watery exudation the bleeding has ceased.

LEGLEN,

a milking pail.
" Ilk ane
lifts

her

leglen

an hies her awa." Old Song on the Battle of Flodden.

LEIGHTON,
"
Litten,

a garden. Only found in Northumberland in place-names, as Green Leighton, &c.


a garden."
is

Bailey.

equivalent to leek-town, Anglo-Saxon for garden. AngloSaxon had a habit of not enduring the combination ct. Thus Latin rectus is in A.-S. riht, in English right. The c (k) became a guttural before t. Hence, in leac-tun, a leek-town (town = enclosure), the c became guttural hence we also find the spellings leah-tun, leh-tun. The last is precisely Leighton if you pronounce the gh as German cA." Note by Professor Skeat.
Leighton
;

"

LEIKIN.

SeeLAKiN.
vigorous.

LEISH,

lithe, fresh,

See LEESH.
like

LEISTER,

a salmon spear used by poachers, made Neptune's fork, but with three, four, or five barbed teeth.

LENARD, LENART,
variously

It is the linnet, Canndbina linota. as the brown, grey, red, or rose lenart. The mountain linnet, C. flavivostvis, is called the twite or heather " linty. Trig as a lennard" a common proverb, meaning as sprightly and neat as a linnet. See LINTY.

known

LEP,
"

to lade or

lift

water, as in baling a boat.

See LYEAP.

used to say that there had been as many ladles made at " Newcastle Daily Chronicle, the sea dry.' Crowley's as would lep
April 26, 1886.

We

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

LEPPER, LIPPER,

small waves on the surface of water.

LETCH,
among
"
the

a long, narrow swamp in which water moves slowly rushes and grass. Frequent in place-names as

Chad-letch, Queeris-letch, etc.

A swang, or marshy gutter." Bailey, General View of Agriculture of County of Durham. " They soon came to the place Dandy Dinmont named (Withershin's which soaked, rather than flowed, a latch), a narrow channel, through small stagnant stream, mantled over with bright green mosses." Guy Mannering, chap, xxiii. "Letch is doubtless allied to the verb to leak. The idea is a swamp Note by Professor Skeat. into which water leaks slowly."

LEUF, LYEV, LEEF, LUFE, LOOF, "


" If
ye'll scart

the palm of the To greesh the lyev" (grease the palm) is to give hand. a person a gratuity.

maw

leuf,

I'll

claw yur elbow."

Newcastle proverb.

Brockett.

LEUNGIE,
(Obs.)

the flank, or buttock.

Another spelling of

loin.

LEVEL,
run
in.

a gutter in a mine for the water to the inner end of a drift or level, and the level-sole the floor of the same. Level-free means drained by means of an adit or free-level.

an adit or

drift,

The

level -foreheed is

LEVER,

a roof beam of naturally curved timber, being one of the couples or principals used in supporting a roof. These roof beams do not rest upon the wall-plates of the house in this differing from the tie-beam of building construction. They are still to be seen in thatched houses. An outward thrust is obviated by carrying the principals down to the ground, where they form a roof support quite independent of the wall. (See sketch in the Proceedings of the Newcastle Society
:

of Antiquaries, 1885-6, vol.

ii.,

p. 169.)

LEWED
New
LEY,

Year

drawn, dragged. [N.] an' there a'm lewed in


,

"
ti

He

lent

me

his

dog

at the

pay

license."

grass land.

See LEA.

LIARED,
LICK,
LICK,

dappled or streaked.

See LYERED.
fist

a sword cut, a sharp blow with the

or with a stick.

a small quantity. lick and a promise" a very small beginning or attempt at anything. Compare LOAK.

"A

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

449

LICKLY,
"

likely,

probable.
Brockett.

Lickliest, likeliest."

LICKORSTICK,
LIE,
in the

a stick of licorice; otherwise called

lickorish.

combination lie-in, to sleep longer than intended. used in the sense of being incumbent or " It lies him on't." Lying-time the time worked necessary. between the date on which the pay-bill is made up and the
Also,
to
lie-on,

date of the pay-day.

LIE-LOACH, LIE-LOTCHER
parts lyed-heed and Her.

[Alnwick] the loach. Called also in the north of the county a meggy-lotchie, and in other
,

LIFEY, LIFF
went
a'

" [N.], lively, full of life, high spirited. said by a shepherd describing the away liff," parting of some friends, probably after a glass.

We

clean

LIFT,
"

a broken jud in a mine.

coal."

place driven along the side or end (open to the goaf) of a pillar of Nicholson, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888.

LIFT,
LIFT,

a set of

pumps
"

in a pit.
lift's

the sky.

The

varry drummly like."

LIFT,
in

to steal, applied formerly to cattle stealing or "shifting"

Border forays, but now constantly used in speaking of the removal of cattle or goods which have been purchased. " Aa've selt the stots to an' he hes ti' lift them the morn."
,

LIFT,

to raise a corpse from the bier in order to carry it for Funeral notices frequently conclude by the words, burial. " The time stated is the Lift at [such and such] o'clock."

hour

at

which the funeral moves from the house.

LIFT,
lift

to rise up, to heave, as the floor of a coal

mine

is

said to

in a

"creep."
or

LIFTIN, heaving
wi' varmin."

moving with

life.

"His

claes wis

liftin

LIGGY,

and cris-crossed with

a ball, originally of lignum vitae or other hard wood, lines, used in playing the game of " trippet-and-quoit." It was covered with whiting to make it more conspicuous when driven by the player. White earthenware balls are substituted for wooden ones, but they are still called liggies.

450

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
travellers alighting at an inn. " that is, was The Queen's Head Inn was a great house for lighters much frequented by farmers. Note by Mr. G. H. Thompson, Alnwick.
11

LIGHTERS,
LIGLY,
"

likely.

See LICKLY.
;

and all the houses about yt goeth downe and decayeth, the woods are clene destroyed and Ugly to be in hast." Plumpton Wright's Glossary. Correspondence, p. 129.

The maner

LIG-MA-LAST,
Shakspere.

a loiterer, the last.


lies

Brocket*.

LIG-O-BED, one who


Brockett.

long in bed
" It

the slug-a-bed

of

LIKE, becoming,
went yorsel."
"

to the purpose.

wad be mair
wis as
like

like if

ye

Compare MACKERLIKE.
rain."

It's like to LIKE, likely. The word is used also in a

"

He

as not."

stronger sense, which is equivalent to "must needs" thus, "Will yor Bella gan the morn?" "Aye, she's like, noo, aa wad think" that is, she ought
certainly.

LILACS, LYLAX, LYLICKS,

a mixture of linseed, wheatmeal, and a little milk boiled together as feeding for calves when they are put out to grass at first. Formerly farmers reared all their calves on this food.
!

LILLY-LEUDS
"

an exclamation.

"

Lilly-lends!

what a

job."

Lilly-wuns

Lilly-wunters! exclamations of

amazement."

Brocket*.

LILLY-LOW, LILLY-LEE,

a grassy slope. Lilly-low is a In the common field-name, probably identical with lilly-lee. fields at Corbridge, the name High-lilly-lows occurs. Lilly" little low, elsewhere defined as a bla^e," is not so used in

Northumberland. " Hide me by


11

the bracken bush,


lilye-lee."

That grows on yonder


Swift

was the Cout

o'

Battle of Otterbourne. Keeldar's course,

Alang the

lily -lee."

The Cout

o'

Keeldar.

slopes were grassy, the lilly-lee of the ballad." Description of Otterburn, Dr. James Hardy. History of Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, vol. ix., p. 464,
'

"The

'

LIM,

a mischievous boy or girl. " A perfect Urn " (a complete mischief) is a common expression in Coquetdale. "Not, probably, allied to limmer, but an independent word. It is understood to mean a limb of Satan,' and to be the same as limb." Note by Professor W. W. Skeat.
'

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

45 1

LIMERY

[N.]

a lime kiln.
to a pliable rod also jocosely, as in and as in the phrase
;

LIMMER, LIMBER, supple, applied " A limmer thief." treacherous. Used

speaking to a wild and lively girl, "A Ummev loon" a wag. " Then the limmer Scottes hared me, burnt my guddes, and made
deadlie feede on me and my barnes." English Text Society, p. 6, 1. 27.
Bullein, Dialogue,
1564.

Early

Billy Billy

"June ii, 1566. In the court ecclesiastical, sitting at Durham, Robert and his wife appeared against Katherine Blithman, who had called
'

hold eeyd lymber

theiff.'

"Richard

Welford, History of Newcastle

in the

XVI.

Century, p. 405.

LIMMERS,
where

the shafts of a cart, a shaft or Ummev.


flax.

Limmer-end

the front end of

LINE, LYN,
flax is

Lyn halvhe,"

in old deeds, is a

haugh

grown.
line.

LINE,
term.

to

sound or plumb with a

To

survey

a colliery
J. C.,

Compleat

" I measure as they line or sound for the depth of a river." Collier, 1708, p. 32.

LING,

the heaths Erica tetvalix and Erica cinerea, L. Also the cotton grass, Eriophorum vaginatum, L. In the Northumbrian moorlands ling is never applied to the common heath, Calluna
vulgaris. " In the districts of Redesdale, Upper Coquetdale, and Alndale. Calluna vulgaris is commonly known as 'heather' (bee heather), whilst Erica tetralix and Erica cinerea are both known as ling. In early spring, the flocks in the Cheviots md the hills of Upper Coquetdale and Redewater feed upon the tender blades of the hare's tail cotton grass (Eriophorum vaginatum), and although this plant belongs to the sedge tribe, yet it is called 'silky ling by the shepherds in those parts." D. D. Dixon, Rothbury, in Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, December 29, 1888.
1

LINGEL,

a shoemaker's wax-end and sewing thread. The wax-end, is the point of the waxed thread. It is tipped with a birce (hog's bristle), so that it can be pushed " through the elshin (awl) holes in the leather. Stripping " the deed is a term used by shoemakers for the act of removing the birce from a sewn-up thread in order to use it over again in preparing a new wax-end.
lingel-end, or

LINGELT-LEUKIN,
LINING,
LINKS,

slim in general appearance.

dialling or surveying underground.

grown with " bents." Links at Holy Island.

accumulations of blown sand, forming sandhills overBlyth .Links, Whitley Links, and the

,e 2

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

LINN

The name a deep pool at the base of a waterfall. Low Lynn, Linoccurs in Routing Linn, Hareshaw Linn, The Lwmouth, and Lwhead. briggs, Lwsheels, Liwhope, used to describe a cascade. word is sometimes
had expected a waterfall at the Linn above Linnbrig, but it is a clett but the only a rapid, occasioned by the river rushing through of the word dark pool is there the true linn, in the original acceptance Naturalists' and bottomless." Dr. James Hardy, History of Berwickshire
'

We

Club, vol. v., p. 386.

Between shady banks, the West Allen, in winter, rushing over to the roar of the lins and a stony bed, raises her voice 106. storms." Hodgson, Northumberland, vol. Hi., pt. n., p.
foaming

LIN-PIN,
LI.NTY,

a linch-pin.

flaxen. "O'er her fair shoothers her


1

linty

locks flee."

James Armstrong,

Lizzy o the Glen, 1879.

LINTY,
lenard.

the willow wren, Phyllopneuste trochilus. Linty is sometimes applied to the name of the lesser whitethroat, Curruca The linnet (CannaUna linota) is also called linty or garrula.
"

The linty and the linty white, The laverick and the lark, The gooldy and the goldspink Hoo many bords is that ?"
the linnet.

Northumberland guessing

story.

LINTY-WHITE,
LIPPEN,
"

See LINTY.
"

" Aa canna him to trust, to depend on. lippen " " Aa darna dare cannot trust him by himself. lippen on't
not depend upon
it.

Lippen to me, but look to yourself."

Newcastle proverb.

Brockett.

LIPPER, LEPPER,
when

lapping waves on the surface of water

agitated by the wind.

See LEPPER.
tuberosus,

LIQUORY-KNOTS,
'LISHAW,

the bitter vetch, Orobus seeds are called mouse-peas.

L.

The

the common name for Elishaw, a farmstead near " He'll be left on the Otterburn, which occurs in the phrase anunder 'Lishaw if he dissent hurry on " that is, left haughs stranded.
" The haugh behind Elishaw is the recipient of the floating rubbish that the Rede carries off from the upper country during floods. Hence it is said when anything is amissing in that district, You'll find it in the " Dr. James Hardy, History of Berwickshire haugh anunder Elishaw.'
'

Naturalists' Club, vol. ix., p. 470.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

453
thigh.

LISK,

the hollow between the

abdomen and the

LISSEY,

easy, restful after suffering.

LIST

When a person is suffering great a respite from pain. " pain and it leaves him for a time, he is said to have getten a list* See LISSEY.
"

LIST,

vigour, energy. not the energy.

Aa henna

the

list

to dee'd

"

that

is,

LISTIN,
GARTEN.

the

list,

or selvedge of a

web

of cloth.

Compare
listy

LISTY,

full

of

"go"

or energy,

That dog's gan varry


eaves- droppers.

on his legs noo."

LITH,
"

to listen.

Lithnin-listeners
Bailey.

(Obs.)

To

Lithin, to hearken."

LITHICS,

the farina of oatmeal macerated in water and The fine flour of the meal only is allowed carefully strained. to pass the strainer along with the water. This is then boiled to a jelly, and forms a common infants' food in Northumberland. Compare LILACS.

LITHING,

the beating of a little flour and water finely together and putting them into broth to lithe and thicken it, and [make it] more agreeable to sup. Hodgson MS.
" Lithe the pot

"that

is,

put oatmeal into

it.

Bailey, quoting Ray.

LITSTER, a dyer. (Obs.) " Dec., 1583. Roger Gray, litster"St.


p. 320, note.

Nicholas' Register.

Brand,

ii

"To

lit,

to colour or dye."

Bailey.

LITTLE- A-DOW,

worthless

Northumberland.

Halliwell's Diet.

LITTLE-GOOD, the sun spurge, Euphorbia helioscopia, Linn. Common in cultivated fields. LITTLE- PLOO, a small plough used for cleaning turnips in
drill.

LITTLIE,

a smaller person than others. In a race or contest, the exertions of a vigorous little fellow are always hailed " Gan on the littlie." encouragingly with the cry of
active. (Obs.) Again speaks out a Lyver-\ad, a trusty Trojan."

LIVER,
"

G. Stewart, Joco-

Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 39.

454

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to deliver, to get clear of.
Still

LIVOR, LIVER,
Northumberland.
"

In general use in
Wright's Glossary.

Livery, delivery.

used as a law term"

LIZZY-RUN-THE-HEDGE,
Linn.

the goosegrass, Galium aparine,

Also called Robin-run-the-dyke and tongue -Uooder.


a leech.
Lie-loach, the river fish, loach.

LOACH,
"

Lop-loach, the leech used

by surgeons."

Brockett.

LOAD,
'a

as can be carried on the back of load of lead was a weight or "galloway." pack-horse of two cwts. of ore carried on the backs of "galloways" from A load of potatoes is twenty the mine to the smelt mill. stones (280 Ibs.). Compare POTHER, a cartload. and by a load is still "There are to this day little collieries, meant in several of them, not any relation to the quantity that can be dragged by a horse in a cart, but as much as he could carry on his back in those times when the want of roads precluded the employment of wheel-carriages." T. John Taylor, Archeology of the Coal Trade, 1852, as

much merchandise

P- 157-

LOAD,

a crowd of people. Used in an extended sense where "Loads o' meat a large quantity of anything is spoken of. and drink." "Loads o' money." " Loads o' time." Heaps is similarly used.
"

LOAD, used as a p.p. for loaden. LOAGS. See LOOAGS.


LOAK, LORE, LOCK,

Wor just

load"

just loaded.

a small indefinite quantity. Also applied to a small quantity of meal, sand, sugar, etc. A look of anything is a larger quantity than a " pickle," which is a minute portion. A handful of hay, thrust in for packing, is called a key-loak. the miller's ladle, with which he took multure out of
sacks.

LOAK,

LOAK, LOKE, a lock or sluice in a mill dam. Brockett. LOAN, LOANIN, a bye road, a "lonnin." See LONNIN. LOAN, LOWN, LOANIN, LONEING, a sheltered place
where cows were gathered to be milked
is

" the coo loan." generally called " I have heard a lilting at our ewes' milking, Lasses alilting before break of day But now there's a moaning on ilka green loaning, That our braw forresters are a' wede away,"
;

The milking

place

Battle oj Flodden Field.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

455

LOAN,

to bring

cows to

their milking place.

LOBBER,

to boil violently.

LOBSTROPLOUS,
LOB-UP,

obstreperous, loud, noisy.

to shoot one marble at another without a ricochet. Lob in some dialects is the name of a large taw.

LOCK, LOCK-HOLE,
ore.

a cavity, or " shake," in a vein of lead

LODDLE,
LOFT,
to

soft,

spongy ground.
ball or bowl,

throw a high

LOFTING,

a competition at throwing a ball or stone, the object being to make the highest throw.
to

LOGGER,
fashion.

walk with a lax

gait or in a loose-jointed,
2.

swaying

Compare SLOGGER,

LOGGERHEED,
LOGGERIN,

the large tiger moth.

encumbered with.
still

LOGWATER,
LOKE,

water.

Brocket*.

a small quantity.
a

See LOAK,

i.

LOLLOCK, LOLLOP,
Compare DOLLUP.

lump

as a

lollock

of fat.

Brocket*.

LOLLY, LOLLER,

the tongue.

LONNIN,
road end.
"
vol.

a lane, a narrow road.

Lonnin-end, Loaning-end, a
2.

Compare LOAN,

and

Those who have


i.,

to pass the three loaning-ends,

been buried."
p. 33.

Popular Superstitions.

where a suicide has Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div.


t

LOOAGS, LOUGS, LOAGS,


the legs during snow.

footless stockings

drawn over

LOOF,
J

the palm of the hand.

See LEUF.

-NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

LOOK,

to

weed wild herbs out

of gardens or corn-fields.

Hodgson

MS.

LOON,

the red-throated diver, Colymbus septentrionalis, Linn. Also the great crested grebe, Podiceps cristatus, Linn.
a heavy blow.
to thrash.

LOONDER,
LOONDER,
LOOSE.

See
(pi.,

LOWSE and
looses),

following words.
louse.

LOOSE

shoother"

game played by

"There's a loose upon children in a ring.


permit,
to

yor

LOOT, the strong p.t. of to let, to " He loot the seek faa doon the stairs."
LOP,
to curdle, applied to milk that application of an acid. Hodgson. See

allow.

curdles without

the

LOPPERED.

LOP,

a flea.

LOP-LOACH,

the leech used by surgeons to Bailey's Agriculture of County Durham.


(the p.p. of loup), leaped.

draw blood.

LOPPEN
LOPPER,

See LUPPEN.
Also a thick growth of

an eruption on the skin.

anything.

LOPPERED, LOPPERT, "


Loppert blood."

Hence mixed

Loppert coagulated. up, confused.


(Obs.)

milk,"

LORD AN,
LORENS,
"
in

a blockhead, a lazy fellow.


lazy, sluggish.

LORDY, LURDY,
laziness.

See LORDAN.

From Lawrence. Lazy Lawrence is a proverbial name many parts of England." Note by Professor W. W. Skeat.
'
'

for

an

idler

LORK

[N.]

LORCH

[T.]

to lurch, to lie in wait.


;

LORK, LIRK, LAIRK,


a wrinkle.

a fold in a piece of cloth or in a dress Lorky, wrinkled or folded.


a br&w\.Halliwell.

LORRIE-UP,

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

457

LORTY,

This is given in HalliwelVs Dictionary and dirty. Wright's Glossary as a Northumberland word, but it is, apparently, the same as dovty.
[N.],

LOUGH, LOWF
Sweethope
lough,

LOWE,
lough,

a lake.
lough,

Black

Keemer

Harbottle lough, Whitfield lough,

The survival of this Fallowlees lough, and Newham lough. Irish word, which extends from Holy Island over Northumberland and across North Cumberland, is remarkable, especially as all the lakes are of small consequence.
"The Loughs or Lowes, or lakes of the Huntland of Tindale, from which the Forest of Lowes derives its name, are five in number Grindon and Craig lough, Little-tow;, Greenley, and lough, south of the Wall Bromley loughs, all a little north of the Wall." Hodgson, Northumberland
;

vol.

iii.,

2, p. 327, note.

LOUGS,
LOOAGS.

stocking legs worn as a protection in riding.

See

LOUNDERIN, LOONDERIN,
LOONDER.

a beating or thrashing.

See

LOWP, LOUP,
and
lupperi).

a leap to leap (p.t. lap and lup ; p.p., loppen a pole leap. Runnin-hee-/0w/ a Pole-loup funning high leap. dog-loup the narrow passage between " Stairs but detached houses. " The two
;

at

Dog Loup Newcastle were demolished in 1893. A. paddock-/0w/> a summersault turned by two boys, each of whom lays hold of the feet of his comrade. The two then roll round and round, and are thus supposed to imitate the leap or movement of a paddock (frog,)
adjoining
,

LOUPIN-ILL

[W.-T.] a disease. The name is expressive of the symptoms of the disease, in which the animal leaps or rears up, staggers, and very often expires.
the familiar mounting stone placed near a house door to assist a person in getting on horseback. In some cases a boulder stone serves the in others, a single stone is hewn into the form of steps. office
;

LOUPIN-ON-STYEN, leaping on stone;

See MOUNT, HORSIN-STYEN, CRUPPER-STYEN, PILLION-STYEN.

LOUPIN-STYEN,

a stone over which a bride is compelled to leap on leaving the church. See PETTING-STONE.

LOUPIN-THE-WELL,
at

an ancient custom formerly imposed Alnwick on candidates for the freelage of the town, who were obliged to go through the Freeman's Well, a dirty, miry pool on Alnwick Moor.

458

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

LOUP-THE-LANG-LONNIN,
by a row
of boys,

the game of leap-frog, played stand with bent backs in a long row, or A player begins at the rear, and rapidly loups back lonnin. Here he takes a pace after back till clear of the lang-lonnin. or two forward and " makes a back," whilst the hindmost lad comes on and does the same. The lonnin is thus always moving forward.

who

LOWPY-BACK,

the

game

of leap-frog.

LOWPY-DYKE,
fences.

applied to sheep when given to leap over Also, metaphorically, to the character of a person who has lost self restraint, and equivalent to the colloquial " expression to kick over the traces."
a brood of chickens.

LOUTER,

See LAFTER.

LOW,

an eminence.

See LAW.

LOW,

a flame, a light.
in

"Piece
a
pit,
is

"Trying the low"

presence of explosive gas by

its

o' low" part of a candle. the operation of trying the effect upon the light carried.
is

LOW,
Low.

a lake.

The

tidal

stream at Goswick

called

Goswick

See LOUGH.
calm,
still.

LOWEN, LOWIN, LOWND,


weather.

Applied to the

LOW-ROPE,
torch.

a piece of tarry rope or spun yarn used as a

LOWSE-GANG,

a squad of railway men employed in relaying, loading and unloading rails and permanent way plant, or as emergency men in time of accident.
loose-in-the-heft, a disorderly person, Bvockett. See HEFT.

LOWSE-I-THE-HEFT,
a vagabond

uncertain in his haunts.

LOWTER,
LOZEN,

a setting of eggs.

See LAFTER.

a pane of glass. or

LUCKEN-GOWAN,
Troilus Europceus.

GOWAN,

the mountain globe flower,

LUCK-PENNY,
luck,

the

on conclusion of a bargain.

money given back

to the purchaser, for

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

459

LUCKY, an old dame. " Old Lucky" is often the appellation in North Northumberland of a farmer's mother or old wife.
LUCKY,
lucky."

directions to

large, wide, easy. make their


Bvockett.

Country

tailors generally receive customers' clothes " brave and

LUCKY-BYEN,

a small bone found in a sheep's head, which people put in their pocket under the impression that good luck will attend them while they carry it.

LUCKY-STYEN,
lucky-stone is

a small stone having a hole through it. The always hung on the inside of the door by a string Compare ADDER-STYEN, passed through its perforation.

HOLEY-STONE.

LUG, LUG-WORM,
marinus,

the thick, hairy sand worm, Lumbricus used for bait by the north-east coast fishermen for

white

fish.

LUGGISH,

stupid, asinine.
,

LUGGY
of

[N.]

a small wooden dish, with one handle only, out


their porridge.

which children used to sup


a chimney.

See COG,

2.

LUM,

in a colliery.

The chimney at the top of an upcast shaft Lww-sooper, a chimney sweep.


(Obs.)
,

LUNDER, to cuff. LUNGISTER [N.]

a meat pudding

composed

of

chopped

entrails (heart, liver, etc.) of the pig.

LUNT

[N.]

on

fire, alight.

LUP, LAP,
Wheat

leaped.

(The preterite of

loup.)

See LAP,

i.

LUPPEN, LOPPEN,

leaped, burst forth (p.p. of loup, to leap). raised out of the ground by frost is termed luppen ; or a hoop on a barrel broken by the same means is also luppen. A cabbage that has burst open is in like manner called a
luppen cabbage.

LURRY,
LUTE,

to lug or pull (Northumberland}.

HalliweWs Diet.

LUSH-MA-LAVEY, LUSHY-GALAVY, wastefully, lavishly.


Kennett,
to lie hid. In use in HalliwelVs Diet.

Northumberland, according to

460

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
dappled, streaked.
the loach.

LYARD,

See LYERED. See LIE-LOACH.

LYED-HEED,
LYER,

a long, clean thorn which in hedge-cutting is nicked at It is the root and bent down till it lies close to the ground. trained into position across a thin or gappy part of a hedge and held there by a forked branch till its shoots fill up the gap.

LYERED, LYARD, LIARD, LIART, LYRED,

dappled or streaked, intermixed with lines or streaks of contrasting colour or substance.


flesh, especially

LYERY,

from the above, abounding with lean on the buttocks.

LYIN-MONEY,

an allowance paid to putters when stopped working during their shift through breakages or want of waggons. Also the money kept in hand by the owners that is, the week's money between the baff Saturday and the pay-day. See LIE.

LYIN-TIDE,

overtime or extra time occupied in discharging a loaded keel, and on which demurrage is due.
a wake.

LYKE-WAKE,
LYPE,
to

See LAKE-WAKE.
is

have " the

natural endowment. A horse with good action lype of going."

said

MAABAG, MAWBAG,
MAAD, MAAK,

the

maw

or stomach of an animal.

MAUD

[N.]
[S.

a shepherd's plaid.
,

MAWK
"

and T.]

MOAK

[W.-T.]

a maggot.
i,

Where mawks and

caterpillars soora."
pt.

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

1826, v. 58.

MAAKIN,

moving with maggots.


maggoty,
the

MAAKY,

decomposing.
or

"A

unclean salmon.

maaky salmon"

an

MAAKY-FLEE,
MAALIN,

which deposits the ova from which maggots are hatched. Meat having eggs thus deposited is said to be
"fly-droven."
a dirty lass.

blue-fly,

blow-fly

(Musca

vomitoria),

See MALIN.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

4 6t

MAANDER,

to maunder, to wander an aimless way.

in talk, to

walk about

in

MA AS, MAWSE,
is still

marsh mallow, Malva wioschata, L. The herb used medicinally as a poultice to allay swellings, etc. The seeds are called " cheeses " by children.

MABLIN,

a mason's small hammer, having a one end and a chisel point at the other.

hammer

face at

MACARONI-GIN, " "


Dandy,"
name

for a kind of colliery gin. are similar fantastic names applied to newly-introduced contrivances. See WHIM-GIN. " There is a sort of gins called whim-gins,' and a kind known by the

an old term
etc.,

Whimsey,"

'

of 'macaroni-gins.'"

Brand, History of Newcastle,

vol.

ii.,

1789,

p. 684.

MACKERLIKE
beggar!"
"

[N.]

more becoming, much more mackeylike if ye war ta cairy


SeeiLiKE.

(comparative form of mack-like), much " It wad leuk to the purpose. th' waiter for the laddy, poor
Halliwett.

Mackerley, shapely, fashionable."

MACKET, MACKER, MAWKRE,


inferior coarse coal.

a black, coaly band, or

See BADGER,

i.

MADDLE,
MAFFLE.

to

wander, to talk inconsistently.

Brockett.

See

MADDOCK-HOE,
at the other.

such roots as furze,

a tool used in clearings for stubbing up etc. It has an axe at one end and a hoe

MADPASH,
Brockett.

a person disordered in the mind, a madbrain.

MAE, MAY, more

" The mae in number. pairt on them wis back agyen. gan " Besides us, many me men haue gud lucke." Bullein, Dialogue, 1564,
Early English Text Society, p.
9,
1.

21.

MAGENIKEN,
MAGES,

a genius.

Query,

for magician (?).

the hands.

Halliwell.

See MEAG.
Called also plot and

MAGGY,
pianet.
if

the magpie, Pica caudata, L.


a difficulty.

MAGRIM,
you

suffer a

"That's the wagriml" you exclaim mishap that is difficult to be rectified.

462

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

MAIDENS,

the two upright standards which supported the driving wheel of a spinning wheel. The term maiden was also applied to a little tripod with a fixed vertical spindle at the top. The bobbin, or "pirn," taken from a spinning wheel, ran loosely on the spindle and allowed the thread to be wound
off.

MAIDENS-HAIR,
Also
the plant FIX-FAX.
a

the large sinews of a bullock when boiled. crosswort, Galium cruciatum, Withy. See

MAIDEN-WAY,

road which leaves the main has descended the pass of Stainmore, in Westmoreland. Slanting along the western side of the Pennine Range under Cross Fell it grades up the slope to the water shade, and then descends to the Gildersdale burn and enters Northumberland.

Roman branch
after
it

way near Kirby Thore,

MAIK, MAKE,
mate.
11

a match, a peer, an equal, a companion, consort, Maikless, or wakeless, without equal, matchless. (Obs.)

The

De'il has not their maiks beside."

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1656,


"

p. 67.

Cam

Many wedows with wepyng

tears

to fach ther makys a way."

Chevy Chase.

MAIK
MAIL, MAIL,
"

[N.]

MEG

[S.]

a halfpenny.

cant term.

rent.

See BLACK-MAIL.

Lansd., 1033.)

MAWZY.

to discolour, to spot (Kennett, MS. (Northumbeyland). HalliwelVs Diet., under mail, 6. Compare

&c., or as the furrs of

Mailed, full of specks, or speckled, as the feathers of hawks, partridges, some wild beasts are." New World of Words, 1706.

MAIL.

See MEAL.
[N.]
,

MAILIN
MAI MY,
MAIN,
in

the outfit for a bride.

diminutive of the Christian

name Mary.

games, a pool, or sweepstake, as "

quoit

main"

etc.

MAIN,

seam, low main seam.

applied to more important beds, as main post, high main

" Coalowners had not yet discovered (A.D. 1512), or found means to win the deep strata of this fossil, or what is styled in the language of the trade, 'the main coal.'" Brand, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., 1789,
p. 263, note.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

463
at a pit.

MAIN-ENGINE,
MAINS, demesne

the surface
;

pumping engine
;

lands that is, domain lands lands held under a lordship. The word occurs in the names of many farmsteads, as Lawson Mains, at Byker Hallington Mains, &c. " A farm, or fields, near a house, and in the owner's occupation."
;

Halliwell.

MAINSTAY,

the chief support of a household.

"

The

lad's his

mother's mainstay."

MAIN SWORN,
1706.

foresworn or perjured.

New World

of Words,

See MANSWORN.
manifest, palpable.
" " He's a mainyfast leear

MAINYFAST,
a palpable

liar.

MAIRCH-DYKE,
Compare MARCH.
MERE-STONES.

a boundary between
|W.-T.]

estates

or

farms.

MAIRCH-STANES
MAIRT,
mairt."

boundary

stones.

Compare

a derisive term for a tall person.

"

Ye

greet muckle

MAIRT, MART,
was afterwards
use.

a bullock bought by two or more persons. It and divided amongst the purchasers, a portion of each man's share being generally pickled for winter
killed

"There
for
fat

is

an annual
called

cattle,

fair called the Town Fair, on November 22nd, here Marts, from the time of Martinmas."

Mackenzie, History of Newcastle,

p. 719.

" Martlemas was the customary time (November nth, the feast of St. Martin) for hanging up provisions to dry, which had been salted for winter provision as our ancestors lived chiefly upon salted meat in the Nare's Glossary. spring, the winter-fed cattle not being fit for use."
;

MAISLED, MAISELD, MAISELT,


MAISLIN,

mixed, confused in mind.

a blockhead, a stupid, a simpleton.


Robert Gilchrist,

" Like maislins they stared, wide gyepin' wi' wonder."

The Skipper's Erudition, 1824.

MAISON-DIEU,
"
1412.

a hospital. (Obs.) June roth. Date of royal license to Roger Thornton to found and endow the Maison Dieu of St. Katherine, or Thornton's Hospital, on the Sandhill, Newcastle." Kichard Welford, History of Newcastle, vol. i.
.

p. 249.

" Maison-dewe.
at

Newcastle so called."

Till within the last Halliwell.

few years, there was ancient hospital

464

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
" The maisterman the master, the husband. " Ye'll he' ti' see the maisterman hesel."

MAISTERMAN,
com by

at the time."
for the

MAISTLINS,

most p&rt.Brockett.
is

MAKE,

an equal, one that See MAIK.


I,

matched

or

mated with another.

MAKE
flock

A, the cry to a flock of wild geese. As the overhead the children shout to them in chorus, " " Wild ducks Wily geese, wily geese, make I, make A The call to in a formation like the letter V or A. usually fly the geese is to induce them to change from a straight line to
fly
!

MAKE

A, like the ducks.

MAKIN, making
"

for,

advancing.
at
I

"

The

tide is makin."
S.

They were

makin

us

wi'

sticks."

Oliver,

Rambles

in

Northumberland, 1835, P-

5&-

MAKIN,

a fool, a simpleton.

Hodgson

MS.
;

MAKINS,

the small coals hewn out in kirving and nicking the slack and dirt made in drilling a hole in the coal.
[N.], intoxicated

or

MALADDY
person
is

and cutting capers.


is

When

in this condition

he

said to be maladdy, or mayladdy.

MALIN, MAALIN, MYELN, MAILKIN,


made with
;

a kind of mop clouts fastened to a long stick used for cleaning out the brick oven after the wood ashes have been raked out. Myeln is also applied to a dirty, slatternly person as in the " Ye epithet, dorty myeln" said of an untidy girl. " Mall, Moll, the kitchen wench, and applied to the oven clout on a principle similar to that which gives the name of Jack to an implement used for any familiar office; boot-jack, roasting-jack, &c." Wedgwood's
Diet.

"

Malkin, that

is little

Maid or Maud,
i.,

i.e.,

Matilda."

Professor Skeat,

Principles of English Etymology, pt.

p. 223.

MALLED, the whiting-pout, or bib-fish, Gadus luscus, L. MALLY, MAWLEE, the Christian name Mary. " Wor
Mally."

"Oh, Mawlee ! Oh, Maw-aa-aw-lee ! Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 12.

how way hehaym."

Thomas

MALT-CUMMINS,
feeding cows.

the sprouted shoots from malt, used for

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

465

MAN, "

a husband. Bessie's man" etc.


[N.]
,

"

Hor man

wasn't win hor at the time."

MAN
for

must.

"

Aa man away noo

aa've stopt ower lang."


credit, to

MANADGE,

the method of selling goods on by instalments, weekly or otherwise.


"

be paid

She lays oot punds


Like

in

Manadge

things,

mony a

thriftless, thoughtless

bein

."
i.,

Thos. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

pt.

1826, v. 60.

MANADGE-MAN,
"Scotch draper."

an itinerant vendor of goods on credit for household requirements. Sometimes called in Newcastle a
i

MAN-BODY,

a male person. hoose at the time." a basket.


in

" There wis nee man-body

i'

the

MAND,

See MAUND.
a
pit,

MAN-DOOR,

door placed

in

sufficiently large to allow the

body of a man

a stopping, just to pass through.

Nicholson, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888.

MANG,

among.
" Like a napple tree mang the trees o' the wood." J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Sang o' Solomon, Northumberland version, ch. ii., v. " He's foremost the

3.

mang

mony

Keel lads

o'

Coaly Tyne." Thos. Thompson,

d. 1816,

New

Keel Row.

MANG,
flour.

feeding stuff for dogs or pigs; generally oats or barley ground undressed, or barley meal in contradistinction to barley

MANG

[W.-T.] to touch with the hand. cyek ye mangd forst." Compare MEAG.
,

"Tyek

the piece

o'

MAN-HOLE,

a place of refuge in a pit to allow the workmen to stand clear of the passing sets of tubs. Man-hole in a boiler is a hole covered by an oval plate, removable so as to give access when scaling or repairing is necessary. The removable plate itself is called a man -hole -door.
to

MANISH,
horse?"

manage.

"

Div ee think ee can manish that


Geordy's Last, 1878, p.

" At as hard a pace as he could manish."

u.

466

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

MANISHMINT,

management. It also means, by extension, and even the pabulum itself. " He's put a deal o' manishment into the land." Here the word is applied to the manure itself.
culture, nourishment,

MAN KEEN,
attack

man-keen.
beings.

Cattle are termed mankeen

when they

human

MAN KIN,
munna

MANNA, MUNNA,
stor."

the joint of sheets, or pieces, of a fishing net. must not. " Ye manna let him

gan."

"

Ye

mannit and munnit are also used, generally when the word following them begins with a vowel. " Ye munnit abuse the lad." " Ye munnit ax me nowt." But when a consonant follows, then munna is used. " Ye munna
dee'd,"

The forms

"Ye

munna be seen,"

etc.

MANNY,
husband.

a young man, a small man.


"

familiar term for a

The curtain flew up, and a lady did squall To fine music play'd by a cockney bit manny."
R. Emery, b. 1794, d. 1871, Baggy Nanny,
Allan's Collection, p. 132.

"
"

HeVquite zmanny noo."


Geordy's Last, 1878, p. 18.

She guessed

it

belanged

tiv

her manny."
the Sovereign, 1883.

James Horsley, Geordy and

MANSWORN, "
Any

perjured.

(Obs.)
'

brother calling another

Scot,'

forfeit 6s. 8d., without any forgiveness." of Weavers in Newcastle, August 31, 1527.

or mansworn,' in malice, to Ordinary of Incorporated Company


'

MAP-NAIL,

a nail made for securing the head of a four to six inches long, with a broad flat head.
;

mop, from

MARCH,

the border of a country here applied to the line or mark dividing England from Scotland. The boundary line was in the charge of the several wardens of the East, the The warden of the Middle Middle, and the West Marches. Marches resided commonly at Harbottle Castle, and had jurisdiction over Tynedale and Redesdale. March also means any kind of boundary, as march dyke, march stain. " Sir Henry Perssye laye at the Newe Castell,

He had byn
"

you withouten drede a March-man all hys dayes, And kept Barwyke-upon-Twede.
I tell
:
'

Battle ofOtterburn.

Tivydale

may

carpe off care,

Northombarlonds may mayke great mon, For to we such captayns, as slain wear thear, On the march perti shall never be non." The Hunting of

the Chyviat.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS

467

MARCHERS,
Times

or Noblemen, who in past, inhabited and secur'd the Marches of Wales and Scotland, ruling as if they were petty Kings, with their private Laws, which were abolished by Stat. 27, H. 8." A New World of Words, 1706. to massacre.

LORD'S MARCHERS,

MARCYCREE, MERCYCREE,
"

Petticoat Robin jumpt up agyen, Wiv's gully to mercykree huz a* ". Swalwell Hopping. Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 47.

Then

MARE-STEYNS,

boundary stones.
v

See MERE-STONES.
;

MARLED,

variegated, mottled like marble kinds of leaves and to stones, etc.

applied to some

MARROW, MARRA,

a comrade, a close friend, a workfellow, " We've been one of a pair of things, an equal. working marrows for the last six months." " Aa've getten yen byut on, " The stockins isn't but aa canna find the marra ti'd." An odd thing of a pair is called marrowkss. marras."
equal).

" Newcassel "ill nivor find owt like its marrow " (find anything like Joe Wilson's Songs. Allan's Collection, 1890, p. 185.

its

"

Walks
"

Ev'ry of them beside her Marrow e'en as strait as ev'r was arrow." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse,
to wark."
Bell's
;

1-686, p. 12.

As me and my marrow was ganning


The
Collier's

Rant.

Rhymes, 1812, p. 35.

"

Ho

And

marrows, 'tis the caller cries his voice in the gloom of the night mist dies."

Edward Corvan,

d. 1865,

The

Caller.

MARROW, MARRA,
tried
ti
!

to pair, to match, to equal. marrow the colour." " Nowt could marrow this." Geordy's Last, 1878, p. 12. " Smash if their Newcassel lyedys

"Aa've

Cou'd marrow the curls o thy brow."


1

W.

Midford, Pitman's Courtship, 1818.

MART.
marvels,

See MAIRT,
marble.
"
;

2.

MARVEL,
a

a " a " bullocker is a very large marvel, usually made of " white glazed pot"; a "tar " is less in size than a " bullocker," " but larger than the ordinary-sized marvel; an " ally is made

unglazed
stone
;

commony " "

Also a playing marble used by boys. Of " is made of common earthenware " " styeny or muggy is glazed and resembles

of alabaster.
" His legs
is

like pillors o' marvel."


v., v. 15.

J.

P. Robson, d. 1870, Sang

o'

Solomon, Newcastle version, ch.

468

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
the corn-marigold.

MARYGOWLON,
Club, vol. " The
ii.,

Compare GOWLAN.

" In the vicinity of Newcastle this plant is entitled the marygowlon."James Hardy, Buttercups and Daisies. History of Berwickshire Naturalists'
p. 13.

mangold, the flower of the Virgin," so specified in Roman Catholic times, "from a fancied resemblance of the florets of its disk to the rays " The same, p. 15. of glory round the Virgin's head (Forster).

In the neighbourhood of Wooler the name mary-gowlon is given to the " perhaps a corrupt substitution for daisy (Bellis perennis) may-gowan." The same, p. 18, note.

common

MASH,
MASK,

a mason's large iron " Wor to infuse. infused. (p.t.),

hammer.
(tea).

aad wife's ganna mask the tye

Maskeet

" In the brew-house a brewing lead, a maske fatt, a guyle fatt." Monastery of White Friars in Newcastle. R. Welford, History of Newcastle
in

XVI.

Century, p. 240.

MASKIN,
for

a sufficient quantity of tea, coffee, camomile, etc.,

an infusion.

MASSLINJEM, MASSELGEM,

maslin, wheaten meal and rye meal mixed for brown bread. The grain is often grown together and mixes in threshing, and is generally baked with leaven. Masseljam is frequently used to describe any work " Thoo's that has been done in an imperfect manner. myed on't this time/' reg'lar masseljam
"

MASSY,
"

sonsy

massive, huge, great in self-conceit. Applied to a " He's a person or to one with high notions. massy

fellow."

MASTER SHIFTER,

an official who has responsible charge underground of a mine or portion of a mine in his shift during the absence of the overman or back overman.
an official in a colliery who, under the direction of the manager or under-manager, has charge of the ventilation of the mine on the out-bye side of the working headways, including both intake and return air courses.
a mastiff dog.

MASTER WASTEMAN,

MASTIS,

MATCHY,

a piece of touch-paper that is, soft brown-paper steeped in a solution of saltpetre, and used in obtaining a Still carried by old men in the light from a flint and steel. fields. Compare FRIZZLE.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

469

MATTELT,

mottled or speckled.

MATTENT,

malted. The flour obtained from wheat that has sprouted, tastes sweet when baked, and is said to be mattent.

MATTENT-BREED, MATTERED-BREED,
flour of wheat that sticks to the knife when cut, in used in its composition.

from the

bread made has sprouted. Mattered-breed consequence of inferior flour

MATTY

[N.] the mark used at quoits or at pitch-and-toss. In South Northumberland and on Tyneside the quoit pin is called a hob, and the mark used in pitch-and-toss is called mot.
,

MAUD,

a plaid.

See HERD'S-MAUD and MAAD.

MAUDLINS,

Mary Magdalene, commonly R. Welford, History of Newcastle in XVI. A seam of coal is called the maudlin seam, Century, p. 436. probably from the circumstance that it was first worked
called the Maudlins.

the Hospital of St.

extensively on the hospital property.

MAUM, MOUM,
land.
'*

soft

and mellow.

Still

used

in

NorthumberBrockett.

of Words, 1706. To ma im a crust of bread is to soften

New World

it

in water."

MAUMY, MAUND,

mellow and
a basket.

juiceless.

" Coals were brought down to the Tyne for shipment in wains, or were carried (A.D. 1600) in maunds, or panniers, holding two or three pecks Brand, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., each, on the backs of pack-horses."
1789, p. 273.

MAUP,

to

mope, to wander about

in a thoughtful

manner.

Brockett.

MAVIES,
MAVIS,

it

may

be, perhaps.

See MEVVY, MAYBIES.

the song-thrush, Turdus musicus, L. So called near the Border. Also known in various parts of Northumberland by the names of thrissel-cock and grey-bird.
"

When

Merry

it is in the good greenwood the mavis and merle are singing."

Lady

of the Lake,

iv., 12.

MAWK.

See MAAK.'

470

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
See MALIN.
a black, coaly band.

MAWKIN.

MAWKRE,
MAWS,
MAAS.
the

See MACKET.

maws mallow

or

It is also called mashmallis,

marshmallow, Malva moschata, L. and is gathered for poultices. See

MAWZY,
MAY,

a speckled hen.

the blossom of the hawthorn. On the first of May young people go out into the fields, before breakfast, to wash their kittens born in May, are faces in May dew. May-cats It is the common practice to drown considered unlucky. them. " Haddocks are never good
:

Till they've

had the May

flood."
at

Newcastle by the noise of a song, which a woman sang about the streets, who had several garlands in her hand, and which, if I mistake not, she sold to any who were superstitious enough to buy them. Rise up maidens fy for shame, I've been four long miles from name I've been gathering my garlands gay, Rise up, fair maids, and take in your May.' There is no pleonasm it is singly, as the French have it, your May." Brand, Popular Antiquities, 1777, p. 262.
1

"I have more than once been disturbed early on May morning

" Nivver cast a cloot

till

May be

oot."

Old Saw.

MAYBIES
Mevvies
is

" Maybics aa wull gan." [N.], may be, perhaps. not used in North Northumberland. See MEBBY.

MAY-LIKE,
in

perhaps.

"

May-like ye'll be comin'


*

o'

Thorsday."

MAY- WEED,

" a seaweed (a species of fucus ') used as manure Northumberland." James Britten, Old Country and Farming Words. E.D.S. a wonderment, an eccentric person.
"

MAZER,

" He's a reg'lar

mazer, noo."

About hewin thoo hes shaved me

clean,

Ne
"

doot thou thinks't a mazer."

James Armstrong, Wanny


Lads, what a mazir

Blossoms, 1879, p. 163.

aw

found it." R. Elliott, Jack Robson's Courtship.


Collection, 1890, p. 204.

" She's a mazer that neybor abuv." Joe Wilson, Allan's

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

471

ME,

used instead of I when it forms a compound subject to a sentence. " Me an hor's faalen oot." " Me an him wis there " Tom an' me's Where the cousins, ye knaa." togither." first personal pronoun is the subject me is never used simple it is invariably aa (I). When emphasized, as in " It wasn't me," the sound is heard as mee-uh or mee-ah. " As me an my marrow was ganning te wark." The Collier's Rant.
:

MEAD,
beeses

a meadow.
is
i'

descriptions,

is still in

This word, now used chiefly in poetical common use in Northumberland. " The

the mead."
,

MEAG, MYEG, MAEG

[S.] [N.], a hand; generally Thus " A dorty applied in an uncomplimentary sense. " meag." Keep yor clarty megs off the butter." MEAG, MYEG, to handle, to finger. " Whae's gan ta eat that eftor a' yer myegin ?"
:

MEG

MEAL,

the flour of oats, barley, or peas, as distinguished from that of wheat, which, by way of eminence, is called flour. ** Nouther seeds nor meal" neither one thing nor Jamieson. another is a common proverb.
as

MEAL, MYEL, MAIL, MEALIN,


;

much

as a

cow

gives at

one milking. Meal originally meant a fixed time. Miss-meah to milk a cow one meal and neglect to do so for a meal or two after and to thus intermit until the udder becomes dry.

MEAL-ARK, a MEAL-KAIL.
breakfast."

meal-chest.

" Oatmeal in crowdies and hasty-pudding (provincially meal-kail] for Mackenzie, History of Northumberland, vol. i., p. 201.

MEAL-O'-MEAT,

a meal of any kind of meat. " plea urged by a beggar is the expression, meal-o'-meat thi day, hinny."

A very common
Aa
hevn't

had a

MEAL-SKEP,
;

a small receptacle for meal. coa.l-skep is a a bee-skep is a bee-hive and a skep may be coal-scuttle either a basket, a box, or other kind of receptacle.
;

MEALY,

the colour described as a pale yellowish white colour of oatmeal.


to

the

MEAN,
hurt.

bemoan, to express pain, as an animal does when Also used in the sense of to be pitied, to be sympathised " She is much to with when human beings are referred to. " mean much to be pitied.
K

472

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
" Siccan a funeral as aa of followers. " See MONY. a meany was there what " Then the Perse owt of Bamborowe cam, With him a mightye meany"

ME A NY,

a nivver saa

company
;

Chevy Chase.

HEAR,
of

the slide on which casks are discharged. It consists two timbers, braced apart like the sides of a ladder, between which the belly of the cask is held as it is slidden

down

lengthwise.

MEAR,

a piece of timber that can be fixed so as to lengthen the leverage of the large gavelock used in quarry work.

MEAR-STYENS,
STONES.

land-mark or boundary stones.

See MERE-

MEAT-HEAL, "

in good bodily health, having just eaten. He's beath meat he-al and druk he-al thor's little or nowse the mitter wuv him." Compare HEART-HYEL.
;

MEATHEW, mildew.
,

"

The wheat was

all

meathewed."
,

MEBBY, MEBBIES, MEVVY, MEVVIES [S.] MAYBIES, MAVIES [N.] may be, perhaps. " Aa'll mebby be there the
t

morn."

ironically, expressing incredulity. mebbies not."


"

" Mebbies aye; mebbies not" a phrase often used " Ye say se mebbies aye,
;

house-fuh of bayrnes an' mebbies but a tehuhm cubbard for them."

Thomas Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. u. " We mebby may be awd worsels."
T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt.
i.,

v. 99.

MEDDLE,
meyk"

to mix, to compound. neither mix nor shape.

" He'll nowther meddle nor

MEETIN,
worship.

the service at a chapel or Nonconformist's place of " We'd a gran sarmon at the meetin thi day."

MEETINS,
incline,

the place

their

where the full and empty tubs pass each other on way out and in.

midway down

a pit shaft, or a rope

MEEZURE, MEEZER, "


corn.
all

a measure, a boll used for measuring meezer" implies "I've got your good and bad qualities noted."

The

phrase,

Aa hev yor

MEEZERIN-STICK,
by measuring each

drill off

a stick used in planting garden potatoes and setting the line to it.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

473

MEG,

the

hand

a halfpenny.
[N.]
,

See

MEAG and

MAIK,

2.

MEGGY-LOTCHY
LOACH.

the freshwater loach.

See LIE-

MEGGY-MONYFEET, the chocolate-coloured centipede.


form
is

The

also meg -o'-mony-feet.


to disappear gradually.
It's micelVd

MEISSLE, MICELL,
away."

"To

waste imperceptibly."

Jamieson.

MELDER,
MELL,
MELL,

mill to be ground, or the

the portion or batch of corn taken at a time to a meal from one batch of corn.
Mall, a large

a mallet used by masons and carpenters. wooden hammer with a long handle (shank).

middle.
mell-door,

"The
house."

Hodgson MS.
"

the middle door of the passage or entrance of a

The

mill on't

was
J.

flagged." P. Robson, Sang

o'

Solomon,
version, ch.
iii.,

Northumberland

10.

MELL,
MELL,
"

mild
to

applied to the weather.


" Ye'll
get

"

well day."
if

meddle.

wrang
with."

ye .mil wi'd."

Compare MILL.
You shou'd
consider'd

wha ye mll'd

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious

Discourse, 1686, p. 35.

MELL,

to

pound, to bruise

from the instrument used.

Brockett.

MELL-DOLL,

or KIRN-BABBY, an image gaily dressed like a female child, and carried by a woman on a pole, in the midst of a group of reapers, as they go dancing and screaming to and from the fields on "a shearing out day." These parties generally consist of women but after the day's work is done, the mell-doll, perhaps meaning the meal-doll, graces the board where the swains partake with their female partners in reaping in a plentiful meal, and the evening concludes with mirth, music and dancing. Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. ii., p. 2, note. See KIRN-BABBY, KERN 2, and following
;

words.

474

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

MELL-SUPPER,
The
mell-doll

formerly the great festival of harvest home. was set up, and eating, drinking, and jollity were entered upon by all the farm hands, under the presidency
of the " maister-man."
'

Nee mair at mell or merry night The cheering bagpipes Wull shall blaw."
Robert Roxby, Lay of the Reedwater Minstrel, 1809.

MELT

a cant word for the tongue. melt, yor aye gan moothin aboot."
[N.]
,

"

Had

yor lang

MENFOLK,
sic things ?"

men in general. " What dis menfolk ken aboot " They ken mair nor womenfolk thinks on."
Menged
tar, a

MENG,

to mix.

composition of tallow and tar

for greasing carts.

Meng

corn,

mixed corn.

MENNIM, MENNAM, MENOWM, MEN NEM,


Leuciscus phoximis> L. used in trout fishing.
" Thor's

a minnow, Mennem hyeuks and mennem tackle are

some

like

mennims,

some

like

worms."

J.

Harbottle, The

Fishiri Club, 1884.

MEN ON

" Men to ride a similar call or signal, meaning that men are coming up in the next cage. W. E. Nicholson, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888.
!

a call from the onsetter to the banksman or brakesman, meaning that men are in the cage to be drawn up. "
!

MENSE,

honour, manliness, good manners, " He hez decency a most comprehensive word. nowther sense nor mense" said of one without sense or decency. "He's a mense ti the family" one who adds repute to his circle. To " save one's mense" is to save one's reputation or
credit, reputation,
;

discretion,

credit

either for personal courage, for hospitality, for

good

manners, or for any of the personal or domestic virtues. " Twad leuk mair tiv his mense to gan an muck the byre."
"

George Chatt, Old Farmer, 1866. Never a soul had the mense to come near." Sawney Ogilby's Duel. Bell's Rhymes, 1812. " Blenkinsopp's laird leuk'd ower the wa', He was the wiser man o* the twa, For he saved his mense, and his banes an a' !"
R. Surtees,
Life.

Surtees Society, p. 47.

MENSE,

to

become, to grace, to adorn.


11

To

bonny church ye've studden mense wor canny toon." Robert Nunn, d.
!

lang,

1853, St. Nicholas' Church.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

475

MENSEFUL,
for the tea
;

gracious, comely.
it'll

" We'll set oot the best


like."

ware

be mair menseful

MENSEFUL-PENNY,
for the

the money spent at an inn in return use of the house as a place of resort, when the country folk come into the town.
ill-bred, rude, uncivil, heartless.

MENSELESS,
(Obs.)
"

MENSION, MENCON,
The march and

a boundary ditch, march, or division.

uttermost bounder between England and Scotland

stretcheth and goeth by an old mension of a dycke called the Marche dyke, between the fields of the town of Mildrom and Scotland unto a Hodgson MS. (Reference wanting.) calsey called Chapman dean."
" Westwarde by an old mencon of a dyke." Survey of Tuggal, 1567. Bateson, History of Northumberland, vol. i., p. 352. " Ye mencyon of an olde dike." The same.

MERE, MIER,
STANES.

a boundary.

MERE-STONES,

mete or bounder stones.

Compare MAIRCH-

" From thence by mere stones set up in the Langstrother to the dyke of Grensyde." Metes and Bounds of the Ville of Carraw. Hodgson,

Northumberland, vol.

iii.,

pt.

ii.,

p. 397.

MER-FIRE,

the luminous appearance of the sea at night.

Compare WILD-FIRE.

MERRY NEET, MERRY MEETIN,

a festive entertainment, followed by music, dancing, and "gam" (or fun and games). These neets generally " came off" in the house of an indigent couple or woman, and the entrance fee was an indirect charitable donation.
to mitigate, to soothe.
"

MESE,

Whae's

And

this kens my name sae weel, thus to mese my waes does seik ?" Jock o'

the Side.

MESSIT, MESSAN,
is

a half-bred a messit-dog in iv a hoose."

little

dog.

"

The

best watch

MET,

a measure. At quoits or at pitch-and-toss, when a dispute arises as to the throw that lies nearest to the hob or mot, a small stick or a piece of straw is taken to measure the This is called a met. To met, to measure. " Aa's distances. in, aa tell ye ; aa'll met ye for'd."

476

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
argillaceous stone.

METAL,

Metal is variously described as according to its degree of hardness, and is spoken of as grey, blue, dark, and black-metal, as it When grit is prevalent it is called metal-stone. varies in shade. Metal is also the common name for road-making material when
soft, or strong, or slaty,

broken as macadam.
" Metal." Professor Lebour, Geology of Locally, shale is called Plate or Northumberland and Durham, second edition, 1886, p. 40.

METAL-COAL,

coal containing pyrites.

It is

peculiarly liable

to spontaneous ignition.

METALLY,

partaking of the] nature of shale.

METAL-RIG,

the curved ridge of thill stone occupying the face of a board or excavation in a coal pit, caused by the pressure of the superincumbent strata. Brockett.

METTER, a
Brockett.

person legally authorised to measure (Newcastle).


be, perhaps.

MEVVY, " MEVVIES, MAVIES, may


not."

"

Mevvy

He's mevvies not se fond as ye think."

See MEBBY.

MEW,
the

to stir
[S.]

up hay or straw.
,

MEYUN

It is unlucky to see the moon. time through glass. Money in the Women pocket is immediately turned for luck on seeing it. " We'll he' this with three curtsies to the myun. accompany " said when bad weather, aa doot the myun's on ov hor back " It's the crescent lies aslant. gan ti be wet the myun winna had in "said when the horns point so as to give the appearance of a tilted barrel in such a position as not to hold A " burgh " is the wide halo of rings seen in in water. It portends foul weather. a damp atmosphere.

MYUN

new moon

[T.] for the first

MEZEL, MIZZLE,

to drizzle.

" It's mezelin' on

o'

rain."

MEZEL-THRUSH, sometimes called mezeltoe-thrush, the misselthrush, Turdus viscivorus, L.


stormcock,
It is

variously called missel-Dick,

and red-rumped
a bushel.

thrush.

MEZZUR,

See MEEZURE.

MICKLE, MUCKLE, "


Ye byeth
v. 49.

much, great.

See MUCKLE.
Thos. Wilson, The Pitman's Pay,

ha'e mickle yet to learn."

pt.

iii.,

"
11

The

Here may men

may

mykel se," the great sea. Pricke of Conscience, 1. 6,319. se mikel of man's wretchednes, and mykel men telle." The same, 1. 924.

mare

yhit

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

477
Brockett.

MIDDEN-CROW, MIDDENSTEED,
"

the carrion crow, Corvus corone,L. Called also black-neb.

a dung heap, an ash or refuse heap. Midden-bottom, the site on which a manure heap has stood. Midden-hole, the porthole through which ashes are shot.
Midden, a contemptuous term for a female, conjoining the ideas of
insipidity, inactivity,

and

dirt."

Brockett.

"Across the meidow rigs his scythe wad foremost gan, An' in the midden-steed he was a mighty man." George Chatt, Old Farmer, poems, 1866,

p. 87.

MIDDERN,
to

the midriff, or diaphragm.

MIDDLE-LIMMERS,

limmers, or shafts, that are attached the yoke-hole in the centre of a tub-end. Nicholson, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888.
the soft-grass, or Holcus lanatus, L.

MIDGE-GRASS,
MIDGY,
MIDGY.
by putters and
Midgy's-ee, a

See PRY.
:

a candle lantern closed at back and sides only drivers in a pit. See MISTRESS.
" Bitten aal all

used

a midget, a gnat.

ower wi midgies"

minute thing.
It

MIDSUMMER.
merrymakers
;

Midsummer Eve.

and, as the flames died down, couples who wished to be lucky jumped over the embers. This custom still On " Head Sunday " or (1893) exists at Whalton. Midsummer Sunday that is, the Sunday after old Midsummer Day, it was the custom for great crowds to resort to certain " Holy Wells."
"

was a custom to make a large bonfire on This was surrounded by dancers and

On

the Sunday following the 4th of July, that

is

about

Midsummer

Style, people assembled (strange to say) even this last year (1877) to celebrate the old Midsummer Sunday at the Bore Well. Within own recollection the yearly pilgrimage to Gilsland Wells on the Sunday after old Midsummer Day took place." The Rev. G. Hall, Archceologia &liana, vol. viii., p. 60, etc.

Day, according to the Old

my

Rome

MIDSUMMER-MEN,
MIER,
when
noo"
a boundary.

the rose root, Sedum rhodiola.

See MERE.

MIFFEY,

set in

Sometimes applied to plants " Th'or the ground unseasonably. miffey just that is, liable to fail if transplanted.
petted, capricious.

478

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

MILD,

It is applied not only to metals, as soft, easy to work. mild steel, etc., but to stone and other substances. Mild post, Mild limestone, easily wrought limestone, etc. soft stone. The term opposed to it is strong, which means hard, intractable.

MILES,

It grows in rich the goosefoot, Chenopodium album, L. land and frequently on midden heaps, and is hence also known

as muckweed.

See FAT HEN.

MILKER,
the cow.

cow

that gives milk


Brockett.

not the person

who

milks

" She's a top milker."

MILK-ILL, a disease among ewes. Compare ILL, QUARTER-ILL,


and LOUPIN-ILL.

MILK-SILE,

a milk-strainer; usually a wooden bowl having a perforation in the bottom covered with fine hair-cloth or fine gauze.

MILKUS,

a milk house, a dairy.

MILKY-THRISSEL, the milk thistle, Carduus marianus. MILL, a mix up. When a number of mason's tools have

been sharpened they are brought out from the smithy and thrown down in a heap. This is called a mill. The tools are one by one picked out of the mill and sorted by the distinctive marks of each mason. Compare MELL, 3.
intoxicated,
"

MILLED,

mixed up.

Wright and Halliwell both


hyem

quote this as a Newcastle word.

The

Fairly mill'd, gan dancin

reel of

Tullygorum." T. Wilson, Oiling of Dick/ s Wig, 1826.


flour unsifted, as

MILL-EE, MILL-EYE,
millstones. millstones.

it comes from the through which the flour is discharged from the outer-casing which surrounds a pair of

Mill-eye, the orifice

MILLER'S-THUMB,
MILL-REEK,
Brockett.

the sea

fish,

Armed

bull-head of Yarrell,

Aspidophorus cataphmctus, Jenyns.

The fumes

a disease to which lead workers are subject. rising from the smelt mill.

MILL-TROU,

the spout

Compare LADE.

carrying water

to

mill

wheel.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

479

MIM,

affected, prim.

MIM-MOOTHED, MIN, MUN, must.


leuk oot."

close-mouthed, quiet.
"

Aa

min be careful."

"

Aa mun be on

the

MIND,

to remember, to remind. "Mind me on" bid me remember. In its imperative form it means "be sure." " Mind ye dinna stop ower lang." It also means "beware." A notice board at Pelaw Staith reads (1888) "Mind the waggons." To "have a mind" or "have a good mind" is to " Aa've a feel disposed. good mind ti clash yor jaa, ye young
" About fifty year syne, I mind o' seein trouts that thick i' the Thrum, below Rothbury, that if ye had stucken the end o' yor gad into the water amang them, it wad amaist ha'e studden upreet." S. Oliver, the Younger (Chatto), Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 69. "

yep."

Mind think me on when


stor

at the toon."
till

Pitman's Pay, pt.


J.

i.,

v. 98.
o'

"Dinna

maw

luve

Solomon, Northumberland

'he hes a mind." version, ch. ii., v. 7.

P. Robson, Sang

MINDED,

" Aa wis minded to of the mind, disposed to. gan, but ," that is, of the mind to go, or thought of going. " Inward minded" said of a person of a reserved disposition.
a forward girl.

MINDEN,
spoken
in

" Di ye hear me, sirrah mindenP"


to a

admonishment

wayward

girl.

MINNY,

the pet or familiar


"

name

for mother.

When

Nell had laugh 'd and minny cried." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt.
!

i.,

V. 44.

"

Maw
As

faix

it

seems a canny sprout,

big maist as

its minny." T. Thompson, d. 1816, Jemmy Joneson's Whurry.

MINT,

" She " He nivvor even minteet it ta me." to hint. didn't dee'd reet oot To make a she oney minted at it." " Aa wasn't feint. gan ti hit him aa oney minted at him." To " myek a mint " is to make an attempt at doing.
;
;

"

Mint, to aim

at,

to wish for, to

have a mind

to."

Todd.

MINT-DROPS,
's

red campion, Lychnis diurna.


[N.]
;

MINTY-LEUKIN
gye minty-lwkiu'
a muddle.

weedy

in appearance.

"

Them taties

thor no' thrivin'."

MIRD,

"

The

creature

made

a complete mird of it."

480

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
bittern,

MIRE-BLEATER, MIRE-DRUM, the Now a rare, casual visitant. stellaris, L.

Botaurus

" It appears to have been pretty abundant in the marshy regions of Northumberland, before the moorlands were so extensively drained and cultivated." John Hancock, Birds of Northumberland and Durham, p. 128.

MIRE-SNIPE,

the

common
and

snipe, Gallinago scolopacinus.

Also

called heather-bleater

gutter-snipe.

MIRK,
neet."

dark.

"

Aa canna

see, it's se mirk."

" It's a mirk

MISCA,
"

hard things to anyone. mornin', maidens ; God forgi' me, if aw misca ye." (Old farmer's salutation to his female workers.)
to miscall, to call amiss, or say

Gude

MISCHANCY,
MISDOOT,

mischievous, generally applied to a horse or other animal that is constantly getting into scrapes. Brockett.
to doubt, to suspect.

"Ye mevies
"

Aa

me but just take a trial." P. Robson, d. 1870, Wonderful Tallygrip. Bards of the Tyne, p. 20. nivvor can misdoot him,
misdoot
J.

Sic brave

ways he hes aboot him."

A New

Song

tiv

an

A ad

Teun.

MISERD, MYSART,
MIS KEN,
"

a miser.

to be ignorant of, to forget, to disown.


G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. The same, p. 25. (forgot herself).
(disowned) thy betters."
14.

" Miskenn I tell'd ye." " Misken'd her-sel "

Thou aylways has miskenn'd


"

The same,

p. 44.

MISLEARD, MISLEERT,

ill-bred, ignorant. Nay, hald a cast, I trow ye jear'd. Think ye that I'll be sae mislear'd ? " (ill-bred) G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,

p.

u.

MISLEST,

to molest.

MISLIPPEN,
"

Our maister

to disappoint, to neglect. will be out o' patience


G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,
p. 32.

If \vemislippne his occasions."

MISLUCKET,

We've been varry fortinit wi' the unlucky. powltry, but mislucket wi' the geese."
to mispair, to mismatch.

"

MISMARROW,

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

481

MISMEAVE,
"

to trouble, to disturb.
least mismeave

This shall not in the of the Tyne, 1854, P 2 9-

our mind."

W.

Kelly, Teetotallers

MISSENS,
of a

anything missing.

room from which

furniture has been

"Here's a missens here" said removed Brockett.

MISTACHED, MISTETCHED,
bad habits. "He's a is termed mistached."

ill-taught, mistetched yen."

"A

having learned dangerous horse

MISTOR,
title

The word is used in a sense different from the sir. It is used by a superior to an inferior or in a of Mr. tone of reproof as, " Noo then, mistor, what are ye deein wi' ma box ?" An employer is always the maister or the maisterman.
to put out of the regular habit of hed little sleep for a week."
life,

MISTIME,

Aa

wis

sair mistimed, an'

MISTRESS,
It is
left

a pit lantern used by drivers in the main airways. simply an oblong box wanting the front side, which is unglazed and open. It is also called a midgy. a mitten. a confused mixture.

MIT,

MIXTY-MAXTY, MIXTER-MAXTER,

MOAK, MOKE
MOIDART,
what

[W.-T.]

a maggot.

See MAAK.

MOCKING-BIRD,

the sedge warbler, Calamodyta phragmitis.

confused in mind, distracted.

"

What wi' this

an'

wi' that, aa's fair moidart"

MONE,
Ye

a man.

[Holy Island.]
"

MONKEY, "
here."

a pert, vexatious child. clarty monkey, ye."


fantastic.

Come
o'

"

here, ye monkey.

MONKEY,
ruminant

" Let's he' nyen

them monkey

tricks

MONYFADS, MUNNYFADS,
;

one of the stomachs of a

meaning many

folds.

MOOLER,
soil,

to crumble, to moulder, to decay ; as to mooler the " The frost'll seun mooler the to mooler a piece of bread.

clods doon."

482

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
mould, earth.

MOOLS, MOOLD,
words.
"

See

MOUD

and following

They dug his grave but a bare foot deep, With neither pick nor spade That the dew of heaven might fall and dreep On the mools where he was laid."
R. Surtees, Barthram's Dirge.

''

The
I

bairn

down

in the wools,
;

O saft and saft sleeps she would the mools were ower my head, And the young bairn just wi' me, my love, And the young bairn just wi' me." A. C. Swinburne, The Tyneside Widow, 1888.
mouldy.
"

my

dear,

MOOLY, MOOLDY,

bit mooly cheese."

MOONGE,
cattle.

" Aa've sitten here wivoot a complaint, a moan. It is especially applied to the low grunt of ivver a moonge." u Ye manna to grumble, to complain sulkily. she's aye moonge-moongin on aboot nowt."

MOONGE,
wor wife
bad
;

mind

MOONGIN,
moongin at
?

moaning
"
;

as a

cow

in pain

to please

he's elwis

gan moongin aboot."

grumbling. "Jack's " What are ye


but played by

See MOUNGE.

MOONT THE
lads in sides.

KITTY,

game

like leap-frog,

MOONY,

the bird goldcrest, Regulus


a

cristatus,

Fleming.

MOOR-BAND,
soil

Roots of plants origin. this the case with the


11

conglomerate rock, apparently of volcanic touching it die quickly especially is hawthorn, which will not grow upon
;

containing moor-band. Moor Gravels, little known and not very comprehensible deposits. They are very widely but irregularly distributed over Western and

Central Northumberland. Professor Lebour, Geology of Northumberland and Durham, second edition, 1886, p. 22.

MOOR-EVERLASTING,
dioicum,

the

plant

cat's-ear,

L.

GnapJialimn

MOOR-GAME, MOpR-COCK, MUIR-FOWL,


grouse, Lagopus Scoticus.

the

red

Called also the gorcock.

MOORGRIEVE,
moorland.

the overseer or custodian of the pasture or

MOORHEN,

the female of the red grouse.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

483

MOORTEEK,

and hard- shelled, and remains firmly fixed

a parasite found adhering to dogs. It is large to the skin.

MOOR-WHIN,
bmchyotus.

the needle genista.

See MOSS-WHIN.
short-eared
owl,

MOOSE-HAAK,

mouse-hawk,

the

Otus

MOOSE'S PEAS, MOUSE'S PEAS,


cracca,

the tufted vetch, Vicia

L.
the moult, to moult.
" Like ony chicken efter moot, When its awd coat it fairly casses." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt.

MOOT,

iii.,

1829, v. 5.

MOOT,

Ward-mote, Moot-hall, Newcastle. meeting. meeting of the principal inhabitants of a ward.


a
' ;

"The proper sense of moot is 'meeting,' as in moot-hall, hall of assembly hence to moot is to discuss at a meeting, and a moot point is one reserved for public discussion." Skeat, Concise Etymological Diet.
'

MOOTER, MOOTERIN, multure. MOOTERIN, mouldering, decaying. MOOTH, damp and warm applied "
;

See MOUTER.

mooth neet

" It to the weather. a state of weather after a farmer's heart.

is

MOOTH-GROVES,
generally entering

MOUTH-GROVES,
coal.

short

levels,

upon the crop of a

MOOTH-POKE,
MOPPY,

a nose-bag for a horse.

a rabbit.

MORN, MOO-RN, "

"He'll be there the morrow, morning. morn not necessarily to-morrow morning. " Are ye gan the " " " The morn's toon the morn ? Ay the morn at efterneun." " " Aa'll be there first thing to-morrow morning. mornin the morn's mornin, aall be well."
;

MORT,

the death of a beast of chase. Mort and morth are " commonly used in the phrase Aa'vegetten a morto caad" a severe cold. See MURTH. that is,
1

"They hunted high, they hunted low, By heathery hill and birken shaw They raised a buck on Ropken Edge, And blew the mort at fair Ealylawe."
;

Death of Parcy Reed.

484

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
or MORTAL-CLAY, drunk. aa saa him he wis mortal-clay:'
first

MORTAL,
"When
MOSS, MOSS,

"

He cam in mortal:'

the

shoots and the flower stalks of the cotton

grass, Eriophorum vaginatum.

See LING.

a peat-bog, a place where peats are dug; peat.

MOSSCHEEPER,
wully.

the meadow pipit, Anthus pratensis, L. Called also grey-cheeper, titlark, titlin, cuckoo's titlin, and syeuty-

"A resident, and abundant everywhere." John Hancock, Birds of Northumberland and Durham. "Trill thy sweet lay, thou wee mosscheeper." Jas. Armstrong, Friar John, 1879.

MOSS-HAG, PEAT-HAG,

a rough projecting mass of peat

in the form of an escarpment on the face of the moor, or on the sides of the water channels which intersect the surface in places.

MOSSTROOPER,
march
lands.

the Border trooper of old time, who was accustomed to traverse the wide and trackless mosses of the
" In 1662, lewd, disorderly, lawless thieves and robbers, commonly called moss troopers, infested the Borders, residing in large wastes, heaths, and mosses, who through secret ways escaped from one kingdom to another to elude punishment." History of the Roman Wall, W. Hutton, 1802, p. 102. ''Moss-troopers; that is, thieves and robbers, who, after having committed offences in the Borders, do escape through wastes and mosses." Statute 13 and 14, Charles II., c. 22. Quoted in Todd.

MOSS-WHIN,
also moor-whin

the needle genista, Genista anglica, L.

Called

and

heathers

Frequent on heaths, ascending to Gunnerton Crags, Alwinton, and Ross Castle Moor, near Wooler." New Flora of Northumberland and Durham, p. 148.

MOT,

the

mark

aimed

at in the

game

usually a white speck or piece of boody of pitch and toss. Compare MATTY.

MOTE-HILLS,

the names at Elsdon, Wark, Haltwhistle, Harbottle, etc., of hills with earthern ramparts. Near Ryal a hill is called the Moot-law. Assizes were held on the

mote-hill at Wark, North Tyndale, in 1279 and in 1293. " The inhabitants of Redesdale and Tindale, accustomed to have their disputes settled, and themselves to sit as jurymen, upon the mote-hills at Harbottle or Elsdon, and at Wark or Haltwhistle." Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. i, p. 3.

"As in the case of dike, the same word means either the trench cut out or the embankment thrown up, or both together." Prof. Skeat, under moat, Concise Etymological English Dictionary, third edition.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

485

MOTHER-FEW-CLAES,
Brisson.

Called

commonly
;

the little grebe, Podiceps fluviatilis, the dab chick or dob chick.

MOTHERGATE,
W.

in a pit, the continuation of the rolleyway or the place in the workings that into the workings will at a future period be converted into a rolleyway. E. Nicholson, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888.

MOTHERS,

mother liquor, the uncrystallizable residuum left in the bottom of a salt-pan in salt works or of a crystallizing pan in alkali works.
the snapdragon.

MOTHER'S-NEET-CAP,

MOTHER-WUT,

mother

wit, natural shrewdness.

MOU. See Mow. MOUD, to spread or


"
1651.

scale mole heaps. Item paid the fiddler when the feildes were mouded in 1650."

Gateshead Church Books. " Paid for pipeing to the mowders 2S." The same, 1655.

when they

skailed the

Town

Fields,

MOUDY, MOODY, MOOLY, MOWDYWARP, MOUDIWORT, MOODYWARP, MOOLYWARP, the mole, "
Tell Jack the moudy to come Talpa vulgaris. Moudy, a mole catcher.
" I
o'

Monday."

He had
"

knew him by the trade, a moudie poke and spade." T. Donaldson, Glanton, 1809,
The Molecatcher's Lamentation.

Rejoice, ye cats, an' foumerts too, Ye moudiworts, an' a' your crew." The same. Elegy on a Favourite Bitch.

MOUDY-BOORD, the mould-board of a plough. MOUDY-HEELOCK, MOODY-HILL, a mole-hill. MOUDY-RATTAN, the mole, Sometimes applied
shrew mouse.

to

the

MOUDYWART,
oot

a mole-hill.

"

them moudy warts."

Bella, hinny,

gan an' spreed

MOULTIN [W.-T.] a malt-kiln. MOUNGE, MOONGE, to lament,


MOONGE.
"
'

to

grumble to

oneself.

See

What,

is

And moungin

ye gyen ? Bold Archy said, scratched his head." R. Gilchrist, Bold Archy.

'

486

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a horse block.

MOUNT, MOONT,

Compare HORSE-STYEN,
'
'

CRUPPER-STONE, and PILLION-STYEN.


" Almost every house had outside steps, or mounts as they were called, to enable the wife or daughter to mount the pillion on which they travelled, under the guidance of master or brother, to market or fair."W. Dunn, History Bwks. Naturalists' Club, vol. v., p. 417. Rev.
J.

MOUNTAIN-FLOWER,
sylvaticum,

the

wood

geranium,

Geranium

L.

MOUTER, MOOTER,
kind
;

multure, the miller's wages taken in as a quart for grinding a bushel, or a bushel for Two different multures were formerly grinding a quarter. and the used the " gowpenful," that is, two handsful In more recent "handful," a term which explains itself. times the mooter allowed was more clearly denned, though each mill had its own scale of charges. The miller's portion is also called a mootevin.
;

"

Sometimes he took his gowpins, sometimes he took bis hat, Sometimes he took the mouter dish to where the toll was pat." Robin Spraggon's Auld Grey Mare.

MOUTER-DISH,
;

a round, concave, wooden dish, about seven inches in diameter. " Now, sir, this is what we ca' the Moutar dish, an' that's a Kenning we measure a' the corn wi that." Richardson's Table there, ye see
1

Book, Leg. Div., vol.

i.,

p. 216.

MOVED-OFF-THE-BOARD,

When settled and done for. any question has been discussed and arranged, it is said to have been moved-off-the-board.
a pile of cut corn. A stack carried to a barn before threshing is built up in divisions called mows, generally occupying the breadth between two roof principals.

MOW, MOU,

MOW, MOU. To
threshing.

"mou

the stree," to build up the straw at

MOW, MOU,
11

the mouth.
Proverb.

What

goes to the mou myeks the coo."

In derision wry'd her mow."


p. 27.

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,

MOW,

mouth. Compare MOWES. "Mumping and Mowing, making Faces." (" Looking as if they would
to gesticulate with the
G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 42.

bite," says the margin.)

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

487
"

MOWBAND,
aall."
It

to

comprehend,

to

mowband that."
expression,
yit."

To

pronounce.
;

"

make out. Aa canna Aa couldn't mowband it at

means literally to get the mouth about, as in the " Wait a bit thoo canna mowband that big word

MOWD. See MOUD. MOW-DARGUE, a day's work in


"

mowing.

See DARG.

Each tenant

shear dargues and Hodgson, Northumberland, pt.

to perform yearly a mow-dargue (day's work) and 2 one catch yearly from Thirlwall Castle to Newbigin."
is
ii,,

vol.

iii.,

p. 144.

MOWES,
" It

IN
in

MOWES,
mowes that
I

in jest.
did speer."

(Obs.)
G. Stuart, Joco-Serious
Discourse,

was

1686, p. 14.

"Moe
Glossary.

or Mowe, a distortion of the face

made

in ridicule."

Naye's

MOWSENT, MOWSEND, "


damp-smelling.

fusty,

mouldy, not sweet


a'

musty,

That smells

mowsent."

MUCE,

a narrow passage for game. trap into which the rabbits are George Culley, Live Stock, 1801, p. 217.

Compare SMUT-HOLE.
led

"The

by a very narrow muce."


'

" Old French musette, a little Musit, a small gap in a hedge. (F.) hole Cotgrave. Diminutive of Old French musse, a secret corner, from F. musser, to hide." Professor Skeat, Concise Eng. Diet.
' ;

MUCK,
"

manure.
Barrasford land's muck for Humshaugh."

Wor

North Tyne saying.

MUCK,
MUCK,

messy.

"

He

wis in a muck sweat."

" Aa's muck wet."

Compare MUCKY.
to clean the byre, lad." winter muckeet."
"

To

'" up manure or refuse. Had-away, muck manure to land. "That land's aa apply It also means to make a mess.

He

mucks in our mickle meal-chest."


Tweedside.
Bell's

Rhymes, 1812,

p. 252.

MUCK-HACK,

a many-pronged fork with the grains bent round. With it, the muck, or farm litter, is dragged out from the stable or byre to the muck heap.

MUCK-HEAP-LIE-ON,
game played by
L

Also a a higgledy-piggledly heap. children, who pile themselves on the top of each other, shouting as they do so, " Muck-heap-lie-on."

488

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to a dirty a heap.

MUCKHUT, a term of opprobrium, generally applied "


woman.
Get away, ye greet muckhut."

Hut is or heap of muck is used in the same sense Muck-heap " She's hut. just a gannin heap o' muck"
It is

as muck-

MUCKLE,
chep."
*'

" Gaan aboot like a muckle soo." much, great, large. often used as a duplicative term to express something " He's a greet, muckle, big extraordinarily impressive, as

See MICKLE.

gav us muckle grief." Geo. Chatt, Poems. Old Farmer, 1866, p. 86, "Like vunto greate stinkyng mucle medin hilles." Bullein, Dialogue,
It

1564.

Early English Text Society, p.

9,

1.

12.

MUCKLEDEUM,
"

bigness, size.
ha.'fe

(Obs.)
G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse,

The

muckledeum of

a crown."

1686, p. 60.

MUCK-MIDDEN, MUCK-MIDDENSTEED,

a dunghill.

MUCK-WEED,
MUD,
and shoes.

the

weed goosefoot.

See MILES.
for the soles of boots

a headless nail used

by shoemakers

MUDGE, "
I

" You must not to stir, to move, or shift. nudge." " Aa canna have never mudged." it's ower mudge 'd
;

hivvy."

MUFFATEES,
weather.

cuffs of

wool or

fur,

worn on the wrists

in cold

MUG,

a breed of sheep of very inferior kind, once prevalent in the low parts of Northumberland.
" Called Mugs, from the wool growing in their very eyes." Culley, Live Stock, 1801, p. 156.

George

MUG, MUG, MUG,

the mouth.
a fool.

"

Wadn't he
" Aa'll

he'

been a mug
if

if

he'd gyen, noo

"
?

to thrash.

mug ye

ye taak

like that."

MUGGER, originally

a travelling hawker of mugs and earthenware, but often applied to the whole tribe of itinerant hawkers " Tinklers an' indiscriminately. muggers." Mugger's cairt, a special kind of cart upon which a cover or hood can be placed as a shelter to the occupants. Muggerishlike, having the appearance of a mugger dirty in person and of a ragamuffin type. There is a common saying descriptive of hard " work, Aa's sweetin like a mugger's cuddy."
t

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

489
" Aa's fair

MUGGERT-UP,
muggeret-up"

worn

out, completely exhausted.

MUGGY, MUGGY,
MULE,

a small marble

made

of glazed earthenware.

the lesser whitethroat, Cttrraca garrula.

a mongrel boat that is, between a coble and a fishing Used exclusively for boat, with a sharp bow at both ends. It is similar to the coble used for white herring fishing.

fishing along the Northumberland coast, but with this difference, that it is much larger and has a sharp stern, similar to the stem, but not so much raised. It has only been introduced in late years, being found more suitable than a keel boat for a flat, sandy beach, as it draws less water.

MULL,
"

crumbled particles, crumbs. See MULLER. The fragments and dust of a stack of peats are called
is

peat mull.

Oat bread, broken into crumbs,

called mullen bread."

Hodgson MS.

MULLER,
" Muller

to crumble.

"

Yor

mullerin the breed."

"Mullert

breed," crumbled bread.


is the same as Mulled ale is a moulder,' to crumble. corruption of muld-ale or mold-ale, a funeral ale or feast. Middle English, from molde, the earth of the grave, and ale, a molde-ale, a funeral feast feast (as in bride-ale). The sense being lost, mulled was thought to be a past participle, and a verb to mull was evolved from it." Skeat, Concise
' ;

Etymological English Dictionary, under mould.

MULLERS, mould, earth, and small clods. MULLOCK, a muddle, a mess. "He's myed
wark."
"

a mullock

o'

his

Mullock, dirt or rubbish."

Bailey.

MULLS,

the lips of a sheep

or, in

contempt, of a man.

"Aw'll slap yor mulls." Brockett. "Mulls, of Scandinavian origin. Icelandic muli, the snout of a beast, mouth. So too the German maul, mouth, has a rather depreciatory
sense."

Note by the Rev. Professor

W. W.

Skeat.

MUMLERS [N.], mummers. MUMMLER, an agricultural implement


rough surface of the
field.

for

breaking down the

MUMP,
"

to eat with closed lips. an' eatin."

Old people often say"Mumpin


spunge upon, to beg."
Bailey.

Mump,

to bite the lip like a rabbit, to

4QO

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
must.
"

MUN,
"

Aa mun

he'd

"

must have

it.

He

with baith hands mun play."


"

G. Stuart, Newcastle, Joco-Serious

Discourse, 1686, p. 28.

Aa mun

he'd swapped." His Other Eye. Allan's Tyneside Songs, 1891,

p. 541.

MUNCH,

a meal, something to eat. " Wiv a' the stravaging aw wanted a munch." T. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny

Newcastle.

MUNNA, MUNNET, "


Ye

must

not.

" Ye munna gan that way."


is

munnet eat .ony."

The form manna

also used.

MURDERING-PIE,
Lanius excubitor L.

the ash-coloured shrike, or butcher bird,


Brocket*.

.MURN

[N.],

MORN

[T.], to

mourn.

MURTH, MORTH, MORT,


'
'

death, or the deadly suffering from exposure to intense cold. experienced " What ails 'He had bidden ower lang the water Frank, Robin ?
i'

when he was

out fishin', and he has getten amurth of cauld.' Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 70, note.

"

S. Oliver,

MUSH,
aall
11

anything mashed up. A soft, yielding substance, such " The streets wis as a wet, clayey road, or half-melted snow.

mush"
Strang and houghs stewed R. Emery, Steam Soup.

down

slush."

to mush, are gobbled up biv every Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p, 67.

MUSHEL,MUSSEL-BANDS,MUSSEL-BEDS, MUSSELSCALP,
layers in the coal measures.

See SCALP.

thickness, consisting almost a genus of molluscs allied to the entirely of the shells of Anthracosia mussels of our rivers." Prof. G. A. Lebour, Geology of Northumberland
in

" Seldom

more than a few inches

and Durham, second edition, 1886,

p. 42.

MUSHY,
is soft

mashed down, spongy.

"

A mushy bog."

coal having the appearance of being crushed or to a pasty condition.

Mushy coal mashed

MUSHROOM-HITCH,
occasioned by substances.
the

an inequality in the floor of a mine, projection of basaltic or other stony


" Ye've toozlt a'

MUTCH,

woman's cap.

me

mutch, lad

"
!

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

491

MUTCHKIN,

a measure of a pint. This word appears to have been used on the English side of the Border in former times, for in the Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p, 15, the landlady at Durham asks her Northumberland guests " Will ye take a " Mutch-kin o' Wine ? The margin explains it as pint.
caressed.

MYED-ON,

" He's muckle myed on."

MYELN,

a dirty lass; an oven clout.


!

See MAILIN.

MY JOES

an exclamation.
"

My joes

fear

Yon

is

a parlish ingeneer."

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 71.

NA, no
etc.

" Adna" " Na." I do not. "Aa henna" I have not. "Aa winna'' I will not. "Ye " " Aa he shall not. munna" you must not. " He shanna " canna I cannot.

The a (negative adverb). "Are ye gan win us?"

very short, as in #, pat,

hat,

N ABBLY. A nabbly
NACK,

clod

is

one the size of an apple.

to crack together

two hard or resounding surfaces.

See

KNACK, KNACK-REEL. " He nacks his heels,


crack."

an'

round he wheels, an' gies his thooms a


1879.

James Armstrong, Fair Joan,

NACKEREL [N.], an acorn. NACKET [N.], NACKEY [T.]


not nackey"
is

endeavours

"Yor conceitedly clever. often said to a self-important person who See KNACKET, to show off to advantage.
,

KNACKEY.

NACKIT
NACKS,

nackit of a thing."

"He's oney a little [N.], an insignificant person. Keh, ye little nackit!" said to a child.

or GNACKS, a disease among poultry, which is supposed to be cured by drawing a quill feather from the fowl affected, pushing the quill through the nostrils, and drawing the feather through them.

NAF,

the nave or hub of a wheel.


trifling,

See NATH.
just naffin on."

NAFFIN,

frivolmg.

"

They were

NAFGAR,

an auger.

4g2

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to

NAG,
at
?

" What are ye naggin on worry with fault-finding. Yor elwis nag-naggin on aboot something."

NAG,

a sour taste.
querulous, irritable in talk.
" If

NAGGY,

aw be naggy, Nanny's smile Suin myeks me blythe as ony lark." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826,
a nag.

pt.

i.,

v. 76.

NAIG, NAIGIE,
afoot.
44

To

" take Shanky's naigv"

to

go

a aw Landlord hanck your naig a while, For I ha' ridden full lang twa mile Out of my Gate, to overtake ye."

Hev

G. Stuart, Joco-Senous Discourse, 1686, p.

9.

NAIGLET,
NAIL,

Naiglet -holes, the lace or eyelet holes in a boot front.


He

the tin or other tag on the ends of bootlaces.

to arrest, to take possession of, to steal. Also to strike " effectually, to stun. up wiv his nief an' naiVd him." " That nails her," said of a shot that has hit the mark.

NAILER,
settles
nailer

a sharp blow, an effectual stroke or repartee that " That's a an adversary in argument, a dilemma. for him." In this sense compare CLAGGER, CLANKER.
" With brickbats he got

many

a nailer."

Newcastle in an Uproar, 1821.

NAN, NANCY,
London
pride.

the Christian name Ann. Nancy See NANNY and NONE-SO-PRETTY.


glacialis,

pretty,

NANK,

the great northern diver, Colymbus

L.

NANNY,

the

name Ann.

The term

elderly females of that goat, a he-goat.

name.

is usually applied to Nanny-goat, a she-goat Billy;

NANNY,
bumbler.

or

CANNY-NANNY,
[N.],

a stingless

humble bee or

NANNY-HAMMER

NINNY-HAMMER,

a ninny.

NANNY-RING-TAIL,

the redstart, Ruticilla Called also Bella-ring-tail and red-tail.

Phoenicia, L.

NAPPE RN,

an apron.

Brockett.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

493

NAPPY,

having a nap on or a frothy surface.


"
sneakers, nappy ale Shall waft us with delusive gale."

Applied to

ale.

Dry drams and

Tom

Whittell,
1

On Mr. Bowmer,

1815.

"

Spirits strong and nappy beer.' R. Gilchrist, Bold Archie Drownded, 1824. Allan's Tyneside Songs, 1891, p. 181.
all in

" Their cares are

nappy drowned." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

pt.

i.,

1826, v. 8.

NAR

[N.], near. side. Nar'd, near

The
it.

nar side in driving, the " Aa wis gye nar'd there."

left

or near

NARKT,
NARR,

annoyed.

"

He

wis very narkt at what he say'd."

to snarl, to find fault in a growling

manner.

" She'll

be aye narv-navrin at him."

NARRA,

narra as a drink

" He's as applied to very thin people. waitor." Narrin, narrowing, reducing the width in knitting. Narrish, somewhat narrow.

narrow

o'

NARROW-BORD,

in a pit, an excavation of the same length as a wide board, but driven two yards wide. G. C. Greenwell, Glossary of Coal Trade, 1888.

NARROW-WORK,

excavations, varying from six to ten feet wide, for which so much per yard is paid in addition to the score (hewing) price. Narrow places are driven for the purpose of ventilation or for passages. W. E. Nicholson, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888.
"

NASH, NAISH,
powdery.

Hard

tender, like coal when it hard or soft. or nesshe"


of

is soft,

crumbly,

NATE,

to use, to

make use

Northumberland.

Halliwell.
ti

NATH,

the nave of a wheel.

"

Byeth wheels cam

bits

an'

nath, spyeks, an' fellies wis aall lyin' iv a heap.

Compare NAF.

NATTER,
He's a

continuously.

to talk or gossip in an- unfriendly " " What are ye nattrin on at ?

way;

to scold

NATTERIN, NATTERY, " "


natterin

body."

peevish, ill-tempered in speech. nesty, nattery aad chep."

NATTLE,

to make a noise like that of a mouse gnawing a "What are ye nattlin there?" what board. Hodgson MS. In a pit, nattle is a are you clattering or knocking together ? " fizzelin." crackling noise made in a creep, louder than a See FISSEL.

494

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
gravelly ground.

NATTLEY-GROUND, NATTLING STONES,

Brocket.
Brocket*.

polishing stones.

NAUP, to beat, to strike. Brocket*. NAYSAY, a refusal. " He waddent NEAF, the fist. See NEIF.
NEAP,

be said naysay."

new. " She's gi'en us some claes an' thor quite neap as good as new. See the expression nip for new, under NIP,

"
2.

NEAR (a near), a kidney. NEAVES (pi. ofneif), hands.


NEB,
the bill of a bird, a nose, a prominent headland, a point " " Wet the nose take a drink of a thing (nib). yor neb The supposed to enter the pot in the process. being prominent feature often gives a name to the entire face.
;

"

Ugly neb"

ugly face.
1

"Cock yor
"

neb"

hold up your
D. D. Dixon,

face.
" Half-an-inch afront o their beut nebs Shrovetide Customs at Rothbury. p. 5.

(boot points).

NEB,

impudent way.
"

to put one's nose into a discourse or argument in an " He com nebbin up, as if he hed ony business " The wi'd." jackanyeps nebbed alangside." Hence nebby or nebsy, having a sharp, impertinent, and ill-natured manner.

clarty, nebsy

body."
"

NECK,
aa' !"

forwardness, impudence. A cant term.

What
fire at

a neck ye hev efter

NECK, NECK,

the part of a blacksmith's the blast.


to catch, to steal.
"

the end opposite to

And devil a thing cud be left on the deck, But Geordy, as sure as a gun, wad it neck."
Geordy's Disaster.
Allan's Collection, 1863, p. 165.

NECK-CURCHOR,
'

NECKERCHOR,

NECKATEE,

neck-kerchief.

See CURCHOR.

NED-CAKE, KNED-CAKE,
SlNGIN-HINNY.

cake kneaded with butter, See dripping, or lard, and generally baked on the girdle.

NEDDER,

an adder.

See NETHER,

i.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

495

NEDDIN, KNEDDIN,
making
pastry.

butter, dripping, lard, etc., used in

NEDDY,

an eddy.

Compare NEDDER.
needful. said of a

NEEDFA, NEEDFU,
(Northumberland saw)
slattern.

"Not

nice,

man who

but needfa" has married a

NEED-FIRE,

fire obtained by rubbing two pieces of dry wood Called also forced-fire. It was formerly raised in together. one village and hurriedly carried on from village to village in the district, each kindling their flame from the other. The practice continued in use near the middle of this century.

"

When

the murrain broke out

among

the cattle, about eighteen years

ago, this fire and carried

was produced by rubbing two pieces of dry wood together, from place to place all through the district, as a charm against cattle taking it. A fire was kindled, and the cattle driven into the smoke, and they were kept there for some time. Many farmers in this part of the country, I am informed, had the 'need-fire.''" The Rev.
F. Bigge, Transactions of Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club, 1860-62, vol.
1

J.

v.,

p. 94.

"To work as though one was working for 'need-fire, is a common proverb in the North of England." M. A. Denham, Folk Lore, p. 5.

NEEDLER,
Brocket*.

keen,

active,

thrifty

person^a niggard.

NEEF,
NEEP,

the

fist.

See NEIF.

a turnip.

Compare BAGIE.
" I'm ay sae thrang, hoeing neeps and minding cattle." Poems, T. Donaldson, Glanton, 1809, p. 162.

Wi

NEEP-SHAW,
"

a turnip top.
James Armstrong,

neep-shaw, or docken, or aucht that is green.'* Another Sang, 1872.

NE'ER-DI-WEEL,

a never-do-well, a scapegrace.

NEEST, NEIST,
to take
"
it

take anything " on an empty stomach.


next.

To

neest

the heart

"

is

Tyek the physic


"

neest

the heart

i'

the mornin."

Dr. Embleton

MS.

And

there's ne

knawin what

neist they'll de,

Folks are

now

a' se cliver."

T. Wilson, Captains and

the Quayside, 1843.

NEET-COAL,

a coal put on at night

to.

keep the

fire

burning.

See GETHERIN-COAL.

496

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
nightfold, a fold for cattle, etc., to rest in at night-

NEETFAD,
time.

NEEZE,

to sneeze. "Thor's somebody neezin heavy." "Aa've " neezed three times even runnin." Houts, he's elways neezin." " His flash forth light." Job 41, v. 18, revised version.
neesings

" The whole quire hold their hips and laffe And waxen in their mirth, and neeze and swear."
;

Midsummer Night's Dream, act

ii.,

sc. i.

NEGLET,

the tag on a lace.

See NAIGLET.
a

NEIBOR-RAA,

Where seated near together. friends are sitting together one is asked to join " Come into neibor-raa." invitation,

party of

them by the

NEIF, NIEF, NEEF,


" Gethered wi' the
"

NEEVE
A

wiv his double-;^/


By my
faicks

"
!

nief."

[N.] (pi. neaves), the hand. " hit us double-nief, a fist.

He

(closed hand).
it's

been built up by Adam's aun neaves." T. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny Newcastle.


Allan's Collection, 1891, p. 48.

" Give

me

your

neif,

Monsieur Mustard-Seed." Midsummer Night's Dream,

iv., i.

NEIF-FUL,
a
handful,

NEAF-FU,
as

NEEF-FOW, NEFFU
be
grasped
in

[N.],

much

.as can

one

hand.

A "gowpen" is a measure made by placing both hands together with the palms held upward like a scoop, and is contrasted with a nief-fid. " He tyuk a neaf-fu oot, an' thowt " clarts (mud). aa didn't see him." " A nief-ful o' glar " Here's Wheat-meal and Sewet, we'll have a Poak-Pudding. Put a neef-fow of Prunes in't, an' make it a geud ane."
G. Stuart, Newcastle, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686.

NELL-KNEED,
NENST,
"

knock-kneed.

over against.

See ANENST and FORNENST.

The cash was paid nenst his year's rent." Brockett. " Then on we went, as nice as owse,
Till 'nenstau'd

Lizzy Moody's." T. Thompson, d. 1814, Jemmy Joneson's Whurry.


Allan's Tyneside Songs, 1891, p. 52.

NESS
the

(pi. nesses),

a nest.

"
If

We fun'
ye

fower

nesses

i'

the lonnin."

NETHER,
nether' s

an adder. " deun for."

fetch't a

switch ower the back

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

497

NETHER,

lower.

In

common

use colloquially, and frequent


etc.

in place-names, as Nether

Witton,

NETHER
"

How

[N.] to blast and bite, as by frost or a bitter wind. the frost hes nethert the bagie-shaws (turnip tops)."
,

See ETHER.

NETHERIN
wund."

[N.], biting, blasting, shrivelling.

"A

netherin

See ETHERISH.
[N.],
ill-natured,

NETHERY

witheringly sarcastic,
;

Aa

dinna ken what

ails

wor maister

he's awfa nethery."

NET-STUCKEN,
NETTEET-ON,
netted
turnips.

stakes driven into the ground, on which nets are stretched to confine sheep to one part of a field.
" brick upon a

enclosed by nets. Applied to sheep when " (or break) in a crop of growing

NETTLE-BROTH, broth made from nettles.


is

Ale (nettle-beer)

In North Northumberland pigs are largely fed in summer on nettles and on the leaves of the common dock. On receiving a sting from a nettle a dock leaf is immediately rubbed on the part, and the cure is dockin effected by repeating rapidly the words, " Nettle oot
also

brewed from the

plant.

in."

NEUCLE-COW, NEUCLED-COW, NEWKELD-COW,


a

cow

that has

had a

calf within the year.

Bvockett.

NEUK, NYUK, NUICK, NUIK,

a nook, a corner, being The chimley netik, or either an interior or exterior angle. neuk simply, is the chimney corner. dike neuk, or waa neuk, is the nook of a fence or wall. In the working place of a pit the neuk is the angle made by the face of the coal and the side of the bord. The corner angle of a pillar of coal is also called the pillar neuk. The one is an interior and the other an exterior angle. Compare SNOOK.

"

Hidden ahint some awd wa'

nuik,
pt.
ii.,

Where

like a conjuror he'd sit."

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

1827, v. 45.

NEVEL,

a blow with the


"

fist.

He got

on the lug such a nevel, That down he came all his long length." H. Robson, Collier's Pay week.
Allan's Tyneside Songs, 1891, p. 112.

"

lurden nevvil," a heavy or severe blow (Berwickshire).


lurden.

Jamieson,

under

498

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
freshly.

NEW,

The word

is

"New done up." "New painted." " He's " New new come" just come. layed" newly repaired with an added piece of material. "New sitten doon" just sitten fin' down. "New pairted" just parted. "Ye'll fin him roon the corner: him an' me's new pairted." New is spok en nee-oo.
and adverbially.
tub put over the head of a drunkard and worn like a garment. See DRUNKARD'S CLOAK. " The common drunkard was led through the town as a spectacle of
called a Newcastle Cloak, one end contempt, covered with a large barrel, being out, and the other having a hole through it of sufficient size to allow the offender's head to pass through, by which means the vessel M. A. Denham, Proverbial Folk Lore of rested on the shoulders."

constantly used in combination

NEWCASTLE CLOAK, a

Newcasth-upon-Tyne, 1855, p. 6.

NEWCASTLE HOSPITALITY
death "
;

that

is,

roasting a friend to

according to a more popular colloquial phrase, The saying, no doubt, killing a person with kindness." alludes to the ancient drinking customs of Newcastle and Northumberland customs now, happily, to a great extent, M. A. Denham, Folk Lore of Northumberland laid aside. Tract xii., No. 5, 1855, p. 77.
or,
,

NEWCASTLE ROADS,
RAILWAY.

railways, called long after their introduction by no other name than that of the " Newcastle T. John Taylor, Archeology of the Coal Trade. Roads." Memoirs Archaeological Institute, Newcastle, 1852, p. 150. See
" These early railways, known in other parts of the kingdom as the 'Newcastle Roads,' consisted of wooden rails about four inches square, Such was the first appearance (probably about 1660) laid upon sleepers. of those lines of railway which have subsequently, and by gradual steps, been improved into their present form, though still retaining the original name given to the wooden rail." Ibid, pp. 180-1.

NEWCASTLE'S WHITECOATS,
Newcastle's
Whitecoats,'.
'

a regiment raised by Sir Robert Clavering in the cause of Charles I. " These Border men, who formed part of the Loyal Duke of
'

army, were known wherever they went as Newcastle's from the colour of their jerkins." D. D, Dixon, Vale of
'

Whittingham, 1887, p. 34.

NEW-CHAPEL-FLOWER,
L.

the broom rape, Orobanche major, parasitic on broom. " so rare an herbe in It is Englande that I never saw it in all Englande, but in Northumberland, where it was called New Chapel Floured Turner,

Not unfrequent,

Herbal, 1548.

Sixteen localities enumerated.

Nat. Hist. Trans, of Northumberland and

Durham,

vol.

ii.,

1867, p. 220.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

499

NEW-LAND-HAY,

clover hay. Hay from a new-sown pasture, as "old land hay" is hay from a permanent grass pasture.

NEWRIS-DAY, New

Year's Day.

NEW-UN,

a fresh, vigorous person. " And Peel, as drunk as he can stand. Reeling and dancing like a new-un."
T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., v. 5. " But, man, they say she liked a drop, An' drunk gin like a new-un." J. P. Robson, Hamlick, Prince of Denton.

NIBS,

the two small handles which are fastened to the long handle, shaft, or sned of a scythe, and held by the mower at

work.

See SCYTHE.
well in health.

NICELY,
nicely"

"

Hoo

are ye thi day ?"

"

Oh, aa's

NICHOLAS'-DAY, ST. NICHOLAS' DAY, or BARRINOOT-DAY, the 6th of December, on which the schoolmaster
found the school door locked in his face and barricaded with forms to prevent his entrance until the scholars within obtained from him in writing a list of holidays for the ensuing The custom is almost obsolete. year.
" Scholars on St. Nicholas day used to elect three out of their number, one .of whom was to play the bishop, the others to act the part of deacons. The bishop was escorted by the rest of the boys in solemn procession to church, where, with his mitre on, he presided during the time of Divine worship." Brand, Popular Antiquities, 1777, p. 363.

Edward the First, in 1299, lodged at Heaton, and heard a boy-bishop saying the vespers of St. Nicholas before the king in his chapel at Heton near Newcastle-upon-Tyne." Wardrobe Accounts quoted in Boyle an I Knowles's Ve tiges of Old Newcastle and Gateshead, p. 136.
"

NICK,

slit, a groove, a gap, a very narrow a common practice to mark the ownership of a stick, etc., by a peculiar series of nicks cut on the surface, or " of a sheep by a "lug mark or nick in the ear. The small grooves on the periphery of the driving wheel of a spinning wheel and on the pirn are called nicks. Hence the proverbial

a notch, a niche, a
It is

fissure.

expression, which means steady and uninterrupted progress in life or work, when one is said to " Keep the wheelband i' " the nick. The great basaltic escarpment in South Tynedale appears like a huge ridge in which a regular succession of gaps have been made. From some aspects the points of the ridge stand up with the regularity of the teeth of a saw, and
4

50O

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

the depressions or gaps between the tooth-like points give the name to the phenomenon. The gaps are called nicks, and the

See ridge is called "the nine-w^s." " Along the line of the Roman Wall the outline is broken by gaps, which there appears an alternate locally called nicks, in the rock, succession of lofty cliffs, steep and rugged, with deep hollows between."
James Tate, History of Berwickshire
Naturalists' Club, vol. vi., p. 198.

NICKIN.

NICK,

nickin

to notch, to make a fissure, to cut a vertical niche or from roof to floor in the face of the working bord in a colliery. When a miner is going to make a jud or top in his bord in the whole (or hyel) he corves some coal out at the bottom of the seam and then nicks it up the side to make it ready for blasting or wedging. This is done to the depth of two or three feet.
.

NICKER, NICHER,
startling laughter.

the neigh of a horse;

immoderate or

" Then there wis sic a queer eiry nicher, as o* some hundreds o creatures laughin." Richardson, Table Book, Leg. div., vol. ii., p. 137. " And then he set up a great nicker." Newcastle Fair, October, 1811.
Bell's

Rhymes, p. 89.

NICKER, NICHER, "


and laugh,"
nicker

to neigh, to laugh hoarsely.

To

" nicker

and sneer," are common phrases applied to the act of laughing rudely and contemptuously. " Ye'll see how they'll nicker and torn up their tails."
T. Wilson, Stanzas,
"
etc., 1824.

The

keel bullies nick'rd, but on

Mally toddled."
Mally and the Prophet. Bards of the Tyne, p. 254.

R. Emery,

d. 1874,

NICKIN,

in coal mining, the vertical fissure worked by a hewer in the side, or neuk, of his working place after he has formed a kirvin along the bottom of the face. See NICK, 2.

NICK-NYEMS.

In former times many persons were known only by their nick-name (eke-name), and hence our local literature abounds in references such as Jimmy Leuk-up, Cuckoo Jack, Hairy Nanny, Billy-stole-the-dog, Cull Bill, Bobby the Bone-Picker, Humpy Dick, Black Scotch Peg, Tatie-Bet, Slush Tom Carr, Blind Willy, Daft Willy, Liverlip Bet, Preacher Willy, Squintin Meg, Oyster Mally, Pussey Willy, Lowsie Donald, Timber-toe John, Cuddy Willy, Honour Breet, Bed Watt, Kill-puddin-Joe, Tripy Atkin, Buggy Jack, Hairy Tom, Trimmel-leg Jack, GeordyBlack-Doup, Willy-with-the-war-hand, Tom-the-joy, Tommy-Tally, Geordy-the-Whanger, etc. The practice is by no means extinct, nor is it confined to low people.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

5OI

NICK-STICK,
nick-stick

a stick on which nicks, or notches, were cut in This old-fashioned accountorder to keep a reckoning. " She has lost her keeping has not yet wholly died out.
"

is still an expression used her reckoning of time.


'

when

a person has lost

My mother relates how, in her young days, an illiterate steward, on a farm near Belford, kept the bondagers' days' works by means of a Note by Mr. J. Avery, November, 1891. nick-stick."

NICKY-NACK, a boy's guessing game.


NACK.

See NIEVY-NIEVY-NICK-

NIDGE,

to squeeze, to bite.

NIEVY-NIEVY-NICK-NACK,
(or nief) in

game

of guessing the
is

hand

which an

article is hid.

This game

sometimes

called niwmy-nimmy-nack-nack and nicky-nicky-nack-nack. coin or other small article is placed in the kef of one hand and passed behind the back. It may be changed into the other hand or not, and when the two hands are brought to the front

again the player repeats


"

Neevy, neevy, nick, nack, which wull ye tak ? The reet or the wrang aa'll gie y' it if aa can."
;

the guess be correct the nick-nack becomes the property of the successful player. Another version is
If
:

11

Nicky, nicky, nack, which hand de ye guess ? The reet or the left or the bonny bord's nes."
:

Yet another goes thus


"

Neavy, neavy, knick, knack, which hand will ye tak ? Tak the reet, tak the wrang; aa'll beguile ye if aa can."
;

NIFFNAFF,
at the job."

" He to trifle. to take finical pains niffnaffed on Hence a niffy-naffy body, a finikin person ; and niffnaffs, small, inconsequential things,

NIGGARTS,

side pieces of iron or firebrick used to contract the fire space in a fire grate.

NIGH, NIGH-HAND (adv.), nearly, just " It's nigh lossin me hat." nigh sixty 'ear
hand

about.

"

Aa

wis

" is often used in the same sense. wis nigh-hand " nivver com lossin his job." It also means near, as in nigh-hand us," "It's a lonesome pleyace ; not a hoose nighhand" To " gan through by the nighest " is to do anything in

sin syne."

He He

Nigh-

a hurried
11

and slovenly manner.


Brockett.

Nighest-about," the nearest way.

502

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
the nightjar, Caprimulgus Europceus.

NIGHT-HAWK,

Called

also the goatsucker.

NIGHT-SHIFT, men who


NIM,
NIM,
to take

relieve the day-shift in carrying on continuous work where shifts or relays are employed.

by

stealth, to filch.

New World

of Words, 1706.

lightly, gracefully. " The ladies they ride nim, nim, nim ; The gentlemen they ride trim, trim, trim The farmers they ride trot for trot An' the hinds they ride clot for clot But the cadgers they ride creels an' aa, creels an' aa." Old Nursery Rhyme.
;
;
;

NIMMEL,

thief. See NIM, i. (Obs.) " This Swindger at Saint Barthol's Fair Where aw the Nimmers do repair."

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,

p. 59.

NINE-EYED EEL,

the sea-lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, L. Also the river-lamprey, P. fluviatilis, L.

NI-NI, an exclamation of surprise and pleasure on seeing a


very fine thing.
It is

mostly a children's word.

NIP,

in mining, the thinning out of a seam of coal where the also, the crush or squeeze deposit has become attenuated of coal pillars produced by a creep or by any severe pressure.
;

NIP, a pinch given to a person on his first appearance in a new suit of clothes. It is always followed by the exclamation " Nip for new !" Nip is also a small quantity of anything, as
a nip of cheese

between finger and thumb glassful. Compare NEAP.

a pinch of cheese, such as might be taken a nip of spirit a small wine;

NIP,
"

a hurried departure.

He

seun teuk his nip."

R. Thompson, Nanny's Advice, 1886.

NIP, to slip away suddenly, to go off hurriedly. "Just nip away afore he sees you." To take up suddenly or quickly. " He nipped up his crowdy in a jiffy."

NIP-CHEESE,

a stingy person. Probably from the act of nipping or abruptly removing the cheese from the table before the eaters have done, in order to economise the dish.
"Nip-cheese, a miserly person.

Various dialects

sometimes called a

Halliwell. nip-squeeze or a nip-farthing." "Nip-screed is identical." Brockett.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

503

NIPPER,
NIPPY,

a super-excellent thing.

"

Thame

boots

is

a pair

o' nippers"

tight,
gi'

he canna

scrimp in fit, hence greedy. ye full weight."

" He's that nippy

NITHERED-UP,
the caad."

shrunk together.
"

" Aa's just nithered-up wi'

NITTY,

small, neat.

bit nitty bairn."

NOBBUT, NOBBIT "


Thor wis
nobbut

(adv.), only.

him

an'

me

" A&'snobbut badly thi day.'

there."

" Aa'd nobbut


Robert

left

him

a minute."
"Nobbit guess what's been rumored aboot."
Elliot,

A Pitman

gan

ti

Parliament. " Thou'll drive

me

For now aw's

daft, aw often dread, nobbit verra silly."

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

pt.

i.,

1826, v. 42.

NODDLE,
NOG,

" She'll noddle her head."

to nod, to shake as from old age. G. Stuart, Joco-Serious

Discourse, 1686, p. 3.

a knob,
14

or

projection like

the stump of a

branch.

Compare SNAG. A tree


To

they cut, with fifteen nogs on each side, clim up the wa' o' Newcastle toun."
Ballad, Jock o the Syde.
1

NOGS,
mines.

square bits of wood piled to support the roof of coal Bainbridge, Treatise on Law of Mines, 1856.
the
plant
se

NONE-SO-PRETTY,
umbrosa.
It is

London

pride,

Saxifvaga

spoken as nyen

pretty or

Nancy

pretty.

NONSKYEP,

a longing or hankering after change. Pitman's Pay. (Obs.) " This spreed o lare sets high and law, A nonshyep efter owse that's new."
1

Gloss, to

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

pt.

iii.,

1829, v. 87.

NOOB,

a knob. a

"

We want

a pair o' draars wi' china

mobs"

NOODLE,

yeomanry cavalry or infantry man.

" You're going to be a noodle bold valiant volunteer

You

blue

tail

bumbler, cock
J.

tail

tumbler,

Dare not go

to war."

B. Gilroy, The Noodle. Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 108. " For he wad be a noodle, a sowjer-like noodle, For he wad be a noodle, the greet slavering cull." E. Corvan. Allan's Tyneside Songs, 1891, p. 394.

504

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

NOOK.

On the Northumberland coast this word occurs in Nook, formerly written Blyth's Nook, and in Ebb's Nook, Blyth near Beadnel. These probably refer to the projecting beaklike headlands at these places. See NEUK and compare SNOOK.
to

NOOL,
"

benumb,

to subdue.
Embleton

Noo

give us sumthin' to nool this pain."


(adj.),

MS.
It is

NOOLED

subdued, broken-spirited, dazed.

applied

whose appearance indicates fear or over-anxiety. " The man's fair nooled like." " The poor bairn's fairly nooled; he hardly daur speak." It is also applied to an animal that has had its spirit broken by hard usage, or that has a cowed " A look through being conquered in fighting with its kind.
to a person

poor

nooled

dog."

" He's a nooled -leukiri beast."

In Scotland,

snooled is a similar

word.

See KNOOLED.

NOOPS, KNUPES,
"The
Streams
noops
o' the

the fruit of the cloudberry or mountain

bramble, Rubus chamcemoms,


grow
West.
in plenty

See KNOT-BERRY.
fell

round the

foxe's

den."

The same,
cloud

"I was up
berries."

in good time, and pulled a The same, Crossing the Cheviots.

fine lot of noops, or

"Noops, a. word equivalent to knobs or knops." Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, vol. vi., p. 303.
"

Simpson, History of

The little hills the humble knupes produce, Which cure the scurvy with their wholesome juice."

"

Where
It's

Cheviot, a poetical fragment, by R. W., 1712-14. red noops grow an' moss-roses blow, there the comely lassie strays." Jas. Armstrong, The Flower o' Kielder, 1879.

NOPE,
NOR,
"
ch.

to beat.

than.

nor his sel." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 6. " Far nicer nor wine." J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Sang o Solomon,
1

Warre

i.,

v. 2.

"

Aw

heard ne mair
frae St. Nicholas's steeple." Thos. Thompson, d. 1816,

Nor aw could

Canny Newcastle.

NORRATION, a long and confused noise, a wordy disturbance. " Whee's myekin all that narration, aa wonder ?" " Aa hard a greet norration, an' sure eneuf the place was aa' afire." It also means a long yarn or discourse. "A Cockney chep showed me the Thames' druvy feace, Whilk he said was the pride o' the nation, And thought at their shippin' aw'd maek a haze gaze, But aw whop't ma foot on his novation."
T. Thompson, Canny Newcastle.
Allan's Tyneside Songs, p. 48.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

505

NORRID, NORRIT,

northward

sea term.

See NOTHARD.

NORTHERN GAD, a spear. (Obs.) See GAD. NORTHUMBERLAND PIPES, the small pipes,

peculiar to the county of Northumberland. They are played with a pair " in the right arm. There of bellows, which are " oxtered were formerly four, but are now three drones and a chanter. In the three-drone pipe the largest and smallest drones are tuned in octave, whilst the intermediate drone is tuned in fifth above the lowest drone they thus sound the notes G, D,'G, or their equivalents. The chanter is closed at the end; and, in playing, each hole is covered except the one which sounds; the lifted finger has consequently to be put down and another fing'er raised, in order to produce the hence the staccato effect which gives a succeeding note In A Joco-Serious peculiar, character to the pipe tunes. Discourse, 1686, pp. 23-24, the following technical terms " The chanter, the baggs, relating to the pipes are mentioned the bellows, the flaps, the reeds, the drones, the wind-fald, the bellows'-stockead, the joints, the bunch of ribbons on " The the drones." The writer adds piper at a wedding has a piece of the bride's garter ty'd about his pipes." always
; ;
:

NORTHUMBERLAND'S ARMS.

North-Country

provincialism, Lord Northumberland's Arms, has for the last two hundred years been synonymous with a black eye. may doubt whether the notion arose in the black and red which filled the spectacles-like badge of Percy or in the

We

fusils.

Old Heraldry of the


iv.,

Percies.

Longstaffe, in Archaologia

/Eliana, vol.

new

series, p. 164.

NOSE,

In Mr. a promontory. Culler Nose, near Craster. Gregory's list, the form ness, in this connection, appears only once (Sharpness Point) in Northumberland. Compare NOOK and SNOOK.
the part of a work-horse's bridle that passes over the nose above the bits. A riding or carriage horse has*

NOSEPIKE,
no
nosepike.

NOSE-TIRRELS,
"Blowen
"

into the nose thrilles that


6.

the nostrils, the perforations of the nose. it may make a man sneeze."

Earth MS., 286,


Note by Mr.

Nose-tirrel, in

very

common

use with a deep accent on the

tirrel."

M. H. Dand.
pryingly acute.
Brocket*.

NOSE-WISE,

506

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
(pron. not-able), honest.

NOTABLE

" She's a notable

woman."

NOTOMY, ATOMY,
!

an emaciated or excessively thin person, a skeleton. " " Poor that is, a complete She's gyen tiv a fair notomy thing or skeleton. Dr. Embhton MS. anatomy
but
oxen, neat cattle. Nout is both singular and a single animal is spoken of it is not to say " a nout beast."

NOUT, NOWT,
plural
;

when

uncommon

" The street " " that is called the M>/-market." Lease, (in Newcastle) Richard Welford's History of Newcastle and Gateshead XIV. and XV.
Centuries, p. 360.

"When
1565"

stale the nowt

the theves of Tyndaill perceved the Scotts were at rest, they from the Scotts." Heron of Chipchase to Sir John Forster,
for the fair
p. 199.

They separate
iii.,

heed they can


Leg. Div., vol.

git for their

(Ovingham), there to ettle how muckle per nowte an swine." Richardson, Table Book,

NOUT-FOOT, a neat's foot. A boiled nout-foot is a common


trotters

Nout-foot

oil.

accompaniment

Nout-foot jilly. to the sheep's

and the minch-meat of the

tripe-wife's stall.

NOUT-GELD,
tax.

horn tax. Nout, a beast, and geld a tribute or " " In old rentals " cornage is translated newtgeldt." Mackenzie, Hist, of Northumberland, vol. i., p. 61, note. See
a neat herd.

CORNAGE.

NOUT-HARD,
" Paid to

Mr. Marmaduke Thirlekill for the half yeares rent for the nowtardshipp of this towne, duee att Candlemas laste paste, 26s. 8d." Newcastle Municipal Accounts, March, 1592.
Will of Marmaduke Thirkild, Esq., 6 Feb., 1595, " his office of keeper of beasts, called the Nowtershipp of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne." Archcsologia JEliana, vol. i., N.S., p. 32.

NOWT, NOWSE,
used
;

nothing. Nowt and nowse are indifferently so are the similar forms of owt and owse, anything.
so nowse he
"

"Aw

was leukin

at."

Thomas Bewick, The Howdy,

ed. 1850, p. 10.

A man may

spare, and be always bare, be nowt, if his wile be nowt. But a man may spend, and a man may lend, If his wife be owt, if his wife be owt."
If his wife

Old Northumberland Saw.


" Ise help thou to tie up thy sugar, At neets when frae wark aw get lowse An' wor Dick, that leeves ower by High Whickham, He'll myek us broom buzzoms for nowse."
;

W. Mid ford,

Pitman's Courtship, 1818.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

507
Nout-at-o,

NOWT-A-DO,
nothing at
all.

a useless, good-for-nothing fellow.

Compare DONNAT.
by the nose.
James Armstrong, Wee
Halliwell.
Piper, 1879.

NOZZLE,
"

to seize

He

nozzVt a rabbit or twa."

NUCH, to tremble Northumberland. NUENTY, NUNTY, mean, shabby,

scrimp, scanty.

Brockett.

NUMBED,
numbed

woman

unhandy, clumsy. "


she
is
!

Applied to persons,

"What

NUMBY, NUMMY, NUMERALS. The


twa), three, fower,
iliven,

a numskull.
cardinal
five,

"Co'by! ye numby."
aight
nine,
ten,

numbers are yen, twee (tway,


sivin,
(eit),

six,

twoalve and twal, thorteen, fowerteen, yenan'twenty, etc. The ordinal numbers are
fift,

etc.,

thord, fowert,

forst, sixt. sivint (or seevent), eith, nint (neint),

twenty, second,

tent, ilivent, twelt, thorteent, fowerteent, twonteit.

NUNDER,
NUT-BUSS,

under;

shortened form of anundev.

"It's nunder

the tyeble."
a hazel bush.

Nut-tree, the hazel tree.

NUT-CRACK-NEET,
The anxious

the eve of All-Hallows, October 3 ist. lover on this night places two nuts side by side in the fire. One is his or her own representative, and the other that of the loved one. If the two burn quietly together, the augury of a happy wedded life is inferred. If, on the contrary, the nuts crack and fly apart, it omens ill for the future of the couple. Snack-apple and duck-apple also accompany the diversions of this evening.
the Christian

NUTTY,

name

Ursula.

OAD-FARRANT
"
ed. 1850, p. 14.

[W.-T.]

old-fashioned.

See AAD-FARRAND.

Sheed seen a vast o' the Betty Kell was the wisest body there. warld, and is an oad farmnt body." Thomas Bewick, The Upgetting,

OARS,
man."

a cant term for the arms.

"

Drop swingin yor


called

oars,

OAST,

fresh curdle for cheese,

and so

when

it

begins to

scum over the whey.

508

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to frequent

OAST,

Brockett.

an inn as, " OAST-HOOSE. See


;

He

oasts at

the Half Moon."

OASTE,
to

the

name

given to the mariner or stranger

who came

of coal, etc., were the Incorporated Company of Hoastmen, and their clients or The " seal of the fraternity of the customers were oastes. " Ostmen of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne represents an The oaste advancing, hat in hand, to meet the coal merchant. Hoastman extends his right hand to grasp that of the oaste, with the salutation " Welcome, my oste" (Obs.)

buy coals

at Newcastle.

The vendors

" It appears from the earliest entries in the books of this society (the Merchant Adventurers), that the stranger arriving at the port of Tyne to " Brand, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., buy coals is called 'the oaste'

1789, p. 270, note.

OAST-HOOSE,

the room for goods attached to the inn at the The oast-hoose is at market town where a farmer puts up. once a meeting place, a receptacle for goods and parcels of every description, and a convenient waiting-room for any passengers who may have to accompany the farmer's return carts or conveyance from market.

OAT-SEED-BIRD,
See YET-SEED-BORD.

Ray's

wagtail.

Called yalla-wheag-tail.

OCKERIL,

little

cabin or resting place where the


his own seat heats.
for resting

men

at a

rolling mill

had each chance meals between

and eating

OCKET,
work.
if it

a chance meal taken in the field or between spells of This word is commonly called an ocket but spoken as were a knocket.

ODD-LADDY,

a boy kept on farms to do odd (that is, The occasional) jobs, such as carting turnips, manure, etc. horse he drives is called the o^-horse his cart the o^-cart, etc. This boy is frequently known as the turnip Dicky.
;

ODDLIKE, ODDISHLIKE,
hes an
oddlike

leuk gan

i'

odd-looking. the field her lyen.


;

" Th' aad meer

ODDMENTS, odds
11

and ends

applied also to the sundry edible

portions of a goose or a pig.

The

odments, tee, beat boil or fry,


pt.
ii.,

Provided geussy be a good'en." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

1827, v. 28.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

509

O'ERHIE,

to overtake.
"

By

auld grey

stell

and mossy

stane,
Scottish Lassie, 1879.

There

I o'erhi o'erhied

the Scottish

lassie.'

James Armstrong, The

OFF,

Compare ON

used in the sense of from. " Aa'l borrow'd 0/ye." Often " The hat blew duplicated with of as off-of. off-of his heed."
ov.
exit.

OFF-GATE,
"

an

Several truncks and coale staithes, with on-gates and of-gates to and from the sand which adjoins on to the said waggon- way." Article of Agreement, 2oth March, 1704, between Richard Young, of Newcastle, and John
Atkinson, of Cullercoats,
etc.

OFF-HAND, "
p. 58.

instantly. G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,

Off-hand I ran into the town."

OFFHANDS, OFFHANDMEN, OFF-HANDED-MEN,

term applied to all colliery workmen, except hewers and W. E. Nicholson, Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. putters.

OFFINS,
"

often. Compare OFTER. Braying cuddies offins tells the comin spate an shooer." Maa Gud Wishes tiv aa Men, 1870.

J.

P. Robson,

OFF-PUT,
o'

" Ye'r jeest an off-put delay, one that puts off time. Also a snatch or hasty meal, as a lunch, an time, laddy." " ocket," or an intermediate "put off" meal. Offputtin, " He's varry off putting off, procrastinating, dallying. puttin."
the loader of coals into a vessel at a staith or spout. The agent of a colliery at the shipping quay, called the staithman or off-putter. " In order that the keels used on the River Tyne may be fairly and
justly loaded, no person shall be capable of acting as off-putter or off-putters at any coal staith upon the said river until he shall have taken and subscribed an oath to the effect following I, A. B., do swear, That I will faithfully and according to the best of my skill, knowledge and judgment, execute and perform the duty of off-putter at the staith of " River Tyne Skippers' andKeelman's Act, 1788. &c.'
'

OFFPUTTER,

OFF-SIDE,
animal.

the far or right

hand

side of a horse or other

OFFTAKE,
"

a place for taking rods off in deep borings.


fathoms for offtake"
Boring
at Callerton.

Sunk

to 15

Borings and

Sinkings, C.E., p. 3.

OFF-TAKE,

a deduction from a workman's wage.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

OFFTAKE-DRIFT,

shaft, called a delivery or offtake drift.

a drift driven from low ground into a Green-well, Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1888.

OFFTAKE-JOINT,
1852.

the joint by which the pump bucket is fastened to the spears or rods. Mining Gloss. Newcastle Terms,

OFTER,
This
is

oftener.

"

He

gans

ofter ti

the public nor's good."

the

common form

in use.

OGLE,
"

the eye.

cant word.

Chorus, this time to mark our disapprobation of the pugnacious fishermen for closin' the ogle o* the unfortunate monkey." E. Corvan, Fishermen Hung the Monkey.

OH

[W.-T.]

on.

" Sit doon, Andra, oh the trou steahyn." etc., ed. 1850, p. 10.

Thomas Bewick, The Howdy,

OILING-THE-WIG,
(Obs.)
"

a cant term for drinking to intoxication.


wigs an oilin'." T. Wilson, Carter's Well.
oil'd

We gi'e wor
His wig was

"

completely." T. Wilson, The Oiling of Dicky's Wig.

OILY, an
linseed

oilskin coat,
Oilskins,

oil.

made of material waterproofed with the entire suit the coat and trousers
;

complete.

OLD-LAND-HAY, " "


been
hained

hay from a permanent pasture which has

for the crop.

OLD-MAN,

and metalliferous mines.

ancient workings, which are met with in collieries

See AAD-MAN.
Plentiful in the natural forests of

OLLER,

the alder tree.

Northumberland where it was used for the small buildings of the husbandmen in olden times. It is the Alnus glutinosa of Linnaeus, and is found growing in some North of England parts as high as 1,150 feet above the sea. See ALLER, ALLERS, ELLER.
" The wood is preferred for making the soles of the clogs in common use by the hinds of Northumberland and fl//^-burs or knots the turner makes into snuff boxes." Johnston, the Eastern Borders, p. 179. Botany of
;

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

51!

ON

(prep.), of.
"

"What
"

are ye fear'd on ?"


on us is gannin."

nor fower on us."


They wade
11

Some

" Thor wis mair In constant use.

beggar speaks), 1564.

thinke ne shame on me." Bullein, Dialogue (Redesdale E. E. Text Society, p. 6, 1. 31.


I spoke on." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 45.

The gentleman whilk

"

We called in at the sign o' The Cannon, For byeth on us turned very dry."
Song, The
Politicians, 1816.

ON, busy, engaged in. " He's on plooin." " The maistor's on win a big job yenoo."

" He's on threshin."

ON COME,
"

He

gat

away

anything that comes on, as a fall of rain, snow, afore the oncome catcht him."

etc.

ONCUD,
ON-END,

in the

dumps,

in a passion.

Compare UNKED.

in succession, successively.

ON-GATE,
Brocket*.

the road or

way on

to a place.

See OFFGATE.
goings
on.
-.

ON-GOINGS,
ON-OV, ON-IV,

conduct,

doings,

merriment

as an intensitive, resembles the Other prepositions usage off-of for from off or of simply. " He went are in like manner duplicated, as " In iv a hurry." " win iv for with. " It wis gi'en him aboot win iv a queer hat " " He bin iv for by. bin iv a cadger chep got it fren iv an
on.
ov,

On

aad acquaintance fren iv for from, etc. But this lengthened form is comparatively rarer than the shortened particles iv, wiv, biv, frev, tiv, etc., for the usage of which see under their
several heads.
"

"

Compare ONTA.
ov his

Andra weypt his nwoase on The Howdy, ed 1850, p. 10.

kwoat

kuff."

Thomas Bewick,

ON-PUT,
"

on-put of the hill on-put seam of coal.

The

the overlay of beds, etc., above an out-crop. Thus, " An of the beds." and " The
on-put

ONSET,

a small portion of yeast retained to furnish a fresh fermentation.


to
set

ONSET,

on,

to place a colliery

tub in position for

hoisting.

512

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

ON SETTER,

the man in control at the bottom or at an intermediate working seam in a pit shaft. With his assistants he clears the cage of empty tubs on its descent, and pushes

is responsible for signals to in full tubs in their place. bank to move the cage, and for regulating the ascent of men. corves were in use he was called the "hinger on."

He

When

See HING-ON.

ONSTEED,
onsteed is

a steading or group of farm buildings. The the group of on-buildings used as stables, hemmels, The dwelling itself is byres, granary, barn, milkus, etc. " in North called in South Northumberland " the hoose
;

Northumberland "the

ha'."

" The farms in Northumberland are of considerable extent, and the farm-houses (or onsteads, as they are called) are scattered over the face of the country at the distance frequently of two or three miles from each In these onsteads the farmer other, and from the villages and towns. resides like the feudal barons of old, surrounded by their vassals and dependents." Mackenzie, History of Northumberland, 1825, vol. ii., p. 52.

ON'T,

literally of it, but constantly used in Northumberland for the personal pronoun its. In speaking of a horse, instead of its head, its foot, its shoulder, or its tail, the expression is " The heed on't, the foot on't, the shoother on't, the tail on't."
:

ONTA, ONTI V,

on to, upon. '" Get onta the cuddy." " Bang " onta the horse an' ride for the doctor." gat through the " roof ontiv a ontiv a

He
"

ledge."
in

He

stept

coggly plank."

ONY-GATE,
ony-gate."

any way,

in

any place.

Aa canna

find

it

OOBIT

clarty oobit

the hairy caterpillar Also a hairy worm. [N.] as hairy Hubert and ooly-bear. Oobit is also a term of " Get reproach to " an unkempt, ragged person. away, ye
,

known

OOL, OO
Wooler
is

[N.]

known

wool OOLEN [N.] in speech as Ooler.


; ,

woollen.

The town
See OOBIT.

of

OOLY-BEAR
OOSE, juice.
"

[N.]

the large hairy caterpillar.

Two whole
The
oose

fat

beeves are barbecu'd,


there,

So go and cram your gorges Your mouths will water at the

sight

your unshaved chops run down." The Newcastle Swineherds' Proclamation, 1821.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

513

OOSLY, OUSLEY, OOZELY, "

miserable, broken-down, poorHe's a little ousley leukin' chep." Applied to an looking. animal that is ill-thriven and unkempt. " It's an oosly beast " (spoken as a, noosely beast).
" Afore aa hed to blurt out, to draw or bring out. time " oots wiv his knife, an' cut the speak he oots wi'd."

OOT,
ti

He

rope."

OOTBYE, OOTBYESIDE
a pit.
exit,

towards the bottom of the shaft of

in the direction of the as distinguished from " gan' inbye" Ootbye also means fether's just ootbye" outoutside, in the open air. " side the house, in the fields. " The lads is aal away ootbye out of the village or farmstead, but not far off. In bye and oot If people speak of bye also distinguish between near and far. anything taking place near at hand, they say that it occurred in bye, and in speaking, say, of rough weather on the distant " It's varra caad oot It is also hills, they would say bye." " applied to an out-of-the-way man, as He's an oot bye kind o' chep." An oot-bye is also an outer room.

"Gan'

ootbye"

means going

"Me

" The cottage is a good specimen of an inferior farm house, the room at the entrance of which was, and still continues in many places to be, a byer in winter and a bedroom in summer, and is called the out-bye : the in-bye, or inner room, to the left of the out-door, was the dwelling of the
family."

Hodgson's History of Northumberland,

pt.

ii.,

vol.

i.,

p. 189, note.

OOT-GANNIN,

outgoing.
foreign.
'

OOTLANDISH,
"

is signified an inhabitant of that portion of the Border which was formerly known by the name of the Debateable Land,' a district which, though claimed by both England and Scotland, could not be said to belong to either country. The people on each side of the Border applied the term Outlandish to the Debateable residents." Dr. Bruce, Note to The Outlandish Knight. Northumbrian Minstrelsy,

By

the term outlandish

'

'

p. 50.

"

The The

'

Appetite,'

Geordy

Smash, dis thou hear that

verry ootlandish cull

forgat." R. Gilchrist, The Skipper's Erudition, 1824.

nyem we

OOTLANDISHMAN,
"

a foreigner, a stranger.

They'll see mountey banks, rope-dancers, jugglers, and quacks, Outlandishmen, tee, with their bear and their fiddle, And showmen wi' nice penny-shows o' their backs, Gawn the fuils and the flats i' Newcassel to diddle." T. Wilson, Stanzas on a Line of Intended Road, 1825.

OOT-O-GYET,
tyen his nip

out of the road,


oot-o-gyet

away from mortal

ken.

" He's

away

someway."

514

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

OOT-ON,

out of. " Thor wis oney three gude yows oot on the Oot on is generally spoken rapidly as if it were one lot." " He had nee word. " He mun be gyen oot-on his heed." he wis clean oot on't." chance,
across, beyond, or,

OOT-OWER,
Brocket*.

on the other side of a

hill.

OOTRUG,
wash

the back undercurrent of the sea caused by the waves against the shore. A floating object is often kept off the shore by the ootrug.
of the

OOTSHOT,
houses
;

the projection of the stories of old timber-framed " An ootshot-wunda " a bow-window. projecting.

OOTWALINS, OOTWAILINS,
OPEN-GRATED,
sandstone.
"

the refuse or small of anyIn a heap of thing waled out and separated from the bulk. potatoes the small ones picked out are the ootwailins.
open-gritted or open-grained.
Borings and Sinkings, L.R., 282.

Applied to

Open-grated post."

OPPEN-CAST, OPENCAST,
worked
at the top or

veins or beds of stone or coal bottom of an open cutting.


Oppened-oot,

OPPEN-OOT,
OR,

to abuse, to reprimand. the natural disposition.

showing

" Or ivver " It'll be before, ere. lang or aa gan agyen." " Aa " He'd aa wis awar." or aa gat there." gyen away canna be there or Monday neet." " Wait or aa come."

OR,

than.

"

Aa wad

raather thoo went or me."

OTHER-SOME,
" It

others.
at

In constant use for some


good Christmastide,
were lairds."
other some find fault."

others.

When we
And
"

happened

play'd at the cards,

That some of us were gentlemen,


other some

Some

drink, and

E. Chicken, The

Collier's

Wedding, 1835.

OTHER TOW TO TEAZE,


teaze,

something

else to do.

Tow

to

employment
we

of

any kind.
to feeze."

" I thought

'ad other tow

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse


sae far fra hame."

1686, p. 31. " Ye should

na hae

sic tow to tease

T. Wilson,

On

Seeing a Mouse, 1842.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

515

OUBIT,

the hairy worm.

See OOBIT.

OUSEN,

oxen. Ousen were used in ploughing in Northumberland in living memory. " The author and his brother, in partnership, at this time (1801) employ
about 150 oxen in the draught." George Culley, Live Stock, " I have yokes of onsen, eighty and three."
Ballad, Jock
o' the

p. 85.

Side, 1784.

OUT,

spoken invariably as OOT, etc.

oot in

the following words.

Compare

OUTBURST, "
Coming

the edge of a stratum at its crop or crow. See OUTCROP. to the outburst." " There is an Outburst or an appearance above ground of some vein of coal." J.C., The Comphat Collier, 1708, p. 10. " The main coal as traced from its outburst to the dyke." Borings and
Sinkings, C.E.. p. 101.

OUTBURST,
OUTBYE.

the sudden discharge of a large volume of inflammable gas in a coal mine.

See OOTBYE.
;

OUTCROP,
the crop.

the edge of a stratum at the surface that is, at This localism is now a recognised scientific term. Compare OUTBURST-, i, and BASSET.

OUTED,
known.
sea
it is

came

out.

"It suin outed"

became commonly

OUTERLY,
OUTLAY,

from without. termed outerly.

When

the wind blows from the

the height to which the top of a winning pit is raised above the surface of the ground. Commonly called the outset. It is elevated so as to make a tip for the material raised from the pit, generally from twelve to twenty feet. " Outlay from the swarth five feet, metal from the swarth four feet."
Borings and Sinkings, C.E., p. 79.

OUT-OF-THE-HOUSE,
engine.

the

down

stroke of a pit

pumping

OUT-PARTNERS, OUT-PARTERS,
Riddesdale in Scotland
Cattel,
[sic]

a sort of thieves about that ride about to fetch in such


;

or other things as they can light on


for

and make

Matches

robbing of

Men and

of Words, 1696, ed. 1706. "Thieves and felons, called intakers and out-partners, dwelling within the franchise of Redesdale, where the king's writs runneth not."
Complaint, A.D. 1421.

Houses. The Modeme World See INTAKERS. (Obs.)


vol.
p. 60.

Hodgson, pt.

ii.,

i.,

516

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

OUTPUT,

the quantity or weight of anything produced in a given time.


a going forth, an expedition.
(Obs.)

OUTRAKE,
"

Compare

RAKE and TRAIK.


The
enclosure surrounding a piggery."
11

Brockett.

have now in Lough-leven been The most part of these years three, Yet have I never had noe outrake, Ne no good games that I cold see." Percy Reliques, Northumberland Betrayed by Douglas.
1

OUTSET,

measured from the surface of the ground. See OUTLAY. outlay.


" From the outset to the soil depth one fathom." F.K., p. 252.
"
Outset,

the height of the elevation at the mouth of pit Called also the
Borings and Sinkings,
clay."

one fathom and two

feet to

brown and blue

The same,

p. 147.

OUTSET,

to outset water is to put in a column of tubbing, behind which a feeder of water will rise to its level, and Greenwell's Gloss, of Coal require no further dealing with.

Trade Terms, 1888.


" Outset crib

two

feet."

Sinking at Cowpen.

Borings and Sinkings,

C.E., p. 140.

OUTSHIFTS,
shafts, for

which a

in mining, shifts worked by sinkers outside the less wage is paid. Nicholson.

OUTSTROKE-RENT,

a payment for the privilege of breaking the barrier in a colliery, and working and conveying underground the coal from an adjoining royalty. Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1849, under rent. Instroke is the passing out of a working royalty into another royalty. Outstroke is the act as regarded by the lessor of the entered royalty.

OVER.

Always spoken as

ower.

The words

following which

begin with over must be so understood. following words.

See

OWER and

OVERCAST,
OVERGATE.

an

arrangement

applied to an air-crossing in a

pit.

carried overhead, specially Called also overgate. See

OVERGATE,
course
is

an air-way overhead in a pit. where one airWhen an by a bridge over another. air-crossing is made in the floor it is called an undergate or
carried

undercast.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

517

OVERINGS,
of a

the top framing of a waggon.

OVERLAP, OVERLAP-FAULT,
seam

a fault where one portion

of coal has been pushed on top of the other.

OVERMAN,

a colliery official, under the direction of the or under-manager of a pit, having the daily supermanager vision and responsible charge underground of the mine or He is sometimes appointed to act as portion of the mine. under-manager. In his absence the responsible charge falls upon the back-overman, whose duties are similar to those above specified, and who in addition ascertains either that all the men and boys under his charge are safely out of the mine, or in case any of them must remain that they are left in charge of a responsible official.

OVERMAN-OF-THE-TREE,
collieries.
"

an official formerly known in (Obs.) One of these two men that guides the Sledges, on the Banck or
is

surface of the earth

man."

J. C.,

The Compleat

called the Overman of the Collier, 1708. p, 37.

tree,

or chief banck's

OVERSEA-LINNET,
OVERSET,
to a horse
fatigue.
ill

the snowflake, Plectrophanes Variously called snow bunting and cock 0' the north.

nivalis,

L.

from fatigue or hard work. Particularly applied which sickens and refuses its food from over-

Hodgson
to

MS.
in a pit up to or over the Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1888.

OVERWIND,
pulleys,

W.

draw the cage

E. Nicholson,

OVERWORKINGS,

fixed as the standard to be annually

the excess beyond the quantity of coal worked from a royalty.


in
all

OWAYSEES
owaysees."

[W.-T.],

ways.

" Aa's tried

eet

iv

OWE, OU,
belongs, or

AA.
"

hankersher?"

"Whee's owe Whee's owe "

the hat?"

" Whee's aa the meaning whose is, to whom

who owns.

OWER, "

" He hes far ower much ti say for hissel." shoes is far ower little for us." " He gat there ower " Ower clivvor." " Ower " Ower suin." big." sharp." " Ower wise." " Ower mickle " Ower, owre, over (much). " Ower across. by" (with emphasis on the by) means just " Aa's across, as across the road or street and not far away. " owev by, anil be back thereckly." To u come ower just gan
too.

Them

518

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

mi

" Ye'll not come ower a person is to cozen or get the better of. "Come owev" used intransitively, means i' that way." 4< Aa laft to come to mind, to come into one's recollection. sic a joke it ti deed ivvery time it cam ower us agyen mysel
:

wes."
" Folks say he's not ower wise." E. Corvan, Fire on
" As
the Kee.

Allan's Tyneside Songs, 1891, p. 423.

aw cum

owre the

Bwoat

hill."
etc.,

T. Bewick, The Howdy,

ed. 1850, p.

u.

OWERBEER,
sort o'

to overbear.

"

The

maistor's a varry owerbeerin

man."
overcharge, to overcharge. ye owerchairge hor."
[N.]
,

OWERCHAIRGE,
burst
if

" The gun

'11

OWERCOME
OWERCOUP,
owevcoupin't.

overplus, surplus.

to transfer grain from one bag to another. The act of inverting a bag so as to pour down its contents is called

OWERDYEN,

overdone, overcooked.

OWER EAT, to eat to surfeit, to

gorge with food. Rooks are said to be fattest when food is scarcest, as they " owereat " thorsels when they have too much food. The same is said of lean children who have a good stroke (appetite).

OWERFAA-WHEEL,
OWERGAFFEN,
sunshine
owergaffen.
it

an overshot water-wheel.

is

overcast, clouded. said " W'or ganna

Of an overcast sky after hae rain the day's a*


;

OWER-GATHIN,

An old farm steward made use fainting. of this expression on being bled in the arm by a doctor " Stop, aa'm ower-gatkin."
:

OWERHEED, "
The
lift

overhead

above one's head or over the head.


i'

owerkeed."

" Owerheed

watter."

OWERLOUP,

an overleap; applied to the intrusion trespass of cattle and to a sudden lapse in conduct.
the musical refrain of a melody.

and

OWERTUNE,

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

519

OWER-WORD,
of a song.
11

a phrase repeated over and over, the chorus


the ower-word o' the thrang Rise for Branksome readilie
"
!'

And aye

Was
"

'

Jamie

Telfer.

And first he sang a low, low note, And syne he sang a clear And aye the o'erword o' the sang
;

Was

'

Your love can no win here.' " The Gay Goss-Hawk.

OWMERS, OMUS,

dues, alms.

See AAMUS.

Gateshead, and both my salt-pans in Willington fields. To Henry, his Will of Oswald Chapman, son, the owmers after his mother's death." Richard Welford, History of Newcastle in XVI. Century, p. 407. 1566.

" Gives his wife his house, with cellar and parlour and packing loft, with back syd, garden, and orchard, with the rest of my houses in Newcastle, my wheitt rent in Gateshead, the owmers within the parish of

a newly-born infant is taken out on its first round of visits, customary at whatever house it calls to receive its omus, namely, bread, salt, and an egg." Wm. Lee, Northumbrian Customs. Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, Nov. igth, 1887, p. ii., col. 4.
it

"

When

is

OW'RANCE, command

or direction.

OWRELAP, a relapse. OWSE, OWT, anything. "


They nivver
"
i'

" If ye de owse mair ye'll spoil'd." " thor lives gal owse better." " Owse much considerable. The negation of owt is nowt and anything similarly owse and nowse are opposites for aught and naught.

Aw hardly ken'd what for to say But says aw, Div ye fin owse the warse ?"
;

W.
it

Midford, The Masquerade, 1818.

" Wi' hearts, poor things,

Ower

full

by

far owse

now was clear, much to say."


pt. in., 1829, v. 62.

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

OX-EYE,

the blue titmouse, Parus caruleus. and torn-tit. Ox-eye is also applied to the great titmouse, Parus major. Called also oxey-eye.
or

OXEY-EYE,

Variously called

bluecap, bluebottle,

OXTER

[T.],

OAXTER

[N.], the arm-pit.

O*^-holes, the
"

arm-holes in a waistcoat.
" When this master of that is, put the minstrelsy oxtered his blether bladder of his pipes under his arm. Northumberland Minstrels' Budget.

OYSTER-SCAUP, SCAPPY,
at

an oyster bed.

The Scappy

Of late at one time an oyster bed. years a scaup has been formed in Budle Slake, near Belford. Compare MUSSEL-SCALP and see SCALP.
Holy Island was
N

520

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a pap.

PAAP, PAWP,
house.

Also a projection from the roof of a

Brockett.

PAA-PRENT,
literally

used derisively for a smudge or hand print


or claw with the hand.

paw print.

PAAT,

to

paw

" Divent paat on wi'd,


to

or ye'll spoiFd." " Paut, to walk heavily, or in an awkward, clumsy manner, Pant a stroke on the ground \vith the foot." Brockett. kick.

paw, to

PAAT-POKE, a very slow person. PACK, the shepherd's portion in

a hirsel, or flock of sheep,

grazed on the farm as his pay for looking after the whole herd. The pack is known from the hirsel by the marking
letters being placed crosswise, whilst in the hirsel they are put on straight.

PACK, PACK,
Very

in sporting, a flock or flight of wild ducks.

the stomach

a cant word.

" Fill or y pack."

PACK, PACKT,

intimate, friendly, warm in friendship or love. "Aa wis diggin' the docile animals are said to be pact. garden, and the robin kept at me foot aall the time aa nivver Heard at Winlaton, 1891. seed sic a packt bord." " Thepackest thing and the best will'd, The gentlest Bird that ever Bill'd."
;

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p.

30.

PACK-SACK,

the sack slung across a horse. thus carried to market.

Poultry were

PACK-WALLS,

pillars in a colliery built up of stone obtained in the mine, the large stones being placed on the outside, and

the middle filled up with the smaller ones. Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms 1888.
,

W.

E. Nicholson,

PACKY
PAD,

[N.]

dainty, over nice.

See PAWKY.

a saddle made of coarse material stuffed with straw. This originally was the pad across which was slung the pack or burthen of a horse. See SODS*
"

And

Spraggon
rides

sets the pads upon back sae early in the morn, me down to Felton without either hay or corn."

my

Robin Spraggon' s Auld Grey Mare.

PADDA-PIPE,
common
generally.

or

PADDOCK-PIPE,

the Equisetum limosum,

in pools where frogs abound. Applied also to the cornfield horsetail, Equisetum arvense, and to the equisetacea

See PADDOCK.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

521

PADDA-RED,
weather.

green slime, formed on stagnant pools in

warm

PADDLE, PATTLE, SPATTLE,


mole catchers use
; ;

a small spade, such as also used for scraping earth from ploughs, when it is called a plough pattle also used by farmers as a walking stick for cutting up docks, thistles, etc. Hodgson MS. baker's "peel" is called a paddle, so is the long, straight garden hoe. Paddles were used until a few years ago by most householders for cleaning the flagstones in front of their

doors by scraping off any mud or snow. They had a long handle which terminated in a flat hemispherical plate of iron the head or paddle of the implement. (Obsolescent.)
"
1631.

Paid

for zpatle for ye church, is."

Gateshead Church Books.

PADDOCK, PADDICK, PADEEK


.

a frog. Paddock[N.] peul, a stagnant pool. Paddock beds, the spawn of frogs. Called also pud-redd, toad-riddins, and toad-redd. Paddock-styuls, toad stools, or fungi generally. Paddock-loup, the game of also a boy's game in which two boys take hold leap frog each of the other's toes and roll over each other head foremost in a kind of somersault. "tyed" is always
, ;

distinguished from a paddock.

PAD-ROAD,
PAG,
"
to

a beaten path.
tightly, to stop

pack

up

to choke, as a pipe

is

choked.

The wettor

pipe's getten pagged

up wi summat."

PAIDLE,
PAIR, PAIR,

The male and

the fish called lump-sucker, Cyclopterus lumpus, L. female of this fish are called cock and hen paid les.

a deceptive fellow.
the margin).

to thrash. Compare PAY. "We'll paik their hides" ("Bang their coats"
43.

in

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p.

PAINCHES,
toil
;

the paunch, tripe. "That'll warm yor painches for ye." or Tripe-wife " painch-vtife, a tripe seller. To "keep the painches waggin to continue at severe and incessant

from the wagging or shaking of the bowels during excessive exertion. " Oh dear, oh dear, what wonderful changes Near where the chapel stood they are now selling painches; Where the nuns were learning the road to heaven, The tripewives now are making a living."
J.N., Newcastle Market.

"

When

Ma

yence yor feet are i' the geers, soul, they keep yor painches waggin ." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,
1

i.,

47.

522

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

PAINS, rheumatism. This term ("the pains") is universal among the labouring classes for this complaint, with which, and especially in the high districts, they are much afflicted
;

have therefore very appropriately called it " the pains," as if it was the concentration of all the aches and agonies that could rack and torment the human joints and sinews. Hodgson MS. " He's just fair crippled wi' the pains."

PAINTER

(pron. penter), an eminence, the end or shoulder of a The word occurs in Painter Heugh in Newcastle, and ridge. in Painter Hill, the high ground immediately below the Parish Church at Alnwick.

PAIR,

a set of anything, not limited to a brace. " A pair of " A "A pair (for chest) of drawers." pair of cards." " A "A All these terms are pair of gears." pair o' pipes." in common general use.
stairs."

PAIROCK, PAIRK,
house.

The word

an enclosure, as the fields near a farm park occurs twenty-six times in place-

names in Northumberland. Broompark, etc. Pairock, parrick, to shut up ewes with their lambs in a paddock to induce them to suckle. Hence perricked or panicked. Pairocks, parricks, the small stalls or partitions in a lambing or kebhouse a place of protection or shelter.
;

PAIR-O'-GEARS, two

upright props or spars with a cross piece at the top, for the support of a pit roof, or for forming wood bridges, staiths, etc. Mining Gloss. Newcastle Terms, 1852. These are sometimes called a "gallows timber." The cross piece at the top is the " crown tree."
"
(adv.),

PAIRT

Thor wis

pairt

some, a considerable number, a fair quantity. " He'll folk at the meetin' last Sunday."

fash afore he's

dyun

wi'd."

PAISE, PAIZE,
that flagstone."

to weigh up, as with a crowbar. "Paise-up " Paise open that lock." Peise, to weigh.

PALEY, PAILLY,
pailly lot."

" poor in size and physique. They are a Applied to the poorest of a flock of lambs after the "tops," "first shots," second, third, and even fourth " shots" have been drawn out.

PALMS,

willow catkins, used on


"

Palm Sunday.

the plovers abandon the sea For the heather on Hareshaw's high fell, The glossy palm gilds the saugh tree, And the wild re as bloom in the dell."

When

Robert Roxby,

Poetic Epistle, 1845.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

523

PAN,

The word frequently occurs in place-names, Pans, Hartley Pans, etc., so named from the salt industry formerly existing at the places.
a salt pan.
as in

Howdon

" In the
I Bullein,

North there is salt made at the Sheles, by Tinmouth Castle. the author hereof, have a pan of salt upon the same water.
Northumberland, is good salt made, and also William Bullein, Book of Simples, 1564.
at

At

Blith, in

Syr Ihon

Delaval's panes."

PAN,

to correspond, to tally, to unite. Border idiom from pan, a cross beam in the roof of a house, closing with the wall.

Jamieson.

To

close, to join together, to agree.


pan, but

(Obs.)

See

PAN-PIECE.
"

Weal and women cannot

wo and women

can."

Proverb.

Ray.

PANCAKE
The

or PAN-CYEK TUESDAY, Shrove Tuesday. Pancake bell is the church bell rung at noon on Shrove The afternoon of the day was formerly claimed Tuesday. as a half-holiday by Newcastle apprentices, and football contests formed the chief occupation on these occasions. At many places the latter observance is still maintained, and the contending parties represent two sections of villagers or " " " townsmen, as the doon-streeters against the hee tooners,"
etc.

Shrove Tuesday

is

also called Fastens or Pasterns E'en,


All Saints' Churchwardens' Book, Newcastle.

or Even.
"

1806, pancake bell, is."

PANDER,
manner.

to

wander or

"

He

loiter about in a gans panderin aboot."

silly,

purposeless

PANDERLYET,
PANDY,

a late, loitering visitor.

a slap on the hand for punishment. pandies did the skyulmaister gi' ye ?"

"

Hoo many

PANEL, PANEL-WORK,
into

which a
bords.

colliery is divided.

one of the divisions or districts Also called by the miners

a sheth of

" It occurred to Mr.

Buddie that a great improvement might be effected


course of the
first

by dividing a
panels,
it

colliery, in the
first

surrounded on

all sides

was termed, was

by barriers of solid introduced at Wallsend

working, into districts, or coal. Panel-work, as in the year 1810."

R. L. Galloway, History of Coal Mining, 1882,

p. 149.

PANELS,

the several strata composing a bed of stratified rock, chiefly used with reference to the bands of a limestone, " Blue limestone with as, strong panels."

524

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
"

PANG,

to stuff-fall, to thrust or force. poor cheese on us." Compare PAG.


11

The man

panged this

Wi

flesh

we

gaily pang'd

wor hides."

W.

Midford.A'.F.Z., 1814.

PAN-PIECE,

a heavy beam thrown across an opening in the " breast summer." outer wall of a building a mantel-piece or of a cottage roof are called pans. In Scotland the purlins Jamieson, under pans. "Pan, in our stone houses, is that piece of wood that lies upon the top of the stone wall, and must close with it, to which the bottom of the
;

spars are fastened." Ray. " 1648, June loth, for the pann pieces for sawing and charges to lay Embleton, Barber Surgeons of them vpon the new key, 3 35. 6d."
Newcastle.

PAN SHEET
"

[N.]

in a state of excitement or

sudden passion.

PAN-SODDY, PAN-PUDDIN,
My

a baked pudding.

head swam round whene'er Upon a fat pan-soddy" R. Gilchrist,

aw

thought

d. 1844,

Voyage

to

Lunnin.

PANT,
pants,

a public water fountain. At these standing pipes, or water used to be sold at a farthing a skeel hence the
;

name
the

of

**

fardin pant."

" Paide to Sandrs. Cheisman in parte of paymente of 22!. 33. 4d. for buildinge of a sufficiente pannte in Sandgate 403." Newcastle Municipal Accounts, September, 1593. " Paid Mr. Blackett, sherriffe, for a ton of wine which 1661, Julie. used at the coronation when the pant ran wine, 22!." Newcastle Municipal
-Accounts.

" If a fresh inhabitant ot the village of Stamfordham takes a good drink at the pant, he will reside a long time in the village." Rev. J. F. Transactions of Tyneside Naturalists' Bigge, Superstitions at Stamfordham. Field Club, 1860-62, vol. v., p. 92. 14 Then to the Pant, open'd the Spout, Hey-dash, the Claret-wine sprang out."

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p.

18.

PAN -WOOD,

small coals which were used evaporating sea-water in salt pans. (Obs.)

chiefly

in

P AP-O'-THE-HASS,

the uvula.
;

PARISH, PERISH, "


"

to spend lavishly hence the phrase " to that is, to spend the whole stock-in-trade, parish the pack to spend everything, as in a drinking bout.

Bob Cruddace, ah, poor soul he's deed he had a cliver knack O' kepping beer, aye three yards off, when he 'Parish'd the pack !' " W. Armstrong, Newcastle Worthies. " Aw kens how to perish the brass that aw gets." J. P. Robson, Pitman's Draw. Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 312.
!

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

525
is

PARKIN,

the frame or stand on which oak bark dry before stacking.


particular,
fastidious.

placed to

PARNICKETY,
parnickety body."

" He's a

varry

PARPIN, a mason's term

for a wall of a single stone in thickness.

PARREY,
".It

a sudden, heavy fall of rain. came a heavy parrey of rain." Hodgson MS.

PARROT-COAL,
"

a kind of cannel coal.

when on fire it splits and cracks up with a So chattering noise, like a parrot talking." Gresley's Glossary, 1883. " It admits of being polished, and is often turned into punch-bowls, salt-cellars, toys, &c." Impartial History of Newcastle, 1801.
called because

PART.

See PAIRT.

PARTING,
PARTING,
is

an offtake or branch road.

a thin deposit, separating or parting two strata. It " a regular deposit, but thinner than a " band or " girdle." Partings are described according to their composition or with " or reference to their thickness or character, as a " thready " mere films of substance seamy partings" when they present "" " " " seamy," or cashy partings when they are soft scary," when they appear to be flaked or finely laminated. "scaly" In all cases they suggest that the superimposed stratum is separated from th^t below by a mere parting of other material.
; ;

PASH, PASH,

a heavy a
soft,

fall

of

snow

or rain.
"

" Rotten as is a pash decayed substance. common saying. Pash is to dash, smash, bruise and both pash and mash are applied to substances that have been pounded and mixed to a pasty condition.

PAST,
game.

the starting point of a race, the line drawn in a boys' " Toe the past" toe the line.

PAST.

To be " past oneself " is used commonly to describe " Thor distracted condition of mind. any myekin sic a noise " Aa waddent aa's fair past mesel." put it past him" should " Wor Tom's a aa not think it beyond him. queer un waddent put it past him if he gat here thi neet, that aa " It's " Aa's waddent." past eatin." past a joke."
;

526

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

PASTE-EGGS, PYEAS-EGGS,
and dyed various colours.

The

eggs at Eastertide is a most custom among the young folks of Northumberland. Day is the common name for Easter Sunday.
"

Easter eggs, boiled hard " boolin " and "jaapin"of ancient and well observed
Paste-egg

To please the pit laddies at Easter, a dish full o' gilty paste eggs." Midford, Pitman's Courtship, 1818. " Eggs, stained with various colours in boiling, and sometimes covered with leaf gold, are at Easter presented to children at Newcastle, and at other places in the North. They ask for their paste eggs, as for a Brapd, Popular Antiquities, 1777, p. 310. fairing, at this season."

W.

PASTIE,

a hand. cant term. called daddies, meags, paas oars, etc.


t

The hands

are similarly

PAT, POT, p t.
past., pat or pot "

of put.
;

The forms
blue coat."

of the verb are

Pres.,

put

p.p., putten.

Aw pat on my

Bob Cranky' s
41

'Size

Sunday.

Allan's Collection, 1891, p. 88.

Then went

Pat by wor gcer an' moor'd wor keel, an* drank wor can."
Keel

Row.

PATE, PAIT,
"

a brock or badger.

(Obs.)

It. p d to John Newton for 1649-1650. Anthony Sewertis for 3 paite heades is. 6d."

payte

Heade, 6d.
Books.

To

Ry ton Church

PATTING-STONE.

See PETTING-STONE.

PAUGHTY,
"

insolent,

Compare PAWKY.
p. 26.

brought the uppaughty Quean Like Bird to pick out mine own e'en ?" G. Stuart, Joco-Sevious Discourse, 1686,
I

Have

PAULER, PAALER,
astonishment.
"

a staggering blow, a rude shock, an


Brockett.

"Paul, or Pall, to puzzle, to put to a stand."

A collier cam" on, Maw sarties! but

quick as thowt,

he got

W.

a.pauler."

Midford, 1818, The Masquerade.

PAULING-HOUSE,
"
1627.
house, is.

a cart shed.

(Obs.)

Reed, of Timothy Hutton for this yeare's rent of the paulling4d." Gateshead Church Books.

PAW-HOGGER.
genteel baggage
"

apparently a nonce word, meaning with hoggers on the paws that is, gloves. "Pawhogger luggish,"
a term of contempt for gentility. The Skipper swore the pawhogger luggish was called Empty
;

Kite."

R. Gilchrist, 1824, The Skipper's Erudition.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

527

PAWK.
"

"Pawk
"

off," to
it

remove.
an'

He

quickly had

by the nose

pawk'd

it

off."

R. Emery,

d. 1871,

The Owl.

The canny

old chapel's pawk'd off in a pet." R. Gilchrist, Song of Improvements, 1835.

PAWKY, PAAKY "

[S.] , [N.], saucy, conceited, " She's a She's a paaky hussy." dainty. prood, paaky Applied also to over-fed animals. thing, that lass." work horse with little work and much food becomes paaky.

PACKY

PAY,

to beat, to thrash. To overcome wife." " Aa can

supremacy.

" Aa'll " He pay yor hide." pays his in a conflict or in a contest for pay that chep easy."
Bards of
the

" At schule he payed Tinley, of Shields, the greet dandy." Tyne, p. 224.

PAYS, punishment by
ye'll

get yor pays, aa can

slapping. tell ye."

" If ye dinna stop, bairn,

PEACHY,
PEACE,
PEAL,

the lesser redpole, Linaria mfescens.

a small hut or shelter.

applied by fishermen very vaguely to the young of the bull trout (Salmo eriox, L.), and often by mistake to other species of salmonidae. Richard Howse, Natural History
Transactions, vol. x., 1890, p. 370.

PEAL,

to appeal, a shortened form. Hence pealers, appealers, Brockett has "Peelers, two or more proposals for applicants. a farm, contract, etc., being alike, are peelers." Compare

PEEL OFF.

PEA-MORNIN,
and lads at the GAADY DAY.

a holiday formerly made among young pits when the peas came to maturity.

men
See

PEARLY, PERLEY,
PEART,

small and round.

pearly clod is a

small, round, hard clod.

also improved in health or pert, lively, forward " It leuks a vast appearance, said of animals generally. violent. " Aa hard some brattles o' thunnor, peavter" Sharp, " said of a storm, March, 1890. aye, they war peart yens
;
!

PEAS,

a description of small .coals, so called from their

size.

PEA-SWAD,

a pea-shell, the pod which contains the peas.

Compare PESKIT.

528

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
(pron. pee-ah), the succulent, half- formed " " Swaps is sweet is a common saying.

PEA-SWAP
PEAT-HAGS,

[N.]

pea-pod and pea.

the old, rough, projecting margins of peat pits have grown up again projecting masses of peat on a peat moor portions of peat on high moors left by edges of water gutters.
after those pits
;
;

PECK,

a measure of capacity. At Alnwick and Wooler the At peck is equal to one-third of a bushel Winchester. Newcastle a peck of barley and oats'is equal to five forpits In mining, peck, a measure containing 1,209 or quarterns. cubic inches. Peck, a considerable quantity, used generally. " Pecks o' dort." a o' troubles." She's getten
peck

PEDDER.
PEEDEE,

See PETHER.

or P.D., the boy on board a keel. The crew of a keel consisted of the skipper, two bullies, and the pee-dee, who was generally a boy from twelve to fourteen years old ; hence applied occasionally to anything diminutive in size, as a peedee marble, the smallest sized boys' playing marble.
"Pedee,
iedee

an ordinary
all

foot boy,

a drudge:

as,

'What, must

be your

upon

occasions?'"

New World

o] Words, 1706.

"

He started life a keel P.D. Spent fifty years upon the quay And now, may bliss the portion be O'Faddy." Thomas Wilson, A Keelman's Tribute to a Friend, 1843.
;

"

Three o' the bullies lap oot, And left nyen in but little Pee Dee ; Who ran about stamping and crying How smash, Skipper, what mun
'

a'

dee ?' The Little Pee Dee.

"

PEEL,

a tower.

See PELE.
potatoes cooked and served with their are peeled as they are eaten at table.
a
tree

PEEL-AN'-EATS,
skins on.

They

PEELED GRAIN,
Thence applied

branch

stripped

of

its

bark.

Compare RANNEL-BALK.

PEELIN-HIS- WANDS
to

that

is,

preparing to

make a

basket.
;

anyone entering on a new occupation

on

the arrival of the

first child, etc.

PEEL OFF,

to appeal
peel off

off,

to get rid of.


militia.

he who could

happy man was


2.

from the

See PEAL,

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

529

PEEN,
The

the peen end of a mason's hammer is the sharp end. peen of a blacksmith's or engineer's hand-hammer is the pointed end, usually blunt pointed. In holding a hammer in the hand with the head upward, the peen is the narrow end and the "face" is the full end. In this position the upper " nose " of the hammer it is the part of the face is called the portion of the face furthest from the workman's hand. The lower (or nearer) portion of the face is called the " heel." The handle is called the " helve " or " shank."
;

PEENGE,

" What's the bairn utter low, fretful cries. ?" peengin aboot, Bessy Peenged,peengy, delicate, complaining, " " She was a petulant. peengcd sort of a body complaining and bad-tempered from sickliness or ill-health. Starved or shrunk with cold and poor health. " The bit bairney's but
to
"
!

peengv, poor thing Peengin, petulant was a bit poor peengin bairn."

from

ill-health.

"

It

PEESWEEP,
Also called

the peewit or lapwing, Vanellus


tufit.

cristatus.

It is

also called the tyufit or

PEEWIT GULL,
PEG,

the black-headed gull, Larus ridibundus, L.

sea crow

and pick-i'-ma.
thin or

Margaret. "Aad/^g" very tough, poor edible.

skim milk cheese, a

PEGGY,

an earthenware

bottle.

See PIGGY.

PEGH,

to puff, to pant, to strain with exertion.


"

blew up again, if't had been his And pegh't and grain'd at ilka

Tony

e'en

And- blew as

last,

blast."
p. 45.

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,

PEIGHT-WALL.
PELE, PEEL,

See PICTS.

The forms P^/-tower, P^/-castle, and Peel-house are also frequently used, when speaking generally. The strongholds,
nowadays called Peles, are scattered over Northumberland, and present a similarity of type in construction and arrangement. The ground floor consists of an apartment which is
full semicircular form. The entrance to this is strongly guarded by an oaken door, protected by a grill of flat iron bars fastened to its outer side, and moving with the A newel stair, or in some cases a straight stone stair door. in the thickness of the wall, leads to the upper storey here

a four-square tower, used formerly for defence.

vaulted in

530
is

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

the chief apartment, and above it is a second room. Each This area of these occupy the entire area within the walls. The tower has battleis often not more than ig| by 13! feet. ments, and the angles are sometimes finished with turrets, which are machicolated. For the origin of the term see the
treatise, Peel
:

Its

meaning and derivation, by George Neilson,


'

Glasgow, 1893.
"At the present day the word pele' is employed by natives of Northumberland to denote, strictly speaking, a small tower of rough masonry with a high pitched roof." C. J. Bates, Border Holds of
Northumberland, p. 60. " Within my own recollection almost every old house in the dales of Rede and Tyne was what is called a Peel house, built for securing its inhabitants and their cattle in moss trooping times." Rev. Anthony

Hedley, 1822, Archceologia JE liana,


"

vol.

i..

p. 243.

They pele-towers of the Borderland are essentially castles. show the type of the Norman keep continued on a small scale to a very From the great keep of Newcastle to the least pele-tower late time. which survives as a small part of a modern house, the idea which runs

The

Northumberland has much to show all is exactly the same. the traveller in many ways, from the Roman Wall onward, but the feature which is specially characteristic is that it is the land of castles." Freeman, English Towns and Districts, 1883, p. 317.
through

PELL,

hard, strong.

" Pell clay."

PELSH, weak

or silly by sickness, or constitutionally weak. " She's varry pelsh, poor body." Applied also to cattle when It is also used when speaking of thin or ailing and weakly. one who does work in an indifferent manner from lack of He's oney a pelsh 'un." strength.
'

PELT,

to hurry along.

doon."

"

He
"

Full pelt
pelt"

full

speed.

"

He cam peltin
Noodle.

ran

full

To

the

Moor he

Edward Corvan, He Wad Be a

did pelt."

PENCIL,

shale, or "plate" of a somewhat compact nature, used for coarse slate pencils.

PENNING,

In mining stones paved to form a watercourse. applied to spouting for the same purpose. " The penning was swimming about on the top of the water." R. Scott,
Ventilation of Coal Mines, 1868, p. 55.

PENNY-BRICK,

a small

roll

of bread.

Compare BAP.

PENNY-DOG,
follows

me

person that dogs another's steps.

"He

like a penny-dog."

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

53!

PENNYMEN,
SEA MICE.

a bird term applied to the smaller waders.

See

PENNY-PACKING-DAY,

the last day of the fair, when the dealers were packing their goods, and were supposed to sell cheaply to save the further trouble and expense of carrying away their unsold things. Like the toy fair itself, the term is almost obsolete.
to

PEN NY- PAY,

pay a mechanic separately

contradistinction to contracting. with the country blacksmith.

for each job in Generally used in dealings

PENNY-STANE,
Rothbury.
"
Pennystanes,
flat

a quoit.

There

is

a pennystane quarry near

from which the quarry derives its name, were trimmed stones used as quoits before iron ones were frequent." W. W. Tomlir.son, Guide to Northumberland, 1888, p. 330.

PENNYWILK,

the winkle or edible sea snail.

See WILKS.

" A'll supply ye wi' flat-fish, fine skyet, or fresh ling, An' sometimes pennywilks, crabs, an' lobsters aw bring."

Edward Corvan,

Cullercoats Fish-lass.

Allan's Collection, 1891, p. 406.

PENS,
"

the short ribs. the Penthouse.

PENTAS,

An upper apartment of the old Town House on the Sandhill, Newcastle a place of many windows and of much good cheer." R. Welford,
History of Newcastle in

XVI.

Century, p. 384.

PEN-WET,
PERRICK.

wet received into a stack below the eaves.


See PAIROCK.

PESANT,
PESEN,

a stern, hard-hearted miser.


Hodgson

" She's a very pesant"

MS.
Literally peas, from the

the roe or spawn of fish.

appearance.

PESKIT
SWAD.

[W.-T.]

a peascod, peas in the pod.

Compare PEA-

PETER- WAGGY,

the familiar toy in which the arms and legs of a grotesque figure are thrown up when a string is pulled.

532

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a

PETH,

is steep and narrow. nine place-names in Northumberland, as in Mor/>tfA, and Kemmell's or Gamel!' s In a document of 1249 this is path, near the head of Coquet. " The Peth" also occurs alone. spelt Campasfieth.

path

especially one that


in

The word

occurs

more

than

PETHER, PETHAR,
"

a pedlar.

top of Pilgrim Street to Pilgrim Gate, it is named Northumberland Street, part of which was called Pedlar or Pethar Row, from its being built by a succesful man of business whose younger days were spent as a pedestrian merchant, and who, getting forward in life, built a number of these pleasant houses, which still go by that appellation,
the

From

with

fine,

small gardens adjoining.''

Impartial History of Newcastle, 1801,

p. 127.

PETTING-STONE.

A custom prevails at Bamburgh and other places, on the occasion of a wedding, for the bride to be lifted over a stone, called the petting-stone, at the church gates It is generally commuted bv a money after the ceremony. There is a stone in the churchyard at Holy Island payment. where the same ceremony is practised. It is the socket-stone At Ford, a " paten-stick " was used. It of a Saxon cross. was placed before the church door when the bride and bride" u groom came out, and the newly-wedded ones had to loup A similar custom prevailed in it, or else pay the usual fine.
many Northumberland
"

villages.

Compare BALL MONEY.

Being here (at Shilbottle) one day while a pitman's wedding was going on, we were amused with the custom of lifting the ladies over a heap of stones laid in the middle of the footpath." Correspondent in Alnwick Mercury, July 15, 1861.
village

certain of the young men of the would place a large stone between the gate posts of the churchyard. On the bride and bridegroom making their appearance, they were If this acrobatic seized, one at each arm, and jumped over the stone. G. Atkinson, feat was safely performed, it was held to be a good omen." Weekly Chronicle, September 7, 1889.

"During the wedding ceremony,

PEUST,

snug, comfortable.
frost bitten

See PIEUST.
;

PHOSY, FOSEY,
FRAY.

applied to turnips.

PHRASE, PHRASY,
PIANET,

a disturbance.

See FRASE, FRASY and

a magpie. At the Teams, Gateshead, the publichouse with the sign of the Magpie is yet called " The Pianet" See PIOT. "This name is retained in Scotland, Dr. Johnson says; and in
Northumberland he might have added, where
Todd.
it

is

called pyanot."

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

533

PICIMA,
sea crow.

the black-headed gull,

Lams

ridibundus.

Also called

See PEEWIT GULL.

PICK,

It is about eighteen the tool used by a coal hewer. inches long sharpened at both ends now usually of steel throughout, weighing from three pounds upwards. Through an eye or socket in the centre is fixed a handle of ash or hickory, two and a half feet in length.
; ;

PICK,

PICK, PICK,

pitch.

a steep ascent. " A heavy 'pick." " Pick an' tar meng'd together." pitch. " Pick dark." "Pick black." " Pick

Pick, black as

night."
It is

to pitch, to throw. generally used in games.

"

Just pick here, look ye."

PICK, to cast prematurely. "The mear hes picked her foal." "The new coo hes hed a misfortin she's pick'd her calf."

PICKATREE,

the green woodpecker, Gecinus

viridis,

L.

PICKER, an implement " "

used for picking turnips. It is called It is usually made from tormit a picker, or picker simply. a broad-bladed sickle, the back rib of which is forged and drawn over in hook form to a fine point. The pointed hook is used for "ruttin up" the turnips, whilst the blade is used for "shawin" the tops, when the turnips require to be For pulling turnips only, a twogathered and stored. pronged curved-in picker is used. A third form of picker is used for lifting out the shells of turnips which have been eaten hollow below the surface by sheep it has a point at nearly a right angle from the shank, and is called a "dyeuk;

neb

"

(duck-bill) picker.

PICK-FORK,

a pitch-fork. a

PICK-HOLE,
term.

wound made by

the point of a pick.

A miner's
o' barley,

PICKLE,
PICKLE,

" If a grain of corn. ye'll coont that find as much as eighty pickles on't." ye'll

heed

" Gi's a a few, some, a small quantity. pickle mair." " Aa've bowt a pickle o' yaits." [Heard at Wooler, 1888.] just "A watter." nuts." " A
pickle

pickle

PICKLE,

The word occurs in the to provide, to make shift. " " Pickle i' do for yourself. Said phrase, yor aan poke neuk to a beggar, it is equivalent to an emphatic refusal and an exhortation to the suppliant to shift for himself.

534

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
paid by the hewer

PICK-MONEY, PICK-PENCE, the money


to the " pick sharper."

PICK-SHARPER,
hewers of a
"
for

the smith

who sharpens

the picks for the

colliery.
finds his

own picks, but has them sharpened and set out colliery smith (called the pick-sharper] employed for the purpose, paying to him in return id. per fortnight." Greenwell, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888.

The hewer

him by the

"

The sum

varies from id. to 2d. per week."

Nicholson.

PICTOR,
41

a picture. over a door.


Pictur,

It is

considered unlucky to " hing a pictor"

a covering of sheet iron, or brattice deals, hung from the roof shaft framing to protect the onsetters from the dripping of water at the shaft bottom." Nicholson, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888.

and

from the roof


1888.

Also " a similar cover to protect the hewer from water which falls in wet working." Greenwell, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms,

PICTS'

WALL,

the

Roman Wall

extending from the Solway

to Wallsend.
" Till quite recently our Wall always appeared on the maps as the Picts' Wall, the Vallum sive Murus Picticus of Camden, a designation borne,

not on account of its having served as a defence against the Picts (as the Saxon shore may have been so termed from its liability to the incursions of piratical Saxons), but because it was popularly held to have been the uncanny work of that mysterious race." Cadwallader J. Bates, Border Holds of Northumberland, p. 323.

PIE, a

It is also used when prize or find. to turn the laugh against an antagonist. tiv us."

something is found " It wis grand pie

PIE. "to put

" in the pie"; also called " odd man and "last a process resorted to in choosing sides in games or out," in deciding who is " hit." One of the players lends his cap, and each of the others stands round with one finger in the pie. One of them then recites a rhyme, touching the fingers in He whose finger is succession as each word is repeated. The process is touched at the last word stands aside. continued until one only is left in, and he, being last man, is "hit." The following is the formula which is usually repeated on the occasion

man

"

Onery, twoery, tackery, tivven, Alaboo, clackaboo, ten or iliven,

Peam, pam, musky Tom, Tweedle-um, twaddle-um, twenty-one."

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

535
pie-

PIE-BAAL,
baal,

a game resembling the game of rounders. In however, the ball is always struck with the hand.

PIECE,

a piece of bread, or some other edible, carried in the " He' pocket, to be eaten outside the house when at work. ye " Piece, a little while. Piece, a term getten y-or piece wi' ye ? " She's applied to a woman reproachfully or contemptuously. a bonny piece that'n is." Sometimes "piece 0' goods" is used. 11 Nice piece 0' goods she is, aa's sure."
"

Stay a piece"

Brockett.

PIEUST, PIUST, PEUST, PUEST,

in

comfortable circum-

stances, snug and self-satisfied in mind, body, and estate. " He's a " He wis leukin' pieust little fellow." pieust"
Pieust, a groaning sound made by cattle when they are lying full and comfortable. Pieusty, pyusty, dainty as to food. " If thoo canna eat that, thoo mun be pyusty."

PIG, brown, coarse earthenware.

PIG-CREEVE, SWINE-CREEVE, PIG-CREE, CREEVY,


a pig-stye.

PIGEON-DUCKET,
PIGEON'S MILK.
11

a pigeon cot.

"

To send one
;

for pigeon's

milk

"

is

to

send on a fool's errand.

Gan this tother gayt, lad Some Pigeon's milk thou's

fetch us, Dick,

An' prove thou hes a payte, lad." J. P. Robson, Pigeon's Milk. Bards of the Tyne, 1849,

p. 113.

PIGEON-WAAK,
folded,

The "pigeon" is blinda boys' game. and stands with legs astride. The other players throw their caps between the straddled legs and shout " Pigeon waak." The blinded pigeon walks accordingly, and endeavours to touch a cap with his foot in his forward A lad whose cap is touched becomes " pigeon " progress.
in turn.

PIGGIN,
wooden
kailpot.

an earthenware pitcher. Applied also to a small vessel with staves, and sometimes to a small iron

PIGGY, PEGGY, an
and used as a
foot

earthenware bottle filled with hot water warmer in bed by delicate people. A

traveller reported that in

with the pigs for warmth.

Northumberland the people slept He had been asked if he would

have a piggv
o

in his bed.

536

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

PIG'S-BOAT,
Pig's-kit,

the receptacle in which pig's meat is kept. the trough from which a pig feeds. Hence applied " Ye he' the to a messy condition in eating. tyebel like a

pig's-kit."

PIKE, a pointed hill. "GlantonP^."

Dodd, in contrast,

is

a truncated

hill.

"Pike occurs twenty times in Northumberland place-names." J. V. Gregory, Archaologia JEliana, vol. ix., p. 68. " Pike, crag, law, head, know, dod, edge, rig predominate in the nomenclature of the Redesdale eminences." Dr. James Hardy, Hist,
of Bwks. Nat. Club, vol.
ix., p.

452.

PIKE,

pointed or peaked pile of hay made up, like a in the hay-field till it can be carted to the A pike contains about one cart-load of hay. farm-yard.
a

temporary stack,

Piker, a builder of

hay pikes.

PIKER,

the nose.

cant term.

"

Had up

yor piker."

PIKE-HANDLES,
See HANDSPYAKES.

wooden staves used

for a bier at funerals.

" Before the parish (of Elsdon) had a hearse, their dead were carried to the grave on a bier of poles, which they called pike-handles, and were the perquisite of the rector." Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. i.,
p. 92, note.

PILE,

a single fibre, a single stalk of straw. When cows or horses eat up their fodder clean it is said, " They haven't left a

PILEY, PILED,
"

mottled or speckled with small "pies." Thomas Currey of the Hight in the same county charged wth. felonious stealeing of a Dunn mare and a black pyled gray foale

the the

proper goodes of Lyonell Shipley of the Snape." 1628. Anhaologia JEliana, vol. i., p. 151.

Hodgson, Calendars,

"They

praise lang Wilson's///^ cock." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, ed. 1872, p. 6.

PILLAN,
The

a small green-coloured sea crab, used as bait.


;

" the fishermen shell of the crab is very tender peel off the shell before they bait their hooks with them." Brockett, under pullen.

main

"I threw my hook


sea."

(baited with a bit of pillan, or peeling, crab) into the Newcastle Magazine, No. i, January, 1823, p. 21.

PILLAR,

an oblong or square mass of coal contained between two boards and two headways courses, and left during the " first working for the In " broken or support of the roof. pillar working a passage is driven through the pillars, which

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

537

pillars

are then said to be "jenkined." What is then left of the are called "stocks," and when these are taken away the roof collapses on the worked out " waste."
" Sufficient pillars ('columnar vel pillers') shall be left to support the roof." Lease from Queen Elizabeth to Sir Nicholas Tempest of Coal Mines in
Stella.

" In this district the method of working, which has been established is that known as the board-and-wall system, As the depths augmented, pillars being left for the support of the roof. larger pillars of support were necessarily required, and a proportionate sacrifice of mine occurred. Then began the system of robbing the pillars or, in other words, of taking away such portions as it was thought could be safely removed." T. J. Taylor, Archeology of the Coal Trade, 1852,

from time immemorial,

pp. 167, 198.

PILLARING,
required to be

erecting artificial supports for the roof of a mine. See PACK-WALL. " The building up of stone fallen from the roof by the side of any way
left

open."

Greenwell.

PILLION-STYEN,

a step placed at the door to enable a rider It is variously termed horse and horsinto get on horseback. stone, mount, and loupin-on-stone. a pillow-case.

PILLOW-SLIP,

PIN, humour, temper. " A jug o


1

Geordy's maut an' hop Suin put us in a merry pin." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

pt.

iii.,

v. 68.

PINCH, PINCHBAR,
a gyevlik or gavelock.

an iron crowbar or

lever.

Called also

PINCH,

to

off the cairt."

work with a lever or a crowbar. Compare PAISE.

"Pinch the styen

PINCH-GUT,

a penurious person a covetous, miserable wretch, as if pinched. Brockett. Pinch-pot or Nanny. pinch-pot " She's a is used in the same way. reg'lar Nanny pinch-pot, noo." Pinchy, parsimonious. " They war that pinchy that'n, Nippy is used in the same they hardly hed eneuf to eat."
to put in the pound. They've pinded some." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious

sense.

PIND,
"

Discourse, 1686, p. 35.

PINER, grown " dried. " Pined hazel rods were used for corf making. PINED, PINE-OUT. Weather that has been long unsettled and
a

wounded

bird that has

thin and weak.

promises to be fine

is

said to pine-out.

538

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

PIN-FAD, PUN-FAD, a pinfold. PINING, a disease to which sheep are subject. PINK, an old-fashioned type of collier vessel,
until

familiar on the The about the middle of the present century. Tyne stern was " cat-built," falling off to a point almost as sharp as the narrowing at the bow, and on the top of this stern a square erection, forming a high poop, was built.

PINK,
and

spinks.

the Mayflower, Cardaminepratensis, L. often called pinks Also the Dianthus deltoides, L., which is known as
;

the wild pink.

PIN KEY, small. The

duplicated form pinkey-wee

is

often used,

especially in child talk. " A bussy-tail'd />wfo}' wee Frenchman."

W.

Midford, The Masquerade.

PINLOWE,
"

probably a "pingle" or small enclosure.

(Obs.)

i653receved of Wm. Johnson for pinlowes three horsses depasturing upon Gaitshead ffell 2oth June, 1653 oo. 15. oo." Gateshead Church
Books.

PINNEL, sandstone with pebbles in it; a kind of conglomerate. PIN-WELL, a well where deposits of votive offerings are made.
These
"

in latter

days are reduced to nothing more precious

than pins.
foot of Horsedean, near

curious custom was long observed in connection with a well at the Wooler. On May-day a procession was formed, and marched from the town (Wooler) to this spot, where a halt was called, and each of the processionists dropped a crooked pin into it, at the same time 'wishing a wish.' Though the formal procession on Mayday morning is no longer acted, the custom is still kept up by young people." James Hall, Guide to Glendale, 1887, p. 9. About a mile west of Jarrow, there is a well still called Bede's Well, to which, as late as the year 1740, it was a prevailing custom to bring diseased children; a crooked pin was put into the well, which was lewed dry between each dipping of the patient. But on every midsummer-eve there was a great resort of neighbouring people, with bonfires, music and dancing, to St. Bede's Well." Impartial History of Newcastle, 1801, p. 567.
'

PIOT, PYET, PIANET,


j&y-piot,

from

its

a magpie. The jay is also called the resemblance no doubt to the common magpie.
:
;

Of the plot it is common to say Tyel-piot, a tell-tale. " Yen's sorry Twee's morry Three's a wedding Power's deeth
;
;

Five's hivin Six is hell And Sivin's the deel's aan sel."
;
;

Old Saying.

PIPE

thin seam of coal. Also the COAL-PIPE, carbonized remains of plants frequently found in irregular thin patches. Pipe vein, a lead vein lying between strata, as distinguished from one which intersects them. Pipey or coalpipey, streaked with thready layers of coal.

or

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

539
;

PIPE-STOPPLE,

the tube of a tobacco pipe usually applied " " to the broken piece of a clay pipe. are Fairy pipes

ancient pipes having very small bowls.

PIRN

[N.]

a pin, a bobbin.
a twitch used for horses.

PIRN, PURN,

PIRTLE,
THIVEL.

a short stick used for stirring porridge.

Compare

PIRTLE, PORTLE,
styen
;

aa'll

to poke. get a stick an' portle

" Thor's an eel anunder that

him
stiff

oot."

See POWTLE.

PISTOL-FOOT,
some kind.
PIT, a

a lame foot

limb owing to injury of

The word has also special application to the colliery. well sunk from the surface to the coal seams. Pit-bar, a frame bar of wood to support the boards used in sinking through loose stuff. Pit-does, the working clothes of a pitman. Pit-crocket, the low seat used by a coal hewer. Pitheap, the deposit of coal and other excavated material near the mouth of a pit. Pit-hitch-nail, a strong pit nail. Pit-hole, an old disused pit-shaft. (A pitfall is called a "day fa'.") Pitman, a collier. Pit-prop, a short piece of round timber used as a support in the roof of a mine. Pitmatics, a jocose term for the technicalities of colliery working. Pit -single-tack, pitdouble-tack-nails, very strong nails, three and a half and four and a quarter inches long respectively. Pit-spar-nail, a nail five and a half or six inches long. Pittage, the cost of working
(Obs.) Pit-winkle (probably for pit-pinkie seejamieson, under pinkie), an extremely small candle, thirty or forty in the pound, formerly used by pitmen in the mine.
coal.
;

PITCH-AN'-TOSS, a gambling game, in the district. The players, who


place a bit of white
is

formerly in general use are called a " school,"

This (the "mot") in position. in succession, the first player having the choice of the place (" the past ") from which to pitch. Pence

"boody"

aimed

at

by each

or halfpence are used as the quoits. The player whose coin lies nearest to the "mot" then picks up the whole of the coins, and, laying them on his hand, tosses them up with a spin. All that come down lying head up become his own the tails pass on to the next player, who tosses again, leaving the The process is repeated till tails for the next in succession. all the coins are disposed of.
;

54<D

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

PITCHER,
game

a piece of tile or slate used in playing "holey," a The player wins all marbles which he of marbles. drives into the hole with a stroke of his pitcher, also any that have been tipped by the pitcher in the throw.

may

PITCH-UP,
job."

to give up, to

abandon.

" A've pitcked-up the

PITHEN,
"

to break the spinal cord of an animal in order to A practice adopted by butchers, destroy sense of pain. especially when killing sheep.

To

pith."

Webster's Diet.

PLACE THE WARK,


day
in a pit,

to arrange each man's labour for the and of a certain number of scores of corves to arrange how many each man is to hew and how many each tram is to put. Placing the work is an operation performed by the deputy.

PLACK,
11

a small piece of money.


Plack."
It is

Ya peur
Farder,

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,

p. 48.

ordained, that the Clerk shall have noe mair, but ane penny Sterling, or Plack, for his Precept." Leges Marchtarum, 1705, p. 200.
" Tho' he

"

no worth aplack is, His awn coat on his back is."


T. Thompson,

New

Keel Row.

PLAIGAN, PLAYGIN, PLACAN,


Compare PLAYLAKIN.

a piece of broken earthenware or crockery used by children to make "babby hooses."

PLANE,
which
gravity.

in a pit, a coals,
etc.,

are

main road either level or inclined, along conveyed by engine power or by

Greslefs Glossary, 1883.


,

PLANTIN, PLANTEEN
PLASH,
sleet is

[S.] a plantation of small trees or a "setting" of cabbages, etc. "He's gyen aback o' the " plantin gone behind the plantation.

downpour
of.

of rain.

Also called a pash

when snow

or

spoken

Compare BLASH.

" If the oak before the ash Then we're sure to have a plash. If the ash before the oak, Then we're sure to have a soak."

Weather saw.

PLASH,

to splash or spatter

to

sound as a stone
"Plashin

falling in

waler. "What's with wet.

that plashin?"

wet"

soaked

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

54!

PLASH, to leave work unfinished. " Aa'll he ta plash them" said by a shoemaker on leaving work unfinished at the end of the week.
PLAT,
a flattened cake of any substance clayey kind as a "plat o' clarts," etc. called a "spark."
; ;

usually of a soft, small quantity is

PLATCHY-FOOTED,
PLATE,

having a flat-footed style of walking.

shale ; a laminated, argillaceous stratum. Usually described, according to its appearance, as blue plate, black Called indifferently plate or "metal"; plate, grey plate, etc. and sometimes, from its ordinarily blue cast of colour, known as "blue stone." Platy, containing layers of shale. Sandstone, when intermixed with shale beds or partings, is called Plate bricks, bricks made from platy freestone or platy post. shale or plate.
or

PLATE-NAILS,
nails,

TRAM-PLATE NAILS,

strong,

round

with flat points, having a countersunk head, flat or rounded on the top, and measuring two inches or two and a half inches long; used for nailing down the "plates" the rails to the sleepers in an underground tramway. plate nail is driven through a hole in the plate, which is countersunk to receive the head of the nail.

PLATER,

the

man who

has charge of putting on ship-plates.

PLATE-RAIL

a wrought-iron tram rail, in section like an unequal angle-iron, the base being three inches wide by half inch thick, the enclosed angle slightly obtuse and with short heel projecting so as to give greater support to the side on which it is laid. The upper side, standing two inches higher than the plate, served as flange or guide to the tram wheels, which were themselves plain discs without any flanges. See PLATES.
\

PLATES,
colliery

sometimes called tram-plates, the rails on which trams are run. The rails used on our railway lines are still known by the workmen as plates, and platelayer has become the general term for the man who lays and maintains
"
bless the man wi' peace and plenty, furst invented metal plates ! Draw out his years to .five times twenty, Then slide him through the heevenly gates."

the lines.

God

That

Pitman's Pay, 1827, pt.

ii.,

v. 70.

542

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a splashy mess.

PLATTER, SPLATTER,
in use.

Both forms are


for a

PLAY,

the cessation of work. period the men are said to play.

When work

is

stopped

PLAYLAKE, PLAYLAKIN,

a toy, a plaything. " Here's a nice playlakin aa've brout ye." Playlakin, idling, spending time in play instead of work.
to offer resistance.

PLAY-PA, PLAY-PEW, PLAY-PEEP,


"

'He ne'er played pauw,' he did not so much as stir. Transferred to one who cannot make the slightest exertion. To play one's Paws, to act
the part which belongs to one." Jamieson, under Paw. " He darna Peep, a feeble sound. To play peep, to utter such a sound play peep, he dares not let his voice be heard." Jamieson, under Peep.
' :

" His neck in twa the Armstrangs wrang, Wi" fute or hand he ne'er played pa I life and his keys at anes they ha'e taen, His And cast his body ahint the wa'."

Jock
"

o' the

Syde.

Though crook'd, se crabb'd and fierce was Nyen durst play peep agyen her power."

she,

T. Wilson, Polly Teohnic, 1840.

PLEEN,

to complain.
"

" Hoots: yor elwis pleenin aboot some;

thin' or another."

Aw

They pleen o' hunger if it comes a week o" wet wonder what they de wiv aa the brass they In Spenser the form
is plight.

get."
p. 87.

Geo. Chatt, Old Farmer, poems, 1866,

PLEET,

a fold.

Compare

the

local forms neet,


light, bright. " Purfled

reet, seet, leet, breet, etc.,

for night, right, sight,


Faerie Queen,
26.

upon with many a folded plight.'

2, iij.,

PLENISHIN,
plenishin

household furniture. gyen by."


a plait. hair for me."
;

" Thor's a cairt load

o'

PLET,

i' plets" " fowerthree-a-//^," " a-plet," five-a-plet," etc., refer to plaits of three, four, and five strands respectively. To plet in walking is to lift the legs " " He throws one over the other awkwardly. plets his feet in walking. To clinch, or double over the point of a nail on the inside to prevent its withdrawal. "Aa want a hunder nails the kind that'

to plait

"

She had her hair deun


"

"Plet

maa

The terms

PLET-ROPE,
BAND.

a rope of hay, a plaited rope.

See BURDEN-

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

543

PLEUGHT, PLOUTE,
"Jack Roe was
hissel."
sittin'

a long walking-stick.
etc., ed. 1850, p.

wiv his leg pletted cure his yekpleught, warmin*

Thomas Bewick, The Howdy,

n.

"

ploute

a long walking-stick, generally used (with the thick end


Brocket*.

downward) by foot-hunters."

PLISH-PLASH, PLITCH-PLATCH, PLISH-FORPLASH, SPLISH-SPLASH,


"

in a splashing

manner.
Thomas

Here cums little Andra Karr, plishplash throw the Bewick, The Howdy. " She held her breathe wyth anxious care, And thought it all a dreame But an eiry nicher she heard i' the linne,
;

clarts."

And a plitch-platch

in the streime."

James

Telfer, 1824, The Gloamyne Buchie.

PLOAD, PLODE
11

[N.]

to wade.
i'

Fither '11 hammer ye for pleading Alnwick Language.

the broad witter."

J.

L. Luckley,

PLOAT, PLOTE, PLOT,


also to fleece a dupe.
in chorus
:

At the

to pluck out the feathers of a bird first fall of snow, children sing
;

"

Keelmen keelmen, ploat yor geese

Caad days an winter


1

neets." Newcastle Rhyme.

"

The aad wives i' the east they're plotin their geese, An' sendin a the white feathers ti me." West Tyne version.
1

"

The

An

folk i the eas' is plotin their geese, sendin their feathers ti huz." Alnwick version.

"The aad

wives i' Scotland is ploatin thor geese, An' sendin thor feathers here." Northern version.

PLOAT, PLOT,

To dip a finger in hot to apply hot water. water in order to ease the pain caused by a bruise. " To causes the hair plote a pig is to pour scalding water upon it, which Brockett. to come off, and makes it easier to scrape."
to wade in water with shoes and Compare PLOWD, PLOAD.

PLODGE,

stockings

off.

"Where oft we've plodg'd wivoot wor shoes." James Horsley, The Craw's Nest, 1889. " Yen day she plodg'd to catch a duck." J. P, Robson, Hamlick.
Bards of
the Tyne, 1849, p. 148.

544

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

PLOO,

[S.] a plough [N.] PLUF, [N. and S.] to plough. A lang ploo is a long metalled plough A half-lang ploo is a used principally for plouging lea. A drill ploo is used moderate sized one for general use. A little for raising and splitting drills and potato raising. ploo, or ribbin ploo, is used for "ribbing" land for seed sowing and for working and cleaning the land amongst drill crops. Ploo-cootev (or coulter), the Ploo-bridle, the head of a plough. knife-shaped cutter which is fixed into the beam in front. Ploo-paddle, or ploo-spyed, the little spade used for scraping the earth from a plough. Ploo-stilts, the shafts which carry the handles. Ploo-shun, the plough shoes or race clouts that is, the two bars of iron on the bottom of a plough. Ploo-sock, the share or pointed end of a plough it is fitted on to the ploo-sheth, and is removable so that it can be fettled or sharpened. Ploo-tail, the rear of a plough. Ploo-day, a day given gratuitously to a farmer who has newly entered on a farm. The neighbours on all sides send in their teams and ploughs to help in the first ploughing. The horses are decked with rosettes and gaily-coloured ribbons for the occasion, and the hinds are entertained to a substantial dinner by the farmer. See BOON -DAY.
,
, ; , ;

PLEW

PLEUF

PLOO

PLOOK, PLUKE,
PLOP,

a pimple blotchy on the face.


to drop or plump The sound made by a
is

plooky or plooky-fyess'd, pimpled,

into water.

" He plopt ower heed." stone falling into water, or the drop,

drop of water

called a plop.

PLOTING-HOT,

scalding hot.

Brocket*.

See PLOAT,

2.

PLOUGH,
PLOUTE,

a custom variously called full-plough, fool-plough,

white-plough, stot-plough.

a long walking-stick.
to

See PLEUGHT.
or mire
to be engaged in going clumsily or lazily.
;

PLOUTER,

wade through water


Brockett.

any dirty work. See PLUT.

Plouterin>

PLOWD,

to wade, especially to wade in mire. Plodge is generally used for wading in water plowd for wading in mud. "He's been plodgin i' the wetter aall day." " Leuk at him plowdin through the clarts."
;

PLOY,

a game, a prank, a lightsome employment.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

545

FLUFF,
Pluffin

to puff, to emit a short, sharp blast from the mouth. peas is the act of blowing peas out of the mouth by a short, sharp blast. Pluffer, a tube used as a pea-shooter.

PLUG AND FEATHER,

a long wedge driven between two other wedges with their thick ends placed in an opposite direction. It is also called stob, stock, or stook and feather, or The plug and feather was introduced into coal fox wedge. mining by Mr. G. C. Greenwell in 1869. It had been from See Archaologia ALliana, early times used in lead mining.
vol.
i.,

p. 185.

PLUGMAN,
PLUM,
solid,

the

man

in

charge of a

pit

pumping

engine.

Mining Glossary, 1852.


heavy, sad
as bread or land.

PLUNGER-LIFT, the
PLUT, FLUTTERS, "
"
useless plut

set of pipes

attached to a forcing pump.


" She's a greet

a term of contempt.

windy

(said of an ungainly, slovenly, and dirty woman). Plutterin, plouterin, plut," a noisy, useless person.
lazily.

going on clumsily and

See PLOUTER.

POA-POA,

the call to a turkey. a scar caused


,

POCK-ARR,

fretten, pock-markeet "

by small-pox. marked by small-pox.

Pock-brocken, pock-

Aye, but he's a bonny lad, As ever ye did see,

Tho' he's sair pock-bracken, An' he's blind of an e'e."


Song, The Waggoner.

POCK-MANTEL, PORTMANTLE,
POD,
a complaint to
pot-bellied.

a portmanteau.
liable.
Pod-belleet,

which young rabbits are See POD-KITE.

POD-KITE,
say

a big belly, a glutton.

See KITE.

PODLIE, PODLER, names by


fish are

which the young

of the coal-

known

the very young,

at various stages of growth, podlie being See and podler a more advanced stage.

POODLER.

PO-HEED, POW-HEED,

a tadpole*

See POW-HEED.

546

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a
silly, a' his
;
!

POIND,

inactive person as " Hout he was aye a days." Jamieson. Poind occurs in the name puir poind applied to one of two monoliths which stood near Shafto Crags. They were known as the "poind and his man." One only of these now remains.

POINT-SKEETS,
terminating

guides or conductors in a pit shaft,

below the opening at bank and above the opening at the bottom of the shaft where the tubs are changed. W. E. Nicholson, Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1888.

POISON-BARRIES, PUZZEN-BARRIES,
the

the

berries

of

rowan REDDENS.
"

tree

or

mountain

ash, Pyrus aucuparia.

See

POKED,

offended.
sare poked.'
1

He was

Brockett.

POKE-HORSE,
41

a pack horse. Lead ore was formerly transported from the mine to the smelt mill in pokes, carried by galloways on the top of a wood saddle. Bring all the Poke-horses that trespasse upon the ffell into the comon
pinefold."

Gateshead Church Books, 1669.

POKE-PUDDIN,
" Here's

a pudding boiled in a bag. " Mair poke nor " is a proverb which puddin; mair cloot nor dinner expresses the formula "more show than substance."
Wheat-meal and Sewet, we'll have a Poak-puddin, Put a neef-fow o' Prunes in't and make it a geud ane." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,

p. 4.

POKY,

inquisitive. farrant, poky bit lad."

" He's a poky chep that."

" He's an aad

POLIN,

a sharp-pointed stake, driven above the head-tree, in lead mining, where the roof is of a soft or loose nature.
spoilt grain

POLLARDS,

ground

for pig feeding.

PONY-PUTTER,

in

collieries,

from the working places to the

flat

the lad who brings the tubs with a pony. Nicholson.

POODLER,
old.

the coalsay, or coal-fish,

when about
saith,

three

months

are

Loch Fyne they are called known as billets. See COALSAY.


In They
increase

and

at

Whit by they

11

called poodlers."

by September to one foot in length, and are then Rambles in Northumberland, etc., Stephen Oliver, the
p. 23.

Younger (Mr. Chatto), 1835,

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

547

POOEY, PUOY, PUY, POWEY, POY, " "


men
to
set

the pole used by keelor push the keel along. Standing at the bow of the keel, the man rapidly thrusts his pooey down to the bottom of the river, where a small fork holds it in the sand. He then lays the upper end against his shoulder, and puts his whole strength into play. As the keel moves under him the keelman steps along the side, pushing continuously with his shoulder until he passes to the stern of the vessel, where he instantly recovers his upright position, and at the same moment jerks his pooey from its "had" on the river bottom, and walks rapidly to the bow again to repeat the same In North Northumberland, kent is the name for a operation. boat propelling pole. On the Tyne, a very long pooey and a shorter one were used to suit the varying depth of water.
" New Poy, the pole used by rope dancers to stay themselves with." World of Words, 1706. " Next comes a skipper bold, he'll do his part right weel A clever blade, I'm told, as ever poy'd a keel." Sword Dancers' Song. Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div., vol. i., p. 210.
;

POOKED,
symptom

having a protuberance or of a disease in sheep.

bag under the jaw

the

POOMER, POONCER,
"

Hence applied

Ma

a bouncer, anything large or inflated. to an untruth. "That's a poomer, onnyway." wordy, that's zfooncer" (said of a huge trout).

POOR-ROBIN,
POOSE,
to

the flower red bartsia, Bartsia


thrust.

odontites.

push or

See POWSE.

FOOT

nest."

" Thor's five raa foots? the are called raa gorlins. The coot Tyneside they (Fulica atra, L.) is called the bell-foot or bald-poot. Compare
[N.], an unfledged bird.

On

POWT.

POOT,

little,

insignificant.

Applied to persons.

" He's a

little

black foot."

POOTHER,
Used

" He wis a' to dust. foother'd ower wi' meal." also as a cant term. To "pepper" or discomfit an
"

adversary in a conflict. at a snowball contest).

We ga them

a fine pootherin'

"

(said

POP,

a fop.

Popfish, foppish.

POPPLE,

the corn-cockle, Lychnis githago, L.

548

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to

POPPLE,
POR,

pop
11

or drop. His een was like to 've poppled out." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,

p. 45.

a poker.

PORDY, PURDY, " "


he, Jack
"
?

" Whattan sort of a chep big bellied. Oh, a little purdy body."
Hodgson MS.

was

Purdy, brosten kited fellow."

PORKY, plump
person.
"

in the person.

"A

"

porky

body

is

fat,

podgy

What

the porky gentleman."

Brockett

PORTER,

a bar used as a handle or carrier, on which a smith welds a heavy piece of work, when much manipulation is required to be done to it.
a grain porter, whose work it is to carry grain from the ship to a cart on the quay, or from the

PORTER-POKEMAN,

cart into warehouse. " He's a R. Nunn, Jocker. porter-pokeman, workin' on the quay." " The brawny porter-pokemen, bending under the sacks of grain, are seen steadily walking the springing planks laid from the deck to the quay edge." R. J. Charleton, Newcastle Town, 1885, p. 313.

POSEY,
11

decorated with floral patterns. "Aposey sampler." The pitmen's holiday waistcoats (called by them posey jackets) are

frequently of very curious patterns, displaying flowers of various dyes." Mackenzie, History of Northumberland, p. 209.

POSICAL,
POSS,
to

whimsical.

clothes. The clothes are put into a poss-iub, a strong forty or fifty gallon barrel, with an open It is partly filled with hot water, to which soap is end. added and the dirty clothes being put in are passed. This operation is performed with a poss-slick, a piece of timber with a heavy foot and stalk.

wash

which

is

POSSET.
at

"Eating the posset" a custom formerly observed


festivals.

wedding

" In to the (bridal)

chamber was brought a bowl containing a portion


;

of broken white bread soaked in white milk instead of wine, into which the marriage ring was dropped the bride and bridegroom tasted the and contents first, then the bowl was assailed by the lasses and lads whoever fished up the ring was accounted to have the best chance of being first married." Richardson's Table Booh, Legendary Division,
;
'
'

vol.

i.,

1842, p. 344.

"

The posset made she catch'd the bowl Where currant cakes in ale did roll."
The
Collier's

Wedding.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

549
;

POSSY,
person.
"

short and

fat,

thick set, protuberant

applied to the
Brockett.

Powsey,

fat,

decent-looking, respectable in appearance."

POST,

sandstone of very firm, fine, compact grain but applied *' Grindstone post," the any distinct, massive bed. stratum from which Newcastle grindstones are obtained. Post-dyers, nodules in a bed of sandstone.
;

also to

"A number
Sills

burn."

Hugh

of limestone bands, or posts, will be found at the head of Miller, Geological Survey Memoir on Otterburn.

POT,
doll.

earthenware. "

etc.

pot dolly," an earthenware or porcelain "Pot door-handles," figures is made o' pot." Pottie, a marble made of fine clay, like porcelain.

"Them

POT,

the heading written at the top of the game called "beds," " hitchey dabber." It looks like a transposition " of To achieve it is to get " pot," top," as it is the top bed. and subsequent steps in the game count " one o'pot" " two o'pot," and so on.
or, locally,

POTATO-POT, TATY-POT,

oven on the top of a dish of potatoes. Northumberland.

a joint of meat baked in the A favourite dish in

POT-BAINEY,

This used to be tripe minced and seasoned. sold in the streets by measure, and the familiar cry of the street vendor was "Fine black puddins, hinney nice potIt is also called minch-meat. bainey."
: ;

POT-CLEPS, POT-KELPS,
POT-DAY,
the
fire.

pot-hooks, or hooks used for


fire.

suspending pots over the kitchen

the day on which the pot with

its

broth was set on

" On pot-days, of which Sunday is always one, flesh, broth, dumplings, and a profusion of vegetables form a kind of family feast." Mackenzie,

History of Northumberland, vol.

i. f

1825, p. 201.

POT-HOLES,

common name for the circular depression line of outcrop of a limestone stratum.
the

circular holes in a rocky stream bed, worn out by the swirl and scour of pebbles or gravel driven violently round and round in a depression of the rocks during floods " " also the sinking lines on limestone hills. is Swally-hole
;

found along the

POT-METAL,

cast-iron.

55

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
or

POT-PIE,

SEA-PIE,

beef cut up into squares, encased in

dough and boiled

in a pot.

POT-STONES,
roofs of mines.

cone-shaped masses of stone, met with in the See CAULDRON-BOTTOMS.


a coarse earthenware pot, with a handle.

POTTINGER,
Brockett.

Old fashioned surgeries and apothecaries' shops had these pots, which were highly glazed and perforated

through the handle.

POUCE,
"

nastiness.

Compare POUSOWDY.
Brockett.

Poucy, untidy, all in a litter."

POUSOWDY,
in cookery.

hotchpotch, disorderment, a heterogeneous dish

POUT-PUNCH,

in mining, a tool used by the deputies in drawing timber out of a dangerous place. It is either used as a ram to knock the props down, or to draw them out after they have been knocked down. Greenwell, Gloss, of Coal

Trade, 1849.

POVERTY-ENGINE,

the tea kettle. So called from increasing use of tea in place of milk and oatmeal.
to

the

POW,

move with

"
difficulty.

He

can hardlies pow

"

hardly put one

foot before the other.

POW-HEED,

a tadpole. Also the bird reed bunting, variously called Hack bunting, coal hood, and rasher cap. See PO-HEED.

POWLED-OFF, made drunk.


" If there's ony left that sees When Willy's tap runs thinnish, Let them be powl'd off at The Keys, Or at the Black Horse finish."

T. Wilson, Oiling of Dicky's Wig.

POWSE,
"

to strike.

Compare POOSE.
squall."
J.

Peg powsed thor jaws and myed them

P. Robson, The

Horrid

War

i'

Sandgyet, 1851.

POWT

[N.]

a pullet.

See Poor.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

55!

POWTLE, POWTEL, PORTLE, "


powtellin

to poke. What are ye powtel about a burn side "is to poke in order to start trouts from their hiding places. To poke searchingly or playfully about any loose substance. Young pigs enjoy themselves when powtellin among loose straw. To powtel a fire is to stir the ashes out of it. "Then neist it raised its note and sang, Sae wytchingly and sweet The moudies powtelt out o' the yirth

at?"

To

And

kissed the singer's feet."

The Gloamyn Buchte.

POWTLE,
PREEK,

to

work

feebly.

Wright.
a'

Powtil in Halliwell.
wi' ribbons an' laces."
Preen-cod,

to adorn.
[N.'J
,

" She's

f reeked up
a'

PREEN

a pin.

" Thor's

preen on the floor."

a pincushion.

See COD.
to

PREESE, FREEZE,
PRESSER,
cupboard.

press inwardly from


strains.

pain in the

region of the bowels, as

when one

See THREAST.

a press or clothes closet usually a large movable Presser-bed, a press-bed, a folding-up bed, made to
;

imitate a presser

when

closed.

PRESSGANG,
PRICK,
"

a group of romping children.

to ride, to gallop. (Obs.) August 7, 1522. Twenty Scots pricket at the horse at Alwinton and were attacked by fourteen Englishmen." Letter of Philip Dacre, from

Harbottle Castle,

PRICKER,
used

a thin pointed rod made of yellow metal, and and adjusting a blasting cartridge, which it perforates and remains embedded in till the stemming has been tamped round it. When withdrawn, it leaves a touch hole through which the cartridge is fired. A " stemmer," also of yellow metal, is a complimentary tool which accompanies a pricker. Hence "pricker and stemmer" are usually spoken of together.
for placing

PRICKING,
the hewer."

thin

layer of soft

coaly shale, often found

between the bottom of a seam of coal and the regular floor. " It is used to " prick in in kirving and is advantageous to
Greenwell.

PRICKY-BOARD, "
board."

a nice point. " When it He'll no' come up to pricky-board"

comes
that

is,

to prickywill not

stand testing.

552

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to

PRIG,

cheapen in bargaining. yor price, mind."


to

" He's be sure to prig doon

PRIME, When

pump

pour water into a pump bucket to make it lift. bucket becomes dry and leaky and fails to
it is

induce suction,

said to have lost ilsprimin.

PRINCE'S-FEATHERS,
It is

very

common

the self-heal, Prunella vulgaris, L. in grassy places. It is also called heart o'

the

yearth.

PRINKLIN,
said to

the stinging sensation caused by interruption of the circulation in a part of the body, as when the place is

"go

to sleep."

PROD,

a stick to drive anything out of its hiding place or hold, as fish from under a stone. Hodgson MS. A thrust with the " Aa point of a stick. gav him a prod i' the back." Prod, a small piece of bread or cheese, as much as can be stuck on the point of a knife. " Gi's just a prod o' yor cheese." Prod, to stick, stab, or wound also to probe. Hodgson MS.
;

See PROG.

PROG,
wuv

the prickle of a thorn, whin, etc.

PROG, PROGUE
a needle."

" Aa've prog'd me thoom a pin ti' prog in." game A few pictures or coloured papers are placed at random within the leaves of a book, the owner of which charges one pin for each chance at the game. The pin is progged in between the leaves by the player. Progger, a butcher's stabbing knife. Proggk, a prick, a prickle, as the spine of a hawthorn, thistle, etc. Proggle, to prick, a variant of prog. "The whin busses wis proggly gan through, Proggly, prickly.

[N.]

to prick.

child's

is

called

aa can tell ye "The gully, the


!

"

progger,

and

steel."

W.
J.

Midford, Hangman and

the

Calf, 1849.

"Thro

puils, 'cross progly ditches."

P. Robson, Hamlick.

PROOD,
"A

proud, bold.
of coal
Brockett.
is

seam

said to be proud

when

its

section

is

higher than

ordinary."

PROP-MELL,
drawing
coal
slip
;

pit

a mell, or maul, used in setting up or withprops in a mine.


to ascertain

PROVE, PREAVE,
when
it

the position of a

seam

of

or (to

has been thrown downwards or upwards by a ascertain) the nature of the strata in a district
Gveenwell.

by boring or sinking.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

553

PRY, PRYE,

a name given to several grasses. When "spret" gets old and hard, the bottom only is eaten by sheep, and it The Poa trivialis, or rough-stalked meadow is called pry. grass, also called forked grass, the Holcus lanatus, or midge grass, and the Carex panicea, with other species of Carex, are all of them included as pry grasses. Sir W. Elliot, Hist, of Bu>ks. Nat. Club, vol. viii., p. 454, note.

PRY,

the

woody
full,

variety of coal in the Shilbottle seam.

PUBBLE,
PUDDIN,

plump

usually spoken of corn or fruit


Brockett.

in

opposition to fantome.
in the

undue displacement of game of see-saw the " " Gi's a bit mair means let me have a puddin "To give the craa a puddin," to fall longer leverage. suddenly in worldly position or estate. See PUTTY.
the balance.

PUDDIN-WIFE,
At
pig-killing
it

puddin- wife, " innards " of the portions of the pig.

a professional or expert pudding maker. was formerly usual to call in the services of a who had skill in dressing the various edible

PUDGEN-DUCKET
cot.

[N.],

PIGEON DUCKET,
and toads.

a pigeon-

PUD-REDD, the spawn PUEST. See PIEUST.

of frogs

PUFFY-DUNTER,
PULIN,

a porpoise.
;

in a poor, weakly way said of the health or of any" " It's thing that is indifferent. applied to rain pulin on that is said sometimes to be "spittin," not falling in regular and heavy showers, but in continuous dribble. " He' ye had " ony snow i' yor pleyce ?" Wey it's oney been pulin on."

PULKE,
"The

probably the same as

bulk, a partition. Will of Alice Carr, standing pulke in the hall."


vol.
iii.,

See BULK.

May

31, 1596.

Richard Welford, Hist, of Newcastle,

p. 105.

PULL,

to row.
;

Pull, a

row

in

a boat.

Puller, a

boat rower,

an oarsman but usually applied to a professional rower. " Noo there's Bob Chambers and Harry Clasper,
Nee two
in a boat they

can pull faster."

George Ridley (d. 1864), Blctydon Keelman. " He oft wad steal a boat away, And gan an hev a pull.'' George Ridley, Chambers.

554

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

PULLER-BACK,

a short rope passed from snout to snout of a tram (in a pit) and used in that position as a handle when off the road.
pull by main force. Pully-haaly, Thor wis a reg'lar pully-haaly"

to PULLY-HAAL, "

a struggle,
gat clear oot

a scrimmage.

" Aa the rest on uz pnlly-haulin and kicking till the baa amang them." D. D. Dixon, Shrovetide Customs at Roth bury.

PUNCH-PROP,

in mining, a short prop set upon the top of a crowntree, or balk, where the roof has coved or fallen and does not bear evenly on the crowntree. Also a short prop about fourteen or fifteen inches long, placed by a hewer under his sump or back end, when there is any danger of its dropping down before he has got it kirved sufficiently far.

Greenwell.
"

Punch, thick and short, as

'

a punch creature.'

"

Jamieson.

PUOY,

a keelman's pole.

See POOEY.

PURDY.
PURL,

See PORDY.

to play a marble by holding it between the tip of the It is done as a preliminary to forefinger and the thumb. certain games in order to settle precedence. By purlin the marble nearest the mark a player obtains first turn. Or he " " wins the when marbles are played for in this way. purl The game is called purley. Purl, to twist between finger and thumb. Horsehair is purled thus in making snares for bird-catching in winter. Compare SHIRL.
Purlicue, the space enclosed ' purlicue is a marbles. Brockett.

"
'

Spang and a "

by the extended measure allowed

fore-finger and thumb. in a certain game at

PURR,

sea-lark,

the dunlin, Pelidna cinclus, L. It is also called stint and the latter name being also applied to the ring dotterel.

PURSE

(pronounced parse), a fragment of coal that has cracked and flown from the fire-grate. If it is of rounded shape and clinks as it cools it is supposed to be a purse with money in it, and it augurs fortune to the person who picks it up. If, on the contrary, it is an oblong splinter and emits no sound, " it is a coffin," and portends evil.

PURY,

a foot-stalk or projecting spur used to steady or stand a vessel upon. There are three purys at the bottom of a yetlin for it to stand on.

PUSHION-BERRY.

See PUZZEN-BARRIES.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

555

PUT,

abscess

as in the sensation when an throb forming and the pulsations are felt in the inflamed " Me hand's putting an' aa's flaid it's gan ti beeld." part. "A puttirf pain" pain felt at each pulsation. Put, to
to
palpitate, to
;

is

vegetate, as

when a plant begins to show the first sign of see it's aall reet it's puffin" Put, to push, to In thrust forward. To put a stone is to thrust it forward. doing this the hand is held up over the shoulder and the stone is laid on the flat palm. slight bending of the knees and a quick recovery of the upright position enables the thrower to put the stone forward with great force. To put a tram is to propel it. To propel a keel with a powey is called To put the door or to put to the door is to to put or to set. " See that the door's put to." push it close. "Put the door." to thrust or hold back. Put-down, to put to death. Put-back, horse or dog are said to be put-down they are not said To put oneself doon is to commit to be killed or destroyed. To put-on, in mining, is to overlie. suicide. Put-on, dressed. The on-put is the overlay of beds, etc., above an outcrop. See "The limestone puts-out." ON-PUT. Put-out, to crop out. " Aa'll Put-ower, to tide over, to survive. try to put-ower till " "He'll not put-ower the neet Christmas." (said of one in the payment of the fortnight's the last extremity). Put-pay, wages delayed until after the usual day. Nicholson. Putter, in mining, the man who conveys coal from the hewer to the The putters put or push the tram forward from behind. flat. Putter has become applied to anyone who conveys the coal from the face to the flat or station whence it is hauled by Hence hand-putter and pony-putter, the latter engine-power. being the lad who drives where ponies are used in bringing out the coal from the working place to the flat. Putters are also called barrowmen. Put-through, to get through with effort. " If aa oney put-through this job aa'll be reet eneuf." Puttinhewer, in mining, a young hewer who is liable to be called upon to put if necessary. Puttin -ponies, ponies ten or eleven hands high, used in substitution for putters or barrowmen.
buds.

"Aa

Compare PONY-PUTTER.
"I have heard of Iron Frames that have been used Quick Sands." J.C., Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 21.
"
to put back these

May,

1589.

Alice Stokoe, the 13

May

buried.

She was servant to

Thomas Hodgson, butcher, and did put down herselfe in her maistor's house in her own belt." Brand, Hist, of Newcastle, vol. i., p. 674.
" 1564. This yeare Partrage was put downs for coyninge fals monnye in the Great Innes in Pilgrame Streat." Can MS. R. Welford, Hist, oj Newcastle in XVI. Century, p. 397.
"

He

likes to see

ye wesl put on."

James Horsley, A New

Start for '81.

556

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
"He trusted to put ouer this (illness)." Deposition Welford, Hist, of Newcastle in XVI. Century, p. 379.
in 1562.

Richard

" Quick-Sands (if not too thick) are often put through by Deals or Timber." J.C., Compkat Collier, 1708, p. 21. "

They put the


Ev'ry

full

Curves of Coals." J.C., Compkat

Collier, 1708, p. 36.

"

man and mother's son Lay down the pick and start
Every day,
for

to put." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1827,

ii.,

v. 47.

"

mony a

pay,
i.,

Aa've hewed and putten twee and twenty." The same,

52.

"A heedsman,
And

then, they myed efter that a.pitttin-hewer."

me

suin,
ii.,

The same,

v.

72.

PUTTY,

In carrying a leverage, the balance or trim put out. weight with a pole, shoulder height, should the balance be unduly pressed on one side, the labourer will say to the one with the longer purchase, " Ye've ower much putty on." See

PUDDIN.

PUZZEN-BARRIES,
nightshade
;

Berries of the woody the berries of the mountain ash, which are popularly supposed to draw the entrails together. See REDDENS.

poison berries.

also

commonly applied

to

PUZZLY-O'S,
is

a child's game, called also " *'s and 0's." The to get three o's in line between or along the limbs object of a cross. The player begins with marking an 0, and the and thus the play opponent places an x in front of it
;

continues,

each

marking

alternately,
;

until

three

0's

are

brought in line, or until all the nine spaces are filled. In the former case o has won in the latter x has prevented o, and has himself won.

PYESSY-NEW, new

at the

Easter time.

On

Easter Sunday

(Paste or Pyest-egg Day) some new article of clothing must be worn, otherwise the birds in flying overhead will testify against the wearers of pyessy-aad by spattering the clothes of the offender.

PYIN,

went pyin a boot."

prying, looking about with a sneaking curiosity.

"

He

PYREY,

springy applied to a bed of stone from which water springs as "pyrey post," etc.
; ;

QUADDLE,

to boil

pot's qnaddlin

and bubble, as water or broth. on the hud."

"

The

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

557

QUARL, QUAREL,
burnt
fire-clay.

usually square, made of are included sizes up to twelve inches long by six inches wide. Above this area it is called a quarl or tile. a flag or
tile,

Under the term "brick"

QUARRY-BRAE,
quarry face;
its

the descent to a quarry. Quarry-fyess, the perpendicular side. Quarry-hole, a disused quarry. Compare PIT-HOLE. Quarry -post, sandstone suitable for building purposes.

QUARTER-ILL,
young
its

a disease among cattle, especially among It is cattle, affecting them in one limb or quarter. generally fatal. At the birth of a calf, salt is sprinkled on

back, and an egg shell and all thrust down its throat. Sometimes a sort of invocation or incantation is mumbled " And over a newly-calved calf, the last few words being thoo ken nee mair o' the quarter-ill nor aa ken whether may
:

thoo's a bull or a quey."

QUAY,

the raised terrace' at the side of a street

as in

High

These quays have nearly all gone in Gateshead. modern street improvements; but " Perkin's Quay" and " " Busyburn Quay yet remain.
Street,

QUAYSIDE-UMBRELLA,

a swill or kind of basket, formed of unpeeled willows, which is generally carried on the head When the weather is wet of a certain class of females. and the basket empty, they invariably wear it topsy-turvy hence its proverbial Newcastle name. Proverbial Folk Lore of
:

Newcastle,

by M.A.D., 1855,

p. 12.

QUEEN, QUINE,

It is used in complimentary a woman. " a manner in the following forms " A good leukin queen " She's a j^awl, young woman of prepossessing appearance
: ;

spankin queen" a strong, active girl; "A sonsy queen" a plump damsel. By inversion, queen is used sometimes as a term of opprobrium. " She's a queen, noo, an' nee mistake." "Thou old wizzen-kited quine."

W.

Kelly, Teetotallers of the Tyne, 1854,

QUEEN-OF-THE-MEADOW, meadow sweet,

Spiraa ulmaria.

QUEEN'S-CUSHION,
commonly

a method of carrying a person; practised in a children's game, but not unfrequently

used in ambulance work. "Of two persons each grasps

his right wrist with his left hand, and with the other lays hold of his neighbour's wrist, so as to form a seat of On these the person to be carried four hands and wrists conjoined. seats himself, or is seated by others, putting his arms, for greater security, round the necks of the bearers. "Jamieson.

558

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a postage stamp.

QUEEN'S-HEED,
QUEEN'S-PLAY,
SPEECH.

the truce called in boys' play.

See KING'S-

QUELL,
1490.

probably a muffle.
" Robert Postell, for a qweyll to the
Centuries, p. 397.
little bell,

6d."

Accounts of

Churchwardens oj Gateshead.

Richard Welford,

Hist, of Newcastle in

XIV.

and

XV.

QUEY, QUY,

calf is a young cow that has not had a calf. The spelling of this word with an either a bull or a quey. initial q is similar to the old Northern usage found in quhile
for while, quhen for for

when,

quilk for whilk, quig for

whig, quhair
(hw).

where, words
"

now spoken with an

aspirated
1628.

See

WHYE.
Stealeing of two kine and two quies."
i.,

Archaologia JEliana,

vol.

p. 157.

QUICK,

alive, alert.

See WHICK.

QUICKENS,

the roots of weeds, especially those of the couch or twitch-grass, Triticum repens, Linn. The latter is also known as fanny-grass and wrack. See WHICKENS.
the mountain ash.

QUICKEN-TREE,

See ROWAN-TREE.

QUICK-HEDGE.

See WHICK-HEDGE.
plants for

QUICKS, young hawthorn


Usually known as whicks.

planting

hedgerows.

QUIG, QUICK,
"
Jan., 1704." pp. 240-1.

a Nonconformist.
in

was thus formerly applied


Henry Hutson buiried
1708.

Newcastle.

The term whig See WHIG.

or quig

in the Quick's buring plas in Sidgatt, 22nd "Quigs buring p\as."Archaologia JEliana, vol. xiii.,

QUOIT,

the ball used in the game of " trippet and quoit" It of wood, of lignum vitae by preference and hence usually called a liggv. Balls made of white glazed earthenware are now used, and still retain their name of

was formerly made

Northumberland as " horse shoes," from the circumstance that old shoes are often used as substitutes for quoits.

See TRIPPET. The game of quoits itself, in which circular iron rings are pitched at a " hob," is also known in
liggies.

QUOT,
QUOT,

quit, let go.

"

Quot yor had

"let

go your hold.

a coat.

See KWOAT.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

559

QUOTTER.
RAA,
"

See COTTER.
" Frenchman's

The

of houses. Pit Raa" " The

row

Raa"

"

Quality

Raa"

Back Raa"

etc.

RAA-GORLIN, RAA-GORBIT
[W.-T.] RAA-POOT [T.] nest without feathers.
,

[N.],
for a

ROW-GORLIN
young bird
in the

terms

RAB,
"

the broken and shivered stone in a quarry.


Raab, a mass of rock fallen from a
cliff."

Jamieson.

RABBLEMENT,

Often used a tumultuous crowd, a mob. " Wad contemptuously in speaking of people. ye hev onny" thing te de wi' sic rabblement as thor ?
a range or series.

RACE,

"A

race of pits."

RACE-CLOUTS,
plough.

the iron plates on the bottom of a

wooden

Hodgson

MS.

RACK, WRACK,
weed heap.
digitata is

"Rack heap sea-weed, field weeds. Sea- weed is also called sea-ware. The Laniinaria Compare WASSAL. specially known as May-weed.

"a

RACK,
cart.

a track.

"A

hillsides.

"A cart rack" the trace or wheel marks of a sheep rack" the path made by sheep along the Compare RAKE, i.

RACK, RATCH,
"

a streak of colour, a streak of drifting clouds, " Bill a straight line or reach of navigable river. rack," " Hebburn rack" " The rack" are reaches of the

Lang

Tyne.

The keelman's dues

What
And

they sud hev

tiv iv'ry rack, for coals browt

back,

lyin' tides, just tiv

a plack,

Knew Faddy.
in

T. Wilson, Keelman's Tribute, 1838.

RACK, RACK-RIDER,
part of the country
1835, p. 131.

the

name

Redesdale

for

the

brandling trout. "There are a good many brandling

trouts or pars

called racks in this

caught in the Reed."

Rambles in Northumberland,

RACKAN, RACKAN-CRUK, RACKIN-CRUCK, a pot-hook


or chain

and hook RANNEL-BALK.

for

suspending pots over a

fire.

Compare

560

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a stress, a struggle as in violent exertion. " This was wark for tryin mettle; Here every tuil his level fand.
Sic tussels nobbit pluck could settle, For nowse less could the racket stand." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1827, pt.
v. 63.

RA CKET,

ii.,

RACKLE,

rash, violent, headstrong. " Eneugh like this aw've heerd thro life For ev'rybody hez a plan Te guide a rackle, ram-stam wife, Except the poor tormented man."
1

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

pt.

i.,

v. 66.

RACKLE,
RICKLE.

a loose heap.

" He's oney a rackle

o'

byens."

See

RADGY,
RAE,

lewd, wanton.

the wild roe. "'As wild as the

rae' is

a well-known Border phrase."

Dr. Hardy,

Bwks. Nat. Club,

vol. ix., p. 454.

RAFF,
"

miscellaneous, odd-and-end, unclassified.

3d. for every last of flax, hemp, pitch, tar, or any other goods or raff Charter to Trinity House, Newcastle. Welford, wrires, rated by the last." Hist, of Newcastle, vol. iii., p. 175.

RAFF, RAFF,

Raff-yaird

timber, especially in boards and kinds ready for use. timber yard. Raff-mar chant limber merchant.
riff-raff.

dissolute or idle people,

"'Raff,' abundance, a great quantity, a great number. Brockett. fellows,' a great many men." " His better half, all fire and tow, Called him a slush his comrades raff." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt.

'A

raff of

i.,

v. 39.

RAFFETY,
as "Raffety

irregular, applied by sinkers to stratified deposits, brown post." Compare SCAFFY.

RAFFLE,

to entangle, to

bamboozle.

Compare ROPPLE.
Song, The

" Pee-dee ran to clear the anchor, It's raffled,' right loudly he roared."
Little P.D., 1805.

"

'Twad

raffle

a magistrate."
Newcastle saying.

RAFFLING,
to one

idle,
raffles

who
raffling

worthless, dissolute. It is especially applied or confuses everything he takes in hand.


Brockett.

"A

chap."

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

561

RAFFS,

Raffy, coarse in texture and large strayed yets thame" (said of oats bulky " and coarse in the straw). Anything light and " fozy is said

long, coarse straws.

in bulk.

"Lang

vaffy

to be vaffy.

RAG,

warned a company

to tease, to vex. of

thus: " Divvent rag us when aa's i' drink, or aa'll mebby hort some on ye." Also to rate soundly, to scold. Raggin, " He a scolding. gat a rare raggin ower the job."

A harmless old man in Coquetdale companions, who were teasing him,

RAG-AND-CHAIN-PUMP,

or RAG-PUMP, an old and obsolete form of mining pump. The ordinary form of this consists of an endless chain which in its upward movement At short intervals circular iron plates are travels in a pipe. attached and carry up a stream of water before them.
"

the

Sometimes a bunch of rags was substituted " name of the


'

rag-and-chain-pump .'

for plates, when it took Galloway, Hist, of Coal Mining,

1882, p. 55.

RAG-BACCY,
disused.
"

shag tobacco.

Formerly a general term


some
rag baccy."

now

We went

to the grocer's to get

R. Emery, Pitman's Ramble, 1842.

RAGEOUS,

raging.
"

(Obs.)
"
!

The Rageous Pangs that I ha' tane, Wou'd e'en have bursi'n a Heart o' Stane

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,

p. 30.

RAGGY,
people

ragged.

Irish cattle.

Raggy -backs, long-horned Lancashire and Sometimes applied as a sarcastic name for
off.

who

are not well

RAGLINS,

the slender ceiling joists of a building, which carry the lattice for plaster-work near the roof.

RAG-WELL, a well resorted to by invalids in former days. A piece of underclothing was put into it, and if it floated the
pilgrim understood that his recovery was at hand. " Near Newcastle, on the road to Benton, in my younger years, I have often observed a well with rags and tattered pieces of cloth hung upon the bushes around it. It is known, I presume, still by the name of 'The Rag Well."' Gentleman's Magazine, 1794, pt. i., p. 592.

RAID, RODE, an inroad, a Border foray. A " Warden raid" an inroad commanded by one of the Wardens of the March
in person.
" A great rode that the Scottes made upon Tynedale and Ridsdale, \\herein they took up the whole country, and did very neare beggar them for ever." Cavty to Lord JSurghley, July 2, 1595. " He ne'er shall ride a raid."

again

Old Ballad, The Fray

o'

Hautwessel

562

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

RAILWAY,
way,

formerly written as two words, and originally a laying down upon sleepers (dormants) two parallel wooden rails, each about four inches square.

made by

this district between the years 1632 parts of the kingdom as 'Newcastle Koads.' For long after their introduction they were knpwn by no other name. In the term railway, or, as the early writers on the subject put it, Taylor, rail-way, the original name of the wooden rail is retained." Archeology of the Coal Trade, 1852, pp. 150-80.

and

"They were probably invented in 1649, and were known in other

"The length of the rail-way on which the Impartial History of Newcastle, 1801, p. 610.

waggon runs

is

864 yards."

RAIM,

" " He raimed away like one oot iv his ye raimin on at ? just heed." Raimin, talking in a wearisome fashion, or with " He wis raimin on childish repetition, on any subject as, aboot it aal the time."
;

to talk or call fretfully

and

persistently.

"What

are

RAIN.

It is

common
*

a heavy shower summer's day."


"

to hear children calling in chorus during come another Rain, rain, gan away
;

Happy

is

the corpse that the rain rains on."

Northumberland saying.

RAIN-BIRDS,
peckers.

RAIN-FOWL,

popular names for

wood-

Brockett.

RAINDERINS,
RAIR, an

renderings, the melting and clarifying lard.


outcry, an uncouth shout.
"

skimming parts

left

after

Robin ta Bobbin he cock't up his bow An' shot at a woo'cock but hat an aad yow. The yow gav a blare, an' Robin a rair ; An' wis nivver seen mair at Stainshabank fair." West Tyne rhyme.
;

RAIR,
"

there at ? Of a cow it

" Whativver to roar, to yell, to cry loudly. " Also applied to the roaring or cry of is said, " She's rairin for her tormits."
beyond
all

is

he

rairin

an animal.

Skreem'd, and rair'd Discourse, 1686, p. 26.


"

ayme."

G. Stuart, Joco-Scvious

What make

ye thus to rant and rair." T. Donaldson, Glanton, Poems, 1809,

p. 146.

RAISE, to rouse, to vex, to madden. wad a fair killed us if he'd getten a


devil,

"

He was
us."

that raised he
Raising-the-

had on

walking Hodgson MS.

three
It

times round a church backwards. means, literally, to vex the devil.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

563

RAITHER

rather, somewhat. [T.] [N. and S.] "Raythev wiv a vayther" a colloquialism expressing a faint smirch or taste of anything. "It's raithev wiv a rait her ; if onything wiv a smatch of onion aboot it."
,

RETHER

RAKE,
" It

a right of pasture, a "stray" for cattle.

Sheep-rake, a

sheep-walk.
pays
their cattle in

Compare RACK,
135. 46. to

i,

and GATE,

3.

Mr. Forster yearly for what is call'd a Rake for Tuggle Moore." MS. Survey, Lower Brunton, 1724. "Two brode waies or rakes commonly used occupied and worne with " cattal brought out of Scotland (no date). Hodgson MS.

RAKE,
cairt."

a set journey or errand.

"

He went

twee

rakes wi' the

RAKE, RAKE-VEIN
'
'

[W.-T.] in lead mining, the great or leading vein of ore, found perpendicularly, or with more or less hade or slope in the rock fissure.
,

RAKE,
day

to range. to the hills."

"

As

it

will

be rain, the cows do not rake

to-

" She's lang legg'd and mother-like, See, she's raking up the dyke, you

you hinney burd


a.''

Song,
"

you

She was raking up and down."


G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,
p. 30.

RAKE, heap small coals on the fire, that it may burn all night, practised in the North, where coals are cheap, a kitchen fire being rarely suffered to go out. Grose. It is really to rake the pile of small coals forward from the step at the back of the fire, where they are usually thrown.
to rake a fire, to

RAKER,

the leading galloway in a train of pack-horses. The horse that showed the road or rake to the string that followed in single file. When the galloways were ready, they each sagaciously endeavoured to get first at the start so as to get the raker's place. Lead was formerly brought over the fells by these trains of galloways to be smelted on Deel's Watter and in Allendale.

"Rag or Rake Words, 1706.

is

a company or herd of young colts."

New World

of

RAM,
"

foul, fetid,

a fox."

"

rank. Begox, but


;

"
it

Me pipe's varry ram." smells ram" Compare


common low

"As ram
RAMSH.

as

northern word
Todd.

and, indeed, a

expression in other

parts."

"It is probable that the word is a special application of a general term signifying originally the male of animals." Wedgwood.

564

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

RAMBLE, RAMELL,

earthy or stony material without Or a loose, cohesion and without regularity of texture. friable deposit of shale that shivers in working and becomes mixed with adjacent beds. Ramblin-slones, rumble-stones,

Compare TUMBLERS. Rambly, riimmle-siyens, loose stones. rammely, of the nature of ramble crumbly, disintegrated, Rambly post, gravelly. Rambly clay, clay mixed with gravel. rambly stone, shattered or disintegrated stone.

RAM EL,
"
Cott.

small tree branches,

Ramel-wood, the natural


rameM-wood."

forest.

There growyth many

MSS.

allers and other Hodgson, pt. iii., vol. 2.

Survey of Cheviot,

RAMLIN-LAD,
hobblety-hoy.

tall,

fast-growing, rambling youth

a sort of

Brockett.

RAMMELY, tall and rank. Brockett. RAMMER, a cant term for a huge, "
rammer
extremely large.

uncouth thing. "It's a pooncer or pooser, a poomer, a

whapper, a lasher, are similarly used.

RAM MY,
RAMP,

a horn or other kind of spoon.

" thout the horse'd a strain, a severe wrench. to sprain, to tear violently hissel a ramp." Ramp, gien or rampit). slip'd an' ramfd me (p.t. ramped, rampeet, " Aa've anclet." rampeet a' me back wi' loupin'." " The hunds an' hunters then cam up, The howkin it began

He

"Aa

Then Andra Robson

rampit oot Sic thunnerin stanes in blocks; the haggs and splet the craggs, He ript For that Tarsettearian Fox"

James Armstrong, The

Tarsettearian Fox, 1879.

RAMP,

to eat with a gnashing sound. eatin tormits."

"

He

wis rampin an'

RAMPAGE,

the act of tearing about in a towering passion, " He turns as in the phrase " He's on the rampage." everyTo rampage, to act in a thing topsy-turvy in his rampage." fury. Rawpagious, going about furiously.
[N.]
,

RAMPER
RAMPS,
Linn.

the lamprey.

the broad-leaved garlic or ramsons, Allium ursinum, Called also wild leeks. This plant is very common in woods and thickets, and when eaten by cows it imparts its concentrated taste of onion to the milk. Hence the " description of rampy milk" or "rampy butter." " Eat Leekes in Lide, and Ramsons in May,

And

all

the year after physitians

may

play."

Old proverb.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

565

RAM-RACE,
"The
bull

a charge at

full tilt.

took a ram-race at the Northumberland, 1835, p. 218.

unfortunate

man."

Rambles

in

RAMSCOOTER,
syringe
(scooter).

to

drench

with

water from a

squirt

or

RAMSH,
"

rank, foul.

See RAM.
Bailey, 1724 ed.

Ramish, that smells rank, like a ram or goat."

RAMSHACKLE, RAMSHACKLE,
ramshackled
a'

" Whees to rummage. an' thraan the things tops-a-torvy ?" thor, Also working loose, as a cranky machine does. " Ye nivver saa sic a ramshackle aad ingin i' yor life. It wis for aall the world like a scrap heap clatterin' an' jinglin." Higgledyramshackle house" a tumble-down, piggledy, disorderly.

"A

ruinous house.

RAMSTAM,
necked.

or

RAMSTRANG,

headlong, obstinate,

stiff-

RANDIBO-HOUSE,
house
;

that

is,

a questionable house. From rendezvousa house where the press-gang put up.

RANDY,
RANEY,
"

a disorderly, scolding, quarrelsome a reg'lar randy."

woman.

" She's

a Christian name, probably for Rennie or Renwick.

There wis Will, an Mat, an' Jack,


1

an' Roger, an'

Fen wick,

Bewick, The Howdy,

an' Tom, an' Raney, an' an' Jerry, an' Nanny, an' Peggy." etc., 1850, p. u.

Gwoardy,

Thomas

RANGE, RENCH,
yor mooth oot."

Range oot that pot." Compare SIND.


to rinse.

"

"

Range
is

RANK,

to mark with lines, to scratch. to scratch it. Hodgson MS.

To

" rank a table "

RANNEL-BALK, RANNEL-TREE, RANGEL-TREE, RAMEL-TREE, a tree branch stripped of its bark, but
otherwise undressed and unsquared (a peeled grain), yet to be seen in old cottage chimneys. The rackans, or pot-hooks, were hung upon it. In some arrangements, a second beam or tree is placed at right angles, one end resting on the centre of the rannel-baak and the other on a stone in the gable wall. This was called a " rackan-tree," and from it the pot-hook

was suspended.
"The cross piece of or pot-hooks are hung,
vol. iv., p. 129, note.

wood
is

in a

chimney, upon which the rackans


Archaologia JEliana,

called the randle-balk."

566

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

RANT,

a lively song with chorus. an ancient song with the " owerword the horses, Johnny, my lad, oh !"

"The
"

at

Collier's Rant is each verse, " Follow

"

RANTY-TANTY,
RAP,

a troublesome

weed

in cornfields.

Brocket*.

to signal to the

breaksman

at a colliery.

See RAPPER.

RAP-CHAFTS. "At
were
the house.

fairly at rapchafts"

rapchafts "-having nothing to eat. that is, we had not a bit of food in

"We

The term means to rap (or knock) the chafts (jaws) together without any food between them.
down
"

RAPE, REAP,
tying

a rope. used for Wine-rape, a wain rope hay, straw, and corn on a cart. See Tow.
;
;

The Halter

lang they canno' Scape They'll hang themsel's gi' them but Raip." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 43.

RAPPER,

a knocker, also a lever at the top of a shaft or inclined plane, to one end of which a hammer is attached, and to the other a line or rapper-rope, communicating with the bottom of the shaft or incline. Its use is to give signals

when everything

is

ready at the bottom


the

for

drawing away.

RAPPERDANDIES, RAPSCALLION, LA.PSCALLION,


reckless fellow
;

common bilberry, Arbutus uva-ursi,L.


a
wild,

a rascallion, a waistrel or worthless man.

RASH,
is

fresh, vigorous.

vigour.
yit."

applied to old " She's myest siventy, but she's iherashest

Hoo are ye ? " " Aye, man, rash." It people who have preserved their youthful
i'

"

the hoose

RASH, RASHER, RESHER,


conglomerattis,

a rush. Applied to the Juncus Juncus effusus, and Juncus glaucus, all common in " Streit Northumberland, the Juncus effusus being commonest. as a rasher" is a proverbial expression. Various articles are made for [playthings by plaiting rashers. They are known as rasher-caps, rasher-baskets, whips, etc. Bull-resher, the bulrush.
" His breeches and his jacket clad a body rasher stright." R. Gilchrist, Bold Archy, 1824. "The pith was wont to be a wick for the 'cruizy' or lamp of the spectacled o]d dame." Johnston, Botany of Eastern Borders, p. 199.

RASHER-CAP,

the reed bunting, Cynchramus schceniclus, L. Called also black-headed bunting, reed-sparrow, black-bunting, coalhood, and pow- heed.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

567

RASPER,
RAT,
'

an impudent, over-reaching fellow.


a wart.

or

WRAT,

The popular
:

local remedies are

very curious. The most


snail,

rub the wart well with


till
it

hedge
warts,

away
meat,

warts.

away, a cure follows.

(5) Rub the wart with eel's blood." Bigge, Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field Club., 1860-2, vol. v., p. 89,

ways of curing warts (i) Take a large black it, then throw the snail against a thorn and there let it die. (2) Count the number of impaled, put as many pebbles in a bag as there are warts, throw the bag whoever picks up the bag will get the warts. (3) Steal a piece of rub the warts with it, throw it away, and as it rots so will the (4) Make as many knots in a hair as there are warts, throw it
efficacious
is

Rev.

J.

F.

RATCH,
water.

a reach, a straight piece of navigation or navigable Also a streak. "The meer hes a white ratch doon

hor fyess."

See RACK.
" up against a head wind by alternate boards."

RATCH,

to beat

RATCH,

anything.

to scratch searchingly, to ferret about in quest of " " What are ye ratchin i' me box for ?
for the

RATHERLINGS,

most

part.

Brocket*.

(Obs.)

RAT-RHYME, RAT-RAIM,
"The
fanciful idea that rats

a monotonous doggerel rhyme.


by rote." Jamieson. were commonly rhymed to death,
in

"Ratt-rime, anything metrical repeated

Ireland, arose probably from some metrical there for that purpose." Nares.

charm or incantation used

RATTAN, RATTEN, RATTON, "


rattans."

Aa

a rat. divvent care for a moose

The
;

barn's

full o'

but aa's aaful flaid

on a

rattan."

RATTAN-TAILS

(rat-tails), the seed stems of the greater Much sought after by those who plantain, Plantago major. keep cage birds. This plant is also known as waybredf, waybret, wayfron, wayborn, and spikes.

RATTEN-RAW, ROTTEN-ROW,
in

in place-names, appears applied to a "Tinkler's Raw" of It is also applied to several other similar raws in cottages. Northumberland as in other counties. (See Hist, of Bwks. Nat. Club, vol. viii., p. 446, note.) " Rattenraw burn will not make a crowdy after May-day." The saying arose from the poverty of the inhabitants. Ratten Rawe (now Cross Street) is given in Bourne's map of Newcastle, 1736, as the row or road from the West Gate to Black Friars Monastery, past what is now Charlotte Square. Q

Redesdale, where

it

is

568

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a child's rattle
;

RATTLER,

a talkative

woman.

RATTLE-SCAAP, RATTLE-SCAMP, RATTLE-PATE,


another."

a rattle-headed, headstrong, unstable, or frolicsome person. "He's a reg'lar rattle-scaap ; he's elwis up te some trick or

RAVEL, RA1VEL, REAVEL,

to talk incoherently or in an " Ravelin an' taakin." An involved and wandering way. " in intricate or difficult task is said to be a " ravelled hank " Thoo's allusion to the ravel of a tangled skein. getten a ravelled hank this time." A loose bit of thread. " till

Stop

aa tyek that raivel offyor cwot." Ravellitt, wandering about " He was ravellin aboot like a without apparent purpose. drucken body."

RAVEL-TREE, RAVEL-STICK,
to

the cross

beam

in a byre,

which the cow stakes are fastened.

RAX,

a severe strain, an internal injury caused by a wrench. Rax, to reach, to stretch out, to enlarge. To rax oneself is To rax to stretch out one's arms after sleep or long sitting. " See what a cloth or a coat. way this '11 rax oot it '11 rax " a yard afore it '11 rive an inch." They'll rax an' run up like Yarrow's breeches" (Hexham proverb), applied to Tommy anything very elastic. Tommy Yarrow was a celebrated maker of leather breeches, which he asserted to be capable of stretching or shrinking to meet the wearer's requirements.
;

To rax the belly-rim is to strain " To rax oot," to clear up applied

so as to produce hernia. to the weather.

RAZOR-BACKEET,

sharp-backed as a very lean horse with an acute backbone. Razor -jy ess, a sharp-featured person, especially one that is close fisted and greedy.
;

REAN,

the furrow or the terraced slope between two strips of plough land. See REEN.

REAP, RIP,

a small portion pulled from a sheaf or stack. Reap-snare, a snare for birds, consisting of hair noozes baited with a reap of oats, set up on a pole.
riot,

REARD, REERD,
REAST.

confusion.

See REEST and following words.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

569

REAVE, REIVE,
raiders.
"

to

rob

applied specially to the Border


o'

The limmer

thieves

Liddesdale
;

na leave a kye in the hail countrie But an we gie them the caud steel, Our gear they'll reive it a' awaye." The Fray o' Haiitwessell.

Wad

REAVERS,
"

the wight riding Borderers.

Gud

God

honast men and true, savyng a little shiftyng for their living'; and our leddie help them, silie pure men."Mendmis. Bullein,

Dialogue against the Fever Pestilence, 1578.

RECKLIN, RICKLIN, RINKL'IN, WREKNEL,


born
;

the last the youngest member of a family. It is applied to the youngest or smallest of a Jitter of pigs, or to the youngest in a herd of calves but it is especially applied to the youngest member of a family. The recklin of the house is looked upon with special tenderness.
;

"

There lay the But one hour old."

reckling,

one

Tennyson, Lancelot and Elaine.

RED, RID, "


up."

" Get the hearth red to tidy, to set out in order. " When Aa'll red up the hoose." ye come back aa'll he' them red oot for ye." redd-in kaim, the common name for a large comb, used for reddin or tidying the hair. To red puddings is to take the fatty matter from the puddings or intestines used for sausages or black-puddings, etc. By fine red up" is sometimes used to indicate a inversion, scene of disorder. Reddin, in mining, clearing away and tidying stones after blasting or after a fall. Redder, a shiftman at a colliery employed in reddin.

"A

" In this neighbourhood between Keilder and Larriston the precise boundaries of each kingdom are ill to red.' "Rambles in Northumberland,
'

1835, p. 163.

RED, REDD, R1DDINS,


a quarry
"
;

rubbish.

"

the debris removed from the top of


cairt load of redd."

Some quarrymen were

quarry."

clearing the redd from the bank top of a D. D. Dixon, Hist. Bwhs. Nat. Club, vcl. 10, p 544.

RED, REDD, RIDDINS,


their red in the stream."

spawn.

The

fish

were lying on
of Irogs or

toads.

Pud-redd, the Tyed-reddy the spawn of toads.

spawn

RED,

counsel.

See REDE.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

RED-COLE,

Armoracia rusticana, Rupp. " This kinde groweth in Morpeth in Northumberland, and there it is It should be called after the old Saxon englishe Rettihcol, called Redco. that is, Radishe colle." Turner, Names, Britten and Holland, E.D S., 1886, 399.
berries of the

REDDENS, the REDE, counsel,


The proverb is
the
first

mountain ash.

" Short rede is advice. good rede "Proverb. specially associated with the death of Walcher, Bishop of Durham appointed by William the

of the people, and on retiring to the church the cry was " Short The rede, good* rede, slay ye the bishop." raised, church was thereupon set on fire, and the bishop was slain. " A.D. 1080. The Northumbrians perpetrated this in the

Conqueror.

At Gateshead the bishop had met the leaders

month

of

May."

A. S. Chronicle.'

RED-RUMPED THRUSH
viscivorus,

[N.], the missel thrush, Turdus

L. It is also known as missel dick and storm cock in Northumberland, felty fleer and big mavis in Berwickshire, scricket in South Durham.
the spotted persicaria, the Polygonum persicaria, Also the Polygonum amphibium, L. See REED WILLY.
the redstart, Ruticilla phcenicura, L.

REDSHANK,
L.

REDTAIL,
Nanny

Called also

ring-tail

and

Bella ring-tail.

See START.
;

REE,

ree is

Hie or hite is left turn, when spoken to a horse " for the Also to turn corn in a " wite right turn. purpose of sifting out the husks or capes. It is done by " wite " with the hands. giving a rotary motion to the
to turn.

REED,

the pronunciation of red lead. Reedish, redish.

marking sheep, RUD.


"
tatees."

etc.

Reed leed, Reedhet, red-hot. Reed-rud, red chalk used for Reed-watter, chalybeate water. Compare
red.
little reed

His heels poppin out ov his clogs every step, leyke twe Thomas Bewick, The Howdy, ed. 1850, p. 10.
1

REED,

a stomach.

To make

rennet, for cheese-making, a

calf's reed

was

boiled.

REED- WILLY,
in

the Polygonum amphibium, L. It is common cultivated fields, where it grows freely, but is never observed to flower.
a cutaneous eruption.

REEF,

REEFY, scabby.

Brockett.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

57!
sic a reek

REEK,
back."

a blow, a whack.

"

Aa

fetcht

him
"

alang the

REEK,

" smoke from the smoke, vapour. Chimley nek " " household fire. tobacco smoke. Reek, to Baccy reek " The emit smoke. chimley's reekin badly." Reek-penny, a modus formerly paid to the clergy in many parts of Northumberland and Durham for tithe of fire-wood. Called
also smoke-penny

and

pt.

ii.,

vol.

ii.,

p. 356, note.

hearth-penny. Reeky,

Hodgson, Northumberland, smoky, steamy.


ii.,

"

Hidden

in

a reeky cloud."
reeky

Pitman's Pay,

36.

"

hoose an' a scouldin wife Is twee o' the warst things o' this

life."

Old Rhyme.

REEN, REENE, REEND, REAN, REYGNE, REIN,

a terraced strip of land on steep hillsides showing signs of having been under tillage in former times. Furlongs in the open field system were divided into strips, each of which was separated from its neighbouring strip by a piece of unploughed " balk." But when a hillside formed turf, called a part of the open field the strips were almost always made to run, not up and down the hill, but horizontally along it and in ploughing, the custom for ages was always to turn the sod of the furrow down hill, the plough consequently returning one way idle. The result was that the strips became in time long, level terraces one above the other, and the "baaks"or "balks"
;

between them grew into steep, rough banks.


elsewhere
terraces

known

Northumberland

as " lynches" or "linces," are called reens in and the word is often applied to the
5,

These banks,

(See Seebohm, The English Village The term reen in modern use 381.) is also applied, generally, to any division between field strips,
themselves.

Community, 1884, pp.

other than the unploughed "balks." The water channel between "rigs" is thus sometimes called a reen or "open
foor."
North, rigs and reins, in the language but furrows, in this ridges and furrows acceptation, does not signify the fures,' or furrows, which the plough makes as it passes up and down to form a ridge, but the channel which, in the town-field husbandry, occupied the place of the balk, or 'reygne.' "
to this day, all over the
'

"

Even

of

husbandmen,

mean

'

Hodgson, Northumberland,

pt.

iii.,

vol.

ii.,

p. 401, note.

REEST, REAST, REIST, "


The
cuddy's

a dead stand made by an animal. " the reest that is, it has become immoveable. Reest, to decline to work, as a horse does. When a horse stops and declines to start again it is said " He has reesteet" If the habit becomes habitual, the horse

tyun

572
is

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

a reestev or a reesty horse. Reesty is also applied to a man of stubborn self-will who refuses to comply with a request. Or a person, overburdened and unable to resume his journey, " says, Ho'way gie's a han' aa've reesteet."
;

"

The boggle made


to

the horse take the

reist,

or stand stock

still.

W.

Brockie, Legends and Superstitions, p. 38.

REEST,
bacon.

become

rancid.

Reesteed

or reesty

bacon

rancid

REEST-CLOOT, REOST-CLOOT, WREEST-CLOOT,

a thin piece of iron fastened under the lower edge of the mowdyboord (mould-board) of a plough, which is on the "far" or The corresponding piece right hand side of the plough. " of iron fixed on the bottom of the " near side of the plough " sole-cloot." which it slides) is called the (on

REESTED,
ROOZE.

salted, dried, particularly to herrings.

and roasted; applied Not the same as REEST,


are ye
reestlin

to
2.

fish,

See

REESTLE, "
waa
for
?

to rub.

"

What

yor back agyen the

REET,
heed"

right,

in all

senses of the word.

"Not
reet

reet

iv

his

right

sarred right served that is, he has got his deserts. Reet in the sense of " Reet ower " " He hit him reet there." straight, direct. " Reet endwis " or "reet on end" right over. right on end, straight forward, or without stopping. Reet, reeten, to put " or to reet this
daft, foolish, imbecile.
;

"He's

"

straight,

place

o'

clothes.
"

adjust. "Reeten the yors." " Aa'll see the poor


"

claes

Here, lad, just "


reeted

up

sort "

body

the see justice done.


fold

up and

As

reet

as a trivet."

Proverb.

Hump
a
;

backs are

a' reeten'd,

cruick'd legs, tee, are streeten'd." Geddes, Ikebo. Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 315.

REET,
wright

wright.

Cairt-reet

a cartwright, mill-reet

a mill-

seldom used without a qualifying word prefixed.


a trusty assistant, a favourite

REETHAND-MAN,
REETIN-CRUCK,
REEVE,
worth.

workman.

a crook or pot hook, so made that it can be reeted or adjusted to suit different heights. Compare RACKAN.

the chief officer in the ancient borough of WarkHe is to this day usually styled the "borough-ra:^" " at that town. or " port-reeve Compare MOORGRIEVE.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

573
refard it."

REFARD, "
Aa'll

to

defer,

to
thi

put

off.
;

" Aa'd rayther

no buy yen
"

day

aa'll refard it."

The

d here

is

intrusive

refar-d-it"

REFUGE-HOLES, MAN-HOLES,

or STALLS, places of refuge from the passing sets of trams in a coal mine.
in mining, a docrsliding lattice frames, one of which slides open past the other, so as to regulate the passage of a scale of air. See SCALE, It is also called a sliding scale and slide, regulator.

REFUGE

REGULATING-SCALE, REGULATOR,
way with two

SCALE OF AIR, SLIDE REGULATOR.


" An ordinary door with a sliding shutter in it to allow a portion of air Green well, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. to pass, is called a regulating door."

REIF,

plunder, robbery, taking by violence.

See REAVE.

REINS.

See REEN.
covered with coarse grass.
(Obs.)

REISE, waste ground


REIST.

See REEST and following words.

REIVE, REIVER.

See REAVE, REAVER.


(Obs.)

REMEED,

resource, remedy.

" Clear the lads, with speed, boat, I fear 'twill be our last remeed."

my

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 62.


"It's ever, alas
!

but what remeed." B. Rumney, Ecky's Mare.

RENK,
"

or

RANK,
is

standard
being

measurement
sixty
in the

of

employed measured
The

underground,
off periodically

or

eighty

length yards,

by an overman.
middle of the fortnight,

renk

measured by the overman

and the score price for putting for that fortnight calculated thereon." Green well, Coal Trade Terms, 1888.

REPLY, "supply.
talk of

This form is adhered to by old people gettin in a fresh reply of coals," or flour, etc.

who

REPROVE,
when
it

disagrees

to eructate, as in the action of indigested food with the stomach, and is thus said to

reprove one.

574

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to harbour

RESET, RESETT,

an outlaw.

In times of Border

The lawlessness, fugitives were reset from the opposite side. Border laws enact penalties for resetting. At the dispersion of the Borderers, several Scots had been reset, and were mingled with Redesdale and Tynedale men, as their names show. Many of the Scottish names on Tyneside date from
this period.

(Obs.)

RESHER,
REST, an

the rush plant.

See RASHER.

instrument used in boring, for supporting the weight of the rods upon the boring-box whilst screwing and unscrewing the rods. Nicholson, Coal Trade Terms, 1888.
the current of air or the air course in a pit as it returns, after being conducted through the mine, to make its exit by the upcast shaft.
wired, or turned in the edge.

RETURN,

REVED,

tool when it has been so thin steel \eaL-Hodgson MS.

Applied to a fine edge whetted that the edge turns like

RHYME,
RIB,

to

reiterate, as

"

He

rhymed on about so and so."

Compare RAIM.
a seed furrow. Ribbeet, furrowed for seed. small plough used for seed-furrowing.
or punching in the often called " a good ribbin."
Ribbin-ploo, a

RIBBIN, pummeling,
thrashing
is

sides.

A sound

RICE, RISE,
fencing,

as tree tops or brushwood, used for These, when withered, are called deed-rice. When tall hedges are cut down a rice is generally run alongside. It is made from the lopped branches, and serves as a protection to the young shoots as they break forth from the old stumps. A " stake and rice fence " is made by driving stakes into the top of an earthen dike about eighteen inches or two feet apart and then interweaving rice or thorns with the stakes. The rice is secured by a " yeather," which is of saugh, hazel, or any straight pliant wood. A hedge mender is called a styek-and-ricer. The brushwood used to bed in with stones in the weiring of rivers is called rice, and the term is applied to this material generally. Rice-knife, a light slasher with a hooked point, used for cutting hedges.

twigs,

etc.

"Paid

for stakes,

church yard."

and rise, and earth laying about 2 tree rootes in ye Gateshead Church Books, 1631.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

575

RICK,

a pile, as a " rick of stones." " Over the hill by two little cairns of stones to a great cairn of stones on the top of Hareup Hill, then down the hill to a little nek of stones." Bounders of Old Bewick, 1680. Hist. Bwks. Nat. Club, vol.
255.

v., p.

RICKET.

See RIGGET.

RICKLE, RICKEL,

A tumble-down, dilapia loose heap. dated house or other building is called a " rickel of a place." To rickel is to gather into a loose heap. A very thin person " rickle o' banes." The word has is figuratively said to be a also the forms rackle and ruckle. Ricklet, a hay-pike that is, a small rick of hay. Rickley, loose, unstable, ricketty.
speed.
"

RID,
RID,

Make

rid

"

make

speed, hasten.

Hodgson

MS.

" to tidy. Just rid up the fireside, hinney." See RIDING. Rid, to clear ground.

See RED.

RIDDINS, RIDDING-STONE,

loose stones, the waste heaps from quarries, also the baring or loose material above the stone head. See RED, 2. "The soil and diluvial matter on the tops of quarries is very commonly
called the ridding or rid-work."
vol.
i.,

Hodgson,

Hist, of Northumberland, pt.

ii.,

p. 94, note.

RIDDINS,

spawn.

See RED,

3.

RIDDLE,

a sieve of large mesh. Riddle-cake, a leavened oatmeal cake. After rolling and shaping, it is put on a riddle, and then baked on an iron girdle till enough. It is hung for use on open flat rails between the beams of the house to keep it crimp and dry. Hodgson MS.
" Alice, wife of Robert Swan, of St. Nicholas' parish, Newcastle, was brought before the court for practising the ancient art of divination by riddle and shears that is, attempting to discover a culprit or lover by holding a sieve in a pair of scissors or shears, muttering some mystic invocation, and watching the trembling, nodding, or turning of the sieve as the names of suspected persons are uttered." Welford, Hist, of
Newcastle, vol. "
ii.,

p. 442.

a ceremony formerly performed on the Eve of St. Mark (April 24th), when it used to be customary to riddle or sift the ashes of the hearthstone, in the belief that if any of the family were destined to die within the year, the mark of the individual's shoe would be impressed on the ashes." Brockie, Legends and Superstitions, p. 108.
A.ss-riddling,

RIDE,

It to ascend or be drawn up a pit shaft, to go to bank. does not apply to the reverse process. The ascent and descent were formerly done by " riding loop." The men put

576

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

one leg through a loop in the chain and held on by one hand "Ride away!" a call from the banksman to the above. onsetter or men working in the shaft, meaning that men can get into the cage and be drawn up.

RIDE-AND-TIE,

common

practice in going over the

fells,

by which two travellers use a single horse for the journey. One of them mounts and rides two or three miles ahead, and " the galloway and walks on. either tethers or " hopples When the second traveller arrives at the spot he takes the horse, rides on, and passes his companion a mile or two, and ties again, and so on.

RIDER,

the term for a commercial traveller before the invention of railways, journeys being formerly made on horseback. " He got employment as arider to a draper in the North of England." Monthly Chronicle, vol. i., 1887, p. no.

RIDER,

mineral matter of various composition, often soft clayey shale, found between the edges of strata at a hitch. This material is also called the gowk of the trouble. Also the vein stone or " druse," a hard crystalline matter, found in the lode of a lead mine.
vein,

" Called a rider, perhaps, from its riding, or being suspended in the or separating it longitudinally into two or more divisions." Westgarth Forster, Section of Strata, second edition, 1821, p. 213.

RIDE-THE-WATTER. Heard "


no
ti

ride the waiter

on

in the saying, " That chep's not to be trusted.

RIDING,

The term occurs in a ridding or clearing in land. place-names, as Riding (now spoken with * long, as in ride), a township in Bywell, Riding Mill, Hardru/tMg, The Riding, etc. "A new assart (in Urpeth) called the Rydding." 1365, The Boldon
Buke, Surtees Society, ii., p. 191. " The Ridings in the parish of Bywell are called in the Baliol charters, increment,' a word of the same force as our modern term, intake, that is, a place taken in or inclosed from a common or lord's waste." Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. i., p. 94, note.
'

RIDING-THE-BOONDS,
periodical

a former days attended with observances peculiar to each locality. See GANG-WEEK, BARGE-DAY. "Yearly in the month of May the Bounders of the said town are rode, or perambulated, by the Borough Greave and Freemen. And at such times freeholders are admitted Freemen, which is done by some of their body taking hold of the arms and legs of the persons who are to be
or

RIDIN-THE-BOONDERS,
in

ceremony

still

performed, but

admitted, and dashing their buttocks against certain stones in the course Case respecting Schoolof riding or perambulating the said bounders."
house at Warkworth,

May

23rd, 1767.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

577
maintained,
of

RIDING-THE-FAIR,
proclaiming the
fair.

the

custom,

still

RIDING-THE-STANG,
It is, in

most parts, an ignominious punishment inflicted on a faithless husband. But, among the pitmen of former times, it was customary to make a man vide the stang as a triumph. The bridegroom was thus bore along by his fellow-pitmen.
"

carrying

man

astride a pole (stang).

Weel efter a' was dealt and duin, As was, thou knaas, the custom then, They myed me ride the stang, as suin As aw show'd fyece at wark agyen."
!

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

pt.

iii.,

v. 95.

RID-WORK,
RIG, RIGG,

the baring for a quarry.


a
ridge.

See RIDDINS.
in

About seventy-three place-names


t

in rig or rigg and twenty-nine have the termination ridge. In stratification a rig is the upward fold of a series of beds; the downward fold or "dish" being called a "trow" (trough). Rig, a strip of land raised in the

Northumberland end

centre and forming a ridge.

Rigs are produced by ploughing

The open channel that divides rig alternately. from rig is called a " foor," and the system is known as rigand-foor. Rig -and-fur, applied to materials that are made with ribs and furrows, as stockings or corduroy, etc. To rig -and-fur, to cause furrows or wrinkles.
up and down
" 1627.
to Saltwellside,

Paid to Mr. John Cole for 3 riggs in the strong fflatt belonging payable everie third yeare, 01.00.00." Gateshead Church
.

Books.
"
vol.

Sam-casts,
iii.,

rigs,

buts,

and doles

of land."

Hodgson, Northumberland,

pt.

ii.,

p. 90, note.

"

Care is an awd, ill-throven thief, O, hang him, hinnies, i* yor lyaces For wi' his blear e'ed titty grief,

They

rig-and-fur yor

bonny

fyaces."
pt.
iii.,

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

v. 23.

RIGGELD,
RIGGIN,
RIGGIN,
bone.
ridge
"
"

partly dry.

See RISSOLT.

clothing, clothes.
;

the ridge of a roof, the rafters the ridge or backRiggin-stone, the ridge-stone of a house. Riggin-tile, a
Riggin-tvee, the

tile.

ridge-beam of a house.
puzzon'd rattan."
Proverb.

He
'

sticks

up his
.

riggin like a

Ye may

like the kirk

weel eneuf an' not elways be ridin on the

v iggin .

'Proverb

578

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
" His purse consisted of a stocking, which with its contents were " fastened to the rigging-tree of the roof of the house Forster, History of
Corbridge, 1881, p. 44.

" Hail and rain pour'd down amain Without the heath-rooft biggin, And winds loud blew, wi' fury flew, And threat to tirl its riggin." Lewis Proudlock, Cuddle and his Crawin' Hen.

RIGGIT, RICKET, RECKET,


imperfectly castrated.

an animal that has

been

RIM,

The rim of a road, the circumference of any round thing. the materials which form it, and when these are worn down to the earth, then the rim of the road is said to be cut, as the rim of the belly is said to be broken when its muscles are lacerated or violently sprained. Hodgson MS. Rim occurs Rimside Moor, between Framlington and in place-names Whittingham; Rimside, a limb of Dardun, the western limit of the Simonside range. Rim Howlan, the name of a craggy ravine adjoining the seashore near Birling.
to

RIME,

murmur.

variant of raim.

RIME,
in
it

to enlarge a hole in a piece of metal by turning round a tool with sharp cutting or scraping edges. Rimer, an implement for clearing the bore of gun barrels. A tool for enlarging a hole in metal.

RIMER,
of coal.

a thinly sprinkled quantity, as a thin layer or patch


blue
thill

"Dark

and rimers

of coal."

Borings and Sinkings, L.R., p. 66.

RIN,

a small stream.
(i

See RYN.
hoar
frost.

RIND
RING,

long), rime,

water.

arrangement round a shaft to collect the waste or section of tubbing in a shaft arranged with an open top to collect falling water.
Ring-crib, a crib,

an

RING-BLACKBIRD,
Called also heather

the ring ouzel, Tuvdus torquatus, Linn.

cock.

RINGER,
it.

a quoit played so as to fall with the "hob" through or pin is thus encircled by the quoit. "He played ringers ivvory time."

The hob

RINGLE-EYED,
etc.,

wall-eyed.

that

is ringle-eyed is

The pupil of the eye in a dog, surrounded by a whity ring.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

579

RING-NET.

See BOB- NET.


rings,
circles.

RINGSES,
RINKLIN.
RIP,
"
I'

prehistoric circular

camps

in

A term applied Northumberland.

to

several

See RECKLIN.

to rupture.
the road a styen tripp'd

me
J.

it

lyem'd for

it

P. Robson,

Maw

ripp'd

me."

Wonderful Wife.

RIP,

a handful of corn.

Compare REAP.

RIPE,

to grope in search, using force. Applied especially to the clearing out of a person's pocket. Coroner (addressing a Newcastle witness) " Did you take any steps to resuscitate Witness (promptly) " Yes, sor, we riped the deceased ?"
: :

'ees pockets."
"

shilling

aw thought

at the play-house
1

aw'd ware,
;

But aw jumped there wi heuk-fingered people Me pockets gat riped, an* aw heerd them ne mair

Nor aw could

fra St. Nicholas' steeple."

T. Thompson, Canny Newcastle.

RIPER,
RIS,
"

an iron prong used for clearing dirt and dust out of the oilholes in machinery.

RIZ

(p.t.

of
ta

arise),

arose.

"

Aa

riz

aboot five

i'

the

mornin'."

Hodge went

bed that

neet, but nivver ris

ne mair."

George Chatt,

Old Farmer

Poems, 1866, p. 87.

RISP,

grates.

to rasp, to grate. broken bone is said to risp Rispi*, crepitation in the surgical sense.

when

it

RISP-GRASS,
land.
It is

long rough grass, such as grows on marshy sometimes called sprat or sprot, which is also the

name

for rushes.

RISSOLT,

partly dried applied to clothing or to clothes " Th'or not dry but weel rissolt." After a " slight frost and wind, clothes are said to be gay weel " rissolt well on the way to being dry. See RIZZLE.
;

from the wash.

RIT,

"The
o

to cut a mark out with a spade. To score or mark. ice is aa ritten wi' them skatin on't."

RIT-TIT-O,
on a

a child's game, played by drawing a figure like an and intersecting it with lines. The enclosed spaces are numbered from one upward and the game is to
slate
;

580

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

touch blindfold with a pencil the highest possible figures. The winner is the player who in so many trials counts On each trial the following formula is the greatest score.
repeated
:

"Rit-tit-o; here
If I

we go, The jolly beggars all in a row,


miss
I

pitch

upon

this."

RIVE, a rent. " He's getten a big rive in his cwoat tail." Rive, to tear, to rend, to tear asunder as in the manner of
reav ; p.p. roven and wood. (Pt.ten. rove, rave, and " He rives an' eats like to voracious eating. Applied riven.) Also to plough especially to plough up old yen famished." " He's on rivin lea." or virgin pasture land.

splitting

"

Edward Dobson
;

neighbors

culpable 4d."

for riving out of twoe ridges of land further than his Court Rolls at Ulgham, 1619-1653.

RIZZIM, RIZM," a
isn't a

stalk of corn,

rizm on't

said

by

" Thor a blade of grass. who meant there was not a a hind,
old

blade of grass on the place. " I had this word from Thomas Neal, an when out of straw, that we had not a rizm."
"

husbandman, who

Note by Mr.

M.

said'

Dand.

Rizome, the head of the oat."

Halliwell.

RIZZLE,
II

to

harden by heat, to make


is

crisp.

Anything, such as straw,

moisture, quite dry, rustling.''

said to be nzzling, Jamieson.

when

it

is free

of

RO, ROA,

[W.-T.] raw, as meat that is under-cooked. another word. barefooted, the Row-fitted Ro gorlin [W.-T.] feet being red and raw with exposure. a raw or unfledged bird. See RAA GORLIN.
,

ROW,
is

Rouh (rough)

II 1 had better bee hangad in a withie or in a cowtaile, than be Bullein, Dialogue, 1564. E. E. Text Soc., p. 6, 1. 21. rowfooted Scot."

RO,

" Roive up the

ROWE

[W.-T.], to roll. Ro up to web an' wap't i' pyeper."

roll

or

wrap

up.

ROACH,

" to roughen or make uneven. gear hes getten " reached bi the shot a miner who was charging a (said by hole, when the powder exploded and damaged his tools).

Me

ROAFY
Howdy,

[W.-T.], Ralph.
staggarth

"Roaffie's

"Ralph's

stack garth.

Thomas Bewick, The

etc., ed. 1850, p. 10.

ROAK, ROQUE,
"

to grope, to
mine."

peck

at.
:

Roqueing at a

W.

Kelly, Teetotallers of the Tyne, 1854, P-

9-

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

581

ROAK, ROAN,
ROB,
"

a fog, a mist.

Rooky [W.-T.]
Halliwell.

foggy.

See ROUK.

a clump- of whins.

See RONE.

the

term in coal mining. The partial working of pillars in fiery collieries was commenced in Tyne collieries below bridge in 1795. The process was called
Greenwell, Gloss. Coal Trade, 1888.

'robbing the pillars.'"

ROBBER, a spike of thistle down. ROBIN-GRAY, a hat once fashionable


"
1

with ladies.

But when her Robin Gray she gat, She carried heart and a tegether."
T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,
pt.
iii.,

1829, v. 13.

ROBIN-RUN-THE-DYKE,
L.,

so called from
clivers.

its

the goose-grass, Galium aparine, habit of growth. Known also as


^

Lizzy -run-the-hedge, grip-grass,

bluid-tong^le ) tongue-bluiders, clavers,

and

ROCK,

To " spin off a rock" distaff. of material on the rock. quantity " Now it will be twelve o'clock And more for I've spun off my rock.
a
;

to finish off the

1 '

E. Chicken,

Collier's

Wedding, 1735.

ROCK-BRAKE,
ROCK-COD,
which
J.
it

the parsley fern, Allosorus


of the cod-fish

crispus.
;

the young when of a red colour assumes after lying some time among weedy rocks.
i.,

Johnston, Hist. Bwks. Nat. Field Club, vol.

p. 173.

ROCK-LARK,
tree pipit
is

the rock pipit, Anthus obscurus, Pennant.

The

locally called field lark.

ROCK-PIGEON,

the rock dove, Columba livia, Brisson. Known also as the wild pigeon. " This is a resident, and undoubtedly the true stock dove from which the domestic pigeon is derived." John Hancock, Birds of Northumberland and Durham, p. 85. the colesay. the marsh samphire, Salicornia herbacea,

ROCK-SALMON,
L.

ROCK-SAMPHIRE,

Frequent all along the coast in damp places, and formerly sold at Newcastle and at Berwick for pickling.
smith works his bellows.
the lever or long handle by which a blackThe cross or pivot on which it called the " roller."

ROCK-STAFF,
works
is

582

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
the turbot, Rhombus maxiwiis, L.
brat.

RODDAMS,
turbrat

Called also the

and

ROGGLE, to shake,
ROGUE-STOB,
post.
"
stole
t

to jumble, to shake often, to

go on shaking.

or
to

WHIPPING-STOB, the ancient whipping


John Marlay
for Irons

(Obs.)
1633.
is."
It.

pd

mending

to the whipping

"

1634.

Pd

and a new Iron

for whipping of six rogues, as. 1636. pd for the scokes Gateshiad Church Books. to the rogue stob, is. 4d."

ROGUE-MONEY,
of

an assessment for defraying the expenses apprehending offenders, subsisting them in jail, and (Obs.) prosecuting them.
" for By Vertue of a warrant granted for to Collect 4d of ye 1631. Paid to Raynold ffawcett 26th June [1631] for Rogue money, 01. 04. Rogue money, 01. 02. oo." Gateshead Church Books.

n.

ROLL,

in mining, a depression or sag in the roof.

Sometimes

called a horseback

and a

balk.

ROLLER,

the cross or pivot in blacksmith's bellows on which the handle works. See ROCK-STAFF. a carriage of larger size than a tram, formerly used " A railway volley" underground conveyance of coal. a large, flat, four-wheeled waggon, used for the street delivery and carriage of merchandize. Rolleyway, the underground horse-road in a pit. Rolleyway-man, the man who lays and Mining Gloss. Newcastle. Terms, 1852. repairs the rolleyway. He also re-rails tubs that may run off, and conducts the regular working of the underground lines.
coal was conveyed away (from the hewers) in corves placed on running on a narrow railway to the crane, where they were transferred to rolleys, and drawn by a horse to the shaft. The volley, which is drawn by a horse, is similar in construction to the tram, but Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 41. larger."
trams,
"

ROLLEY,
in the

The

RONE,

a rank or thick growth, as a " rone of thistles," a "rone of whins or weeds."

ROOD, of wall building in Northumberland = seven yards. ROOF, REUF, the stratum immediately above a coal seam. ROOF-TREE, a ridge beam. Called also riggin-tree.

ROOK
ROOK,

[N.]

fog, mist.

See ROUK.
a rook."

a ruffian.

"

He was

See ROUH.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

583

ROOMING-DOWN,
ROONDY,
J. C.,

extending the bottom of a bore hole. term used by sinkers.


" If the coals

large, applied to coal. be hewed or wrought pretty round, and large coals."
Collier, 1708, p. 38.
!"

Compkat
o'

"
"

Coal, co-al, roondy co-al

Street cry in Newcastle.

Lumps

roondy-coal

cum doon

pell-mell."

R. Harrison, Geordy

Black, 1872.

ROOP,

a hoarseness in the throat. Roopy, roopeet, hoarse, "He's sair roopeet" " Aa's that voopy aa thick of speech. can hardly taak."
a low lying,
i'

ROOSTER,
o'

boggy piece of land.


Shepherd at

greys doon

the

rooster there."

" Thor's a nest Woodburn.

ROOZE, ROOSE,
harrin."

to

salt

herrings slightly.

"

Thor

roosin

See REESTED.
" Rooze up, there; ye greet lazy lubbart."
or cylinder on which a rope

ROOZE,

to rouse. Roozer, a big lie.

ROPE-ROLL,

drum

is

wound

by a winding engine.

See JACK-ROLL.

ROPPLE,

confusion, as ropes so intertwisted as to be very " That twine's getten Roppled, ravelled. The term is also applied to a young man growing a' roppled" too rapidly. " Hoo he's roppled up." Compare RAFFLE.
difficult to unravel.

ROSAL,
"

resin.

See ROZZEL,

i.

1655, pd. for rosall

and frankinsence

for ye Church, is."

Gateshead

Church Books.

ROSE,

a tuft of bristles on a pig.


or

ROSE-BENT,
squarrcsus.

STOOL-BENT,

the

heath

rush,

Juncus

See

BENT and STOOL-BENT.


the

ROSE-LENART, ROSE-LINTIE,
Una
linota,

Gmelin.
rose.

The

lenart

is

male linnet, Cannavariously called brown,

grey, red,

and
,

ROSEY
called

[N.]

a rose.

Rosey-bus, a rose tree.

ROT-GRASS,

the

butterwort,

Pinguicula

vulgaris,

L.

So

In because it is reckoned prejudicial to cattle. Scotland the midge grass is called rot-grass because it is said Dr. Hardy, Botany of Eastern to give origin to the rot.
Borders, pp. 164, 213.

584
"

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a term applied in the children's who fail to stand the ordeal.
;

ROTTEN-SHEEP, "
honey pots
[W.-T.]

game

of

to those

ROU

place or to the weather

cold, bleak, and damp especially applied to a raw. Brockett. See RAA and Ro.

ROUGHED, wrinkled
ROUH.

(Northumberland).

Halliwell.

Compare

ROUGH, RUFF, to trump at cards, to beat. ROUGH, as a "rough house," a house abundantly
with provisions.

supplied

ROUGINS,

the aftermath or second crop of hay or clover.

Compare FOG.

ROUH,

rough.
g.

Pronounced with

deep accent without

sounding the

ROUK, ROWK, ROOK, ROAK, "


accompanying
it.

a mist, a fog and the drizzle

Vender's a rook on the law."

ROUKY, ROOKY, damp

and foggy.

"A

rouky day."

It's

varry rooky weather." Of a continuous the weather it is said, " It's roukin on."

damp

condition of

ROUNDER,

a boring tool used for breaking or cutting off any projection which may have occurred in the hole.

ROUNDGE,
ROUNGIN,

great

(Northumberland).

noise, Halliwell.

violent

push

or

stroke

big, heavy.

"

great roungin fellow."

ROUT, ROWT,
"They shud
Elliott,

written for wrotit


te

wrought or worked.
Robt.

Pitman Can

nobbit get paid fur the wark thit they've rowt."


Parliament.

ROUT, ROWT,

to

bellow,

to

roar.

"Routing- Linn

"the

roaring Linn. " Sax poor


"

ca's stand in the sta' A' routing loud for their minnie." Ballad of Jamie Telfer.

The weary wind began to The sea began to rout."

rise,
o"

The Lawlands

Holland.

ROUTH,
or corn.

plenty,

Brockett,

abundance; especially applied to rank grass Compare FOUTH and ROUGH, 2.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

585

ROVE,

seam-nail or a bolt.

an iron washer used for riveting on to the end of a See SEAM-NAIL.


shreds, disheveledness.
" A'
ti rovers

ROVERS, in
confusion.

"gone all to
the clouds

ROVIN,

wild, windy, as a rovin night are careering through the sky.

said

when

ROWAN, ROWN,

the roe of a

fish.

ROWAN-TREE, ROWAN-TRY
mountain ash, Pyrus

[N.],

ROWN-TREE,

the

aucuparia, Gaertn.

See WHICKANTREE,

WITCHWOOD.
"Used as a preventative against witches. In every gap ot their hedges a piece of it may be found, for according to old tradition where you have a stang of it nothing can trespass upon you." Hodgson MS.
rowan-tree, so called from its berries closely resembling the or roe of a fish, was also called witch-wood, witch-bane, quickbane, quicken, wicken, wiggan, witchen, wiggy, etc." W. Brockie, Legends and Superstitions, p. 117.
*

"

The

rowan

'

" If your whipstick's made ofrown, You may ride your nag through any town."
11

Woe

Without a

to the lad rowan-tree gad."

Old

sayings.

ROWK.
game

SeeRouK.
;

ROWLY-POWLY,
of

the act of rolling over and over also a fairs by rolling a ball, made with The thrower of the several numbered facets, in a bowl. highest number wins the prize of gingerbread or other confection stuff.

chance played at

"

My goods must go
throw

come

try

W.

at rowly-powly."

Stephenson,

d. 1836,

The Itinerant

Confectioner.

ROWORGIN,
ROYNE,
to

an organ (Northumberland). Probably a nonce word for a street organ. (Obs.)

Halliwell.

grumble or growl.
resin.

Brockett.

ROZZEL, ROSAL,

To

resin a fiddle

bow.

"

Noo

fiddler, rozsel up, an' set yorsel

away, man."

586

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

ROSIN, ROZZEL, ROSEL " "


warm your

to warm, to bask over a fire. Rosel yor shins." Howay, an' vozzel yor keslup." Applied " Weel rozzelt " also to the effect produced by drink. " " Aa'll rozzle hide for ye I'll flushed with drink. yor

hide
"

that

is

We stagger'd
To
rozzel

by a sound beating.
Hauf Meun,
glass."

off to the

wor nobs wiv a

"

W. Midford, The Masquerade. should pop in but the landlord, se handy An' he rosin'd wor gobs wiv a glass o' French brandy." R. Emery d. 1871, The Pitman's Ramble.

Whe

ROZZELT, ROZZELED,
begun to ferment
is

fermented

an apple that has

called a vozzel'd apple.

RUB

RUBBER, a robber. To (p.t. vubeet) [N.], to rob; "nibe his buttons" to challenge him to fight. Among boys this is done by the challenger rubbing his hand down the waistcoat buttons of his adversary.
soft stone, of various colours, used for rubbing over door-steps, window-sills, and the stone floors of

RUBBIN-STYEN,
kitchens.

RUBSTONE,
sandstone.

a mower's sharpening stone,

made

of fine-grained

" And whereas the town is an ancient town, and the Mayor and burgesses, time out of mind of man, have had a certain guild or fraternity, called the hostmen, for the loading and better disposing of commonly sea-coals and pit coals, grindstones, rubstones, and whetstones, in and upon the river and port of Tyne." Charter of Elizabeth. Welford,
Hist, of Newcastle, vol.
iii.,

p. 141.

RUCK,
"

a rick.

Compare RICK, RICKLE.


p. 38.

Two

2os."

herdcorne at Yetlenton, and iiii. boules and a bushell, Will of Robert Clavering of Callally, Nov. 30, 1582. D. D.
ruckes of

Dixon, Vale of Whittingham,

RUCKLE,
RUCT,

to rumple, to crease.

Brockett.

to eructate, as a

cow

does.

RUCTION, RUMPTION, RUPTION, "


cleaning a disturbance, a row. the hoose wi' sic a ruction gan on."
;

a turmoil, as in Thor's nee sittin doon i'

RUD,

to redden.
" Ther's

Rud,

ruddle,
1

red paint or red ochre used for

marking sheep.
some will ca me Parcy Reed, speak my praise in tower and toun It's little matter what they do now, My life bluid rudds the heather brown." Death of Pany Reed.

And

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

587

RUDGE,

to

push about.

See RUSH.
off

RUE-BARGAIN,
bargain repented

something given to be
of.

an agreement

Brockett.

RUE-SAIR,
"

to feel sore, but


"

He

nivver rued saw

oftener used in the negative. never regretted seriously.

RUG,
is

to tug, to pull, to drag with violence. A ntggin pain at the stomach is a gnawing, dragging pain. " He wis ruggin her hair." The back- wash or under current of the sea beach
an' rive, to pull or drag, and tear. " Like the butter o Halterburn it would neither rug, nor rive, nor cut wiv a knife it was confounded." Proverb.

called ootntg.

Rug
1

RUMGUMPTION, " RUMMELGUMPTION,


common
sense.

a cant wordhes nee rutnmelgumption aboot him." Hence nungumptious, shrewd, sharp, witty.

He

" Had'st thou in thee the least Rumgumption, Thou'd scorn aw sik lyke Presumption." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 26. " Aw knaw that the Cockneys crack rumgumshus chimes,

To myek gam

of

wor bur and wor "parel." T. Thompson, Canny

Newcastle.

RUMMLE,
trench

to rumble.

"

vutmnlm soon' like thunnor."

RUMMLE-CUNDY, RUMMLIN-CUNDY,
filled

up

a drain or to the surface with loose stones to admit of

percolation.

See RUMMLE-STYEN.
a great,

RUMMLE-DUSTY,
careless person.

awkward woman
a

a reckless,

RUMMLE-STYEN, RUMBLE-STONE,
Generally called tumbler or
p. 301-

loose

stone.

tumbling-stone.

See RAMBLE.

" Blue clay and rumble stones one fathom."

Borings and Sinkings, L.R.,

RUMPLE,
RUCTION.

the rump.

"

"

Rumple byen

rump

bone.

RUMPTION,
RUN, RUND,

a confused noise,

a row, a confusion.

See

the selvedge of woollen cloth, list. Brockett. Run, the lengthwise course or the grain of anything. " Ye'll he' ti cut the claith bi the run o' the stuff."
a set of tubs in a pit.

RUN,

Nicholson, Ccal Trade Terms, 1888.

588

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to

RUN-A-REEL,

go wrong.

(Obs).

" There's nothing there cou'd run-a-nel, If Maistress Property were weel."

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,

p. 25.

RUNCH,
"

wild radish, Raphanus vaphanistrum, L. The weeds in the corn are runches, Raphanus raphanistrum, and not wild mustard, Sinapis arvensis." Dr. James Hardy, Hist, of Bwhs Nat.
Club, vol.
ix.,

p. 233.

RUNCHED, lumpy, swollen and hard. See RUNCHY, large, raw-boned. " A nmchy
long animal.

KALLUST.
beast
"

a large,

RUNG,

a round staff, the spoke of a wheel, the round wood bars in the sides of a cart, the step of a ladder. In a ladder the two longitudinal or side pieces are sometimes called the sheth, whilst the cross spokes are called the nmgs. Rungwheel a wheel made with rungs, which are driven by the

cogs of a wheel geared into thus worked.

it.

The "cog and

"

rung gin

was

" Drawing a rung out from the side (of the cart) he dismounted and gave battle to the intruders." Richardson's Table Booh, Leg. division,
vol.
i.,

p. 253.

RUNKLED, wrinkled, crumpled. RUNNELL, pollard wood. Brocket*. RUNNER, an arrangement in boring.
runner, for

" Small braceheads called topits to which to attach the rope drawing the rods." Greenwell, Coal Trade Terms, 1888.

by a

RUNNER, a

small stream.

Compare RYN.

RUNNIN-BAAK, RUNNING-BALK, a beam set lengthways, as distinguished from a cross beam. A balk set in the
direction of a drift in a mine, at its side instead of across it, to form a support for the cross balks. In Teviotdale the balk forming^ the wall-plate of a building is called a rannlebauk, and on it the couples or roof principals rest.

RUNNIN-FITTER,
RUN-RIG,
"

a coal fitter's out-door clerk


river.

personage well known on the quay and

formerly a

the open field system of cultivation before enclosures were made.

and tenure,

Lands are said to be tunrig where the alternate ridges of a field belong to different proprietors, or are occupied by different tenants." Jamie son.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

589

RUNT,

a small sized ox or cow. dwarfish person. Runt, a " wizened kail runt." Applied stalk dried or hardened. aad runt" an old wizened person. thus to persons. Runties are common clay marbles. They are simply made of

"An

dried and

lightly

burnt clay.

See COMMONY.

Compare
See

SCRUNTS, SCRUNTY.

RUN-TH'-CRUNTLE,
CRUNTLE.

to

run foul of anything.

RUN-THE-RIG,
" O'er

to take a

mean advantage.
1801.

him there should none run the rig." Henry Robson, The Collier's Pay Week,
"

RUNTY,

undersized.

runty little chep."

See

RUNT and

SCRUNTY.

RUSH
RUSH,
RUSH,
rush
it

[N.]

a rash or eruption on the skin

also diarrhoea.

a small

patch of underwood
to push.

(Northumberland.)
" Aa'll

Halliwell.

a push

" Gi's a bit rush, will ye ?"

up

for ye."

RUSHER, made
RUSHER-CAP,
match."

of rushes.

See RASHER.
t

the marsh titmouse, PceciU palustris L.


to wrestle.

RUSSLE, RUSTLE,
RUSTY-COALS,
the
air.

" Thor's gan to be a

russlin*

coals discoloured

by water or exposure

to

RUT,
an'

a root. "Rutect oot" rooted out. " They're on ruttin " shawin tormits rooting up and topping turnips. Rutgrown, grown on its own root applied to sticks so grown as " sookers." distinguished from
;

RUT,

to

poke about

in search.

"

What

are ye ruttin on

amang

the cinders for ?"

RUTHER,

a rudder.
"

Rulher-st&ff, a tiller.

Brave

lads, let not

your courage

fail,

For, thanks to God, our Ruther's hail." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 71.

RUTTLE,

the sound heard in gasping for breath, especially in the dying.

5QO

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

RYE,
in

in place names, occurs in Rye Hill, near Rothbury, and Newcastle Ryal, Riall, or Ryall, near Stamfordham and Great and Little Ryle, townships near Alnwick.
; ;

RYN,

a very small stream.

" Out of the southest parte of the said mountayne (Cheviot) springeth and descendeth a lytle ryn, called Colledge." Survey of Cheviot, 1542. Coll. MS., Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. iii., vol. ii.

S.

The letter, sounded as z, is used for the verb to be in all persons of the singular present indicative when following the " Aa's a clever " Thoo's chep, aa's sure." personal pronoun. In other positions the full form is used. mevvies flaid." " " Is aa not ? " ." Is them taties S is also used good 'uns ? " Ye's " There's be nowse aa winnot de." for shall. get aall It is also used for have in all aa have." " We's be gannin." " Aa's deun'd." "Thoo's persons of the present indicative. In the third person, as in ordinary colloquial helped us." English, "He's gyen." It is also the common representative " of for me. used tell's o' whe was
s,

colloquially

Come,

there."

SAAT, SAT, SAUT


the the the
/

On Tyneside [N.] SOAT [W.-T.] salt. sounded, the vowel preceding being shortened as in German salz, the a being very short. At a christening first person met on the way to church is presented with a It is unlucky to parcel containing salt and currant cake. meet a woman first. When a child's tooth comes out it is sprinkled with salt and put into the fire, the person who has lost it repeating an incantation, " Fire, fire, burn tooth, and Not a give me another. Not a black one, but a white one. cruck'd one, but a strite one !" Or else " Fire, fire, burn Salt is often put on a byen, God send ma tuith agyen." cow's back immediately after calving. The custom of placing on the breast of the corpse a table plate containing salt is still very generally observed and the females who attend on such occasions say that it prevents the body from swelling. Also " one who deals in salt or Salter, Sauter, a salt maker.
, ,

is

salt fish."
nick,

(Obs.) Salter's-way, S alter' s -track, Salter'sof roads and trackways along which cadgers with salt formerly travelled. Salt-grass, sat-grass, grass-covered flats by the sea-side. Salt-kit, a salt box.
Bailey.

names

SACKIT, SEKKIT,

a stupid. Ah ye sackit, ye mind what y'or deein." Applied to a horse when he makes a stumble or used as a reproachful term to a child.
!

"

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

591

SACKLESS,
obsolete.

In this sense probably innocent, blameless. used, however, for useless, silly, stupid hence awkward in any kind of handicraft or work. Also a " He's a greet sackless" or "He's helpless or clumsy person. a greet sackless cuddy."

Now

11

It

byre.

was laied to his charge, the drivyng of kine hem But Christe knoweth he was sackless." W. Bullein,
Text Society, p. 7. " He raun be a sackless dog,

to his father's

1564, Dialogue,

E.E.

Far warse than ony dandy."


T. Wilson, 1826, Oiling of Dicky's Wig.

SACK'S-MOOTH.

When a miller formerly returned the price of the corn by the man who delivered it, he figuratively said he "sent it in the sack-mooth"
severe, bad.

SAD,

lad that."

" He's a sad " Aa've hed a sad tew wi'd." " He's iv a sad Sair is similarly used. way."
It is

SAD,

solid,

heavy, dense, compact.

commonly applied

to Dread that has not risen or to potatoes that are soapy in " The breed's sad as leed." appearance when cooked.
" The ballast there lay safe and sad, and that neither the wind could ever blow it off, nor the rain nor waves could wash it into the river." Gardiner, edition 1796, England's Grievance Discovered, p. 95.

SADDLE-BACK,

a balk or species of hitch in the coal strata described as the roof of the seam coming down into the coal without any corresponding depression of the thill, thus causing a nip. It is also called a horse-back.
;

SADDLE-BOARDS, SATTLE-BOARDS, SETTLEBOARDS,


the platform at the pit bank on which the

men

and tubs are landed from the cage.

SADEET
of

[N.]

hay or corn

compacted, settled down. A newly-built stack is not covered with its thatch until it has
solid."

"getten sadeet." " To sad, to become

Jamieson.

SAE,
seea,

so

common

spelling.

The

usual pronunciation

is

see,

and soowak.
See SAUGH.

SAF.
SAF,

natural death.

[W.-T.] meat from an animal that has died a Hog-saff is mutton of this description. Compare BRAXY-MUTTON and TKAIK.
,

SAFF

592

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
do
it."

SAFE,

" He's sure, certain. safe to " as deeth." there." Safe


clay, a soft clayey shale, often

" He's

safe to

be

SAGGER-CLAY, SAGRE-CLAY, SEGGER-CLAY,


which which

fire-

worked with a coal seam, of

it usually forms the thill. The potter's vessel, in his pots are enclosed during the process of firing in the kiln, is called a sagger. The clay of which it is usually made is hence called sagger-clay.

" Generally forming the floor of coal seams, we find a number of deposits of more or less siliceous clay, known as under-clay, seggar-clay, or thill, and often used as fire-clay." Professor Lebour, Geology of Northumberland and Durham, second ed. 1886, p. 45.

SAIM, SAEM, SEEYEM,


to fat in general.

" He's myest seyirfd

pig's lard.

But applied sometimes " almost choked up

with
"

fat.

SAIN, used
God
"

in the following sentence.

safe us, and sain us fra Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 6.

(Obs.) ony sike matter."

G. Stuart, Jocobeing the agent,

To

5am, to

make

the sign of the cross, to bless,

God

etc."

Jamieson.

SAINT.

The practice of abbreviating the name of a saint is a Locally, we have St. Paul reduced to very ancient one. the proper name of Sample, and in place-names St. Helen rendered as Sintlin, and St. Anthony as Stanton and Stantlin In Hollar's map, dated 1654, (St. Anthony's-on-the-Tyne).
St.

Anthony's appears as

St. Tantlins.

ST.

AGNES'S FAST, Jan. 21. To procure a sight of a Eat nothing all this day till going to bed, future husband. boil as many hard eggs as there are fasters, extract the yolk, fill the cavity with salt, eat the egg, shell and all, then walk backwards to bed, uttering this invocation to the saint " Sweet St. Agnes, work thy fast If ever I be to marry man, Or man be to marry me, I hope him this night to see." Eat a raw red I add another receipt for the same object. There can be no doubt that dreams herring, bones and all. and visions will be the result. Men sometimes try this plan to see a future bride. Bigge, Superstitions at Stamfordham. Trans. Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club, 1860-62, vol. v., p. 96. simpler form of incantation is used by girls who on going to bed place their shoes on the floor at right angles to each
: ;

other,

and repeat the following " I place my shoes in form of a Hoping my true love to see
:
;

T,

Not dressed in his best array, But in the clothes he wears every day."

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

593

SAINT CUTHBERT'S BEADS,

fragments of encrinital columns, the joints of the fossil radiate animal, washed from the mountain limestone beds. They are strewn along the beach by the action of the sea upon the outcrop of the stratum, in which they are plentiful, and look very like beads which have been turned in a lathe. The central hollow gives
further appearance of similarity. Holy Island they are picked up
:

the north-east side of the rocks, and were formerly regarded with veneration as being the handiwork of the saint

On

among

11

Fain St. Hilda's nuns would learn on a rock, by Lindisfarne, Saint Cuthbert sits, and toils to frame The sea-borne beads that bear his name." Marmion, canto
If,

2,

xvi.

ST.

CUTHBERT'S DUCKS,
11

the eider ducks.

He For centuries they have been known as St. Cuthbert' s ducks. lavished upon them special marks of kindness and affection. They were frequently his sole companions during the long hours of his solitary nights, clustering round him when he watched and prayed on the rocks which surrounded his home. They obeyed his every word, and became so tame and familiar with him that they would allow him to approach them at all times without fear and caress them with his hand." Rev.
Prov. Consitt, Life of St. Cuthbert, 1887, p. 82.

ST.

JOHN,

the

name

applied to two hazel nuts which have

intergrown with each other.

See CLUD-NUT.

ST. MARY, three hazel nuts grown into each other. When any one is fortunate enough to find a St. Mary he wears it
in his

cap as a great prize.

SAIR, SARE,

wound, or painful

sair place sore, Sair is also constantly used for " " Sair tews severe exertion or distressing severe, painful. " Aa hed sair tews ti' catch the train." "We've trouble. hadden sair tews ti' get hyem." " Bairns is sair tews, bliss " a them !" " Aa've had a sair day win him." "A sair heed
(adj.),

SAE

sore.

"

"a

spot.

headache.

"

sair

bairn

"

an incorrigible

child.

Sairish,

somewhat

sore,

somewhat troublesome.
Pricks of Conscience.

" Seke and sare."

" It raised sore

tews in Ratcliffe's breast." Sheldon, Minstrelsy of the English Border, 1847,

p. 406.

SAIR

"Sair fashed" (troubled or bothered). (adv.), sorely. "Sair hindered." "Sair changed." " Sair sowt efter." "Sair " Sair hadden missed " greatly missed. "badly held,

594

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
"

" S^wV-earnest or in a distressed condition of health. " Poor " Sair-off" failed in strength. earnest. really he's sair-off noo." man,

aad

"God

helpe,

the warld
1.

is

sare

chaunged."

Bullein, 1564, Dialogue,

E. E, Text

Society, p. 8,

10.

" Sair Sair

fail'd,

fail'd,

hinny, sair fail'd now, hinny, sin' I kend thou." Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 257.

SAIRY, SARIE, SAYREY, sorry, indifferent, poor. man " equivalent to the expression "poor fellow."
bit sairy

"

Sairy-

"His
staffe."

duds" (poor
I

"Now
W.
"

clothes). have neythyng but this

sarie

bagge

and

this

Bullein, Dialogue, etc., 1564.

Aw

wonder how thee fayther

gets yeh o fed, sayrey

man."

Thomas

Bewick, The Howdy,

etc., ed. 1850, p.

u.
its

SAITH,
growth.

the young of the coalsay fish in

larger stage of

See COALSAY.
"

SAL,

shall.

In very frequent use. Twee Blackeys sal mense

W.

the dor cheek." Midford, The Pitman's Courtship, 1818.

SALLY,
a boat

a boat or ship, in play, from side to side. In done by standing on a seat, with legs astride, and alternately resting the weight on each leg so as to sway the boat. Formerly, at the launch of a wooden ship, it was customary for the apprentices from the yard to be on deck, and, when the vessel was launched, to sally her. This was done by a rush or sally to one side, which caused a lurch. A rush back again brought her over to the other side, and this continued, the displacement of the weight on deck causing an alternate swing from side to side.
to

sway

it is

SALLY NIXON,
^

the term in alkali works for the sulphate of soda resulting from the decomposed nitrate of soda in " nitre pots." The name is probably a corruption of salis natron, an

alchemist's term.

SAMCAST,
wide.
century
"
is

a wide ridge of land. A samcast is about six yards " " is about three yards wide. rig ordinary " Land that has been anciently tilled and not ploughed within the last

An

in samcasts."

Hodgson

MS.

great intermixture of samcasts, rigs, buts, and doles of land gave a very primitive appearance to the whole and, indeed, evidence and ocular proof of very early colonization." Hodgson, Northumberland, vol.
;

The

iii.,

2, p.

90, note.

SANDBACK,

the chimney swallow,

Hinmdc

rustica,

L.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

595

SAND-BRAYER, SAND-BEATER,

a heavy stone or flat iron for pounding the soft sandstone used in scouring and colouring door-steps.
[N.'J
,

SANDEET, SANDBLIND
applied to

dim

in sight,

men

near-sighted-

or animals.
or

SANDGATE-HEAT,

SANDGATE-RINGER

(from

Sandgate, the eastern suburb of Newcastle, inhabited chiefly by keelmen in former times), facetious terms applied to a tobacco pipe lighted by being thrust in the fire till it is Sandgate -rattle, a step-dance. See SHUFFLE. nearly red-hot.

SANDSCRAWLER,
SAND-STREEK,
SANDY,
arenaria,

the sand martin, Cotyk riparia, L.

the lowest stretch of planking, or garboard strake, next the keel of a vessel. the

meadow
is

called the mosscheepev

pipit, Anthus pratensis, L. and syety-Wull (sooty Will).

It

is

also

In

Holy

Island the sandy

the sanderling, the small wader, Calidris

L.
a great outcry.

SANG, a song. To "myek a sang" to make " What a sang yor myekin' aboot nowt."

SANG! " an
sang
!

" Maa " exclamation; spoken as sang!" or Sankers ! a similar exclamation.

Ba

SAPPY,

a gossiping moist, juicy, wet. sappy crack" " " talk over a glass. Sappy drinkin heavy and protracted " " The " a wet day. grund's varry sappy day drinking. It is also used to describe the sudden thump in a sappy." " fall. By gosh aa got a sappy tummel." " Aa'll tell thou mair when aw come back, For then we'll hev a sappy crack." T. Wilson, Opening Newcastle and Carlisle Railway, 1838.

"A

SARIE.

See SAIRY.

SARK,
are

known

The various parts of the garment a shirt, a chemise. as the sark-tB.i], sark-sleeve, sark-bieest, etc. " When I cam to Walker wark, I had ne coat nor ne pit sark."
Bell's

Rhymes, 1812, p. 36.

SARKIN,
when

the cleading of wood laid on the rafters of a house a strong and tight roof is required. The slates are laid over the sarkin.

596

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to serve.

SARRA,
reet

When aa sarra'd me time (apprentice" sarra the seed " serve out the seed. To " sarra ship). the swine" serve out food to the swine. "It sarra'd him
To
"served him
And
I'm

"

"

right.

" I've sarrit

now

my

king seven years, luikin out for a pension."


1

W.

Midford, Local Militia Man, 1818.

SARSE, SES, CIRSE,


milk.

a circular sieve for straining butter-

See SES.
of
certies !

SARTIES, the pronunciation of the exclamation " Maa sarties ! but y'or myekin' a bonny gan on."

SARVOR,

a server, a small tray or salver.


,

SAT-COLLOP
SATPOKE,

salt collop. [N.] Anything not of a bulky description purchased for a big price is termed a sat-collop.

a glove in which the thumb only stands out, the hand and fingers being all contained in a single undivided poke or bag.
rest of the
,

SATTER [N.] a term used by children, expressing contempt. A turkey-cock is teased and irritated by the whistling and
shouting of boys,
"

who

repeat

Bubbly Jock, Bubbly Jock, Bubbly Jock the satter. Yor faithor's deed, yor mother's deed; ye canna flee nae fawthor."
[N.], a salting, a thin sprinkling.

SATTIN
has

Of

a field that

been thinly strewn with lime or manure, where an insufficient quantity has been used for its requirement, it is said to " hev only getten a sattin"
" Dinna to settle, to take a seat. gan stravaigin an' sattle." a seat, a settle. Sattle, Lang a long seat, like a form, with a back and arms.
;

SATTLE,
aboot
sattle,

come

SATTLE-BORDS.

See SADDLE BOARDS.

SATURDAY'S-STOP, the
;

space of time in which of old it was not lawful to take salmons in Scotland and the North of England that is from Evensong on till sun

on Monday.

New World of

Saturday

rising

Words, 1706.

(Obs.)

SAUF,

the willow.

See SAUGH.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

597

SAUFEY-MONEY,
sum given
for salvage.

blackmail

Tyndale and Redesdale.

The

levied by the rievers of Scottish form is sanghie, the

(Obs.)

"Safer, the reward given for the safety of anything." Jamieson. " Many of the inhabitants of Northumberland and Durham, who were more especially liable to be plundered by those mauraders, paid them sattfey -money, or blackmail, in consideration that the said thieves should not steal their cattle, and that they should assist the payers in recovering their property, in the event of their being robbed by any other thieves from the same dale." S. Oliver, jun, Ramblss in Northumberland, 1835,
p. 132.

SAUGH, SAP, SAUF, SAUGH-TREE,


term saugh
is

the willow. The applied to willows generally, and not only to the Salix caprea and the Salix alba. The Salix cinerea is known as the grey saugh. The willow catkins are called palms. Compare WITHY. Saughy, abounding with willows. See
also SEALY, SELE.
"

They made a bier of the birken boughs Of the saw/ and the espin grey."
R. Surtees, Barthram's Dirge.

"

The

glossy palm gilds the saugh-tree."

R. Roxby, Poetic

Epistle, 1845.

SAUTER.
"

See SAAT.
saffron.
Northumberland saying.

SAVERNEY,
As

yalla as a sxverney."

SAW-BILL,
YARRELLS.

the

goosander, Mergus merganser,

Linn.

See

SAYBEE
"

a shallot onion, A Ilium ascalonicum, [N.] " onions and shallots. Ingins and saybees
,

Linn.

SCABBLE,

to dress the face of a building stone


;

blows from a chisel-pointed hammer the stone being laid on " bed " and the hammer strokes its given down its face. The tool used for the purpose is variously called a "scaplar" or " scabbier," a " wasp," a " whass," and sometimes a " bitch and pups." It is a hammer with a chisel point let
into either end.

by a

series of

SCABBY,
"

scabby-iQoi is at the top.

applied in coal mining to the roof of the mine. A when the coal does not part freely from the stone

roof,

roof

is

seam of coal is said to have a claggy top when it adheres to the and is with difficulty separated. It most frequently occurs when the post or sandstone rock, and is uneven or scabby, Green well,

Glossary of Coal Trade Terms,

598

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
shabby.
"

SCABBY,

A scabby fellow"
and
scaddeet
;

a shabby or
p.p.
scadden),

mean man.
to
scald.

SCAD
Scaddin

(p.t.

scadded

scalding hot. Scadded peas, boiled or scalded were formerly eaten out of a large bowl, and the peas. They one who obtained the last pea was supposed to be first married.
het,

SCAFFOLD,
SCAFFY,

in mining, the platform at the top of a winning.

irregular in character ; applied to a deposit of clay, " is applied to a deposit of stone, and suggesting as "raffety worthless or refuse stuft.
" Blue
scaffy

clay."

Borings and Sinkings, L. R., p. 219.

SCAIRSH,

scarce.
"

SCAIRSHLY, SCARSHLY,
is scairsh

scarcely.

When wark

and leevin dear."


T. Wilson, The Market Day, 1854.

SCAITH,

harm.

See SKAITH.
to disperse.

SCALE, SKAIL,
from a cart

Manure is dropped on land heaps which are subsequently Mole heaps scaled, that is, scattered evenly over the surface. are similarly treated, the cast-up earth being scattered The latter requirement occurs as a clause in broadcast. Scale is also applied -intransitively to certain farm leases.
in isolated little

the

dispersal of a company of people, especially to the separation of a congregation from a church or chapel. Scale, in mining, the dispersal of the ventilating current by its escape through the crevices in doors or brattice or a scale of air, a portion abstracted from the main current and allowed to escape through a door or stopping for the purpose of See REGULATING ventilating a waggon or rolley way, etc.
;

SCALE and SLIDE REGULATOR. " An aad poke is aye scalin." Newcastle proverb.
"

They
1627.

are also required to

scale,

mole, and dress the


p. 713.

Cow

Hill,

Moor,

and Leazes."
"

Mackenzie, Hist, of Newcastle,

Towne Towne

ffeilds, Sd.

Paid the Wayte for goeing a day with the scaylers in the Paid the Bellman for giveing warneing about the

to scale the

Towne
ffeilds

ffeilds, 2d.

1628.

Payd

to the piper for

goinge to the towne about the town, is."

withe scallers, and the bellman for going twis Gateshead Church Books.

" Our men lap on horsebak againe, and chaced the said Scottes notwithstanding a parte of the said Scottes kept themselfes to geders, and (when our men were skaled in the said chace) set upon the hynderende of our said chace." Dacre to Wolsey, July 8, 1524, in Dr. Charlton's North Tynedale, second edition, p. 46.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

599

SCALE,

wooden

shovel, with three flat points at the bottom,


hills.

used for scattering mole

SCALE- A WAY
Brockett.

a disorder, a whitlow; a rash in children.

SCALEBREAK, SCALEBRIK, SKYELBRIK,

a sudden scattering or stampede, also the noise or commotion made by " Thor wis a a dispersing crowd. bonny scalebreak amang them when the soulgers cam." a thin dish used in the dairy for skimming

SCALE-DISH,
milk.
Brockett.

SCALE-DRAKE,
also bandganner,

the shieldrake Tadorna Belonii, Ray.

Called

skell,

and

skellduke.

See SKELL.

SCALLION,

young onion

in the stage of

growth before the

bulb has formed.

SCALLOP,

to

work coal

in the

mine

entirely

by the hand,
2.

without the use of gunpowder.

Brockett.

See SKELP,

SCALP, SCAUP, SCARP


piece of ground. are beached for

(the I in scalp not sounded), a bare shore bared at low tide, where vessels examination and repair but especially applied to bare oozy flats, suitable for the growth of mussels

The

and

oysters.

thin fossiliferous bed

composed

shells.

See MUSHEL.

The

flat

shore between

Low

chiefly of

and Tynemouth is called the Mussel Scalp. An oyster scaup has been formed of late years in Budle-Slake, near Belford. The Scappy, at Holy Island, was at one time an oyster
ground. " The most
interesting objects on this hill (Chatton Law) are some curious and mysterious sculpturings on the scalp of rocks protruding from beneath the soil." J. E. Boyd, Hist. ofBwks. Nat. Club, 1862, p. 337.
"

Lights

On

traceable."

the scalp of the rock where it dips into the Geo. Tate, Same, vol. v., 1863, p. 151.

hill,

four figures are

the Ship called the John and Margaret, late belonging to Miller deceased, and now lying upon the Scalp against Mr. the widow, etc." Jennison's Key, North Shields, in order to be sold by Advertisement, Newcastle Courant, No. 115, September i, 1722.

"Whereas

Bryan

SCALY,
band

resembling shale.
of

scaly

parting in a stratum

is

shale-like " " shivery parting.

material, and is distinguished from Scaling post, schistose sandstone.

a a

6OO

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SCAM, SCAME,
is

a stain, a stigma, a blot, a mark, a blur. It constantly used as a term for the impurities in rocks and minerals. Seamy, stained, or having stigmas, blots, or patchy marks. A dog which has the hair off in patches, or a sheep which has lost patches of its wool, is called seamy. Paper having portions of the surface abraded is also called seamy. In mining, seamy post is sandstone having a patchy appearance from the inter-mixture of foreign substances, such as mica, arranged in very thin layers. Coal also is called seamy when it presents the appearance of impurities, such as deposits of lime or other matter, intermixed with its texture. Or, again, shale that shows intercalations of other substances in a patchy form is called seamy metal to distinguish it from a stratum having a homogeneous character. Seamy is also used " Ye as a term of contempt. seamy beggar." [N.], to stain. tyebelclaith an' scam'd

SCAM

it

" Th' bairn spilt the tye on th' " Sair seam'd" a'." badly stained.

SCAMMLE,
seammle

to scramble.

At weddings

money

after leaving the church.

it is customary to See SCRAMMLE.

SCANT,

scarcity, scantiness, poverty.

Through

scant,

To fight your way and want, and misery."


pt.
iii.,

"

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1829,

v. 50.

SCAPLAR, a mason's pick. SCAPPY. See SCALP.


SCAR,
"

See SCABBLE.

a rough, bare precipice.

Compare CAR.
steep rock
;

'

Scar, an old word, signifying a Castle in Yorkshire took its name."

New World of Words, 1706. " At the head of Redesdale there are some scars, consisting of huge masses of disjointed and fallen rocks." Hodgson Northumberland, pt. ii.,
vol. i, p. 135, note.

whence Scarborough

SCAR,
in

a piece of furnace slag, scoria, or clinker.

SCARE,

patch of limited, irregular area, found "parting" is a very thin continuous stratum a scare is a similar, very thin stratum, which is not continuous, but occurs like a patch. Scares of coal, streaks

a thin, filmy stratification.


;

pipes.

scars of that material. They are also called coalScares of metal, patches of shale. Scares of brass, patches of iron pyrites. The word is also used to describe the condition of anything irregularly marked. Badly washed
or
little

clothes,

having imperfectly cleansed and patchy marks

left

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

6OI

" Also the on them, are said to be scared or " gaited [N.] occurrence of any mineral, as in the expressions, patchy " Thill scared " Courses of sand sometimes scared with coal," with black stone," " Leaf clay scared with sand," " Metal scared with post," etc. Compare SCAM.

SCARE,
SCARF,
other.

the edge of a " scarf" when it is visible in consequence of imperfect welding in a forged piece of iron. the weld in a chain, etc. so named from the two united ends being scarfed or tapered so as to overlap each
;

SCARP,
o'

a bare piece of ground.

See SCALP.
" That's a scarry horse

SCARRY,
yors."

easily scared or frightened.

SCARRY, marked

with scares.
,

See SCARE,
,

i.

SCAR SCART, "

" Scart to scratch. [T.] [W.-T.] to scratch the ear, as one does when puzzled and the lug " Aa'll in a dilemma. gar ye scart where it's not yuccy" make you scratch where it is not itchy that is, shall whip or " to scratch the surface merely, smack you. " Scart on

SCRAT

applied to finicking, temporizing, as distinguished from real earnest, work. " The hounds did scrauch an' shoot an'soiraboot." James Armstrong,

Wanny

Blossoms, 1879, p. 129. " Aw'm nyen o' yor scarters

Nyen handles

the pick like

and clawers Bob Cranky." Selkirk, Bob Cranky's 'Size Sunday, 1807.
:

SCARTINS,
scratchings.

poor penmanship,

any kind

of

markings or

SCATHERED FEET, feet


in the shoes.

injured from water and small coals

" It was, ne doot, a cooin sect

To
,\Vi"

see them hirplin cross the floor, anklets shaw'd and scattered feet, Wi' salve and ointment plaistered o'er." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt.

ii.,

1827, v. 16.

SCAUP,
It is

a bare place.

See SCALP.
Called covie and scaup. haunt on the Scaups or Scalps.

SCAUP-DUCK,

the Fuligiila marila, L.


its

probably called from See SCALP.

6O2

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
scrimp, short measure.
a

SCEMP, SKEMP,

SCHOOL, SKEEYUL,
"

company assembled
toss.

gambling game pitch and See SCUIL.

Schoolin,

to carry on the pitch and toss.

species of pitch
,

and

toss, called scouling, is their great

gambling

game,"
vol. vi

Dr. Wilson, Coal Miners.


p. 206.

Transactions oj Tyneside Field Club,

"

Scole, of pleyynge gamys, or werre, or other lyke."

Promptorium

Parvulorum, 1440.

SCLAT, SKLATE-STYENS,
made
flags.

of a schistose sandstone

rafters

the Northumberland slates, which readily splits into large They were regulately used on old roofs, pinned to the with mutton bones or oak trenails.
shallow, as a
sclate dish.

SCLATE,

Brocket.

SCLATER,
SCLOOT,
SCOB.

wood

louse.
Dr. Johnston, on Holy

"Sclaters were crawling on the paved floor." whs. Nat. Club, vol. vii., p. 32. Island. Hist, of

to squint.
i.

Brocket*.

See SCOUB,

SCON,
large,

to strike, to inflict punishment.

Brockett.

SCONCE,
Brockett.

a fixed seat on one side of the fireplace in the old, a short partition near the fire upon which all the bright utensils in a cottage are suspended.

open chimney

SCONE,
SCOOL,
SCOOR,

a thick cake of wheaten flour


to scowl.

baked on a

girdle.

Generally applied to a horse.

diarrhoea in sheep and cattle.

SCOOR,

to clear out a ditch, to earth up a dyke or fence by digging a channel along its foot and building and squaring up the earth so removed on its sides and top. The channel left at the foot is called the scoorage. to thrash with a whip.
to scour, to clean

SCOOR,
SCOOR,
"

by rubbing.

1683.

For

scooreing

used as a lectern.)

ye Eagle, is. od." (Scouring the brass eagle Churchwarden 's Accounts, St. Nicholas', Newcastle.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

603

SCOOT, SCOOT,
hole."

It is also

the guillemot, Una troile, L. So-called near Spittal. known as the willock and wullemot.
to squirt.
Scooter,

" See hoo the waiter's a syringe, a squirt.

scootin

oot

o'

that

SCOPE, SCOB.
of

See SCOUB,

i.

SCOPPER, SCOPPERALT, SCOPERAL,


wood put through charm is suspended as

a seton. A piece the dewlap of a beast from which a a defence against the " quarter-ill."

SCORE,
and

a standard number of tubs of coal upon which hewers' score in Durham putters' prices for working are paid. consists of twenty-one tubs of seven hundredweights each in Northumberland of twenty tubs. The rate of wages per score

is

called the score price.

SCOTCH,

a chock or block of wood placed in front of a waggon wheel on the rail to stop or block it. A "sprag" is a block of wood made to be thrust in between the spokes of a wheel
to act as a brake.

"'To

scoat or scotch

a wheel.

'To

Shatch a wheel.'"

New World of

Words, 1706.
" To skid a wheel, to stop the wheel of a coach or cart with a hook at the descent of a hill." The same.

SCOTCH-AND-ENGLISH. The

children of this day upon the English Border keep up the remembrance (of the ancient feuds) by a common play called Scotch and English or The Raid. The boys of the village choose two captains out of their body. Each nominates, alternately, one out of the little tribe. They then divide into two parties, strip, and deposit their clothes,
called "wad," in two heaps, each upon their own ground, which is divided by a stone, as a boundary between the two kingdoms each then invades the other's territories the English crying, "Here's a leap into thy land, dry-bellied He who can, plunders the other side. If one is Scot." caught in the enemy's jurisdiction, he becomes a prisoner, and cannot be released except by his own party. Thus one side will sometimes take all the men and property of the other. History of the Roman Wall, W. Hut ton, 1802, p. 86. The game was still played in Newcastle within the writer's
; ;

recollection.

SCOTCH DRAPER.

See MANADGE-MAN.

604

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SCOTCH-DYKE,

an ancient military work, said to stretch from Thorn Gate, in West Allendale, northward by Catton Beacon, and across the Roman Wall at Busy Gap. Compare CATRAIL.
a wet fog, a sea
fret.

SCOTCH MIST,
"

Such a thick

They
"

Scotch mist cam on, could not see their way, man."

W.

Scotch mist will

Armstrong, d. 1833-4, The Skipper's Mistake. weet an Englishman to the skin."


Hislop, Proverbs of Scotland.

SCOTCH STREET,

the

common
It

road by
a
;

Elsdon

from

Scotland to Newcastle.

was generally

mere trackway,

and, until the though in some boggy places it is paved making of the Ponteland road, was in regular use. It was also called the Salter's Way. Hodgson, Northumberland,
pt.
ii.,

vol.

i.,

p. 349, n.

SCOUB, SCOWB,

Scoubs, in thatching, wood, sharpened at

a sapling or "sooker" of willow or hazel. were short rods of hazel or other tough each end and then bent into the form of staples. They were put over the "temple rods" on the (hatch, into which they were thrust, the sharp ends of the scoubs penetrating to the flag, or turf flake, below and thus holding down the surface of the thatch securely. Scoubs, in " crab-creeves " fishing, the bent hazel rods used in making " A scob at the needle," a phrase applied to a (crab-traps). bad sewer. [Wooler.] a winter onion
that
is,

SCOUB,
sown
in

the ordinary garden onion


" Thoo's

autumn and transplanted.


to singe,

SCOUDER, SCOWTHER,
scoutherin a' the
41

to

burn.

breed."
anything in cooking
;

To mismanage

to scorch it."

Hodgson MS.

SCOULING.
SCOUR.
SCOUT,
scroggv.

See SCHOOL.

See SCOOR.
a high rock or projecting ridge.
Bvockett.

SCR AB- APPLE,

the crab apple, Pyrus mains, L.

Called also

"Scrab apples, a name given by Alnwick boys to fir cones with which they used to pelt each other in front of the castle on July fair Sunday. Origin of the custom unknown. They're gan to put doon the fair, so we'll hae nae mair fun firin' scrab apples."' Alnwick J. L. Luckley, Language.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

605

SCRAFFLE,
and

a scramble or struggle, as in the act of scratching feeling with the hands in an attempt to find or clutch a thing. money is scrambled and the effort to obtain a share is a matter of difficulty there is said to be a scraffle. To scramble along or climb up with great effort to struggle with hands and feet. Applied to a man's circumstances, to struggle for a livelihood, to contend against bodily infirmity. " Hoo are " Aa's middlin ye thi day, lad?" tidy, hinny

When

just scrafflin

on just managing to get on with great effort. "When they scammelt the money at Bob's weddin, thor wis sic a scrafflin for'd as aa nivver seed."

"

"Aw graped my way


An' down the
stairs

out

i"

the dark,
Toby.

aw scraffleVd." W. Stephenson, Punch and

SCRAMMLE, "

a scramble, to scramble.
bride kyek neist, byeth sweet and short, toss'd in platefuls ower the bride lads and lasses scrammel'd for't Wi' airms and mouths stretch'd far and wide."

The

Was

The

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

pt.

iii.,

1829, v. 83.

SCRAN,

food.
" Sae weel she ettles what

aw

get,

Sae far she a'ways gars it gan, That nyen can say we are i' debt, Or want for owther claes or scran."
T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,
pt.
i.,

1826, v. 80.

SCRANCH, SCRUNCH, "


between the
teeth.

to

grind with a crackling noise

Scranchin the teeth."

SCRANCHIM, SCRANCHUMS,
thin cakes,

gingerbread baked in very

which
"

scranch or crackle in eating.


like

Another name

for these is brandy snaps.

Bring pockets
Ye'll get

a fiddle bag,

them cram'd wi' mony a whag Of pepper-kyek an' scranchim, O."


Song, Wreckington Hiring. Marshall's Collection, 1827, p. 178.

SCRANKIT,

shrunken, diminutive.

" In that small scranhit scrap of human mould Their orator, par excellence, behold." W. Kelly, Teetotallers of the Tyne, 1854, P- 2I

SCRAPER,

a fiddler a fiddle stick an instrument for bringing the dust out of a drill hole a piece of bent hoop iron used tor taking the wet off a horse. A very common term for a greedy,
;

acquisitive person. " Some wicked wag his

scraper, greas'd,

And

stole his rosin

(ill

betide

him

"
pt.
ii.,

!)

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

v. 7,

606

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a scratch. To dig about with a small stick or piece as rag collectors do in dust heaps. "To scrat for a See SCART. to gain a precarious subsistence.

SCRAT,
of iron, " leevin

SCRAT,

a mean, penurious, or contemptible person.


to give mouth, like a dog. scraugh of a heron.

SCRAUGH, SCRAUCH,
hoarsely.

To

cry

The

SCREAMER,
martin.

the swift, Cypselus apus, L.

Called also the black

See SQUEALER.
" Aa wis [W.-T.] creased, crumpled, crushed. the crood." A variant of scrushed, which see.
,

SCREASED
sair screased

i'

SCREECH-OWL,

the barn owl, Strix flammea, called howlet, white-owl, or gilli-howlet.

L.

Variously

SCREED," a writing, a document. " He hesn't a screed ti'show for't." He signed the screed." A part or portion. " Just a sing us a screed o' yen o' yor sangs, Tom." A harangue wearisome discourse. " A lang screed o a sarmon." A long drink. A narrow strip of land; a narrow strip of material.
;
1

rend.

" Teer us off a screed o' that ti' myek a garten." To tear, to "Screed off that piece o' flannen." Compare SCRIBE.

SCREEN, SKREEN,

a large spout usually placed over the railway leading from a colliery. The bottom of the screen is perforated with gratings by which small coal is separated

from large. The terms screened and unscreened coal indicate whether such a separation has been made or not before putting the coal on rail. Screens were introduced about the year 1740 by Mr. W. Brown. They were at first made very narrow, but were enlarged towards the year 1770. T. J.
Taylor, Archeology of the Coal Trade, p. 195, n. Screener, screenman, the man at a colliery who fills railway waggons from the screens. He sees that the coal is clean as it passes out of the screen, and he "wales" out impurities.

SCREENGE,
When
leather."

ice is too

to crackle, as ice when it gives to the tread. weak to walk or skate on it is called "bendy-

SCREMERSTON CROW,
It is

the hooded crow, Corvus comix, L. as hoody, grey-backed crow, and corby. Locally called Scremerston crows, "because they frequent the coast thereabout in winter and spring." Dr. Hardy, Denham Tracts, vol. i.,

known

P- 35-

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

607

SCRETHY-HOLE,
"The
todde he

lair.

Gloamyn Buchte.

frae the screthy holes.'' James Telfer, 1824, Minstrelsy of the English Border, p. 188.

cam

The

SCRIBE,
o'

a pen."

is."

" He disna knaa hoo ti handwriting. myek the scribe "Just gi'z a bit scribe off yor han' to show whe aa
strip of

narrow

any material.

Compare SCREED.

SCRIBE,

a long and narrow strip of arable land, of about two in length by ten to fourteen feet in width, in the Common field at Newtown, Warkworth. In that town each freehold burgage had attached to it a half acre in Heather Leazes, or at the Moor also a ten and a scribe in Newtown, the foregoing being freeholds. To each burgage was attached a half acre of arable land in Newtown, and a half acre of old grass in New Close or in Gilden, held of the In February, 1892, scribes and tens at lord during pleasure. Newtown belonging to the late Colonel George Forster were put up for sale. The conditions of sale describe three scribes Each scribe thus as containing two roods and two perches. averages 8a6J square yards in this case over one-filth of an acre each.

hundred yards

SCRIEVE,
scriever

to write or or scrieve knife.

mark on timber with


"

a cutter called a

SCRIMP,

Nicely scrimpt not over-cooked. Scrimp meals" scanty meals. Scrimpy, " The aad miser's as scanty, miserly. scrimpy as can be."
"

to narrow, to shorten, to scant.

"

SCROG, SCROGS,

"He rough brushwood or underwood. went lowpin ower the scrogs." It occurs frequently as a placename. " The Scrogs" "Whittle Scrogs," etc. Scroggy, rough, unridded, left with the natural growth of brushwood.
"

Brown and heathy


ii.,

sloe thorn."
land, pt.

Hodgson,
i.,

vol.

rocky brows, scraggy hirsts of hazel and the NorthumberDescription of Woodside, Redesdale. p. 100,
knolls,
.

" Call at Scrogg House, round

And back by Walker quay."

Byker

fields,

Song, Lass of Wincomblee.

SCROGGY
"
jelly.

" [N.], a crab apple. Scroggv jelly" " bus a crab tree. See SCRAB. Scroggy
,

crab apple

SCROUNGE

to crush or squeeze together, as in a [N.] crowd. "What are ye scroungin us for? Is there no' room aneuf thonder ? " Compare SCRUSH, SCRUDGE.

608

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SCROW,

" Thor'll be a a crowded or confused state. bonny comes in." " Next week she'll be scrow on when the train cleanin' the hoose, an' we'll be aa'll in a scrow."

SCROWS,
pools.

the small shrimp-like insect found in fresh water

Bvockett.

SCRUDGE,

Also a niggardly fellow. " He's an aad scmdge." to pack. or crush together
;

crush,

a packed

crowd

a variant of scntsh.

To crowd

"Ye

nivver see'd the church sae scrudg'd,


thegither,

As we war there

An' gentle, semple, throughways nudg'd, Like burdies of a feather." T. Thompson, Jemmy Joneson's IV hurry.

SCRUFF, SCRUFF,
collar.

scurf.

SCRUFFY,

scurvy.

" He the nape of the neck. tyuk him bi the scru/o' the neck." It refers either to the neck itself or to the coat "

SCRUFFLE,
the scvuffle"

a scuffle

to scuffle.

He

lost his

hankesher

Compare SCRAFFLE and SCUFFLE.


See SCUFFLER.
to

SCRUFFLER.
SCRUMFISH,
scumfish.

suffocate.

not infrequent variant of

SCRUNSH,
SCRUNTS,

to crunch.

See SCRANCH.
See RUNT,
;

the stumps of cabbage stalks.

2.

SCRUNTY,

small, mean, poor, bare, barren, poverty-stricken contemptible. Applied to persons, it means diminutive, undergrown, or ill-thriven or to characters, miserly, hardfisted. " He's a 44 poor, Lyuk what a little scrunty bit he's gi'en us." sitten-on, scrunty body." Compare RUNTY and RUNT. Scrunties, small playing marbles, made of common clay. Called also commonies and runts.
;

"

Mushrooms,

at Bellingham,

were found on a

scrunty,

heathery

bit
cir-

of land, where you would not expect them to cumstances." Hexham Courant, June, 1890.

grow under any

SCRUSH, a crush, a crowd. " " Whe are ye scrushin ?


"

To

crush,
mixture

to

crowd upon.
E. Corvan,

There was

d. 1865,

The Rise

scrushin, an' pushin, sic a in Coals.

o* folks."

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

609*

SCRY,

Border foray.

the rousing of the country, or hue-and-cry, in time of a (Obs.) " They found the flood too high to ford the gates of the bridge (at Haydon Bridge) shut against them and, as they fled on foot, they heard the deep opening mouth of the bloodhound, that made the welkin tremble, and the scry of the country people, headed by the bailiff of Hexham and the constable of Langley, pursuing them in hot-trod close
; ;

at their heels." "

Hodgson, Northumberland,

iii.,

2, p. 380.

James's even, the 24th day of July, came Liddisdale men to the barony of Langley, to the number of six score. At six o'clock in the morning the scry rose through the country, and them that was next went forward in all haste." Letter, temp., Henry VIII. Hodgson, above, p. 386.

On

St.

SCUDDOCK,
"

Aw

a small coin or something of smallest value. wonder whe wad cared a scuddick."

W. Oliver, d. 1848, The Lament. " Aw'd getten the brass, every scuddoch." E. Corvan, d, 1865, Astrilly's Goold Fields. A llan 's Collection 1 89 1
,

SCUDGY,
SCUEVE,

a rough apron.
to shift

elwis scuevin on wi'

and screw about with the yor feet." See SCUIFF.


"
Scuffle

feet.

" Y'or

SCUFFLE,

to shuffle.

the cairds."

SCUFFLER, SCRUFFLER,
;

a horse-hoe for cleaning drill It is furnished with four or five strong iron hoes or crops. Each hoe is called a scuffler foot. Scuffle, to clean shares. with a scuffler applied to crops.
to bustle, to hurry.

SCUFTER,
the train."

"

He

scuftered

off

to catch

SCUFTER,
Newcastle
;

a policeman.

cant word formerly


to

common

in

now probably
"

obsolete.

SCUIFF, SKUIFF, SCUEVE,


other in walking.
"

knock one leg against the


Jamieson.

scuiffin

walker."

To

scttfi,

to graze, to touch lightly."

SCUIL, SKEYUL, SKYUL,


"

A scuil

o'

harrin,"

"

scuil o'

a school, a shoal of fishes. porpoises," etc.

SCUM, SCUM, "


gob

a darkening
to

gloom over the sky.


" Aa'll gie ye a scum on the

strike in the mouth. a blow on the mouth.


"

Come

Ye'll gie thor

England's foes, a countless crew, gobs ascummin." R. Gilchrist, d. 1844, A Voyage

to

Lnnnin.

6lO

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to choke,
to smother.
tl

SCUMFISH,

smokin' till aa's wi' the stythe."

fair scumfished."

" The chimley's been Yen on them wis scumfished

" Katherine, daughter to George Errington, taylor, 1699, J une 2. St. Nicholas' Church Books, Newcastle, p. 18. scumfish d in a pan of water."

SCUNCH,

the cheek or aperture the frame of a door or window.

left in

a wall for receiving

SCUNNER,

aversion, disgust, contempt.

youthful bride;

" She's taken the pet or got huffed. gotten the scunners Scunner, scanner, to shrink, to flinch, to recoil in aversion or " he saa'd he scunnered at the verra seet contempt. " He nivver scunnart" never flinched. on't." did not " did not observe or pay attention to. scunner

groom, on being asked by the clergyman if he would take this woman to be his wedded wife, declined to do so and, on " being asked his reason, said he had tyen a scunner at her."
"

When

"He

11

He

didn't scunner

me

at all

Nowse mindin' then but


"

Nelly's jawin'." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt.

iii.,

1829, v. 41.

They

scunner self-denial."

W.

Kelly, Teetotallers of the Tyne, 1854, p. 26.

SCURRY,

to hurry.
"

Scurry in ower the hills." J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Sang

o"

Solomon,
ii.,

Northumberland

version, ch.

v. 8.

SCUTTLE,
SCUTTLE,

a scoop or baler for water, or a vessel for holding coals at the fireside.

a hat or bonnet of any kind

a cant word.

SCUTTLE, SCUTTOR,

to hurry off precipitately.


all

Compare

SCUFTER. " To scud, or scuddle away, to scamper or run away New World of Words, 1706. " Away she skuttors in hor coach."
J.

of a sudden."

P. Robson, The Tip Top Wife, 1870.

SCYTHE, SITE
blade,

the Scythe, in its old form, consists of the fastened to a long, light pole called a sned, and stiffened at the angle, where blade and sned meet, by the The grass-nail also prevents the throat of the grass-nail. scythe from being choked. The handles projecting from the sned are called nibs, and at the further end, on the mower's left, is the strickle, which acts at once as sharpening stone and counterpoise to the blade. Scythe-stitch, a twitching of the muscles of the arms, caused by using the scythe.
;

which

is

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
SE, SEE,
SO. " For his hair is brown, and se is thine, Your eyes are grey, and se are mine,

6ll

Thy

nose

is

taper'd off
like

se fine

Thou's

thy daddy, Johnny." E. Nunn, Sandgate Wife's Nurse Song.


Fordyce's Collection, 1842, p. 243.

"

Oh

hinny Nan, noo lizen me,


gliffed

An' thou shall hear what's

me see.''

Lament for

the Clock Fyece. Allan's Collection, 1863, p. 2.

SEA,, SOO, SOA, a water bucket.


(Obs.)

Called also a water-sea.

SEA-CAT,

the wolf

fish,

Anarrhichas htpus, Yarrell.

SEA-COAL.
Newcastle by

Coals in

London were

originally borne from

sea, and were distinguished the designation of sea -coal.

from charcoal by

SEA-CRAA,

the black-headed gull, Larus ridibundus, Called also peewit gull and picima.
the

Yarvell.

SEA-DEVIL,

common

angler

or fishing frog,

Lophius

piscatorius, Yarrell.

SEA-FRET, SYE-FREET

[N.], a damp fog from the sea. Applied also to a temporary thaw occasioned by the salt vapour during the rising tide. In North Northumberland "fresh" sye-freet is a short interval of thaw between frosts weather of short duration.

SEA-GULL, SEA-MEW,

the

common gull, Lams


catarractes,

canus,

L.

SEA-HAWK,
as a dirt
bird.

the skua, Stercorarius

L.

Also

known

SEAL,

the foot-print of the otter. a willow tree.

SEAL,
SELE.

SEALY,

abounding with willows.

See

SEA-LARK,

the ring dotterel, Charadrius hiaticula, L. the dunlin, Pelidna cinclus, L. See PURRE and STINT.
;

Also

SEALING-LINK
one board
vol.
ii.,

woodwork with
in another.

sealing-link is that in

which

is

groven

Welford, Hist, of Newcastle,

p. 513.

6l2

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SEAM,

a stratum of coal. Each seam has its distinctive name. In the Newcastle district the most important are called the main seams, as " high-main," or first important seam met with on descending from the surface and "low-main," the seam at a lower depth in the series. Seams are also- distinguished by their thickness, as " five-quarter coal," " three-quarter coal," the quarter here meaning nine inches or quarter of a yard. Proper names, too, have been applied, either from the owner of the royalty, or as indicating the name of the coal owner who first wrought a particular seam, as Harvey seam, Townley seam, Beaumont seam, etc. The last-named is often called the " engine seam," with curious emphasis on the " " not otherwise given. Place-names are also applied gine as probably indicating the spot where such seams were first
;

extensively wrought, as Busty bank, etc.

See BROCKWELL.

SEAM, SEYME, SEEM,

a quantity of goods equivalent to a load that is, the load commonly carried by a pack horse. In old charters " seyme of salmon" is thus specified. A "seam of wood" is a horse load; of corn, eight bushels; of glass, 120 Ibs. (Obs.)

SEA-MICE
;

(pronounced sigh-mice], the small waders; the the stints, Pelidna cinclus and sanderling, Calidris arenaria,.L. P. mimita the dotterils, Charadrius morinellus and C. hiaticida, etc. They are also called pennymen near Bamburgh.
;

SEA-MINNOW,
SEAM-NAIL,

the

young

of
i.

the

carbonarius, Yarrell.

See

H ALLAN,

coal-fish,

Merlangus

a riail without a point, from one to one-and-aquarter inch long, on to which a rove is rivetted.
thin,

SEAMY,

thready; applied to thin deposits found as

partings between strata.

SEA-PARROT,
conlterneb

coast

all

the puffin, Fratemtla arctica, L. Called also Norvie. A resident frequent on the the year. It breeds on the Fame Islands.

and Tommy

SEA-PHEASANT,
SEA-PIE,

the pintail duck, Dafila acuta, L.

a term for pot -pie,

which

see.

SEA-PIN ER,
for several

a cold wind, without rain, blowing from the sea consecutive days. Pine, to dry, to desiccate. The north-east wind is a finer, drying up everything in its path. Its effect in retarding vegetation is a marked characteristic,

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

613

SEA-PIOT,
ostralegus,

SEA-PYET, the oyster catcher, Hacmatopus This is a resident in our district, and is L. abundant by our sea shore. Piot, a magpie.
to
sift

SEARCE,

or

strain

through a sieve.

See

CIRSE,

SEERSER, and SES.

SEA-ROARER,
when placed on

large whelk. the ear.

So-called from the sound

SEA-SALE,
LANDSALE.

coals that are shipped.

Compare SEA-COAL and


maculatus, Block.

SEA-SOW,

the ballan wrass,


the

Labrm

SEA-SWALLOW,
on the coast the

common

sye-swallow,

and sometimes

tern, Sterna hirundo. teenn.

Called

SEAT,
seat."

silt.

"

The

cuttin' wis

made through nowt but black

SEAT-AND-SADDLE,
and woman.

was

the equipment of a horse for a man was the pillion for the woman, which fastened behind the saddle.

The

seat

SEATH, SAITH,
advanced stage of

the coal-fish, Merlangus cavbonarius, at See COALSAY. its growth.


rushes.

an

SEAVES, SIEVES, SEVES,


sieve t
"

Hodgson

MS.

Candle-

a rushlight.
Seavy ground, such as
is

overgrown with rushes."

Bailey, Dictionary.

SEA-WARE,
rack or wrack.
belks,

sea-weed.

The

stick-like

Called in North Northumberland stems are called ware-wassal,

or bans, and their tops may-tops.

Compare MAY-WEED

and WASSAL.

SEC, SIC,

Sometimes the form is seckin. " Seckin a such. " such a disturbance or dust there was stoor thor wis on " At seckin a time." See Sic. on. going
working
also
broken

SECOND-WORKING,
working.

The
roof.

pillars

pillars in a coal mine ; called are left after the first

working to support the

SEE,

so.

Compare SE.
thout

"Aw
turn,"

aw wad dih see tee, see aw stept up an' began Thomas Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 14.

ih

maw

614

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SEE- AN '-SEE,

so-and-so, used for an anonymous person, or for the expression of indifferent health or bodily condition. " Hoo are " If ye ax see-an'-see ye knaa whe he'll tell ye." " " see-an'-see." thi day ? Just ye

SEED,
"

saw, seen.
seed it
11

Used

as p.t. and p.p. of the verb to see.

Aa

mesel."
6, v. 5.

Like a flock o' goats that's seed frae Gilead." Robson, Sang o' Solomon, Newcastle version, ch.

SEED-POOR,
ready
for

a furrow with a good "comb" on either side, the reception of the seed before harrowing-in

commences.

SEEDIN,
is

applied to cows and other animals rising prior to their giving birth.

when
"

the milk

SEEDS,
SEEK,

" It's nowther seeds nor meal oat husks. one thing nor the other.

neither

" to bring or carry anything. Hadaway seek the milk." " Aa's ti seek the watter in." Seekin is also used in the gan sense of going round to beg for help. " She'd been oot seekin " aal day asking for charity.
sick.

SEEK,
SEEL,

" Seek

ti
;

Seekenin, sickening

" deed sick to death. also childbed.

Seekness, sickness.

a saddle or pillion.
"

The hinds of Longhirst grange awoke, And looked towards Morpeth town
;

When

a knight with a lady on his seele, Like the wind came rushing down." F. Sheldon, Lord Hepburn.
Minstrelsy of the English Border, 1847, p. 97.

SEEM,

" to beseem, to suit in appearance, to become. " seems that, noo of a man with a new hat). With the (said " Mother qualification ill it means the opposite. says aa ill-seem a dorty face" (said by a servant who was told how
well she looked

He

when she was cleaned


2.

up).

SEEM,
north

a load.

See SEAM,

SEEMLY,
SEEP,

seemingly, apparently.

"

He

wis seemly gannin

when aa saa him."


to percolate slowly
;

an occasional form of

sipe.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

615
it.

SEER, "
seer
"

sure.

" Aa's seer on't


lost."

"

sure of

" Aa's sartin

quite sure. Yer maist seer to get

James Armstrong,

Crossing the Cheviots,

1879.

SEERSER, SEESER, SISSOR,


of

wood about

about a foot in diameter. A hair cloth allows the " churn milk " to pass whilst the particles of butter are retained. It
is

a milk sieve, made of a rim six inches in height, bent into a short cylinder

also called

cirse

and

ses.

Compare
It
is

SILE.

SEESTA, SEESTHA, SITHA, "


" seest thou pause in a sentence. nowt inside."

meaning

"

When

look! see! an exclamation, commonly used as a mere aa cam in, seesta, thor wis

"

Finer,

seeste,

ne'er were bred."

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

pt.

iii.,

1829, v. 99.

SEET,

sight.

Light, night, right, bright, dight, are (in S., T.,


leet, neet, reet, breet, deet.

and W.-T.) similarly

SEET
SEG,

[N.]

soot.

Iris pseudacorus,

a sedge, but, specially, the yellow iris, or fleur de lis, L. S^-bus, a bush or clump of segs. Segs are tied up in bundles and used as floats by boys learning to swim. " Aa larned ti' soom on a bundle o' segs. A partially castrated bull, usually called a bull-s^. Compare RIGGET.

An

fat,

easy-going, lazy person. Seggy, soft-natured, easy-going. " greet seg." lazy woman is called a

SEG,

to sag or bend down, as a slack rope or chain, or as a plank bridge when weighted.

SEGGAR, SEGGAR-CLAY, " "


frequently forms the
thill

the stratum of clay which or floor of a coal seam. See

SAGGER-CLAY.

SEINDLE,

seldom.
"

(Obs.)

But

seindle

now ye can

her see." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,


!

p. 28.

"

For sailors sei'idle pray, but when " There is nae help fra mortal men
The same,
p. 70.

SEIT,

" there's nee seit" comparison, as

SEKKIT,

a reproachful term used to a child.

See SACKIT.

6l6

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
self.

SEL,

Used

in all the

combinations of the word

as mesel,

thasel, kissel, for

myself, thyself, and himself, and worsels, yorsels, thorsels, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. For kissel (hiz-sel), the form "his aan sel" is frequently used. "He did it his aan " sel" For itself, " the sel on't is the common form. u The In North Northumberbairn can gan bi the sel on't noo." land the diminutive form selly is used.
" Since he's gyen Shields hezzent luik't like the Morris, Canny Shields, 1849.
11

sel

on't."

John

Selly' s

a queer dog."

Old saying.

SELE,

a marshy water-course, a stream creeping through reeds and rushes. Brockett, third edition. Compare SEAL.

SELION,
"

a strip of ploughed land. (Obs.) ridge of land which lies between two furrows."

Bailey, Dictionary,

second edition.
" 12 selions of land as they separately lie without the walls of the in the Castle-field (the Leazes), the Welflatte, in Elstwyk field." vol. i., p. 31.

town and 24 selions without the said town in -Deed of A.D. 1491. Archceologia JEliana,

" In the flat town fields the samcasts, sellions, ridges, and other descriptions of doles were divided by a rhyn, or rain (rein), a balk or stripe of unploughed land." Hodgson, Northumberland, in., 2, p. 402, n.

SELL,
a

a porpoise (Northumberland).
sold.

Halliwell.

SELLEN,
sellen

The common form


a bar of a gate.

of the p.p.

"

Aa wadn't

the horse for owt like that."

See SELT.

SELM, SELLEM,
SELT, SELD,
semment body

Compare ELLEMS.

sold; the p.t.

SEMMENT, SEMMINT, "


SEND,
impetus.
" It

supple, wiry, energetic. a tough, wiry fellow.

" He's a

cam

wi' sic a send."

SENNEN, SINNEN, SENON,


senons o' his leg wi' the

a sinew.

"

He

cut yen

o'

the

adge."

See HOWFSENNEN.

SERVE,

gas is said to serve when it issues more or less Serve, in a regularly from a fault, slip, etc., in a coal mine. game, is to bowl or throw to a player.
a circular sieve for straining butter-milk.

SES,

See SARSE,

CIRSE, SEARCE, SEERSER.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

617

SESS, an

exaction, a levy, an assessment. " We'll pay, and ne'er complain, The Jail-Ctfss, Mr. Mayor."
The Newgale
Street Petition.

Marshall's Collection, 1827, P- 82.

SET,

loosening of it preparatory to its falling down. A difficulty, hed sic a set wi'd." a trouble, a fuss, a disturbance. " " What a set " Aa'd sic a set ti get there." yo'r myekin aboot " it." They had sic a set on i' the street as ye"nivver seed." The poker's A bend or inclination from a straight line. " The door winna shut close getten a set" it'sgetten a. set." Of a wall it is usually said it has a "set in" or a "set out," according to the direction of its deviation from a right line.

a tool used in rivetting. See HOBBY. A train of coal tubs or waggons. " Teum set" a set of empty tubs. A column of pump-trees, with buckets, etc., complete. The spontaneous giving way of coal in a mine for want of support, or the

We

" The doors admit the set to pass through the one before the other is required to be opened." R. Scott, Ventilation oj Coal Mines, 1868, p. 10 " S^-rider, a lad who goes with a set of tubs on an engine plane in a Nicholson, Glossary, 1888. pit."

SET,

a tub in a pit unfairly, as when the large coals are left intentionally hollow in the tub or corf, and the top carefully filled over in order to get full payment for as small as possible a quantity of coals. This fraud can only be practiced where the hewers are paid by measure in place of which payment by weight is now most generally substituted. Greenwell, Glossary of Coal Trade, 1849. A tub thus filled was See SET-GOT. To suit, to fit, to also said to be cundied. " It sets him weel" become, as in the expression, (said of a coat or garment tried on). To accompany. " If ye'll wait till aa get me top coat on, aa'll set ye doon the road." " Aa went " Did " ti set me lass hyem." No, Jack ye come bi yorsel ?" " Aa wad setten set us ti the lonnin end." ye, had ye ax'd us." To propel a keel by thrusting it along with a puoy. " He'll
to
fill

built

up and

set

or

row

se tightly."
'*

Aa was

settin the keel, wi' Dick Stavers an Mat, An' the Mansion-hoose Stairs we were just alangside." J. Shield, My Lord 'Size.
1

Bell's

Rhymes, 1812,

p. 22.

SET,

to

cause
ti

there?"

"What
Draw

onybody

used in the phrase, "What set ye ti gan set ye ti think it wis me?" "What set cum on sic a day as this?"
;

Wi' lad

what's

set te

here se

lyet,

in a seat

and crook thy

hoff."
pt.
iii.,

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

v. 25.

6l8

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SET,

" set away," "set off," generally used in combination, as " You'll set the roof " set to put in motion. "set up," doon," " the order to draw doon" cause the roof to fall. " Set up " talk impudently. " If ye set yor gob "Set the gob up up. " " to set in S^-away up ti me, aa'll clash yor jaa" for ye." a call from the banksman in a motion. " S^-away, there colliery to the onsetter to send the cage going down away empty, as men are going down in the one then running " Set the set away"" start away the train or set of tubs. up. " Set (said to a competitor in a game or yorsel away, man "Set away" also means to dismiss. "He's a encounter). poor, useless body, but aa's gan ti set him away."
!

SETAFOOT,

a schoolboy game in mimicry of Border warfare, the foray, the raid, the capture, the release, and the pillage. (Obs.) Wright, Glossary.
to join with others in work.

SET-IN,
"

of the band (of bellringers) observed, that all hands were there, the clock had struck ten, and they had better set in." Richardson, 1830. Table Book, Leg. div., vol. ii., p. 147.

One

SET-IN, SETTEN-IN,
skin after work.

ingrained, as dirt in the pores of the

SET-OOT,
is,

a corf was slack that called down, " This The Aye, aye, lad," replied the onsetter. hewing price of a set-oot corf was deducted from the hewer's wages at the pay.
set aside, forfeited.
filled,

When

not sufficiently " corf's set oot."

the

banksman

SET-OOT,

husbandry, to commence the formation of a rig. ploughing, is commenced with "the settin," the horses being guided to poles measured off to the required width of the rig. This is called the settin-oot.
in

rig, in

SET-POT, a seated or fixed pot, with a The common wash-house arrangement.

fire

and special

flue.

SET-RIDER,
plane.

a lad who goes with a set of tubs on an engine Nicholson, Glossary, 1888.

SETS, SETTERS,
'

a posing or difficult task or problem. This may refer either to a matter Aa'll gi' ye yor sets, noo." of endurance or skill, or to the solution of a riddle, etc.
to set to, to
" If aa'd

SET-TEE,

begin in earnest.
set-tee forst

oney

thing as aa intended

ti

dee."
at the Door.

James Horsley, A Carriage

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SETTEN,

the p.p. of sit. Sitten and apparently with indifference.

setten

are both used,

SETTEN-ON, unwaxed, ungrown, of diminutive stature.


puddings, etc., "bishopped," "The taties is
applied
11

Also
or

to

burnt in settin-on, aa fear."

when

cooking,

See SITTEN.
the Tyne, 1849.

Poor

setten-on

bodies are lengthened." Geddes, Ikeybo. Bards of

SETTER, ONSETTER,
the bottom of the shaft.

the

man who

sends the coal from

SETTER,

an officer on the Border, who, with a searcher, was Two watchmen responsible for setting the appointed watch. were at their posts by night and one by day with setters and searchers of the same. At Haltwhistle, Bellister, at the fords, passes, and other points on the Tyne, this arrangement was elaborately organized. (Obs.)
the large pieces of coal set round the sides of a coal cart, in order that a heavier load of smaller coals may be piled up in the centre. Compare SET.

SETTERS,

SETTING-STONE,
sadling-stone.

a whetstone.

Called also

settling

and

SETTLE-BOARDS, SADDLE-BOARDS,

the portion of the

heapstead at the top of a pit shaft, and between it and the screens. It is covered with iron or metal sheets for the easy passage of the tubs to and from the screens. Greenwell, See FLAT-SHEETS. Glossary of Coal Trade, 1849. " Draw me to bank to the settle-boards of ease, there shall I rest on the
heap of plenty."
Collier's Letter to his Sweetheart.

SETTLING, sediment. SETTLING-STONE.

See SETTING-STONE.

SEUGH, SHEUGH, SOUGH, a small stream or open gutter Aa've been howkin running through land. A surface drain.
'

a seugh to wise the watter away fre' the yet" drain to conduct the water away from the gate.
"

cutting a

Nor ever

better never lap a dyke clear'd a sheugh or syke."

Poems, T. Donaldson, Glanton, 1809, p. 173.

SEUT,

soot.

See SYUT.
the strong
p.t.

SEW
last

(see-oo),

of sow.

"

He

sew the onion seed

week."

620

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
the plaice, Platessa vulgaris, Yarrell. " Behold some others ranged all along,

SEWANT,

To

take the

seivant,

Dennys'

Secrets of

yea the flounder sweet." Angling (Eng. Garner,

i.,

171.)

SEWER,

sure, certain.
[S.]
,

" He's sewer on't."


,

See SEER.

SEYEM SEYEP
SEYME,
SEYPE,

SYEM
SYEP

[T.]

same.
soap.
2.

[S.]

[T.]

a load.

See SEAM,

to ooze or drain off slowly.


[S.],
[S.]
,

See SIPE.
soon.

SEYUN SEYUT
SH,

SYUN, SUIN

[T.]

SYUT

[T.]

soot.

the alleged pronunciation, sh for ch, as Shatton for Chatton for Chillingham, is probably a rustic joke. If it ever existed, it may have been a mere family peculiarity " There's as perpetuated in sayings such as, good cheese in Chillingham as ever chafts chowed," "The children o' Chillingham gied to the children o' Chatton a chair to sit on." These are mere catch phrases, and are common to both sides of the Border, with variations in the place-names to

and Shillingham

suit.

(See Dr. Hardy, Denham Tracts, 1892, p. 272.)


to sneak
off.

Compare

CHEESE.

SHAB,

Compare SNOOVE.

" Nelson

and he together, The springy French did lether, And gar'd them shab away." T. Thompson, New Keel Row.
Bell's

Rhymes, 1812,

p. 6.

SHABBY.

Applied to health when indifferent.

" He's varry

shabby thi' day."

SHAB-RAG, SHAG-RAG, a mean person. SHAD, an open field. See SHADE, 2.


"

Brocket*.

He

raced through reise and shad."


Minstrelsy of the English Border, 1847, p. 421.

See SHOD. SHAD, shallow. " Cairt SHADE, a shed. shade," a cart shed. a detached portion. "Shades of ice" SHADE,
of ice floating loosely about.

" Shad watter."

detached pieces

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

621

SHADE, SHED,

the parting where the hair of the head falls on either side. A water shade is in like .manner the crest of land where streams part to one side or the other. Compare DEAL. To part, to divide, " Get the reddin kyem an' shade " get the tidying comb and part your hair. yor hair
[N.] to shuffle in walking. [T.] to do anything in a clumsy or feckless manner and from this a shaffle means an awkward effort, and shaffly " He com ineffectual struggling. shafflin alang wivhis stick."
,
,

SHAFFLE
Hence

SHAUGHLE
a poor

" He's oney

myed
he

shaffle

on't,

onyway."

"

poor

shaffly

body

'at

is."

SHAFT,

a vertical sinking, as a pit sunk from the surface " drift " or horizontal way into a mine. distinguished from a Downcast shaft, that by which air enters the mine. Upcast shaft, that by which it passes up, after traversing the workings of the colliery. Shaft frame, the elevated framework of wood or iron at bank. Shaft framing, the square framing at the top and bottom of the shaft into which the cage runs at the openings where the tubs are changed. Shaft man, a person employed to keep the shaft in repair. Shaft pillars or shaft walls, strong pillars of coal left round the bottom of a pit shaft. Shaft rent, rent charged for the privilege of drawing up the shaft the coal worked from another royalty by outstroke.
;

SHAFT,

The the handle of a pick, hack, shovel, or mel. handles of besoms, brushes, etc., are called "shanks," and of hand-hammers "helves." These distinctions preserve with accuracy the characteristics of each of the articles abovenamed the long smooth shaft, the rougher " shank," and the short "helve."
;

SHAG,

long-haired,

a covering of long hair. Shag hat, a hat with a very formerly much in vogue among rough nap Finely cut tobacco was formerly pitmen and keelmen. known as " rag baccy," not shag.
;

"

Winlaton Shags; the good


not." "

folks of

know

Denham
It a'

Tracts, edited

Winlaton are by Dr. Hardy, p.

so-called, but why I 68. See SHAGGY.

(The dog's coat) was ay a glossy raven black, her days upo' her back, was like a shag." T. Donaldson, Glanton, Poems, 1809, p. 177. " My good shag hat ne mair aw 11 wave." R. Gilchrist, Lamentation on Death of
Captain Star key, 1824.
off.

SHAG,
"

a piece broken
cole.''

Compare SHADE,
"

2.

Shags of Hodgson MS.

Bartholomew, 208.

Of oaten bread,

of tobacco.''

622

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
"
It's ye,

SHAGGY, term of contempt. SHAIKLE [N.] a shackle.


,

ye shaggy, ye,

'at

did

it."

See SHECKLE.

SHAKE,

a thickening or "belly" in a vein of lead ore, as where two lodes intersect each other and form a large thick or the cavity sometimes found in such places. deposit of ore Compare LOCK.
;

SHAKE-CAP,

a well-known game.

SHAKE-DOWN, SHAKEY-DOWN,

an extemporized bed,

made by spreading a bed-tick and bedclothes on the floor. SHAKES. Used in the common expression " He's nee greet " not a person of character or reliability. shakes, onyway

SHAK-HOLES,

soft

over a hidden spring.

quaking spots on the moors, generally Compare SHOG-BOG.


;

SHALLY-WALLY,
Brockett.
,

shallow-brained

a term of contempt.

SHAM-DOOR,
two
left

door half closed, or with a deal or a kind of trellis to partially stop the air. Nicholson, Glossary, 1888.
in mining, a off
;

SHANGY, COALY-SHANGIE, CULLY-SHANGEY,


riot,

a row, a fight.
"

Farewell,

Tyne Where aw've

brig,

and cannie

kee,

seen

monny a

shungy,

Blin Willy, Captain Starkey tee,

Bold Archy, and greet Hangy." R. Gilchrist, A Voyage

to

Lunnin, 1824.

SHANK,

a stem, the handle of a rake, besom, or fork. Pipe Buzzom shank, the handle shank, the stem of a tobacco pipe. of a besom. Anchor shank, the body or stalk of an anchor. As a cant term, applied to the legs. ** The mear plys her " shanks weel Collar shank, (said of a mare with good action). a rope to fasten up work horses in the stable. Shank-by en, the shin bone. Shank of a hill, the projecting part of a hill, or the narrow ridge, which, like a stem, joins the mass to the level ground. Compare SHIN. The handle of a blacksmith's S hanky -nagie, hand hammer is called a helve, not a shank. shank's nag, on one's own shanks. To take shanky-nagie is to

walk.
" His wrist

was

like

an anchor

shank.''

R. Gilchrist, Bold Archy

Drownded, 1824. " The Shanks of Keuntry Peasants."


1686, p. 24. " I on shanky-nagie

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse,

away

straight did rattle." Newcastle in an Uproar, 1821.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

623
not.

SHANNA, SHANNIT, "


munna, shanna gan

the forms of shall


will not,

Ye winna,

you

must

not, shall not go.

SHAPE,
sittin
i'

" Aa's tired o' an attitude, set pose, or position. " this shape se lang a Tyne keelman whose (said by

portrait

was being
to

painted).
,

SHAPE, SHEP
to start
;

[S.]

SHAP

[N.]

show promise.

to put oneself into position " He's a clivver lad he shapes


, ;

weel."
" Gif it happens that any schapes for to ride." Acta Regia, vol. i., p. 395.

Indenture of 1324.

" Maw sons they shape to follow maw varra footsteps throo." George Chatt, Old Farmer, Poems, 1866, p. 88. " McGregor plays weel, Lambert weel can fling her But Harle shapes like this when puttin on a ringer." E. Corvan, d. 1865, Wor Tyneside Champions.
;

SHARD,
"A

a potsherd.

broken piece of any brittle or fragile substance. Within my recollection, many, in the lower parts of Newcastle, used to resort to the Quayside and other places, where they gathered up coals with the half of a wooden dish, called a shard. I have been told that it was not unusual for two of them to purchase a new dish, and split it for the purpose of making these shards.'' Brockett.

SHARE
"

[S.j,

SHARAN, SHAIRIN
The
skyet,

[N.],

cow dung.

Cow

sharn in Northumberland."

Hodgson
is

MS.

SHARE,
and cut

a slice.
bonny

skate fish

usually dressed for sale


hinny."
Street cry in Newcastle.

into slices or shares.


ha'penny a
share,

" Here's

SHARP,
styen,

to sharpen in frosty weather.


11

to point the tips

and heels of horse shoes


is

horse thus shod a sharpening stone, a whetstone.


Get his gear sharped

sharpeet.

Shavpin-

at the smiddy." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

pt.

ii.,

1827, v. 86.

SHARP,

cutting, cold

applied to the weather.

SHARPS,

the finest quality of bran.

See TREET, CHIZZEL,

and BYE-BOOTINS.

SHARP-SET,
'

The And

quickly seated. dinner waits we snuff the smell a' sharp set, we warrent lang In dashin' in amang the kyel."
;

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

pt.

iii.,

1829, v. 84.

624

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
[N.],

SHAUGHLIN
SHAFFLE.

SHAFFLIN

[T.]

shuffling.

See

SHAVE

[N.]

a pulley wheel.

See SHEAVE.
for the chaffinch.

SHAVE-APPLE, SHAVEY, names


SHEELY.

See

SHAVER,

a wag.

"What

queer shaver he

is."

Young
in

shaver, a small, pert boy.

SHAW,
1

shady wood.

Frequent in place-names, as

Hares/wo;, Henshaw, Longshaw, Stagshaw (Stainshaw), etc. " Thor's Birken shaw, a birch covert or thicket. queer which means that a common saying, the shaw" folk i mysterious beings (fairies) inhabit the thickets.

"A
vol.
i,

shaw of birch and alder trees."


p. 84.

Hodgson, Northumberland,

pt.

ii.,

"

Callaly Castle built on the height, Up in the day and down in the night Builded down in the shepherd's Shaw,
;

It shall

stand for aye and never

fa'."

Popular rhyme.

SHAW,

the green top or stalk of a plant. " Tatie " stalk and leaf. Neep shaw" a turnip top.
"

shaw" a potato

SHAW, to shave, to cut off, to abraid.


off turnip tops.

Shawin tormits," cutting shawed ancle or foot, an ancle or foot having the skin abraided.

" It was, ne doubt, a cooin seet, To see them hirplin 'cross the floor, Wi' anklets shawed and scather'd feet, Wi' salve and ointment plaister'd o'er." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt.

ii.,

1827, v. 16.

SHAW M,
SHEAF,
'

r to warm oneself close to the fire.

by thrusting a portion of the body


(Obs.)

a sheet of glass measuring a square foot.

at Hartlepool fourteen sheif of glass, at is. the sheif, 145.' ' 26 feet of glass at is. Thirty-six sheif of glass at is. a sheif, il. i6s.' " the foot. Welford, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., pp. 358, 360.

"'Bought
1

SHEAKLE,

a shackle.

See SHECK.LE.

SHEALS, SHIELDS, SHEELS, SHEALIN, SHIELING,


shields.}

temporary huts or shelter-places. (The d is not sounded in These sheets were built of sods and covered with

poles carrying roofs of turf or moor rushes. The cattle or " beelds" and "stells." sheep shelters are distinguished as

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

625

The term shields is applied to fixed habitations or towns occupying the sites of earlier temporary huts. It is from this circumstance that the important towns North and South Shields derive their names. They were originally the sheels
mouth of the Tyne. The term occurs in more than ninety place-names in Northumberof the fishing populations at the
land.
" All over the wastes (as they call them), you would think you see the Nomades a martial sort of people, that from April to August lie in little hutts (which they call sheals and shealings) here and there among their several flocks." Gibson's Camden, A.D. 1610. " In Kidland the erected or huts for their

ancient

shepherds
S.

shielings,

temporary
to

accommodation
their

in

own

summer, and on the approach of winter returned

houses."

Oliver the Younger, Rambles in Northumberland,

1835, p. 88. " To

many

shiel

or

shield, in

etc.,

and

of the fisheries on the Tweed is attached a building, called which the fishermen at certain seasons keep their nets, use as a dwelling." R. Weddell, Archaologia JEliana, vol. iv.,

P- 303-

SHEAR,

to reap corn.

Shearer, a reaper.

Compare BANDSTER,

BANDWIN, and CAMP. " Wor maistor's

corn is well shorn, Bless the day that he was born." Harvest rhyme.

SHEAR-BACK,

to enlarge a pit or other excavation by cutting or dressing back with hacks or picks. Nicholson, Glossary, 1888.

SHEAR-DARG,

a day's work in reaping. compare BOND-DARG, and BOON-DAY.

See DARG

and

SHEAR-GRASS,

long, coarse grass, triticwn repens, L. " It is called in Northumberland sheare-grass, because it cutteth handes that touch it." Turner, Herbal, 1548.

mennes

SHEAR-LEGS, shears;

two or three long spars lashed or bolted together, or with a crowntree at the top, and spread out at the base like the letter A, or like a large tripod used for lifting, boring, or masting purposes.
;

SHEARLING, SHEARING, a sheep at the time of its clipping.


See DINMOND and GIMMER.
"

Every time they are shorn, they add a year to their age, and are called two-shear, three-shear, etc., according to the times they have been clipped or shorn, and this holds good of all other sheep; for the age of
is not reckoned from the time they are lambed, but from the time of shearing for although a sheep is generally fifteen or sixteen months old when first shorn, yet they are not called shearings until once clipped, which is understood to be the same as one year old." George Culley, Live Stock, 1801, p. 20.

sheep

626

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
See SHETH.
in mining, thin deals Nicholson.

SHEATH.

SHEATHING,

placed between the joints

of tubbing in a shaft.

SHEAVE, SHAVE
of

any kind, as a
"
i

[N.] a pulley wheel. Applied to a pulley belt sheave, a rope sheave, etc.
,
1 '

Cast-iron sheave.

Inventory of Wallsend Colliery, 1848.

SHECK,

to shake. to interfere in one.

"

Hand

shekkin" a quarrel, or inclination

SHECKLE
a shackle

SHEAKLE, [N.] [S. and T.] the iron eye around which the end of a rope is bent and spliced so as to form a loop for the attachment of a chain or hook. The end link of a chain, made horse-shoe shape, with a screw bolt through eyes at its open end by which it can be attached or detached. The sling that fastens the double-tree to a plough-head or bridle. A cattle tie. "The " sheakle meakers o' the Woodside a term of reproach to the natives of the township of that name, in the parish of Elsdon.
,

SHAIKLE

Hand sfcrf&m, rough


"

usage.
in

natural wood, and the facility with which it can be obtained has induced the custom of twisting birch twigs in a peculiar manner, to serve instead of hempen bands for the purpose of These are called sheakles." Denham, Folk Lore of tying up cattle.

Woodside abounds

Northumberland,

etc., 1858, p. 50.

SHECKLE-BYEN,

the shackle bone, the wrist.

SHECKLE-CRAA, SHACKLE-CROW,
SHED,
to divide, to part.

an iron lever with a ring or loop at the end, used for drawing bolts from wood.
" S/^d yor hair."

See SHADE.

SHEEL,

a temporary dwelling.

See SHEALS.

SHEEL,

a peascod. To divest of the husk or shell. See SKILL. Sheet-barley, barley shelled that is, with the husks taken off. Sheelin-seeds, the husks of kiln-dried oats. See
;

SHILLING-HILL.

SHEELY,

the chaffinch Fringilla Calebs, L. Known variously as sheel-apple, apple-sheely apple-sheeler, shell-apple, shave-apple, The word "chaff" in chaffinch (t. shavey, and (rarely) skiff
,

may be compared

with SHEEL,

2,

and

its

connoted words.

SHEEN,

shin.

Aa'll rap yor sheens"

SHEEN

[N.]

shoes.

See SHOON.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

627
a

SHEEP-TROW,
BEELD.

a sheep trough.

Sheep-rake,

Sheep-rot, the plant

marsh-pennywort, Hydrocotyle

sheepwalk. vulgaris, L.

Sheep-steU^ a shelter wall or enclosure for sheep.

Compare
Bvockett.

SHEETING,

the slope or waterfall of a mill dam.


Erica cinerea, L.

SHE-HEATHER, the SHE-HOLLIN [S.]


,

See HEATHER.

leaves of the holly tree leaves are called he-holly of the she-holly possess the in contradistinction. virtue, if gathered on a Friday at midnight, of revealing The gatherer must in dreams a future husband or wife.

the

upper

having no prickles.

The prickly The leaves

preserve unbroken silence until next day at dawn, and must collect it in a three-cornered handkerchief. Nine leaves must be selected, and tied with nine knots inside the handkerchief, and then placed underneath the pillow. See HOLLIN and

compare HE-HOLLIN.

SHELL,
sheep.

a growing turnip

when

half-eaten on the "brick" by

SHELL,

pump

bucket or clack before

it is

grathed.

Called

bucket shell or clack shell.

Green well,

Glossary, 1888.

SHELL.

See SKILL.
See SHEELY.
"
Shelly stone," "shelly metal," etc.
pale,
sickly,

SHELL-APPLE.

SHELLY,
poorly,

like shale.

SHELPIT, SHILPIT, SHILPY, "


ill.

nerveless,

Yo'r leukin varry shelpit thi day are ye weel " " He's a eneuf ? peeur shilpy thing" (said of a person pale and starved in appearance). It is also applied to drink that is weak, thin, and insipid-looking in colour.
a portion of a field ploughed by
itself.

SHELT,

Britten,

Farming Words, E.D.S.

Compare BRECK,
and

2.

SHELTY,

a Shetland pony.
for

" Pasture

their

Shelties

asses."

S.

Oliver,

Rambles

in

Northumberland, 1835, p. 249.


" There were no carts in our part of the country (between Corbridge and Woodburn) about sixty years ago all the corn and other goods to be consumed were brought on the backs of Shelties little shaggy ponies, not much bigger than a calf." Richardson, Table Book, 1845, Legendary
;

div., vol.

iii.,

p. 305.

628

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
shame. S hem, to [T.] [S.] to shame. Shem a ma I (shame be to me), an " She's Shem an' a bizen, a disgraceful object. bizen" Shem bin ye^ ! (shame upon you), an
,

SHEM, SHYEM
outdo, to put exclamation. a shew an' a exclamation.
" "
the

SHEYEM

See BIZEN.
Brockett.

Shem

astarn, not one."

God

shilde
"

you from

Feuer

Pestilence, 1564.

doole and shem." Bullein, Dialogue Against E. E. Text Society, p. 5, 1. n.


all

When we war

We shem'd the cheps frae

drest,

it

was

confest,
J.

Newcassel, O."
Selkirk, Swalwell Hopping.
i.

SHEP,
lutea.

to set oneself in position.

See SHAPE and FRAME,

SHEPHERD'S PANSY,
SHEPPINS,
sheppins"

the yellow mountain pansy, Viola


cuttings of cloth.

scraps

or

"The

tyeleor's

SHERRYMOOR,
fair sherrymoor"
"

" It was a a disorderly crowd, a tumult. a hustling crowd. The allusion is to quite the battle of Sheriff-moor in the rising of 1715.

The Bishop, though a patient man, And slawly mov'd tiv anger, Could, when the Sherry Moor began,
Restrain his wrath ne langer." T. Wilson, Captains and
the Quayside.

SHETH,

a sheath. foreign sailor wiv a gully iv a sheth biv his side." " Knittin sheth" the sheath worn within the

"A

apron string by

women when

knitting.

The

right

hand

needle rests firmly in the sheth as the knitting proceeds. It is sometimes made by tying a small bundle of straws but the old " knittin together, or by a quill sewn into a fabric " was a small piece of fine grained wood, perforated for a sheth distance of a few inches with a hole large enough to admit a These sheths were often of curious shapes knitting needle. and elaborately carved.
;

SHETH,

a group of parallel rows which stand at right angles to similar adjoining or intersecting rows. In the unenclosed town fields a group of parallel strips of ploughed land, which adjoined a similar group lying at right angles, formed a sheth. Hence the field names " Sheth" " Low Sheth"

Upper

"North Sheth," "South Sheth," "High Headland Sheth" The arrangement was necessitated by the lie of the etc. ground, the strips being made to allow of draining in the
direction of the ploughing.
* *

Waggon sheth, "the group

of ribs

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

62Q

" Tram sheth" the cross ties in a tram forming the framework. which connect the soles or main framework. " Plough sheth" the body or central part of a plough, to which all the other
Sheth, in a ladder, the broader steps, between the rungs, to bind the structure together. " Harrow sheth" the cross bars of a harrow, intersecting the "bulls" or longitudinal bars which run in the direction in which a harrow is dragged. " Sheth of boards," a group of cross workings in a coal pit. If we take the harrow

portions are fitted.

introduced

at

intervals,

as an illustration, the intersecting framework will give an apt example of the galleries of a coal mine worked on the pillar system. The bulls of the harrow represent the heedwis (headways) of the mine, and the sheth represents the boards in the pit. When a panel or division of a colliery is referred to, the group of parallel excavations which have been driven at right angles to the cleavage of the coal (the boards) are of as a " sheth of boards." Hence in

spoken
is

shething, mining, coursing or conducting the air backwards and forwards through a sheth of boards, the headways being closed for this purpose either by sheth stoppings (sheth walls), or, where in use as going headways, by sheth doors.

SHEUGH,
SHEUGH,

a ditch.
"

See SEUGH.

to " lay or place trees or plants temporarily in a hastily dug hole. They are thus treated in order to protect the roots until time allows for planting them properly and

permanently.

SHEYEM-FYEC'D,

shamefaced, or modest. It is sometimes used ironically by inversion for the opposite quality. " Gan away, ye shyem-fyec'd huzzy, ye" (said to a graceless woman). See SHEM.
to throw with an aim. " Shie a clot at him."

SHIE, SHY,
styens at ?"
"

"

Whe

are ye shyin

them

The

chep, astonished at the cry,


shy."
o'

Tuik up a styen and myed a

Song, Where are ye gawn

Sunday
7.

Allan's Collection, p.

SHIELDS,

a shelter place.

See SHEALS.

SHIELDS CAPON,. a
with egg sauce.

haddock salted and dried and eaten


"

SKIFFLE, SHIVVLE,
form there."

to shuffle.

Hi,

skiffle

up on that

630

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SHIFT,
(shifts)

the time of working for one day where sets of men In a colliery the first period of relieve each other. working is called the fore-shift and the next the backshift, and the hewers themselves are similarly called the fore or back-shift according to their rotation in starting work. In factories, where continuous work is maintained, there is a dayand at the end of the week a doubleshift and a night-shift shift or a shift of twice the ordinary duration is sometimes worked, so as to turn the night men of one week into the day men of the next. short-shift is a day's work of fewer than the ordinary number of hours. Shift is applied to the relays worked by horses.
;

"

Four

shifts

spare

shift,

of horses, at two at a time and indeed you should have a or two horses more ready." J. C., Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 33.
;

" Like miners, faith, we'll try a shift, An' work by turns."

T. Donaldson, Glanton, Poems, 1809, p. 132.

SHIFT,

another.

To drive off forcibly. people's goods. " I was borne in Redesdale, in Northumberland, and came of a wight ridyng sirname called the Robsons, gud honast men and true, sauyng a little shiftyng for their liuing. God and our Leddie helpe them, silie pure men !" Bullein, Dialogue, 1564, E. E. Text Soc., p. 6, 1. 16.
"

remove with goods and chattels from one house to Shift, a removal. Shift was in former times applied to the process of removing and appropriating other
to

Hoo mony on
1

Hawks' s Men.
"

us will it tyek te shift them Allan's Collection, 1891, p. 546.


shift,

cheps?"

Stephenson,

Wey, we mun
It

howiver

sair

pains the hated word to nyem." " Then let me here in quiet end maw life, Without a shiftin day." T. Wilson, The Shifting Day, 1852.

SHIFTER, SHIFT-MAN,

a man who prepares the working places at night in a colliery for the men who come in at next shift. His work is of various kinds, such as timbering rolley-ways, taking up bottom stone, or taking down top

make height where necessary, setting doors, building stoppings, redding falls, and stowing away stone. Shifters work by the day or shift, as distinct from hewers, who work by the ton or yard.
to
11

Aw gat,
And

at forst, a shiftor place, then a deputy was myed." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt.

Hi.,

1829, v. 99.

SHIFTING RAVELS, SHIFTIN KYEVELS,

the men who are on turn for removal from one working place in a colliery to another.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

63!

SHIFTING-MONEY,
being removed (that
of the

an
is,

workman removing from one


company
to

formerly paid to a colliery to another in lieu of having his furniture led) by the cart
equivalent

which he was removing.

Abolished

many
flat,

years ago.

Nicholson, Glossary.

SHIFTING THE FLAT,


SHIFT-WORK,
work

in a colliery, removing the or station, nearer to the working places. Nicholson.

work paid

for

by the day

or shift

also the

of a shifter.
unreliable.
fails to

SHIFTY,
fair

but

perform.

Usually applied to one " He's a

who promises
body
that."

reg'lar shifty

SHILFA,

name

for the chaffinch.

See SHEELY.

SHILL, SHEAL, SHELL,


or husk from peas or oats.
Promptorium Parvulorum, 1440.

to separate the outer case, pod,


other
lyke."

"Shyllynge, of coddyd cornys, as benys, peson, and

SHILL-CORN,
face,

by which the pore is enlarged and matter, the black head forming a minute

the obstruction in a pore of the skin of the filled with solidified


spot.

SHILLIN-HILL,

an eminence used for winnowing grain, where the wind was utilised for separating the chaff. Shillinseeds, the husks of kiln -dried oats, used for packing and preserving bacon in chests.

"A shilling-hill, as a place to deet or winnow the groats of oats from the husks that had been shilled off them, before machinery was invented for the purpose, was not an uncommon appendage to a mill." Hodgson,
Northumberland, vol.
iii,

pt.

ii,

p. 118, n.

SHILPIT, SHILPY.

See SHELPIT.
"
"

SHILVINS,

the upper frame at the sides of a coup cart, to which sideboards (additional rails or boards) are temporarily fixed and held by two iron loops. Also a long wide wooden " frame, placed on a long" cart when it is required to carry a large load of hay or straw.
[N.]
,

SHIN
SHIN,

the slope of a

hill.

Compare

shank of a

hill,

under

SHANK.
or SHIN SIDE, the call to a player, in the game of shinny, who has trespassed too far into the line of his

YOR

opponents.

See SHINNY.

632

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
cinders.

SH1NDERS,
SHINE,
object.

See SHUNDERS.

to

show a light or lamp or throw its light on any Used transitively. "Shine a low here, will ye ?"

SHINNY,

a game at ball, in which an equal number of opponents on two sides play with sticks, "curved at the ends,

" called shinny sticks. Two goals or pasts are marked off, the on one side driving the ball to the end of the field players where their past is situated, and those on the adverse side When the players of driving it towards the opposite goal. one side are successful in landing the ball within their past " Hail." As the sides face each other they they cry out strike in opposite directions, and the risk to the shins of opponents who advance too far from the line during a melee At these times the players call out " Shin " or is considerable. " Shin yor sides." Hence the term shinny is popularly derived from the risk of broken shins which attends the game. Grose says the game is called shinney-hah in Northumberland, but this term is obsolete. a kind of greave or leg armour worn on the shins by trimmers, etc., to protect the legs in working.
'

SHIN-SPLINTS,

I lost a'

my

The

shin-splints among the great stanes." Collier's Rant. Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 35.

SHIPBROKEN,
"

shipwrecked.

1640. Given to a poore Church Books.

(Obs.) seaman that was

shippbroken, 40!."

Gateshead

SHIPPEN,
SHIRE,
SHIRE,

a cow-house.

Byre

is

the more usual term.


Halliwell.

thin, scanty (Northumberland).-

to pour off a liquor so as to leave the sediment Halliwell. (Northumberland)


.

SHIRES.
shire,

In Northumberland,

the

three

shins,

Norham-

is

included as parcel of the Palatinate of Durham. "The Shire" the common appellation of Hexhams/wV^, which included the parishes of Hexham, Allendale, and St. John Lee. It was held as a franchise by the Archbishops of York and was a county palatine, as affirmed by the King's Council, 2ist It was united to Northumberland in Edward I. i4th Besides these there are Bamboroughs^m?, and Elizabeth. the Shire Moor, near Backworth.

and BedlingtonsAzV^, are detached portions of the patrimony of Saint Cuthbert. They were formerly
Islandshire,

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

633

SHIRL,

In driving forward a plough, the along. said to shivl the clods. To slide, as distinShirlin, in the game of guished from to jerk, a marble. marbles, is the act of sliding the marble, which is loosely
to
slide
is

ploughman

held for the purpose by the

thumb and
shudder.

forefinger.

Compare
shuddering

PURL.

SHITHER,

to

shiver,

to
.

Shitherin,

To shake violently as a terrier [Belford and Northward] shakes a rat. " Aa gat him bi the scruff o' the neck an' gav him a good skitherin"

SHITHERY,
SHIVE,
"

shivery, as in the sensation of cold in the skin. " Aa's aal " Aa'm a' iv a shither." shithery."

a slice.
heast, lass, an' bring him (poor T. Bewick, The Howdy.
fella)

Myeak

a skive of butter and

breed."

SHIVER,

a splinter, a flake of stone. Shiverins, Shivereens, very small fragments. "It's gyen aall te shivereens," equivalent to the colloquial " all to smithereens." See SMITHERS.
" Shivers or Splints of the 1708, p. 23. " and black

whin or hard stone."


mixed with coal."

J. C., Complecit Collier,

Grey

shivers

Borings and Sinkings,

No. 214.

SHIVER,
"

shale.
;

by

Shale, shiver, or argillaceous slate for the same substance is known these names." S. Oliver the Younger, gambles in Northumberland,

1835, p. 42.

SHIVERIN BOOT, a shivering fit. See BOUT, i. SHIVERY, friable, broken, or disintegrated applied
;

to strata.

"

Grey

shivery post."

Borings and Sinkings, F.K., p. 91.


,

SHOAD-ORE
where
it

[W.-T.] lead ore found on or near the surface, has resulted from disintegration. It is found in all sizes from masses down to the size of peas and grains, " " usually in or near the beds of streams. To go a sheading
is

to go prospecting for shoad-ore.


" Rows of shock a pile or stock of sheaves. and stooks and gatens. Compare STOCK and GATEN.

SHOCK, "
gait
at the
"

SHOD, SHOAD, SHAD,


head of a stream.
Schold, schalowe, note

shallow

the shallow part of a river

deipe."Promptorium Parvulorum, 1440.

634

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SHOE,

an iron plate flanged at the sides to fit upon a colliery It is attached to the cage, and slides on the guide-rod. guide so as to keep the cage perfectly steady in its ascent or descent in a pit. Shoes, fragments of the stalks of hemp or flax which adhere to the fibres and cause obstruction to the spinner In North Northumberland the pronunciation is of the yarn. shough'd, shoed. Shoughin- hammer, a smith's shough, a shoe
;

shoeing-hammer.

Compare SHOON.

SHOEHORN,

sellers at sales.

One employed to bid for the a helper on. Hodgson MS.


slider

SHOE-THE-COBBLER, a trick played upon a the ice. A lad follows another on a slide, giving

on

himself a

quicker start than the one in front of him, and, as he closes with his predecessor, he throws out one foot quickly so as to This feat collide with the other's heels and cause an upset.
is

called shoeing -the -cobbler.

SHOE-WHANG, SHOUGH-WHAING
a shoe
tie.

[N.], a boot Usually called a whang or whaing simply.

lace,

SHOG.

See SHUG.

SHOG-BOG,

and treacherous

a yielding or quaking bog, a green place, elastic to the foot, such as is common on the moors. The shog-bogs are not always to be trusted. Hence the common saying, " Aa've laired mesel deeper i' the shog-bog " got into more and more trouble. Used to describe a futile effort of any kind. Compare SHAK-HOLES.

SHOGGIN,
fat.

quivering, yielding.

"Shoggin wi'

fat," excessively

SHOON, SHUN, SHOUN, SHEEN

[N]

shoes

the

common

"He' ye no an aad pair o' shoon ti gi' us?" plural forms. Beggar's petition. "Item, paid for a payre of shone, i6d." Newcastle Municipal Accounts,
1566.
"

Ma

nice lang quartered shoon se clean." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt.

iii.,

1829, v.

3.

SHOOT,
the act)
Shoot,

to
:

shout.
there's

Landed
sor
?

aware that
to

"

no shooting here

Shootin,

Hullo, are you Poacher (caught in aa's nivver oppened me mooth."


proprietor
?"
:

"

fire

gun, to discharge a shot,

is

invariably

pronounced

shut.

See SHUT,

3.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

635
a
shoulder.

SHOOTHER, "
o
1

to

shoulder.
ti

Shoother,

Shouther,

We'll stan' shoother

shoother."

" Aw'll shoother me gun." J. P. Robson, The Rifleman, 1870. " O'er her fair shoothers her linty locks flee." James Armstrong, Lizzie
the Glen, 1879.

SHOOTHER-CLEEK,

the hook on the "limmer" or shaft of a cart to which the shoother -chain is attached. The shootherchain is the chain connecting the "hyemstick" upon the horse's collar with the " shoother cleek-yoke."
a

SHOOTHER-FELLOW, SHOUTHER-FELLOW,
SHOOTIN, SHOOTIN-OOT,
"

partner or marrow in any work that requires the joint exertions of more than one man. Brockett.
the

common name
Is thee

for childbed.
shoutin oot ?"

What's the mayteer, sez the mistress ? T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. 10.

muther

SHOOTIN-LOAF,

a spice loaf made for and served to the See GROANIN. gossips at childbirth.
[T.]
,

SHORE
SHORE,
the dog
"

a sewer.

"

Common shore."

See SIRE.

to stop, oppose, or direct in turning, as to shore sheep,


It
if

for instance.

ye

shore

has the same meaning as weer. him that way." See WEER.
'

"Ye'll spoil

Shore, to threaten.

It shores rain.

"

Brockett.

SHORK

to make a gurgling noise. This term is best [N.] explained by the noise a person's shoes make when walking with them full of water. When a person has wet feet he " Me says, shoughs (shoes) is shorhin" Compare SLORP.
,

SHORROW,
SHORT,
SHORT,
spoken as

the shrew or field mouse.


In Northumberland ir and ur are always burst borst, burn bom, etc.

a shirt. or as

first forst, sir sor,

easily broken, as when anything breaks short off in It is $hprt bread, a Scottish cake, easily broken. Short is richly kneaded with butter, and stuck with comfits. applied to wrought-iron that fractures with a slight blow. If it does this when cold it is called "cold short" if when hot it is "red short." The presence of phosphorus or other impurity

the hand.

is

generally indicated by these terms. "A portion of pea-meal is mixed with the

of this mixture are not so short as those


'

made

barley, and the cakes made of barley alone." S. Oliver

Rambles

in

Northumberland, 1835, P-

J 6o.

636

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
" He was quite short wi' me." abrupt, ill-tempered. taken abruptly or unaware. short,"

SHORT,

"Taken
falls

SHORTWORKINGS,
SHOT,

or SHORTS, the quantity of coal that short of that allowed to be worked annually by the certain rent of a royalty. See OVERWORKINGS.

In ancient tenures certain taxes are a sum to be paid. " The reckoning at Kirk-shot," "Acre-shot," etc. specified as a tavern is here, as elsewhere, called the shot. "We boos'd away till the break of day, Then asked what shot we had to pay." Song, Till the Tide comes in.
Marshall's Collection, 1827, p. 70.

SHOT, SHOTTEN,

rid of, clear of. "Get shot of" get rid " If aa wis " We'll be of a thing. oney fairly shot on't." to get shotten on ye." glad

SHOT,
cold

is

a blast, a charge or cartridge of gunpowder. " Aa've called a shot. gettin a shot o' caad i'
also

A
me

slight

eye."

Compare FAST SHOT and STANDING BOBBY,

SHUT,

3.

SHOT,
SHOT,

a young pig.

" In the northern parts pigs are frequently called shots after being weaned." George Culley, Live Stock, 1801, p. 20.

a throw and haul in net fishing. Shot-and-shot-about, a term applied in net fishing for salmon. alternate casting " If the starting or landing place of a net belonging to one fishery is so close to another fishery, that nearly the whole of the net of the former is at one time within the boundary of the adjoining fishery, this is called shot-and-shot-about. The owners of fisheries on opposite sides of
;

the river are also entitled respectively to their shot-and-shot-about." R. Weddell, Archtzologia ^Eliana^ quarto series, vol. iv., p. 317.

SHOTS,

shots,"

beasts or sheep left out after prime animals are The portions of a flock of sheep or lambs rejected " by a buyer, who has liberty to select the tops," or best of the flock. The process of selection may go on until " first " third " second and even " fourth shots "
selected.
shots,"
shots,"
of.

have been disposed

Compare PALEY.

SHOT-STICK,
is rolled.

a round stick on which a paper cartridge case

SHOULE,

a shovel.

See SHUL.
month an mare."

SHOUN

[W.-T.], shoes. See SHOON. "Maws/town hes been mendin at the cobler's
12.

this

T. Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

637

SHOUTHERS,
"

shoulders. See SMOOTHER. Roe was leanin on the hudsteahyn, wie his braid Jack
etc., ed.

shouthers."

T. Bewick, The Howdy,

1850, p. 10.

SHOVER-IN,
to

an assistant banksman at a colliery, employed push the empty tubs into the cage. Nicholson, Glossary,

1888.

SHOW,

appearance, indication. By the show upon a candle or lamp the presence of fire-damp in a colliery is A lamp shows when the flame becomes elongated indicated. or unsteady, owing to the mixture of inflammable gas with the air, or a candle when the pale blue "top" or lambent flame appears above its ordinary flame.
in a safety

SHRIEKER,
"

the black-tailed god-wit, Limosa tfgocephala, L.


J.

rare casual visitant."


p. 101.

Hancock, Birds of Northumberland and

Durham,

SHUFFLE,

a movement in a step-dance executed by tapping The double -shufflf, or Sandgate-rattle, the heels on the floor. an advanced stage in which two taps of the heels are given at each step Stepcut-and-shuffle, a variation of the dance. dancing was, not many years ago, a general accomplishment among the young men who assembled at street corners to wile away their time. See CUT, 4.
;

SHUG,
To

to

sway
its

violently, as trees in a violent gale of wind.

urge to

''What are ye

utmost speed, as a horse, etc. shuggin at?"

To

shove.

SHUGGY,

to

shug or sway.
boat

variant form of the foregoing.

SHUGGYSHOE, SHUGGYBOAT
constructed
like

a large swing [N.], seats across common at hoppins and fairs. To shuggvshoe is to sway or swing, or, as " to hike." it is usually expressed,
a

with

"

As we pushed off, loak a' the quay To me seemed shuggy-shooin,


!

An' tho aw'd niver been at sea, Aw stuid her like a new-un." T. Thompson, d. 1816, Jemmy Joneson's Whurry.

SHUL, SHOUL, "

a shovel. In daily use. " Len's yor shut." a shut o' yor aan." Shul-shank, a shovel Hadaway, get handle. Shtil-heed, the blade of a shovel. Shul, shoul, to " Aa'll shitl the coals in for shovel. threepence." Shul-byen, the shoulder blade i.e. spade bone, from its shape. Shul-mn, the ground surface traversed by the blade of a shovel in
:

638
lifting

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

and filling stones, etc., from a heap. If the surface is hard and even it is a "good shut-run" if soft and uneven, a
;

"bad
"

shul-run"
Aug. Paide for a shoule to the
fier,

1592. Accounts. " 1626,

2S."

Newcastle Municipal

March the 6th. It. paid ffor a shulle to the bellmane, 8d." Gateshead Church Books. " For puttin, or hewin, or handlin a shul, A'm iz strong iz a bull, ye cull." E. Corvan, d. 1865, The Jolly Keelman.
Allan's Collection, p. 55.

SHUNDERS, SMIDDY SHUNDERS, SHUNT, to settle an adversary by


"Aa'll seun shunt the likes
o'

cinders, smithy ashes.

thrusting him aside. cant word shunt, to avoid, is said to be derived from the railway term, but in the older sense it is still in common use.

him."

The modern

"

To

shunt, a

country word for to shove."

New World

of Words, 1696.

SHUT, a weld, the junction, by welding, of two pieces of iron. " Broken at the shut." " A flaa i' the shut."
SHUT,
to slide or shoot; as "shut up" or " shut down the " " if it be a sash, or " shut back if it be a horizontal In a trial in Northumberland for a burglary at Billy slide. Mill, where the house was entered by a slide casement,

window

the judge nor the counsel could understand a principal witness against the offenders when he stated that " shut the window he forswore
neither

they

himself.

It

was a

slide.

open." They thought " Shut the bolt" Hodgson MS.

shoot the bolt.

SHUT,

to shoot

p. shot; p.p. shutten.


is

for fishing.

Each haul

called a shot.

" He's a bonny

Also to put out nets Shutter, a sportsman.


shot

shutter,

yon chep

myest

his

fethor."

Shuttin, blasting.

Shuttin-fast, or shooting-fast,

blowing down

coal with gunpowder, without nicking, by which the coals are produced in a very inferior condition. Greenwell, Glossary, 1888. " Paid to Ro. Heslopp for mendinge a muskett, the locke being brokin, which was in shutin when my Lord President cam, 2s." Newcastle
Municipal Accounts, October, 1593. " And what was still warse, and to save their awn mutton, Young Tinley tell'd Jackson they had a' gone Si-shuttin." Battle on the Shields Railway, 1839. "To see them shut, then run, then shut ; And then fall doon or lie still O wuns it's better than a play,
;

The bonny Wallsend

Rifle."

Song, The Wallsend Rifle Corps. (Time of Bonaparte.)

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

639

SHUT,

diarrhoea in cattle.
to shudder.

SHUTHER,
SHUT-OFF,
more
is

See SHITHER.

to cut off. joiner planing a piece of wood, to be taken off, says, " Aa'll shut a bit mair off."

if

SHY,

" Yo'r unwilling, slow, backward. varry shy wi' that " o' yors "The to produce and share it. baccy unwilling folks is varry shy o' tornin up thi day" (said of a slow

gathering attendance).

SHYEM,

shame.

See SHEM.

SIB, intimate,
sib

" Thor near akin, blood relation. The phrase, " They are too s?&," varry together." applied to cattle, is used to describe breeding in-and-in but only when the quality or constitution of the progeny has deteriorated from the parent stock.
friendly,
;

SIC, SEC,

SICCAN,
" I
I

such.
S. Oliver the

"Siccan a fight as we had I ne'er saw in a* my days !" Younger, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 156.

was saw

at New Castle, where I trow ye ha' been, syke a Sight there, as ne'er yet was seen." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686.

"

What

a runnin theyres

meyhd

at sic

ateyme."

T. Bewick, The Howdy, 1850.

SICCANLIKE, SIC-LIKE,
ower fond
o'
11

such

gannin' wi'

boozy Bob

" like, similar. an' siccanlike raff."

He

wis far

Aw

so Jenny Gardner an' sum mare sic-leyke fwoak.'' T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p.

n.

SICCANSO, SIC-AN'-SO,

similar, identical.

SICKER
by
"

It is frequently prefixed [N.], sly, inward minded. " He's a sicker yen." Sickerly, surely. gey." gey

SICKET, SIKET, SECRET,


rivulet.

a small syke, a small brook, a

Diminutive of
a schedule.
"

syke.

SIDDELL,

dumplin,

like

a sma' coal heap,


1

Wi' About made up the savoury

puil o' spice-kyel i the middle, pies and puddins, wide and deep,
siddell."
pt.
iii.,

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

1829, v. 109.

640

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SIDDLE,
o'

" to slope, to dip downward. Just ayont, the seam The downward inclination of a coal begins to siddle" stratum is called the siddle. The sloping side of a declivity " He wis in a field is called the siddlins. plewin on the siddlins" The term sidhns is also applied to the side of a rig. To a ploughman it is the slope below his furrow, the fall of the ground from him. The general direction of the strips in open-field tillage lands was regulated by the siddle of the ground to admit of natural drainage. Compare FALLS and FA' AND FA' ABOUT.
" Sidlini, the term in records for sidelings or balks between or on the New World of Words, 1706. sides of the ridges of ploughed lands."

SIDE,

a scythe.
; ;

SIDE,

" Aa'll also steep. long tyek some o' this check In Newcastle, Percy Street was formerly a yard side." say, known as Side Gate or S^gate that is, long street. The Side is still the name of the long and steep acclivity which connected the lower with the upper town of Newcastle. The evident meaning has led to its application in other places where similar steep bank-sides are characteristic. Gateshead (gate's heed, or head of the road) is thus, not and Conside is a common form infrequently, called Gates^ of Consett. Side, as denoting extent, is constantly used in the expression " the country-s^," meaning either the adjacent district or the people living in a certain district. " The hyel country-s^ wis at the funeral." Side occurs in combination no less than eighty-five times in Northumberland
;

Corsenside, Catchers^, Woodsufc, place-names. Gregory, Archatologia sEliana, vol. ix., p. 69.
" My coat is very side," that is, very long also proud (North Country.) Bailey, Dictionary, second edition, 1724.
;

etc.

See

also steep.

"

Stepnesse, or sydenesse of a roof."

Promptorium Parvulorum,

Way,

p. 474.

SIDE,

to put in order, to tidy. To "side up the hoose," to "side the room," is to put everything in its proper place.

Hodgson

MS.

SIDEBOARDS,
cart,

removable boards at the side of a " coup " used to increase its capacity. They are fitted with

projecting"legs of iron which slide into two loops fixed in the " shilvins of the cart.

SIDEBONE,

a disease in the hoof of a horse.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

64!

SIDE-OVER,
is

in coal mining, is to drive headways course, that to drive in a line with the cleat, through a pillar of coal

when working the broken.

SIDE-WEFER, SIDE-WAVER,
of a

loose material at the sides

cutting in stone or coal

ready to

fall

down

if

left

unsupported.
" A side-wafer, or a frame of stone, most dangerous to look at, as it appeared ready to drop." R. Scott, Ventilation of Coal Mines, 1868, p. 28.

" The sides of the shaft, where the strata were tender, had given way large side-wefevs had slidden off, and others were hanging dreadful to pass by." The same, p. 31.
;

SIDE-WIPE,
indirectly.

a blow on the side of the face applied metaphorically to a home thrust in an argument administered
;

SIDING,
and
in a pit.

a doubled portion of a
of

tramway where the empty


;

full sets

waggons have

to pass each other

a bye-way

SIDLINS,

a declivity, the side of a sloping bank.

See SIDDLE.
it

SIE, a drop.

"

Not a

sie left

"

(said of a liquid

when

has

all

evaporated or been

spilt).

SIGH,
"

to

become

larger.
little,

The shoon

are ower

but they'll sigh out."


,

Brockett.

SIGHT,
SIKE,

a quantity.

See SITE.

such.

See Sic.
"Ti
sike

time

is

J.

the day daas." P. Robson, d. 1870, Sang

o'

Solomon,
ch.
ii.,

Northumberland version,

17.

SIKE,

a small branch stream or drain.

See SYKE.

SIKES, SYEKS, an
the mettor wi ye ?"

exclamation.

" Sikes alive!

man, what's
'

" Syeks man, aw hope ye hevvint seen sum James Horsley, The Bacon Scare.

sporrits or bo-boggles.

SIKET,
SILE.

diminutive of
"

syke.

See SICKET.

Herring

sile" either the

spawn

of herrings or very

small herrings.

642

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to strain through, to trickle. strainer. See MILK SILE. " When he read the three first lines, He then began to smile And when he read the next three lines, The tears began to sile." Ballad, Lord Dev went water's Good-night.
;

SILE,

SILL,

a stratum. The word is of special application to the great basaltic outburst traversing the county, which is called a whin sill, because sometimes seen, like a stratum, intercalated among stratified rocks. Sills-burn, a rivulet in Ridsdale, so named, probably, from the strata through which it runs appearing bare in various parts of its course to a considerable " The depth. In the plural it denotes the strata in general. sills are lying flat."
" The Grindstone Sill or Post." Lebour, Geology of Northumberland and Durham, second edition, 1886, p. 44. " 'Seven Sandstone and shale sills or beds. beds, or sills, of coal.' The grindstone sill.' " Mackenzie, Hist, of NorthumberThe slate sill.
' 1

'

land, 1825, vol.

i.,

p. 95,

SILL,

till

or until.

"

Keep on

at that job

sill

aa

set

thoo

another."

SILLER,
"

silver.

sillerless

man gans

fast

through the market."

Newcastle proverb.

Brockett.

SILLY,

term of pure, innocent, young, inoffensive. affectionate pity, often applied kindly in speaking of " The bit bairn's children. asleep noo, silly thing." " When we were silly sisters seven, sisters we were so fair." Old Ballad, Fair Mabel of IVallington.
a caul, or membrane, which have over their faces when they are born. The silly-hue is usually preserved, and is believed to sympathise with the person whose face it covered, so as to be dry when he is well and moist when he is ill, at whatever distance he may be absent from it. Silly means child's, or childish.

SILLY-HUE, SILLY-HOW,
some
infants

Hodgson MS. "In my fantasie


Society, p. 9,
1.

it is

happy

to the

Huntman when he have nethyng


E. E. Text

of the Catte but the


25.

sillie

skinne."

Bullein, Dialogue, 1564.

SIN, SINE, SEN,


fortnith sin'd."

since.

Sin'd, since then.

" It's mair nor a

" Sair fail'd, hinney, sin I ken'd thou." "

About twelve weeks The keelmen tuick't

sine,

Old song. was a fond trick, intiv their heeds for to stick." The Keelmen' s Stick. Song,

man,

it

Marshall's Songs, 1823, p. 10.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

643

SIND,

wash out by rinsing. hinney." Compare RANGE.


to

"Just

sind oot the coffee pot,

SINDER,
pull'd th'

to put

asunder.
swdry."

Sindry, asunder.

"Somebody's

aad

mop

SINDRY,
SINE,

sundry, various, several.

"Aye;

aa've seen 'm catch

sindry troot."

to " sine a disperse its milk.

cow

"

the same as to

let it

go dry, or to

Hodgson

MS.
;

SINE,

afterwards.
to singe.

" Forst creep


is

sine

gan."

See SYNE.

SING,
thin,

Sung

the imperfect tense.

SINGIN-HINNY,
buttered.
It
is

a richly kneaded currant cake, rolled out

It is served up hot, sliced and girdle. an especial favourite in Northumberland, and is an indispensable item at every homely festival. It is called sometimes a spiced fizzer and a small-coal fizzev.
"

and baked on a

Hing on the

girdle

let's

hev a singin-hinny." Song, Ma' Canny Hinny.

SINGLE,

the small bundle of corn gathered and tied up by a " " Gleaning is often described as gatherin singles gleaner. or as singlin. Single is always pronounced sing-l, and singlin, sing-lin. Singles are bundled and carried home on the and afterwards " bittled."

"gatherer"
!

SINK

an oath.

"

Od
is

sink

"

ye

etc.

See EXCLAMATIONS.
is

SINKERS, men whose


wells.

special

work

to sink pit shafts or

under the direction of a master sinker. Sinkin, a shaft or "winning." Sinking-set, a set of pumps used in sinking a pit shaft. " Well, honest sinker, now thou hast coaled the pit, take thy wages,
and the labourers
J. C.,

The work

too,

with what thou sayest

is

customary to drink."

Compleat

Collier, 1708, p. 32.

SINNEN,

a sinew.

See SENNEN.
time, since the
at

SIN-SYNE, SINSINE, since then, since that " The last time aa saa last time. ye wis
aa've ne'er seen ye sin-syne"

Newcassel

" 'Tis mair than forty years sin syne." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt.

ii.,

1827, v. 19.

SIPE,

Hodgson

to leak, to ooze out, to flow slowly through a crevice. MS. Also to drain off gradually, or to the last drop.

644

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
Sipins, the

SIPIN,
"

a percolation. or vessel.
Sandy
F. K., p. 19.

droppings from a leaky cask


Borings and Sinkings,

gravel, with a small siping of water."

SIPPLIN,
aller."

a sapling.
plants or sippleings, as we here call them, of oak, ash, or Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 35.

"Young

J. C.,

SIRE,

a sewer, a runner of water.


to sip.
;

See SHORE.

SIRPLE,
"To

sip often

to drink

when he drinks

fastidiously

by little at a time. and sparingly."

horse

is

said to sirple

Brockett.

SIRRAH, SURRAH,

a term of address; used only to a " De younger person or to an inferior animal. ye hear sirrah?" (said by a shepherd to his dog). It is me, " used applied to either sex indifferently. "Sirrah, minden in expostulatory speaking to a forward girl.
!
!

SISTA
SIT, to
"

" equivalent to see you

!"

an interjection.
"
;

See SEESTA.

Aa

fit, or the fit of a garment. dinna like the sit o' yor goon

The
it

coat

sits

him weel."

wants a tuck anunder

the oxter."

SIT.
"

" sit a biddin "is to refuse to obey a command. To the market," to expect too much and thereby lose an opportunity. "I doubt she has sat her market" (said of a girl too particular in her choice and therefore not likely to be married). To sit-on, to stick to the cooking utensil. " " The stuck to the bottom of the pan. dumplin's sitten-on not properly grown, Sitten-on, youth of stunted growth is called bit sitten-on creetur." See SITTEN.

To

sit

"A

SITE,

SEET, [N.], a large number; a great " Thor wis a site o' folk at quantity of objects seen at once. " He lost a site o' brass." the funeral." Also chance or " Thor's nee probability, as seght o' them comin the neet."
a hard substance
it

SEGHT

SITFAST,
his hand."

wound and prevents

which sometimes forms in a from healing. " He'd a sitfast in iv

SITH, SITHENS,

in the Darne Croke) sithens the said suppression." Property of the Nunnery of St. Bartholomew. Welford, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., p. 494.

since. (Obs.) "Before him Sir William Johnson, .Sir John Sadler, and Sir Thomas Langton, priests, deceased, did occupy the said house and waste (lying

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

645

SITHA,

see thou, see you used as an exclamation, often " When he " do cam, sitha, aa interrogatively for you see ?" didn't ken whe it could be." See SEESTA.
;

SITHORS,

scissors.

The

th

sounded heavy as

in withers.

SITTEN, SETTEN,

the p.p. otsit. Sitten-on, small, ill-thriven. sitten-on creatur" (applied to a thing." diminutive person). " Black szYfcw," near the time of incubation, applied to eggs under a hen when the birds are in the shell. " When a dumpling, hasty pudding, potatoes, etc., have sitien on to the bottom of the pan in which they are boiled they are said to be

"A

sitten-on

"A

bishopped."
p. 131, n.

S.

Oliver the Younger, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835,

SITTIN-UP,

keeping watch at night a custom yet observed with a corpse from death to the burial. See LAKE WAKE.
;

SKAIDLY,
SKAIL,
"

of a pilfering habit.

See SKYEDLY.

to disperse.

See SCALE.

SKAITH,
Glossary,

harm, injury.
the skath, and another hath the scorn."

One doth
"

Proverb, Ray's

E.D.S.

Wa's me that ever I was born, For I'se get baith theskaith and scorn."
"

The

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, bits o' good we de

p. 49.

The verra happiest moments gie us, And mun, aw think, still help a wee
At
last frae

awfu" skaith to free us." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

pt.

i.,

1826, v. 100.

SKARN, SHAREN,
hungry dog Hodgson MS.
"

dung

of cows.

See SHARE.
Northumberland proverb,

will eat a skarny

pudding."

SKEADLICK,
rocks, as in

a sneaking low animal or person.

See SKYEDLY.

SKEAR, SKEER, SKERR,


Green
scar.

Sheer,

another form of

a term applied to some coast Hadstone Sheers, etc. Probably See SCAR and compare CAR.
;

SKECKY, SKEKIE,

mettlesome, ready to start at an object " " That's a (said of one skecky mear applied to an animal. that shies at anything). The word was variously used as a not uncommon epithet applied to men. Its signification may have been descriptive of a proud, disdainful mien, or of a pugnacious character. Mr. Thomas Forster, of Alnwick and

646

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

Warenford, who died at Alnwick in 1813, a gentleman of eccentric habits, was known as the " Skecking Laird." Only a few years ago, a workman named Forster, a relative of the above Forster, died at Alnwick. He was usually* called the skecker by his comrades in the shop. A policeman at Warkworth was known as " Old Skeck."

SKEDADDLE,
"

The American War familiarized this term in 1862 had been commonly used on Tyneside long before.
The word
fifty

to disperse in flight, to retreat precipitately.


;

but

it

was constantly used in Winlaton in my youth, Note by Mr. Isaac Jeavons, 1891. In Dumfriesshire it was currently applied to the wasteful overflow of milk from an ill-balanced milk pail." Mackay, Dictionary of Lowland
skedaddle

between
11

and

sixty years ago."

Scotch, 1888.

SKEEL,

a vessel containing about six gallons, constructed of wooden staves, hooped with iron, one of the staves being made longer than the rest and carved so as to form a handle. The diameter of the skeel is greatest at the bottom the taper towards the top giving steadiness to the vessel when it is filled and balanced on the head, where it is always " " carried when full. A " weeze or " skeen forms a circular pad for the head in carrying water whilst a flat board or wooden trencher, called a " stiller," floats on the surface to prevent splashing over the edge.
straight
;

"

1652.

stoole for the skeeles."

Gateshead Church Books.

SKEEL, SKILL, SKEEL,


Hodgson
to
shell,

he' nee skeel o' that

approbation, regard, good opinion. " no good opinion of that man. chep
to

"

Aa

take

the

shell

or

husk

off corn.

MS.
skilful,

SKEELY,
SKEEN,

adept, sagacious.

the round pad which a maid puts on her head in Weeze is the more general name. carrying a skeel.
shying, easily scared.

SKEERY,

"

The

horses were skeery."

See SCARRY and compare SKECKY.

SKEET, SK1TE, SKEATE,


glance off as a water. " Aa'll and drakes.
flat

to skate,

to slip,

to

skid,

to

stone does when thrown on the surface of sheet ye," a challenge to the game of ducks

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

647

SKEETS,
guided.

the shaft timbers in a pit on which the cage is " Skeetin-dyels," deals erected to fend off a kibble or bucket in a shaft.
the stump of a branch.
Brockett.

SKEG,

SKEIR-WARE,
nodosus.

the marine algae, Fucus serratus and Fuciis


2.

See WARE,

SKELF,

the old Northumbrian mode of pronouncing shelf. Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. Hi., p. 195, n. Compare SKARN, SKEEL 3, SKELL-DUKE, and SKIMMERIN.
shieldrake, Todovna Belonii, Ray.
bandganner.

SKELL-DUKE, SKELL, the


Also called the
"
It

scaledrake

and

Holy Island and Bamborough." and Durham, p. 150.

breeds in rabbit holes on the sandy links by the seashore between John Hancock, Birds of Northumberland

SKELLET,
SKELLY,
required

an iron pot with feet, like a " yetlin," but differing from a yetlin in having a straight, instead of a bow, handle.
squinting.
Skelly,

From the effort squint. observer, the telescope is Similarly, a kaleidoscope is facetiously called a shelly scope. " " gleed, asquint. humorously called a gleediscoup " She struck me wi* surprize while she skelly'd wiv' her eyes."
to

by an inexperienced

W.

Midford. The Pitman's Skellyscope, 1818,


shelly

p. 53.

"

Wiv

her snipy beak, an'

een."
p. 170.

Robson, Lovesick Collier Lass. Bards of the Tyne, 1849,

SKELLY,
Yarrell.

the small river fish dare or dace, Leuciscus vulgaris,

SKELP,

a sharp slap. "Aa'll gie ye a skip o' the lug." To slap smartly with the flat hand to thrash soundly to make in mining, to use the or cause any very rapid movement pick in pulling down or hewing coal, instead of kirving, nicking, and wedging, or bringing it down with powder.
; ; ;

" I

canno

tell

canno

tell a'

gat a skelp, and some gat a claw; But they gar'd the Featherstons haud their jaw, Nicol, and Alick, and a'." Surtees, Death of Featherstonhaugh. Border Minstrelsy, fifth ed., 1821, vol. i., p. 241.

Some

"

Wor

The words cam

tongues becam' ne cripples noo, skelpin rank and file." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,
1

pt.

iii.,

1829, v. 70.

648

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SKELPIN,

a cant term applied to anything very large. " She's a " It's a skelpin lass." Skelper is similarly used. noo." skelper,

SKELPIN-THE-HIDE-AND-TALLOW,
;

carousing till the a custom observed value of hide and tallow are consumed when a "mairt" had been found to weigh more than had

been anticipated.

(Obs.)

SKEM, SKEMMY,
skem."

a term of contempt. Also the blue rock or any other

"He's a

reg'lar

common

breed of

pigeon.

"For

there's a

chep that skemmies breeds." Robson, Bards of the Tyne, 1849,

p. 113.

SKEP, SKIP,

a basket of wicker work, rushes, or straw, used " produce. Bee-skep" a beehive made of straw. The word is applied generally and may be used as the name of any handy receptacle. A coal skep is a coal scuttle. A meal skep is the dish in which oatmeal is kept. The skep was formerly a measure of varying quantity in each It sometimes contained twelve bushels, of sixteen locality. gallons to the bushel and upwards.
for carrying agricultural

SKEULIN,
"

What

See SKYUL. schooling, knowledge. dis a plewman want wi' skeulin, aw wad ken ?" Geo. Chatt, Old Farmer, poems, 1866,
"

p. 86.

SKEW,

the roof line of a gable. Skew-blocks," the corbelled blocks on which the water-tabling of the gables rest. To throw aside. " Divvent skew the things aboot that way." " Skewin a stone" is the art of throwing a flat stone with "side" on it, so that it cuts the air and holds a straight
course.
to slide. The wheels of a locomotive skid when they revolve without biting or adhering to the line. A waggon wheel is skidded or caused to slide by chaining or spragging it.

SKID,

SKIDDER,
SKILL.

the

common
2.

skate, Raia

batis, Yarrell.

See SKEEL,

SKIMMERIN,
shining clean.
"

shimmering.

" Skimmerin clean"

polished and

Lac't (laced) about wi' shimmering- tinsel." Discourse, 1686, p. 24.

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious

SKIN,

" Aa'll skin to flog violently. ye Skinnin, a thorough thrashing.

if

aa get ahad on ye."

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

649
cards.

SKIN-ABYUN-SKIN,

to

trump over your adversary's

SKINCH

the cry for parley in a boys' game. This appears have superseded the old form, " King's shouted out when a truce is called in a game. speech,"
!

of late years to

SKIN-FLINT,
lean, or

mean

person, a miser.

Skinny-flint, a thin,

bony person.
very small.
Skinty bit, a very small piece.

SKINTY,
goose.

SKIP-JACK,

a child's toy

made

of the

merrythought bone of a

SKIPPER,

the leading hand on board a keel. The crew of a keel consisted of three men and a boy the men known as " " bullies," their senior called skipper, and the boy peedee." " 1618, an information was made in the Star Chamber May i6th, against several hostmen and skippers of Newcastle-upon-Tyne for Brand, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., p. 278. adulterating coals." " An Act of Parliament, 1788, for establishing a permanent fund for the relief and support of skippers and keelmen employed on the river Tyne." Mackenzie, History of Newcastle, p. 550.
;

SKIRL, SKREEL,
childish rage

to cry

excessively.

continuation of

and

grief.

Hodgson

MS.
It

SKIRL-NEAK'T,
Coquetdale
;

name

A common stark naked. usually applied to children. of a place near Wooler.


the two pieces of

expression in is also the

SKIRVAL,
1

wood

acting as a keel in cobles.

SKIS-THURSDAY,
wrights

our Lady-day in Lent. Books of ShipCompany, Newcastle, 1630. Brand, vol. ii., p. 343, n.
,

(Obs.)
" Skirisfurisday Skyirthurisdaye, the Thursday before Good Friday. " Called, in England, Maundy Thursday." Jamieson, Scottish Dictionary.

SKITE, SKITE,
SKITE,

a kite.

See SKYET.
"

a forcible slap.

Aa gav him

skite o'

the lug."

to throw or to shoot with a jerk, as in throwing a flat stone that tips along the face of a pond. " Aa can skite a styen farther nor 'ee." "The styen hit the top o' the waal
an' skited reet off."

To

fly hastily.

See SKEET.

Compare

SKUTTOR.

SKITE, SKYTE,

to squirt.

See SCOOT.

650

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
to

SKITTLE,
aboot."

run about without

aim.

"He
:

gans

skittlin

SKIVE,

to shave or pare leather. Shoemaker " Hoo did ye come to spoil them soles that way?" Apprentice: "Aa skived them, sor."

SKLENDER,
SKLENT,
fell."

slender.

Occasionally used by old people.

"The

to slant, to glance. sun's sklentin"

"The

"He

styen sklented off as

it

sklented oot o* the side o'

his ee."

SKOGGER,
SKOUT,

the leg of an old stocking, applied to keep snow out of shoes. Hodgson MS. A variant of hogger, which see.

the auk is so-called in Pennant, Tour in Scotland, ed. 1790,

Northumberland.
i.,

See
(Obs.)

48.

Halliwell.

SKREEN
ment

(a form of spelling screen, which see), the arrangefor sifting or screening coals at a pit.

" Small coal skreening apparatus with Inventory of Wallsend Colliery, 1848.

gangway, &c., complete."

SKREENGE, SKRINGE,

to squeeze violently.

Brockett.

SKRIEGH

[N.]
"

a shriek.

See next word.

The

owlet gave an eerie skriegh." Minstrelsy of the English Border, 1847, p. 406.
;

SKRIKE,
hear."

to shriek

a shriek.

"

The

skrikes

on her wis aaful

ti

SKUDDY,
SKUG,
"

naked.

a shelter.

To

seek covert or shelter.

SKUMFISH,
Wood
11

to suffocate.

embers, the snuffing of a candle, sulphur, &c., have skumfishing effluvia in close rooms." Hodgson MS.

She thout she wad

ha' been skumfeesht wi' the steyth." T. Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 15.

SKUNNER,
SCUNNER.

to flinch from.

"She

nivver skunnered

it."

See

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

651
3,

SKUTTOR,
SKITE,
3.

to hurry
11

off.

Compare SKITTLE, SCUTTLE,

and

Away

she skuttors in hor coach."


J.

P. Robson, The Tip Top Wife, 1870.

SKYBELT,

a lazy, useless, ne'er-do-well.


[T.], pilfering

SKYEDLY
thievish,

SKAIDLY [N.], of [S.] Applied especially to a propensity. sneaking, voracious dog or cat, and occasionally to men of "A " That's a similar disposition. skaidly skyedly beast." " tyke." Greyhoonds is myestly aall on them skeyedly"
,

SKEYEDLY

SKYEL,
SKYEL,
SKYET,

to disperse. to scale.

See SCALE,

.1,

and SCALEBREAK.

Skyels, scales of a fish.

a kite.

"Paper

skyets,

penny

pies, an* huil-doos."

W.

Midford, The Pitman's Courtship, 1818.

SKYET, SKYEAT,

a skate fish.
skyet,

See SKIDDER.
ha'penny a share, hinny."
Newcastle
street cry.

" Here's yor bonny

SKYLARK, to play
SKY-SCRAPER,

pranks.

a niggardly person.
also

SKYUL
etc.,

[T.],

SKEE-YUL,

a school.

SKUEL, SKUIL, SKULE,


at pitch

group of gamblers

and

toss is called

a skyul.

SLAB-DASH, SLAP-DASH,
to stencil in colours

to whitewash, to paint roughly, on a plaster wall a method of decoration much used before the introduction of cheaper wall papering. An imitation of marble was sometimes made by splashing on
;

colours.

SLACK,

small or dust coal.

SLACK,
"
still

Ye come

a hollow, a depression on the surface of the ground. " The snow's ti where thor's a slack i' the road." i' the slack" lyin

SLACK,

impudent, loose, or
Says he
"

idle talk.

"

Had

yor

slack

"

hold

your tongue.
Read
this,
J.

and haud yor

slack."

P. Robson, Skipper's Almanack. Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 152.

652

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
insufficient in quantity or

SLACK,
here."
filled.

volume.

"

The
;

air's slack

"

He

Not

slack" that is, insufficiently busy, or in indifferent employment the opposite

sent

up two tubs
1

of "flush." "Are ye very thrang thi day?" "No, hinney, Listless in bodily condition, trade nivver was se slack.' " Aa feel that slack aa cud lie doon." as in hot weather. " Put mair coals on, the oven's getten Inadequately heated.
slack."

SLACK- WATTER, smooth water, where the current is


SLAB, SLAY,
11

not

felt.

the sloe; fruit of blackthorn, Slay bus," a sloe bush.


"

Pmnus

spinosa,

L.

When

the slae tree


barley,

is

Sow your

whether

white as a sheet, it be dry or weet." Old saying.

SLAFE,
SLAG,
its

narrow,

mean

looking

said of cattle.

pyrites, generally

a thin bed or band of coal mixed with lime and iron known as brat. Probably called slag from apparent resemblance to that substance.

SLAGER, SLAIGER, "to


SLAIN,
rust or that wheat."
soft,

besmear, bedaub.
slaiger'd

in doing anything. place." Compare SLAIRG.

He

To make a mess the paint ower the hyel


lot o' slain

smut

in grain.

" Thor's a

amang

SLAIRG,
sloven.

wet mud, "

clarts."

Compare SLAGER.

SLAISTER,

a mess, a slovenly way of doing things. Also a " He's a reg'lar slaister." To bedaub, to do anything in a dauby or untidy fashion to walk with an awkward and slovenly gait. To slaister a person is to mess him by giving him a thrashing. The word seems always to denote some form of mess caused either by want of skill or want of " Them tidiness. painter cheps gets badly endwis, an' " He cam they've been slaisterin on for a week at the job." slaisterin alang an hoor ahint the time." Slaistrel, a sloven. " Clean the yaird up, ye greet slaistrel, ye."
;

SLAKE,

a large

mud

flat

composed of
;

sleek (ooze),

alternately

bare by the tide as Jarrow Slake on the Tyne, Fenham Slakes, the flats near Holy Island. In 1670, the forms Jarrow-s/zfo and Jarrow-S/yfo occur. Brand, vol. ii., Slakes are formed where the absence of rapid currents p. 27. allows the deposit of fine sediment.
left

covered and

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

653

SLAKE

The enterospecies of seaweed, Entevomorpha. the bed of the lower part of the Tweed during the summer, and are well-known to our fishermen under the name of slake, for, by clogging his nets, they offer a serious obstacle to his work. Johnston, Botany of the Eastern Borders, p. 287.
[N.]
,

morpha

fill

Compare SLAUKE.

SLAKE
bucket

[N.]

a habitual drunkard.
slush.

Known

also as a slush-

and a

SLAKE,
SLAP,

to smear, to wet, to bedaub.

to enter at a breach or opening. " They're looking where to find a gapp And, if they find it, in they'll slapp."
G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686,
p. 35.

SLAPPING,
STRAPPING.
"
Stopper,

tall,

strong,

strapping.
Brockett.

See

STRAPPER and

any large object."

SLATE,

a stratum that splits or slices easily. The finegrained and thinly laminated sandstone used for roofing in old houses is also called slate, and the large slabs into which it is dressed are known as Northumberland Slates. The beds from which it is obtained are called slate-sills.
" There are three varieties of coal the slate or common coal, the Cannel or Splint Coal, and the Coarse, also called Splint Coal." Mackenzie, History of Northumberland, 1825, vol. i., p. 82.
;

SLATE,

to thrash a person.

It

means to damage an antagonist


;

effectually, as with a stroke. Also " to set a dog loose at anything

as sheep, swine, &c."

Brockett.

SLATTERY,
SLATY,

wet, rainy.
;

"

slattevy

day."

like shale

where other and harder deposits alternate


I

with a seam of coal a slaty coal is the result. " The Stone-Coal is subject to be a little Slaty, as
Compleat
Collter, 1708, p. 19.

am

told."

J. C.,

SLAUKE,
latissima,

the sea- weed green laver, Ulva lactuca and U. The edible sea-weed, which continued to be L. sold in Newcastle for food or pickling, is the purple laver, " Rag Porphyra laciniata or P. vulgaris, Ag. At the weekly Fair " in Sandgate it was a regular article of sale, collected by the Irish who lived in the low parts of the town.
It is called in Northumberland slauhe : whyche in lent the poore people sethe, and that with lekes and oyniones. They put it in a poot, and smoze it, as they call it, and then it looketh blake, and then put they oyniones to it, and eat it." 'liitner, quoted Johnston's Botany of

"

Eastern Borders, p. 286.

654

.NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SLAVERIN,
"
slaverin, "

slavering. Applied as a term of contempt " slaverin " slaverin hash," cull," equivalent to boobyish, as

or slaver-haggish."

is likewise fined for calling Wm. Johnson, one of the Stewards, slavering hash, and deniing to meete 35. 4d." Books of the Bricklayers' Company, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Nov. 28th, 1665. " Wor Geordy, one day the greet slaverin cull He wad be a noodle, and act like a full." Ed. Corvan, d. 1865, He wad be a Noodle.

Henry Hedley

Allan's Collection, 1891, p. 394.

SLAY,
sleek.

the sloe.

Usually written
river
is

slae,

which

see.

SLECK,

smooth

mud.

slake
.

"Sludge"

wet,

muddy

is a large expanse of deposit, but not necessarily

fine and smooth as sleek. " Sleek or soft and smooth

earth, deposited in silent corners of rivers in a flood. Jarrow Slake, especially in the Salt Meadows by the side of the Don, contains an almost inexhaustible quantity of fine sleek clay, well adapted for making a ware similar to the terra cotta of the ancients." Hodgson MS.

SLECK-TROW,
"

the trough containing the water in which smiths cool their tongs and temper steel. "Slake, to quench and trow, trough." Hodgson MS.
;

the time for parading nigh hand grows, A' wesh thirsels clean i' the sleek trows; Fling off their black duddies,

When

And

to drill run the

Leave hammers and studdies, bonny Geatsiders." J. Shield, Bonny Geatsiders.


(Volunteer song of 1805.)

SLED,

a sledge. Drees," or sleds, were in use for many purposes where wheeled vehicles are now generally adopted. They are still used for heavy weights where roads are not available. Skdder, the former name for the under-banksman
at a colliery.

"

"The sled, on which the Corves were drawn previous to the introduction of wheels and rails, is still used occasionally in leading to a stow board." Nicholson, Glossary Coal Trade terms, 1888.

SLEE,
cat."

sly, astute, crafty.

"

On

the

slee

"stealthily.
furred.

SLEEKIT
SLEEP,

[N.]

smooth skinned or smooth

"

sleekit

become quite motionless.

applied to a peg top, which in spinning appears to It is then said to sleep.


[N.], sleepy, drowsy.

SLEEPERY

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

655

SLEEPIN MAGGIE, the


Linn.

red meadow clover, Trifoliumpratense, Britten and Holland, English Plant Names, E.D.S.
to sleep
in
;

SLEEP-THE-CAALER,
after the callev

literally

to

sleep on

has roused the slumberer.


"Sleet
o'

SLEET,

sleight, dexterity.

hand."

SLEICHER,
SLENT,
aslant.

a skulker, a sneak.

slant, oblique.

"

It's

on the

slent"

aslope.

Slenty,

See TOPS.
a bloodhound. (Obs.) known by the scent." Jamieson. man which led him, to go make enquirie
;

SLEUTH-HOUND, SLOO-HOOND,
"
Sleuth, the track of

man

or beast as

" Paide for a sloohound


for

and a

Newcastle Municipal Accounts, 1.592, Aprill. " Paide for the charges of a bitch and a dogg one from Denton, and one other from Chester [le Street] to followe the sents and trode of those which broke the towne chamber dore paid to the man of Chester for his bitch, 203. his owne paines, 2s. paid him of Denton, for the The same, anno 1595. 325." dog, IQS. " In 1616, a commission was sent to Sir Wilfrid Lawson and Sir Hutton, stating that horrid disorders daily increased in the Borders, and that slough-dogs should be provided, according to the King's proclamation." W. Hutton, History of Roman Wall, 1802, p. 100. " Sharp is the sturdy sleuth dog's fang." Ballad, The Fray o' Plautwessell.

James Watson,

53."

Wm.

SLEW, SLUE,

to turn or swing anything round, as the jib of a crane slews its load. " He slewed him reet roond aboot." " The more or less north-easterly strike prevalent in the strata
throughout the southern part of Northumberland undergoes a powerful twist or slew along the west side of Coquetdale." Hugh Miller, Geology of Otterburn and Elsdon. Geological Survey Memoir, 1887, p. 16.

SLICE,

a small square shovel used coals on to his fire.


"Slyce, spatula."

by a blacksmith

for

putting

Promptorium Parvulorum.

SLICK, SLEEK,

smoothly, cleverly.
and slick he twirls the stick." James Armstrong, Wanny Blossoms, 1879,
p. 29.

" Sae neat

SLICKENED,

Used to describe the appearance polished. found on the planes of bedding where a fault in the strata has occurred. Slickenside, the polished rock surface caused by two sides of a fault rubbing the one against the other during upheaval or subsidence of the rocks.

656

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SLICK-STONE, SLEEK-STONE,

a polishing stone, or a piece of solid glass with which floors were formerly rubbed to give them a glossy appearance. Slickstones were sometimes made with a stalk or handle. (Obs.)
(p.p. of slide), slipped. celebrated figure, called Robin of Risingham, which was cut in high relief upon a huge block of sUdden sandstone." Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. i., p. 165, n.
"

SLIDDEN
The

SLIDDER,

to slide with jerks.

" The winder

sliddered

doon."

See SLITHER.

SLIDDER, SLIDDERY,
"

My

tongue

is

unstable, slippery, smooth. grown sae slip and slidder."


Discourse, 1686, p. 20.

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious

SLIDE,
which

mining, the moveable brattice end in a board, so as to be drawn across the tramway to the opposite side, in a sloping direction, for the purpose of throwing the air up the board at nights, when the pit is not working. Slide-regulator, Sliding -scale, in mining, a framework made with two sliding latticed panels, sliding past each other, and thus opening or closing to regulate the scale of air. See REGULATING SCALE.
in
is

made

SLIDES,

cage guides fixed


a slide on ice. "

in a pit shaft.

See SKEETS.
breed a
slidcy."

SLIDEY,

Howay,

lads, let's

SLIDING-DEALS.
SLIME,
or

See SKEETIN-DYELS.
a mixture of sand and See SLUDGE, i.
soft lead ore in

SLUDGE,
,

process of washing.

SLINE
SLING,

[W.-T.]

a joint in stratified rocks.

Also called a

back.

or PLOO-SLING, the swivel and hook attachment by which the double-tree is slung from the plough head, or "bridle"; and the similar attachments by which the

"swingle-trees" are
double-tree.

again,

heavy

Sling, a chain weights in lifting.

in turn, connected with the with loops used for putting round

SLINGE,
SLINGY,
SLINKY, "
fella

to slink, to sneak.

Compare SLEICHER.

a lazy, useless fellow.


" He's a of a slinking, deceitful character. slinky that is, a schemer in evading his work.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

657

SLIP, SLIP-DYKE,

a dislocation of the strata in a pit where a portion of the strata have apparently slipped down. A " " whin-dyke is where an intrusion of basalt has occurred. Where the fault is slight, and the elevation or depression amounts to a few inches only, it is called a " hitch." In the language of the workmen all these disturbances are expressively classed under the name of "troubles."
"

The

small

collieries."

slips, hitches, and troubles so constantly met with in Lebour, Geology of Northumberland and Durham, second ed.,

1886, p. 134.

SLIP, an

outside covering, a child's pinafore. Pillow slip, a pillow case In general use. Slip was formerly used for a scabbard, sheath, etc., and the maker of such things was called a slipper, a term now obsolete.
" Elizabeth, wife of George Heslop, sword-slipper." 1580, Nov. 16. Interments, St. Nicholas' Church, Newcastle.

SLIP, "a
lass

slight or slim person, a

growing

"
girl.

bit slip iv a

a young, slender

girl.

SLIP,

hank of yarn consisting


SPINEL.

of twelve " cuts."

CUT and
SLIP,
SLIP,
glib.

Compare

See quotation under SLIDDER.

to run or he's gettin on."


,

walk
"

hastily.
slip

" Aa'll

slip

doon an' see hoo


he's wanted."

Just

ower

an' tell

Bob
"

SLIPE

[N] slippery. Slippy, slippery. the flags is that slippy.'"


quick.

Aa canna waak,
be quick.

SLIPPY,

"

Leuk

slippy

noo

"that

is,

SLIPPY BACKS,
See BACK,
3.

four or five inches in a

vertical planes of cleavage occurring every seam of coal. Gresley's Glossary, 1883.

SLIPPY-PARTING.
SLIPS,
at

See SLICKENED.

flat iron bands encircling the wood of a swingle-tree each end and in the centre, to which S shaped links are attached to connect with the plough or other implement at one side and with the horse gear at the other.

SLITHER,
slip.

a slide.
"

"

Hi, lads,
away,

let's

hev a

slither:'

Slither, to

She

slithered

like the
J.

snaw i' the street." P. Robson, The Kittlin Legacy, 1849.

658

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
the p.p. of slit. the neck to the boddom."
(*

SLITTEN,
o'

"His

coat wis

slitten fre

the nape

SLIVER
let in

long), a thin strip, especially a thin lath or tongue,

between two grooves, in order to make an air-tight A cross-piece on top and bottom of a cart heckboard. joint. The can for receiving yarn as it is spun.

SLOACH,
SLOAT,

to drink in a vulgar, greedy way. Also a fellow " He's a drinking more than his share. greet muckle sloach."

off the skat

the neck in a carcase of beef. ti myek a pie."


to slake lime by with drink.

"

Aa want twee pund

SLOCKEN,
appease
slockent."

thirst

mixing it with water, to slake or " Aa've sic a drooth aa canna

" 1654 Paid for making the church cleane, the pewes, &c., after the lime was slockned in the quire, 8d." Church Books of St. Nicholas,
Newcastle.

SLOG,

to strike with great force. Used in describing the blows given with a sledge-hammer. " They slogged away at the anchor shank." See SLUG.

SLOGAN, SLUGHORN,
YET-YET
!

a gathering cry for war, the shout See YETraised at the attack, or the watchword of a clan.

"Then

raise the Slogan with ane schout,


it
!

Fy, Tindall to

Jedburgh's here." The Raid of Reedswire.

SLOGGER,
to
fit

to hang loosely or to become loose through work, Stockings or clothes that fall slack loosely or untidily. are said to slogger. The part in a machine that shakes or works in a loose manner is said to slogger. pair of loose loose, slippers down at heel are also said to slogger. undress jacket is called a " sloggerin jacket." S loggers, loose a person disorderly in dress. trousers

SLOGGERY,
(said to

loose, shaky.

"

Dinna had

it

sloggery like that

"

one who had a loose, irresolute hold of an " The crank's workin a' sloggery."

article).

SLONK,

a depression in the ground, like a "swallow

hole.''

Compare SLUMP.

SLONKY,
SLOOM,

long and lanky.

a doze.

See SLUM.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

659

SLORP,
food

to make a sucking noise with the mouth as in taking " He with a spoon or in drinking. slorped his tea." to boots or shoes when they make a Intransitively applied similar sound. "Them shoes slorps at the heels." "Slorpin " an' eatin drinking noisily with the mouth full of victuals or like a glutton. "Slorpin an' greetin" crying and making a sobbing sound. "Slorp 0' Tuggal," a Northumberland saying applied to a person having a slovenly appearance in the feet. By "Slorp o' Ttiggar* is meant a clog and a shoe, or a similar incongruity on the feet. Tuggal is a township in the parish
;

of

Bamburgh.
a door bolt.

SLOT,
door.

To

"slot the door," to shoot the bolt of a

" Two slotes for the dining chamber door." History of Newcastle in XVI. Century, p. 358.

Account of 1560, Welford,

SLOT,

to cut a groove in anything.

SLOTHER,

thick fluid.

Compare SLUTHER,

i.

Slothery,

messy, slatternly.

SLOWF

(the pronunciation of slough), a

miry place.
Called

SLOWPEY,
SLUDGE,
SLECK.

a slop garment, a kind of smock frock.

sometimes a smokey.
for draining off the

wet sediment or mud. Sludge-cock, a cock sediment from a steam boiler. Compare Sludger, a tool which screws on to the end of a
soft, It is

bore-rod to extract the sludge.

of cylindrical shape,

having an auger-like screw at the bottom and a clack or It differs from a valve to retain semi-fluid material. " wimble," which is used where the triturated matter is in a dry condition, in having the retaining clack. Sludge-ore, the ore of lead so finely pulverized that it cannot be submitted It is deposited in to a stream of water without loss. Also called receiving tanks and then carefully treated.
slime.

SLUG, SLOG,

to

strike

" Touch us, if ye dar, an' is a dire beating.


" Gi'e

violently, to overcome in a fight. aa'll slug ye." slug or a sluggin

them every yen a

slug."
pt. Hi., 1829, v. 34.

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,

SLUGHORN.
nor slum."

See SLOGAN.

SLUM, SLOOM,

a light sleep. " Aa've getten nowther sleep Slummin, dozing. See DOVER.

660

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a bog or wet hole.
to slip,
to fall

SLUMP,

See SUMP.
into

SLUMP,
place.

plum down

any wet or

dirty

Ray,

Glossary, E.D.S., B. 15.

" Newcassel hes fairly slump't into disgrace." R. Gilchrist, 1835, Song of Improvements. Bards of the Tyne, p. 416.

SLUSH,

melting snow or soft wet mud. Slush, Slushbucket, a fellow, a gluttonous eater and drinker. Slush-coal, Sluice-coal, soft, messy, or pulverized coal. Slush-kit, a half barrel in which grease produced in cooking, etc., is stored. " The road's Slushy, sloppy from half melted snow. varry

drunken

slushy."

SLUTHER,
41

slough or muddy deposit. Compare SLOTHER. The shoes had got loosened and had stuck in the tenacious clay
Simpson, History of Bwhs. Nat. Club,

of

the sluther or slough."


p. 312.

vol. vi.,

SLUTHER,

" She sluthered to huddle in a disorderly manner. the things together." Sluther -ma -giillion, a great, loose, untidy "He's a greet sluther-ma-gullion." Elsewhere sort of fellow. the form is slubberdegullion. See Hudibras i, iii., 1. 886.
"Slutherment, Sludderment, dirt,
filth,

nastiness."

Brockett.

SMAA, SMAAL,

small coal coals that pass through the screen bars before their further separation into nuts, etc. Small-leader, a leader of small coals, a lad employed to "put" " stow-board." GreenwelL small coals from the hewer to a
;

SMACK,

flatly,

"

suddenly and with a resounding blow. The bairns lap ower the bed wi' fright
Fell smack

upon the

floor,

man."

W.

Midford, X. Y. Z. at Newcastle Races, 1814.


2.

SMAIRG,

to besmear.

Compare SMOOR,

SMALLY,
ear.

" He's very small, of stunted or immature size. a bit smally body onyway." "The tormits is smally thi oney

SMART-MONEY,
who have
11

money paid weekly by masters to persons received an injury at their work. Men who are injured while at work in the pit get a weekly allowance
is

of five shillings from the owners of the colliery. This money." Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field Club, vol. vi., p. 206.

called smart

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

66l

SMASH

a characteristic expletive. It is used in many combinations, and is expressed to give vigour or emphasis. " Smash ! let us we'll and see
!

Jemmy,

buss,

off,

Newcassel

Races." Also spoken as Odsmash ! Adsmash sark ! Smash me hart ! or Deel smash me hart !

Gad smash me

SMASHER,
smasher,''

a pasty or tart made of fruit. A " grozer a round standing pie made of " grozers " (goose-

berries).

SMASHER,
dimensions.

cant

word

for

anything

of huge or gross

SMATTER,
"

to smash.

Wor

Ralph
that

'11

smatter a their ribs,

Smatterin, a complete smash up. he is se strang, begox !" R. Emery, Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 281.
1

11

Aw own

aw was

fairly

deun and

smatter' d very sair."

The same.

SMEEDE,

smooth.

" Smeede letch."

This often occurs

in

place-names.

SMEETH

(the th as in seethe), to smooth.

SMIDDUM,

through a sieve, collected of washing the refuse ore.

small particles of lead ore which have passed in a tub or cistern, in the process

SMIDDY, SMITTY,
snug

a smith's shop; applied also to a small, house or location and again, by inversion, to a common or mean-looking place. " Ye've a warm smiddy doon " It's i' the huddock there." oney a poor smiddy, onyway aa wadn't he' sic a hoose." Smiddy shunders, smithy cinders.
;

SMITTY GUM, SMIDDY COOM,


iron

.the

scale

which

falls

off

when

it is

worked

hot.

Compare COOM.
Bullein,

SMIT,

to infect.

afraied of eche other for feare of smityng." Dialogue, 1564, E. E. Text Society, p. 8, 1. 19.

"Thei were

SMITHERS, SMITHEREENS "


splinters,
*

(the th

as in

wither),
ti

He's broke the pot aal minute fragments. See SHIVER, i. It's gyen aal ti smithereens." smithers"

SMITH OF KIND,
an
unbroken
line

one who

is

the seventh in descent from


father

of blacksmiths

and

son.

See

HEART-GROWN and BLACKSMITH OF KIND.

662

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS

SMITTAL, SMITTLE,
is

It infectious, catching, venomous. also applied in describing either a likely place to catch a " It's a smittal fish or a likely bait for catching. spot for a salmon." " That's a smittal flee for a troot."

"The toad is very smittle, in plain English venemous." Legends and Superstitions, p. 142.
" It's smittal

W.

Brockie,

when owt

o'

that kind's started." Geordy's Last, 1878, p. 7.

SMOCK-RACE,
which
girls

chemise.

a race formerly common at the hoppings in prize being a new smock or (Obs.)

competed, the

SMOKEY
SMOKEY,
SMOOR,

[N.]

a kind of smock-frock.

See SLOWPEY.

the hedge sparrow.

See SMOTTY.

to smother.

SMOOR,

to

smear

or

daub

(Northumberland).

Grose.

Compare SMAIRG.

SMOOTHY
warm.

sounded as in thin), dank, damp, and and moist condition of the atmosphere " It's a smoothy day." frequently experienced in autumn.

The

(the th close

SMOTTY,

the hedge sparrow, Prunella modularis, L. also hedgy, spowey, smokey, bluey, field-sparrow, fieldy, etc.

Called

SMOUT, SMOOT,
rabbits in a fence.

a hole

made and frequented by hares or See SMUT-HOLE.

SMOUT,
SMOZE,

a smelt; anything small.


a

method of cooking.

See quotation under SLAUKE.

SMUDGE,

To "smudge to laugh in a suppressed manner. " Also to smoulder as a is to laugh inwardly. See SMUSH. fire of field weeds does.
and laugh

Aw fancy

" She smudgin said, ye mun ha'e yor way." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt.

iii.,

1829, v 7 2 -

SMUSH,

to burn without flame or

any appearance of

fire

except smoke.

Hodgson

MS.

SMUT-HOLE, SMOT-HWOLE, SMOOT-HWOAL, SMEYUT-HWOLE, SMOUT, the run or track of a hare


through a hedge
;

a tiny hole in a rabbit burrow

not the

main entrance.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

663

SNAA,
"

snow. On a fall of snow it is said that geese are being ploated," and the following doggerel is sung by children as they dance and catch the feathery flakes
:

"

Keelmin, keelmin, * ploat yor geese Caad days an winter neets."

'

This legend of the snow is a very widely diffused one, and in Hesse, when it snows, they say, " Mother Hulda is making her bed" this, as it is shaken up, causes the feathers to fly about. See various sayings under FLOAT. Snaa-bmsh [N] ., melted snow. " The snaa-brash has ruined me shoes." See SLUSH. Snaa-read, Snaa-wreath, a snow-drift.
;

SNAB,

the projecting part of a

hill.

SNACK,
CHACK.

a snap of the jaws, a slight or snatch meal.

See

SNACK,

" She snacked it to snatch, to snap, as a dog does. up afore aa could rich't wi' me hand." snackin horse, one that bites. Snacky, Snack-apple, the game of snap apple.

snappy, ill-tempered.

SNAFFLE,

to take unfairly
"

to steal.

The brawls aboot a lyin-tide Or snaffled torns (far warse te

bide)."

T. Wilson, Keelman's Tribute, 1839.

SNAG, to hew or NOG and SNED,

cut roughly with an axe.


2.

Brockett.

Compare

SNAITH.
cuckoo's

See SNED.
torquilla,

SNAKE-BIRD,
SNAP,
baked

the wryneck, Yunx maiden and cuckoo's mate.

L.

Called also

a small gingerbread cake. When made very thin brittle they are called brandy snaps or scranchem.

and

SNAP,

a small pick used by lads employed to separate the brasses from the coal.

SNAPPY,

querulous, ready to catch at

trifles.

SNAP-UP,

to catch up hastily, to lay hold of in haste. "When aa gat there the pick on them had aall been snapped up." " He snapped us up afore aa could say a word."

664

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SNARL,
made

a slip-loop used for catching rabbits or hares. It is of fine wire and set in the run of the animal. Hence "te snarl rabbits." Snarl, Snot-snorl, a ravelled, knotted skein. The kink in a rope is caused by the snarl or sharp bend of a
loop.

SNARLY,

crabbed

in

temper, cross.

"Just pinched to deeth, they're tarn and snarly, A' yammerin on frae morn till neet." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., 1827,

v. 50.

SNASH
SNECK,
The

(used for snack), to snap as a dog. " Dogs ha' snasht their Haunches."

See SNACK,

2.

G. Stuart, Joco-sevious Discourse, 1686,

p. 67.

latch or light fastening of a door or gate. from outside either by a flat thumb plate and lever, or simply by putting the finger through a hole in the door, or else by a piece of string passed from the latch through a gimlet hole to' the outside. Sneck-bow, a cross-bow. The string is held in a notch and liberated by a sueck arrangement in discharging the bolt or dart. Sneck-hole, the hole for inserting a finger to lift the sneck. Sneck-key, a doorSneck, a cant name for the nose key for lifting the latch. probably so-called from the resemblance of the projecting catch of a sneck to a nose. Sneck, to fasten the latch or hand catch of a door. Sneck-draan, long-nosed or visaged, hence applied to narrow-minded or mean people.
lift

the

sneck is lifted

"

1560.

James Trughet,

for

snecks of his

own iron,

is."

making five bands, four hooks, and four Welford, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., p. 358.
i.,

"A skin-flint,

sneck-drawn dog." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt.

1820, v. 53.

SNED,

the pole of a scythe. the sned are called " nibs."

The

small projecting handles on

.SNED,

to cut off or lop the branches of a tree or the tops of After a tree is cut down it is snedded, or divested of all its branches. Used figuratively, to rate, to scold. " I did sned him" snubbed and scolded him. "He ga the dog a " good sneddin reproved and scolded him. Snedeet, cropped or pruned bare. "Them busses is snedeet" trimmed bare. " Sneddin tormits," lopping turnips so as to leave the clean
turnips.

bulb only.

SNEESHON,
" I

a pinch of snuff. (Obs.) drew my box, and teuk a sneeshon."


G. Stuart, JocorSerious Discourse, 1686,
p. 13.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

665

SNEEVLE,
"

snivle, to snuffle, to talk through the nose. applied contemptuously to a wheedling and " She's a insincere person. poor smevlin thing."

to

Sometimes

Synvelard, or

he that spekythe yn the nose."


;

Promptorium.

SNELL,
thi'

sharp, keen

day."

"She
"

" It's applied to the weather. gey snell blaas snell thi' day wes' he' snaa, aa think."
;

And ance

upon a day, cauld day and a snell."


it fell

The ballad of Tarn Lin;

SNEUD, SNUD, SNOOD,

in river fishing, the short pieces of twisted hair or cord to which the hooks are attached in a In sea fishing the sneud is the short line fisherman's line. which carries the hook. It is spliced on to the " back " or " u long deep-sea line, and the hook is attached to it by a wip or line of hair. .In net fishing, the sneuds or snuds are the

cords which fasten the bosom Compare SNUD and TAWM.

of the net to the hauling ropes.

SNEUL,

a hang-dog looking person.

See NOOL and NOOLED.


.nostrils.

SNEULLS,
SNIBBLE,
roads.

the internal lining of a sheep's


for scotching

Brockett.

a bar used See SPRAG.

tram wheels on inclined

SNIBLET,
tie,

which

the small piece of turned wood on the end of a is slipped through an eye at the other end.
to snift, snuffle, or snort, as
in the head.
It
is

cow

SNIFTER, SNUFTER,
with a cold

one does

SNIPE,

the beak of a bird, a snout.

sometimes used

sarcastically for a

man's nose.
covetous.
Brockett.

SNIPPY, SNIVY, mean,

SNIRRELS,
"
nose.
' '

the nostrils (Northumberland).

HalliwelVs Diet.

Compare NOSE-TIRRELS and SNORE-HOLES.


Snirle, an iron Brockett.

instrument for holding a bull by the gristle of the

SNIRT,

to break off the angle of a hewn stone; to flake off a piece of stone with a lever or with the application of pressure.

SNOAK,

to smell
"

and

sniff as a

dog does.

See SNOWK..

There thou's lyin like a hog, That's happy snoakin in a bog."


J.

Rowell, The Caller.

666

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SNOB,

a shoemaker. The Castle Garth at Newcastle was " tenanted almost exclusively by snobs and " stangies (shoetailors).
"

makers and

run away amang the snobs An' stangies i' the Garth, man." R. Emery, The Owl, 1826.

Now

SNOB,

to take or catch.

" Aa'll snob her

"that

is,

a rabbit,

hare, etc.

SNOD,

of being "

trim, spruce, neat. Applied to character, it means "He's gey snod," " He's a gey clever, careful, tactful. snod gannin chep," or " He's a snod fellow," all represent a safe man. Hence to keep a matter snod is to keep it to oneself to keep a discreet silence with regard to it. It is sometimes used in slight disparagement, as when the virtue
" gey snod suggests the use of "
it

for self-advantage.

shave and look bonny, And go to my honey,


I'll

As

snod as

you

like."

T. Whittle, Humorous Letter.

SNOOD, SNOOD,
SNOOK,
at

see
a a

SNEUD.
or ribbon

fillet

worn by maidens.

See SNUD.

Holy Compare

beak-like, projecting headland; as "The Snook," " The Snook" near Sea Island, and Houses, etc. which has the same meaning in Ebb's Nook, nook,
is

Blyth's Ncok, and

probably the same word.

SNOOT,

a snout, the nose, the peak of a hat.


to snuff
11

SNOOVE,

and smell, to crouch.


fight,
Ratcliffe.

"

The dog cam

snoovin near."

My husband snooves awa from For greed of yellow gold."


Young

Minstrelsy of English Border, 1847, P-

44-

SNORE-HOLES,
a

the holes in the wind-bore at the bottom of

pump

to

admit the water.

SNORK,
SNOT,
"

to snort as a horse does.

the burnt wick or snuff of a candle. Snot, to snuff or " trim a candle. " Snot the candle, will ye ?
Snytyttge of a

nose or candy 1."

Promptorium.
line.

SNOT-SNORL,
"

The

rope's

a'

a kink or twisted bend in a rope or run inti snot-snorls." See SNARL.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

667

SNOTTER, "mucus
that

from the nose, a wasted candle, a candle See SNOT, i. Snotter, to snivel, to to bubble and cry," as it is called. Snotter-box, the nose, a cant word. Snotter -clout, a pocket handkerchief.
has blubber
sweeled."
'

"

As weel as

For dishclout serves her apron nuik, snotter clout and duster."
T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay,
pt.
i.,

1826, v. 59.

SNOTTY,
"

Ye

snotty dog,

snobbish, contemptible, imbecile. put in your tram, and dinna stand there squeekin
T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt.
ii.,

like

a half ringed hog."

1827, v. 33.
nivalis,

SNOW BUNTING,
Called also

the snowflake, Plectrophanes

L.

cock-o'-the-north

and

oversea linnet.

SNOWK, SNOAK,

burrowing in search of animal does.

the peculiar sneezing sound made by dogs to sniff, as a dog or other rats, etc.
;

SNUD, SNUDGE, SNOOD,


by maidens.
See SNEUD.

fillet

or ribbon formerly

worn

"Snodde (in old records) a smooth roll or bottom of thread, silk, &c., from the Saxon word Snod, a fillet or hair-lace, us'd by women to smooth up their hair, which in the North Parts of England is now call'd a snude, and in Scotland a snod." New World of Words, 1706.

SO

[W.-T.]

saw.
"

Aw 50

nowse he wis leukin

at."
etc., ed. 1850, p. 10.

T. Bewick, The Howdy,

SOA,
or

a vessel for carrying water.

See Soo.

SOAK,
water.

which

a small spot of marshy ground in which a spring rises, is kept moist during the winter by the action of
Brockett.
fat

SOAKY,
trace

and

lazy.

SOAM, SOWM, SOOM,


is

a chain or rope trace. The plough The tram in a called a sowm-cheyn (soam-chain). a colliery was formerly hauled along by a soam, a rope trace fathom long, hooked at one end to the tram and spliced round a piece of wood at the other by which a hold for the

hand was obtained,

SOAP,

a fire-brick resembling a bar of soap, measuring nine inches long by two and a half inches square. It is also known as a closer.

668

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
[W.T.]
salt. , " Crowdie an" milk, or taters an' soat." T. Bewick, The Howdy,

'

SOAT

etc., ed. 1850, p.

n.

SOB,

to

lull,

to

grow

" calmer, as

The wind has

sobbed."

SOBBLE,

to belabour, to thrash in a stand-up fight. blows," heavy blows with the fist.
" Aw'll sobble thy body."
J. Selkirk, d. 1843,

" Sobblin

Bob Cranky's

'Size

Sunday.

Bell's

Rhymes, 1812, p. 26.

SOCK,

a ploughshare that is, the front, pointed, and cutting " part of a plough immediately behind and below the cooler" " sheth." It fits on to the plough In shape it (coulter). resembles one half of a socket arrow-head the feather (called the sock-feather) being on the right or cutting side. The angle of the socket on the same side is called the " little heen." Sock-mould, the rough forging from which the sock of a plough is shaped and finished on the anvil. The sock-mould is made by a forgeman under a forge hammer. The sock is completed by the blacksmith.
;

SOCKIE,
or a

a sloven.

Northumberland.
;

Hdliwell.

SOD, SODDS,

a rough saddle originally a sod of heather, sod or piece of turf merely thence applied to an extemporized saddle of cloth or skin stuffed with straw.
;

Compare PAD. " He was allowed


pillion or sodds."

W.

to get her safely

mounted behind him on a well girt Brockie, Legends and Superstitions, 1886, p. 39.
'

SOD,

a sot, a clumsy fellow.

He's a greet

sod.'

SODDY,

battered and mauled.


" His body was soddy, and sore he was bruised, The bark of his shins was all standing in peaks."

Sawney

Ogilby's Duel.

Northumberland Garland, p. 208.

SODGER
beetles

When one of these picked up and thrown high in the air, whilst the following couplet is repeated " Reed, reed scdger, fly away, and make the morn a sunny day."
[N.],

the scarlet ladybird.


it

is

found in spring time

is

SODS,
SOE,

soap suds.

a water bucket.

See Soo.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

669
foggy

SOFT, SOFTISH,
Here's a the week."
is
11

soft. day."

applied to damp or " We've hed nobbut

weather.

softish

Applied also to a simpleton. " Eh man, ye are weakly and is easily tired.
full

weather aall Soft dud, one who


a soft

dud"

SOGGIE,
SOIL,
Yarrell.

of flesh

Northumberland.

HalUu-tlL

the fry of the colesay or coal-fish, Mcrlangus carbcnamts,

See HALLAN and POODLER,


the

SOLDIERS' FEATHERS,

meadow

cat's

tail

grass,

Phleiim pratense, L. Also called Botany of Eastern Borders, p. 211.

Timothy grass.

Johnston,

SOLE,
sill

the bottom framing of a waggon, that part to which the bearances for the wheels are attached, and into which the "sheths" are inserted. The threshold. " Window-so/^," the
of a window. Sole is applied generally to any floor-like The field has a good sole when it is even or level. surface. The sole-cloot in a plough, the flanged piece of iron fixed on the bottom of its near or left side. Compare REEST-CLOOT.

SOLIDS,
moss,

in mining, the solid rock as distinguished

from

soil,

drifts, etc.

"

The borehole never reached

the solids"

SOLITARY SNIPE,
Called also the double

the great snipe, Gallinago major, Gmelin.


snipe.

SO-LONG

the present

a parting salutation, equivalent to " Good-bye for "


!

SOLVAGEE, SOLVAGEE-STRAP,

a sling made of rope yarns bound round with "serving." It is used for lifting fine building stone, etc., its softness preventing abrasure of the surface which it surrounds.

SOME,

somewhat. "She's some better thi day." Some is also " and "twosome" for four, used in " fowersomc," " threesome and two people or things in company. three,
a

SOMMERING, SUMMERING,
uplands.

summer pasture

in the

See SUMMERING.
[N.] (diminutive of sow), a familiar term for a fet, sunny?" a familiar salutation.

SONNY, SUNNY
fellow.

"Well, Jack, what

670

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
lucky, good looking, jolly, pleasant. " Better be Newcastle proverb. sonsy than soon up." " Aw cannot help remarkin here, How verra different things are now ; want that sonsy hearty cheer, That we on sic occasions knew." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt.

SONSY,

We

iii.,

1829, v. 86.

SOO, SOE, SOA, SEA,


"
So, soa, a tub with

a water bucket.
to carry

two ears

(Obs.) on a stang." Ray.


carry water withal xi d."

" Paid for


Mariner's

ij shols (shovels) and a Company Accounts, 1540.

soo for to

SOOK,
joke.

a take

"

in,

What

a betrayal.

Usually applied to a practical

asook!"

SOOKER, a
is
;

It sapling or shoot from the remains of a cut tree. " rutdistinguished from a young tree, the latter being " as a " rut-grown esh," oak, etc. grown

SOOKIES

[N.] certain kinds of clover. White sookies, the white . Wild sookies, the Trifolium medium, L . clover, Trifolium vepens, Called also cow grass. The flowers are also called sticklers, and
,

are sucked by children for their sweet taste

hence the name.

SOOKIN-TURKEY
peevish person.

[N.]

a term of contempt for a childish,

SOOM,
SOOM,

the air-bladder of a
a trace rope.

fish.

See SOAM.

SOOM, SOUM,
11

to swim.
dives like a duck."
Collier's Farewell.

Aw sooms an' aw

Bards of

the Tyne, 1849, p. 457.

SOOPLE, SOUPLE, SWIPPLE,


a
flail.

the loose, swinging

arm

of

SOOPLEJACK, SpUPLEJACK, In the


"

buck

"

game
or

of trippet

and quoit a

a supple switch or cane. sooplejack was spliced to a

wooden head.
fish,

SOOTER,

the

whiting-pout, Morrhua

lusca, Yarrell.

SOOTH,
lik,

south.

Soothmast, southermost.
;

like a southern

swarthy.

Bvockett,

under

Soother-like, SootherSoutherlick.

SOOTHER, SOUTHER, solder.


soldering iron.

"Sootherin iron," a plumber's

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

67!

SOOTY,
hitch.

applied to dull, dusty, soft coal often found near a


Greenwell.

SOOTY-WILLY, SYETY-WULLY, the meadow pipit, Anthus


pratensis,

L.
a

See MOSSCHEEPER.

SORROW,
sorrow, ye."

maw.

Sorrow, a disobedient child. Sorrow-a-bit, not a bit, not a piece.

"Ye

little

SORT,
'ee

a quantity, a rather small number of things. " Hev seen ony lennarts ?" "Aye, thor's a sort flyin." Compare PAIRT.

SOSS,

puddle, anything foul or muddy.


Brockett.

"

The

beer's as thick

as soss."

SOSS, a heavy fall the sound made by the fall of a soft body. " The poor creature fell to the ground with a soss." Soss, " He cam doon soss." plump down.
;

SOSS,

to lap like a dog.

Soss, a call of

dogs to their meat.


"

Brocket*.

SOTTER,

a cluster of pustules or pimples.

A setter o' scabs."

SOTTER,
Hodgson
boilin."

MS.

the noise of the steam bubbles in boiling pottage. " It's sotterin an' Sotter, to gurgle in boiling.

SOUGH, SOUF,

the sound or sigh of wind as heard in passing The phrase, " Keeping a calm through trees or a crevice. careful of what you say. sough," means being " " Hear ye the sough o' the wind, gude man ?
Ballad, The Ill-matched Pair.

SOUGH, SOUGHEAD,
See SEUGH.
11

an adit

level for draining a

coalmine.

soughs, surfs, &c."

Horizontal tunnels which were variously termed adits, watergates, Galloway, History of Coal Mining, 1882, p. 25.

SOUR-CAKE,
it

a cake made of rye, which was leavened until gained a considerable degree of acidity, and made up about an inch and a half or two inches thick, and baked on a girdle.
the small dock, Rumex
acetosa,

SOUR-DOCKEN,
chewed

L.

Often

for its pleasant acid taste.

SOUR-MILK,

buttermilk.

672

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
the ear; properly that of a pig. Hence of pig's ears, etc., fried. Brochtt.
,

SOUSE,

souse,

a dish

composed

SOW

[N.]

a long stack.

" A bean sow" a stack of beans thus

shaped.

SOW- AN '-PIGS,

a mason's hammer with five or six points let into the end, used in flat dressing the face of a stone. Where one chisel point only is let into each end the hammer is called a "bitch and pups," and in this form it is used for what is technically called "scabbling" the surface.

SOWANS, SOWENS,

a dish made from the seeds or inner husks of oats, which are soaked in water till they begin to The water is then strained off and they are turn sour. This process is repeated a steeped again in fresh water. third time, and then the sowens are boiled and ready to eat. Fish liquor with a little salt is often used in preparing this It is common in Scotland, Northumberland, and North dish. Cumberland. In some parts it goes by the name of chimins

and

is

differently prepared.

SOWIE-SOWIE,
SOW-KILN,

the call to sheep.

an ancient limekiln, formed by scooping out a circular hollow on a hill side with one side of the circle open To retard combustion, sods were laid to the fall of the hill. No masonry or over the charges of limestone and fuel. building was used in this primitive kiln, which was also called a bole. Compare BOLE-HILLS.
a chain used in horse harness.

SOWM-CHEYN,
chain.

plough

See SOAM.

SOWNEY,

wet, damp, raw. "Sowmcy, oppressively close and damp."

Nicholson, Folk Speech of

East Yorkshire, 1889.

SOWS-BRANKS, SWINE-BRANKS,
passage through a hedge gap.

an arrangement of sticks strapped across the necks of swine to prevent their


unworthily procured.
oleraceus,

SOW-SILLER, money

SOW-THRISTLE,
SPAAD,

the sow thistle, Sonchus

L.

to stretch, or spread, or splay out. Applied to the chevrons of a roof in which the tie-beam is set too high to counteract the outward thrust. " Aa doot she'll spaad" See SPALDER.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

673

SPADES,
P- 173-

shape of the
.

the Polygonum convolvulus, L. Called spades from the leaf. Johnston, Botany of the Eastern Borders,
.

SPADGER, SPAG, SPRUG, SPUG,


house sparrow, Passer

various names for the

domesticus, Brisson.

SPAE,
,.

to interpret, to foretell. tell ye a lot o' nonsense ta begin wi', an" spae yer fortune by yer ban!." James Armstrong, Crossing the Cheviots, 1879.
" She'll

SPAIL
SPAIT,

[N.]

a chip, a splinter of wood.


(pron.
'speyet)

See SPYEL.
[T.]
,

SPATE
"

[S.]

SPYET
1

a flood, a

sudden fresh on the


Tears in

river.

See SPEAT.
frae her e'e."

spa-its fa' fast

Ballad, Jock o the Syde.

SPAK-UP,
.

replied.

"A man

'

spak-up."

Aa

spak for ye

"

interceded for you.

SPALDER,

do that are not " See SPAAD.

to spread abroad loosely. " tied at the bottom.

To

splay out, as beams Spaldert, thrust apart.

SPAN,

" a newly-weaned, and thus an ill-tempered child. nivver saa sic a span as that bairn is." Compare SPEAN.

Aa

SPANCEL,
SPANE,
to

a fetter, especially a rope to tie a cow's hinder

legs.Brockett.

wean.

See SPEAN.
;

SPANG, a bounding leap to " He garred it spang alang." " He a three 'eer aad." gans
about.

He spanged ower the yett like " goes bounding spangin aboot

bound, to leap with a spring.


"

SPANG-AND-PURLEY-Q,

a mode resorted to by boys of measuring distances, particularly at the game of marbles. It means a space and something more. Brockett.

SPANGHEW,

To to strike with violence, to beat severely. toads, etc., is to set them on a flat stick, balanced spanghew across a fulcrum, and to strike the end so as to jerk the victim high into the air. cruel boys' trick. "'Then aw spang-hew'd him weel, the gobby young cull, But he danced like an imp full o' glee."

E. Corvan, d. 1865,

Astrilly's

Goold Fields.

674

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
spots of white spar found

SPANGLES,
rocks.

embedded

in stratified

See SPARKLE.

SPANG-NEW,

brand new.

Compare SPLEET-NEW.

SPANISH-JUICE,

liquorice sticks.

SPANKER-EEL,

the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, Yarrell. Called also tamper and ramper-eel.
ill-natured,

SPAN NY,
bairn."

"
spiteful.

poor spanny sort

o'

See SPAN.

SPAR, any
is

thus,

when

rock substance with a crystalline appearance. Coal it occurs in bright particles, called "coal spar."
;

SPAR, a " Them


SPAR,

contention applied to a wrangling argument. twee nivver meets but thor's a spar atwixt them." Spar, to argue, to dispute. Compare SPURN.

a rafter.

In old houses these are often unsquared poles

merely.

SPAR, SPARE, SPEAR,


purpose.

" to bar or fasten a door. Spare the The term yett," "Spare the door*," are still in common use. originates in the heavy oaken beam, bar, or spar used for the

SPARBILL,
of boots

a small, square, headless nail, used in the soles Sparrow-bills, the large kind of similar nails, used for heels of boots, are known as bills simply.

and shoes.

SPARE,
by

in mining, a wooden wedge, six to eight inches long six inches broad, and from one inch thick tapering on one side to the end. Used in cribbing or tubbing, and driven in between a " baff-end" and the crib or tubbing plates.

SPARK,

a small spot of mud.

" Thor's sparks aall ower yor


"

claes." Spark, to spatter with spots. sparkt us."

The coach gan

past

SPARKLES,
"
p. 79.

stratified rocks.

small specks of spar or glittering material in Also called spangles.


sparkles of coal at top."

Black stone with

Borings and Sinkings, L.R.,

SPARLIE,

peevish.

Halliwell.

Compare SPANNY.

SPARLIN,

the smelt, Osmerus eperlanus, so-called in Newcastle,

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

675

SPARROW-DRIFT,
SPART, SPRET,
aboot."

very fine or dust shot.

the rush.

"The

grun's varry sparty here

"Spret, spretty-grasses, a general term for the succulent products of the or bog land, but chiefly for the different rushes (juncus) which are cut for bog hay." Sir W. Elliot, Hist, of Bivks. Nat. Club, vol. viii.,

meadow

P- 453. * " There is not

much danger

of lairing

where

sprats

grow abundantly."

Johnston, Botany of Eastern Borders, p. 199.

SPARTLE,
flat

a wooden spatula about the size and shape of the hand, used by thatchers for raising up old thatch in order to insert fresh wisps in repairing the roof.
turf used in bedding stone. A "stone and spetchel" dike is one made of stones laid in horizontal rows with a bed of thin turf between each of them. Hodgson MS.

SPATCHEL, SPETCHEL,

SPATE, SPEAT,
of rain.

a sudden flood See SPEAT. a plough spade.

in a river.

heavy shower

SPATTLE,

See PADDLE.
(Obs.)
G. Stuart, Joco-Serious

SPAUGHT,
"

Sir, here's

a fellow almost at his growth. a spaught that came fra Taunton."

Discourse, 1686, p. 42.

SPAULD,
"

a limb.

killed a ewe last night, an' dye, she was a rook ! she ran out of the house after feyther had the spaulds cut off her." Richardson, Table Book, Legendary Div., vol. i., 1842, p. 107.

We

SPAULINS,

the smaller pieces

filling in

the core of a dry wall.

SPEACE,
SPEAL,
milk.
"

the curlew.

[Holy Island.]

See WHAUP.

a chip of wood.

See SPYEL.

SPEAN, SPYEN, SPANE, "


The

of its grain is exhausted, and it is obliged to collected by its own roots." Brockett.

to wean, to deprive of the mother's bairn was spean'd last week." Speaned, weaned. Young corn is said to be speaned when the saccharine, milky juice

depend on the nutriment

SPEAR,
made

a spar, a wooden bar in mining, a pumping rod, Memel or pitch pine, etc. " Wet-spears " are those which, working within a column of pumps, are constantly " immersed in water. " Dry-spears are those which pass down
;

of

676

.NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

" bucket-sword."

to the top of each set. Greetiwell. Spear-plates, flat plates of iron used for joining the ends of two spears together. The spear is connected with the bucket by an iron rod called the

Compare SPARE.
"
It

SPEAT, SPEET, SPAIT, SPATE,


flood a heavy torrent of rain. rain just efter we left."
;

a sudden freshet or river com on a reg'lar speat o

"The word speet, meaning a spout, or torrent, or, as they say, a great downpour of rain, is an old Northumberland expression, which Turner,
after long absence from the county, had not forgotten for he mentions a kind of cress which grew in such places as great heapes of stones are casten together wyth the myght of a great spat or floode,' in the river Wansbeck." Herbal, second part, "Collen," 1562 (for 1568), fo. 35.
; '

Hodgson, Northumberland,
p. 460, col.
ii.)

pt.

ii.,

vol.

i.,

p. 112, n.

(See also pt.

ii.,

vol.

ii.,

SPECKLED-DIVER,
Colynibus sepientrionalis,
lion.

L.

the young of the red-throated diver, The adult 'bird is called the loon or

SPEEL, SPEAL, to climb, to mount, " He speeled the tree like a cat."
"

to

move with
speels
;

agility.

Ower his arm hung a basket thus onward he And enter 'd Newcassel wi' Cap at his heels."

W.

Midford, Cappy, 1818.


rufa, Brisson.

SPEETHE,
ye cam."

the

common

godwit, Limosa
"

SPEIR, SPEER,

to ask, to inquire.

He

speered

aboot

it

afore

"Ye speer the gate Discourse, 1686, p. 14.

ye kenn right-weel."

G.

Stuart,

Joco-Serious

SPEKNEL,

an aromatic plant, Mettm athamanticum, Jacq. Called also houka. In Baker's Flora, 1868, it is said to have been then recently gathered near Thockrington.
" I neuer sawe thys herbe in Englande sauynge once at Saynte Oswaeldes [near Hexham] where as the inhabiters called it fpeknel" Turner, Herbal, 1548. " I saw it also growyng in Newcastel in a gardin in greate plenty, where as I learned that it was called spicnel." The same, edition of 1551
,

P-57-

SPELK,

" Aw've a small splinter. getten a sfelk i' my hand." like lath and similar words, to describe a very thin Applied, " Nobbut a bit " He's shrunk tiv person. spelk ov a chep." a spelk" See SPILE and SPYEL.
"
Spelk, in

Northumberland, a

Kennett MS., quoted

Ha lliwell.

sfelck is

any swath, or

roller, or

band."

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

677

SPENCE,

an inner apartment, a country parlour. Brocket*. In a house of two apartments, the outer or "but" end was the kitchen or general living room; and the "ben" end was the spence.
a corner. In a keel it is applied to a corner of the sheet or sail also to a corner in the huddock or cabin.
;

SPENCER,

SPENDERLY,
body."

spindly, slim, slender.

" He's a

little spenderly

SPETCHEL.
SPICE,
any
food.

See SPATCHEL.
or the admixture of currants with currant cake. Spice-dumplin, currant Spice-kail, broth with currants in it. Spice-loaf,

gingerbread,

Spice-cake,

dumpling. rich, Christmas loaf. Spice-nuts, gingerbread nuts. Spice-wig, a tea-cake with currants. Spicy-flzzer, a cake almost black with currants, baked upon a girdle.
Spiced, wigs prevail on Sunday, and the singing hinney makes its appearance on grand occasions." Wilson, Coal Miners of Durham and

"

Northumberland.

Trans. Tyneside Field Club, vol.

vi., p.

206.

"A

good

specye suet

keayk." T. Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850,

p. 13.

SPIDERT, SPYTHER,

a spider.

" It is very unlucky to kill a spider. On the other hand, if a spider happens to get upon your clothes, it is lucky to let it crawl all over you and get away safe. Even to shake it off is a mistake." Brockie, Legends

and Superstitions, 1886,

p. 139.

SPILE,
piles.

To drive foundation a pile-driver. "Thor's a spile run into ma The peg used in ale casks. A spile-wedge is a halffinger." wedge, that is, a wedge tapering on one side only. Compare SPARE, SPAIL, SPYEL, SPELK.
a

wooden

pile, a splinter of wood.

Spile-driver,

SPINK,
"

casual visitor in our district, met with only occasionally, in and winter." Hancock, Birds of Northumberland, p. 52.

the goldfinch or gold spink, Carduelis elegans, Stephens. autumn

SPINKS,
pratensis,

L.

the lady smock or meadow bittercress, Cardamine Called also pinks, bog spinks, and cuckoo flower.

SPINNEY-WYE,

a boys'
;

and seeks concealment


out " Spinney'-wye ."

game in which a "side" goes out the pursuers then start forth, calling

678

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SPINNLE, SPINEL;
spinnle,

in spinning terms four hanks make a and twelve cuts are a hank or " slip," and so many threads make a cut. These terms are now unknown save to

old people.

A
to

spinning-wheel

is

a curiosity.

SPINNLE,
SPIRE.

grow spindley,

to shoot

upwards more rapidly

than the strength of stem can support. Spinnelt, overgrown, grown tall and weakly, like a plant for want of light. Compare

SPIRE,
"

to attenuate. A tree or plant which shoots out in length and not proportionately in breadth is said to spire.

To

spire,

to

grow up

to

an ear as corn does."

New World

of Words,

1706.

SPIREY, SPIRY, SPIRIN,


4<

dry and cold^pining, ungenial. wind," a wind that dries the moisture up rapidly. " " The rose tree 's deed. Ye see aa Spiry weather." planted " It's a fine " What it i' spiry weather." spirey day." spirin weather thor's not a bit o' spring on the grass, an' thor's

spiry

nowt grouin."
11

Hodgson

March weather MS.

is

often spyry (that

is)

harsh, angry, and ungenial."

SPIT, a

tool used by drainers, in form like a long and very narrow spade. Hence the depth of a drain cut is described as one spit or two spit deep.

SPIT,

or SPIT AN' IMAGE, likeness. Applied either to a " He's the person or thing. varry spit an image on his fethor." " The twee boxes wis one just the spit an' image o' the tother."
1

SPIT,

to drizzle intermittently.
;

drops or driblets applied to rain or snow when " It's intermittent drops or flakes. spittin on."

Spittin t falling in occasional it falls in

SPIT,

" In the boys' game of " bedstocks a capture is immediately followed by the captor spitting over the head of his prisoner, after which no escape is attempted until the bay is reached.
spittle.
(inter se) of spitting their faith, or as they also here, their saul (soul), when required to make asseverations in a matter of consequence. In combinations of the colliers, &c. in the North, for the purpose of raising their wages, they are said to spit upon a stone have, too, a kind together, by way of cementing their confederacy. of popular saying, when persons are of the same party, or agree in " Brand, Observations on sentiment, They spit upon the same stone.'

"

Boys have a custom


it
'

call

We

'

Popular Antiquities, Newcastle, 1777, p. 101,

n.

SPLAICE, SPLAYS,

the plaice, Platessa vulgaris, Yarrell.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

679

SPLAIRGE,
"

to splatter.

Halliwell.

SPLATTER, PLATTER,
Then he jumped on

a splash and splutter.


!

Ne

grunstan wes

to fetch her, my eyes what a splatter, there, for he fund it wes waiter." W. Armstrong, Floatin Grunstan. Allan's Collection, 1891, p. 219.

SPLATTER-FYECED,
FYECED.

platter-faced.

Compare DISH-

SPLAUTCH,
its

to let a soft substance fall heavily, applied to


floor.

impingement with the


[N.]
,

Halliwell.

SPLEET-NEW
SPLET-LINK,
SPLET-RASIN,

brand new.

a split-pin or cotteril.

a niggardly person. Often applied to a small dealer so exact in his transactions as to split a raisin in order to give exact weight.

SPLINT,

a defence for the leg.


,

See SHIN-SPLINTS.

SPLINT, SPLENT
stony coal
coal and
;

[N.] a splinter, a flake of stone. A hard, a bituminous shale, intermediate between cannel
coal.

common

SPLISH-SPLASH,

in a splashing manner. splish-splash like that." Splishy -splashy, wet, with rain. See PLISH-PLASH.

Dinna come on dropping and dank

"

SPLIT,
"

a division of the main ventilating current in a

pit.

Splitting the air," dividing the air in a mine into different portions, each ventilating a separate district.

SPOACH
trifles.

(often

spoken as

sproach), to

"He's elways gan

spoachin

pick up unconsidered aboot." Spoacher, a

poacher.

SPOONE, SPONNE, SPUNE,


(Obs.)
viis. vid.'

probably sarking

for a roof.

Itm. paied for my pt of iiii hundrethe and a half of spoone Itm paied for caryeing the spune in to the churche iid.' Itm. paied for caryeing the spune in to the church and pylling it iid.' For layinge on of the sponne vs.' 'For 120 sponne xiiiis.' Nayles to " Ryton Church Books. lay on the sponne with is.'

"'1606.

'

SPOUT, SPOOT,

a large shoot for shipping coal. loading places are called the staiths or the spouts. x

Coal

680

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

SPOWEY,

the house sparrow, Passer domesticus. as spadger, spag, spmg, and spug.
to climb, to clamber.
Brocket*.

Known

also

SPRACKLE,
SPRAG,

a short, strong bar of wood. A sprag is used instead of a break in a wheel. It is also the name of a short prop used by pitmen for keeping up the coal during the work of To insert a wedge or chock. To spmg the jud in a kirving. coal mine is to wedge it up securely. To sprag a waggon is to insert a chock through the wheel spokes till it projects and jams against the frame of the waggon, and thus stops the revolution of the wheel.
lively, active, ingenious.

SPRAG,

Brockett.

See SPRUNT.

SPRAT, SPROT,
"Spreats, sprats,

the rush.

See SPART and RISP-GRASS.


is

such long grass as

grown

in

Hodgson MS.

watery places."

SPRAT-BARLEY,

a kind of barley with a flat ear and very long beards, Hordeum vulgare, L. See BATTLE-DOOR and BEAR.
speckled,
spotted.
Spreckley
t

SPRECKLED,
spreckley hen."

spotted.

"

SPREED,
SPREET,
sail of a

to spread.

spreed,

an entertainment,

literally a

spread board.
the boom, a long pole used to spread or stretch the

wherry.

SPRENT,
when
knife.'
'

the eyes into which the bolt of a chest-lock passes Also " the steel spring on the back of a clasplocked.
Halliwell.

SPRENT,
SPRING,
"

to sprinkle, to splash.

" Yo'r sprentin the watter aal

ower the place."


a dance tune.
G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse
t

Take a Spying of thine awn Fiddle."

1686, p. 27.

SPROACH,

to seek or hunt about.


to

See SPOACH.

SPROWL,

tramp down.
the house sparrow.

SPRUG, SPUG,

See SPADGER.

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

68l

SPRUNT, SPRY,
"

smart, spruce.
;

Thou can get on thee sister's shoun and ony thing else of her claiths and mheyk thee sell leuk varra sprunt wouth them." T. Bewick, The
Upgetting, edition 1850, p. 13.

SPUNK,

" Thor's not a a spark, a match, touchwood. spunk i* " Gi's a the grate." spunk" give me a match. Spunk was specially applied to the thin splint of wood tipped with sulphur, formerly used to obtain a flame from tinder, and till recently sold on market days in Newcastle by street

hawkers.

SPUNK,
thing."

a poor diminutive person. "

" He's a

wee

spunk

o'

SPUNK,

pluck, stamina, energy.

He

hes nee spunk at a'."

SPURGIN-LAUREL, the spurge laurel, Daphne lanreola, L. SPURLIN, SPORLIN [S.] SPURRIN, SPURN [N.],
,

" " Cairt Keep oot o' the spyrrins" cart ruts. spurlin (addressed to a cartman, cautioning him to keep out " of the ruts). keep clear of the old ruts Clip the spurlin" the horse with his feet upon each rut alternately, by driving so that the wheels may close and level the ruts again.

wheel

rut. "

SPURN,

a contention, a fight. (Obs.) " This was the hontynge off the Cheviat That tear began this spurn : Old men that knowen the grounde well yenoughe,
;

Call

it

the Battell of Otterburn.

At Otterburn began

Uppon

monnyn

this spume, day."

Chevy Chase.

SPURT,
"

a short-lived commotion.
bit of spurt

deeth

cam

to

was mhead about them for a whyle after they deed them at last, an' they, leyke other fwoak, were seun
;

forgotten."

T. Bewick, The Upgetting, edition 1850, p. 14.

SPYAIN, SPYEN,

to

wean.

See SPEAN.

SPYEL

" Aa's a chip or splinter of wood. just getten a few spyels for the mornin's fire." Spyels or spails are usually chips from an axe cut. Spyel-basket, a basket made of wooden for carrying food to cattle on a farm. spails, oak preferred,
[S.]
,

SPY-FARLEY,
wonderful tales See FARLEY.

a
;

marvel-monger, one an inquisitive person.

who

sees and retails " He's a spy-farley"

SPY-GLASS, SPYIN-GLASS,

a telescope.

682

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
[S.],

SQUAAK
"Hunt
else the

SQUACK
no' follow."

[N.],
:

the hare" boys shout

to cry out. In playing "Squack, squeak, or squallow


;

dogs

'11

SQUAB,

a crab apple. The tree, Pyvus mains, L., squab tree or scrab-apple tree.

is

called a

SQUAB, a young nestling crow. SQUAB, SWAB, a soft stuffed

cushion or stool.
apus,

SQUEALER,
screamer

and

the swift, Cypselus black martin. the quinsy.

L.

Called also the

SQUINCHES, SQUINSHER,
SQUINT,

an extinguisher

for a candle.

a peep, a glimpse (not associated with obliquity or " " Let's hev a defect of vision). Tyek a squint." squint at

the papers."

STA, STOW, to surfeit. dumplin till we war staa'd


fair staw."

Start d, surfeited.
on't."

"

We

"

gat hard
" He's a

A'm

fairly start d o' broth."

STA, STAA, STAW, an annoyance,

a nuisance.

STAA, STAW,
Staa-fed, fed

stall.
;

by hand

" Put the powney inti the staa." hence pampered. " He's staa-fed or he

waddent be see saacy."

STAAP, STAUP, to stamp the feet, to walk in an ungainly " What are fashion. ye deein, staapin an' kevellin on there ?" " He staups an' stares aboot." Compare STEBBLE. Staapin, awkward in gait. " What a staapin waaker that lass is."

STACKER,

to stagger.

Stackery, unsteady.

" Stackerin like a

drucken man." " Up

stackend Larty for a blow." J. P. Robson, Hamlick, Prince

o'

Denton.

STACK-TOPPIN,

the ornamental terminal of plaited straw which surmounts a corn stack.


the ends of the ropes of a fishing net.
to depasture.

STAFF-ENDS,

STAFF-HERD,
"
It is

if it shall happen the cattel or sheep of the one to be staff-herded, or to remain depasturing upon the ground of the etc. opposite Realm," Treaty dated 1563. Leges Marchianim, 1705, p. 138.

agreed, That

Realm

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.

683

STAG, STAIG,
staig.

the young of a male animal. Applied to a year's old stallion, to a young unbroken horse, to a young righting cock, and to a gander. gelded bull is also called a

See STEG.
a stack garth or stack yard.
"

STAGARTH,
O
th
1

way

fra

our hoose te Roaffi's staggarth deyke." T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850,

p. 10.

STAGING,
Halliwell.

standing

quite

upright.

Northumberland.

STAGNATIT,
11

dumbfounded.
'

Stagnate, to astonish. " Kame

I'll

stagnate her wi'

my

"
story.'

Brockett.

Wully stood stagnatit."


J.

Armstrong, Tarsetearian Fox, 1879.

STAIG-WIDDY,
laid aside

man whose

wife has

become invalided

or

from any cause.

STAIRS,

A. OF, a staircase with two landings. pairs of stairs is often spoken of, however, when only a straight flight of steps is meant. Compare the expressions, "pair of drawers" for a chest of drawers ; "pair of cards,'' a pack of

PAIR

cards; "pair of bellows'" for a "pair of organs" for an organ.


"

bellows; and the old form,


Brockett.

Stair-heed, the landing of a staircase."

STAITH

(pronounced steeth), an elevated platform at the waterside from which coals are shipped by a spout or drop. Also called a dyke. Staithman, Steethman, the man who overlooks the shipping of coals sometimes called the He takes account of all coal shipped and of the offputter. arrangements necessary for the despatch and arrival of the trains of coal waggons at the staith.
;

STAKE.
STALE,
a

See STYEK and following words.

march
'

in order of battle.
stale

(Obs.)

Dungyon a myle from My brother Sir Cristofer wt two thousand horseman and Jedworth.' three hundred futeman with bowes for savegard of the host in strayts come in a stale to Dykerawa.'" Thomas Dacre to Henry VIII., 1513. Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. i., p. 160, n.
to

"'I come wt a

a place called the

STALL, to
"

choke

Northumberland.
fill

Wright's Gloss.
Brockett.

See STA.

Staul, Stall, to

to a loathing, to surfeit."

STAMP,
in a

a hole

made with

a pick for the insertion of a

wedge

bed of coal or stone.

684

NORTHUMBERLAND WORDS.
a stanchion.

STANCHEL, STAINCHEL,

An

iron

window

bar, hinge hook, or iron let into stone. " Paide for 4 iron stanchels, with hookes on them

for the hinging of the semynaries 4 quarters of 4 yattes, 33. 2d." Newcastle Municipal Accounts, August, 1592. " Paide for fier and coles for melting the lead to set the iron stanchels M The same. of the yate fast, 8d. for the

" Pd. for a band for the Ankeresh dore and a stanshatt 1643. windowe and sodering and nayles, 2S." Gateshead Church Books.

STAND, STAN,
"
1

to cost, to run or reckon

up

to.
in six or seven

These ten horses must at least in these parts stand you pounds a piece.' J. C., Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 33.

STANDAGE,
STANDEE,
"

a reservoir or space for water to accumulate in a pit during the suspension of a pumping engine from work.

the former

name

for a pillar or

support of coal.

shall so work the mines as he leave standers for the upholding of the grounds thereof." Award 2ist October, 1605. Wei ford, History of Newcastle, vol. iii., p. 170.

He

STANDING
stannin.

in the following words is always pronounced a Standing -Bobby, Standing-shot, or Blown-out-shot blasting charge of gunpowder which has exploded in its place but has only resulted in blowing out the stemming of the charge instead of blasting the coal or stone. See also FASTSHOT. Standing-corf, the first corf a hewer produces. StandingStanding -gauge, a lath fire, ignition of the solid coal in a pit. or piece of wood cut to a certain size to work to. Standingas much as a man can lift straight up from the ground. lift, Standing-lowe, a* candle left in a position in a pit so as to be beyond the reach of accident. Stan