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Table of Content
Sr. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Topics Evolution of Organisational Behaviour Individual Abilities Personality and theories Attitude Perception Learning and theories of learning Motivation and Theories Leadership and Approaches to leadership Group and formation of Groups Stress and Stress management Organisational Culture Page No. 4-7 8-13 14-35 36-42 43-50 51-68 69-88 89-108 109-118 119-125 126-133
EVOLUTION OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
cultures. 4 . We possibly cannot think of a single moment in our lives when we are not depending on organizations in some form or the other. maintaining. beliefs. are all examples of organizations. predicting. it is the behaviour of the people working in an organization to achieve common goals or objectives. The value of organizational behavior is that it isolates important aspects of the manager’s job and offers specific perspective on the human side of management : • • • people as organizations. people as people. and changing employee behavior in an organizational setting. understanding. feel. The study of Organizational Behavior facilitates the process of explaining. Organizations play a major role in our lives. So what is Behaviour? Is it the behaviour of Organization or the Behaviour of the people who are working in the organization? Yes. ‘Organizational Behaviour’ can be defined as the study of what people think. the class you are attending at this moment. people as resources. organization comprises of people with different attitudes. and do in and around organizations. norms and values. the Institute itself. Right From the public transport that you use to come to your institute.EVOLUTION OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR What is an organization? We can define the term organization as two or more individuals who are interacting with each other within a deliberately structured set up and working in an interdependent way to achieve some common objective/s.
you should not be surprised to find that it emphasizes behavior as related to concerns such as jobs. relationships among social groups and societies. work. productivity.In other words. Psychology is the study of human behavior which tries to identify the characteristics of individuals and provides an understanding why an individual behaves in a particular way. • Psychology. The main focus of attention is on the social system. • Anthropology. and the maintenance of social order. This thus provides us with useful insight into areas such as human motivation. Social psychology is the study of human behaviour in the context of social situations. • Sociology. employment turnover. • Social psychology. absenteeism. human performance and management Nature Of Organizational Behavior (OB) Organizational behaviour is an applied behavioural science that is built on contributions from a number of behavioural disciplines such as psychology. perceptual processes or personality characteristics. social psychology. This essentially addresses the problem of understanding the typical behavioural patterns to be expected from an individual when he takes part in a group. Anthropology is the science of mankind and the study of human behaviour as a whole. sociology. This helps us to appreciate the functioning of individuals within the organization which is essentially a sociotechnical entity. because organizational behavior is concerned specifically with employment – related situations. it involves the understanding. So lets see how these disciplines are related to organizational behaviour. Sociology is the study of social behavior. prediction and control of human behaviour among and the factors affecting their performance And and interaction organizational members. The main focus of attention is 5 . anthropology and economics.
This applies even to the nonprofit and voluntary organizations as well. the contributions of political scientists are significant to the understand arrangement in organizations. • Political Science Although frequently overlooked. beliefs. Any organization to survive and sustain must be aware of the economic viability of their effort. It studies individuals and groups within specific conditions concerning the power dynamics. customs. In the context of today’s organizational scenario. allocation of power and how people manipulate power for individual self-interest etc. It is very important to appreciate the differences that exist among people coming from different cultural backgrounds as people are often found to work with others from the other side of the globe. ideas and values within a group or society and the comparison of behaviour among different cultures. Important topics under here include structuring Of Conflict.on the cultural system. The following figure depicts to highlight the interdisciplinary nature of organizational behaviour. • Economics. 6 .
Toward an OB Discipline 7 .
INDIVIDUAL ABILITIES 8 .
9 . According to this view organizations. We have seen that organizations comprises of people from different cultures. Thus organizations get seriously affected by such individual qualities as ability. one needs to have a fundamental understanding of human behaviours and the underlying stimuli. To understand human action.Individual and Physical abilities. are effectively coordinated. Organizational behaviour is traditionally considered as the ‘ study of human behaviour in the work place’. The following diagram presents the various individual factors affecting the final behaviour of a person. are dependent upon the extent to which such actions/ experiences. The behaviour of individuals are influenced significantly by their abilities. representing collective entities of human actions and experiences. learning and motivation. Individual Ability let’s see how an individuals ability is related to organizational behaviour. perception.
Management programs admission tests (GMAT). Different Types of Abilities INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES: Intellectual Abilities are those that are needed to perform mental activities. Mental activities can be measured by intelligent quotient (IQ) tests. Intellectual Abilities. that are designed to ascertain one's general Mental abilities. and medical (MCAT). Physical Abilities.ABILITY Ability refers to an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. An individual's overall abilities are essentially made up of the following factors: 1. Usually these tests try to measure and evaluate one’s mental 10 . Some familiar examples of such tests in are Common Admission Tests (CAT). etc. and 2. law (LSAT).
Perceptual Speed. Number Aptitude (Mathematics). Spatial Visualization. Therefore. In Fact. Some of the most frequently cited dimensions of intellectual capacities are: 1. a high IQ is not a prerequisite for all. for many jobs in which employee behavior is highly routine and there are little or no opportunities to exercise discretion. Verbal Comprehension (English). 3. such as mathematics. Of course. 7. Memory Generally speaking. 2.abilities on various academic areas pertaining to the success in the relevant courses. 6. spatial. On the other hand. a high IQ may be unrelated to performance. the more general intelligence and verbal abilities will be necessary to perform the job successfully. It is believed that there are a few different dimensions of mental abilities. the more information processing is required in a job. Exhibit 1: Different Types of Mental abilities Sr. Reasoning. tests measure specific dimensions of intelligence have been found to be strong predictors of future job performance. numerical. a careful review of the evidence demonstrates that tests that assess verbal.No 1 2 3 4 5 Dimension of intellectual abilities Number aptitude Verbal communication Perceptual Speed Inductive reasoning Deductive reasoning Description Ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic Read write speaking ability Identify similarities and differences quickly and accurately Logical Sequence drawing Ability to use logic and Job Example Accountant Senior managers Investigators Market Researcher supervisor 11 . 5. English. Deductive Reasoning. and perceptual ability are valid predictors of job proficiency at all levels of jobs. General knowledge etc. 4.
High employee performance is Likely to be achieved when management has ascertained the extent to which a job requires each of the nine abilities and then ensures that. or similar talents require management to identify an employee's physical capabilities. if employees lack the required abilities. high rise construction workers need balance. manual dexterity. airline pilots need strong spatial-visualization abilities. For example. So. employees in that job have those abilities. But When the ability-job fit is out of sync because the employee has abilities that far exceed the requirements of the job. Surprisingly. Beach lifeguards need both strong spatial-visualization abilities and body coordination Senior Managers need verbal abilities. they are likely to fail.6 7 Spatial visualization Memory assess the implications of the argument Ability to imagine Ability to retain and recall past experience Interior decorator Sales Person remembering customers name PHYSICAL ABILITIES To the same degree that intellectual abilities play a larger role in complex jobs with demanding information-processing requirements. for example. our 12 . and Journalists with weak reasoning abilities would likely have difficulty meeting minimum job-performance standards. The specific intellectual or physical abilities required for adequate job performance depend on the ability requirements of the job. Research on the requirements needed in hundreds of jobs has identified nine basic abilities involved in the performance of physical tasks. What predictions can we make when the fit is poor? Quite obviously. there is also little relationship between them: A high score on one is no assurance of a high score on others. leg strength. specific physical abilities gain importance for successfully doing less skilled and more standardized jobs. jobs in which success demands stamina. These are described in Exhibit 2. Individuals differ in the extent to which they have each of these abilities.
Job performance is likely to be adequate. 13 . if an employee's abilities far exceed those necessary to do the job. management will be paying more than it needs to. Given that pay tends to reflect the highest skill level that employees possess. but there will be organizational inefficiencies and possible declines in employee satisfaction. Abilities significantly above those required can also reduce the employee's job satisfaction when the employee's desire to use his or her abilities is particularly strong and is frustrated by the limitations of the job.predictions would be very different.
PERSONALITY AND ITS THEORIES 14 .
There are some genetic factors that play a part in determining certain aspects of what we tend to become.g. 15 . Whether we are tall or short." THE ORIGINS OF PERSONALITY: THE NATURE-NURTURE DEBATE Determinants of Personality Several factors influence the shaping of our personality. 3. Our Experiences through Life. relatively stable over time. meaning "mask. are all characteristics which can. Heredity. Major among these are 1. in many cases. be traced to heredity. personality is the impression we make on others. 2. How we learn to handle others' reactions to us (e. experience good health or ill health. Family Background. our appearance) and the inherited traits can also influence how our personality is shaped. And The People we interact with.PERSONALITY AND ITS THEORIES The word personality comes from the Latin root persona." According to this root. 5. are quickly irritable or patient. Culture. the mask we present to the world Personality is defined as "a unique set of traits and characteristics. 4.
Culture: The culture and the values we are surrounded by significantly tend to shape our personal values and inclination. and through various reinforcement strategies such as rewards and punishments which are judiciously dispensed. Members in the family mould the character of all children. people born in different cultures tend to develop different types of personalities which in turn significantly influence their behaviours. the number of children in the family and birth order. Think of how your own personality has been shaped by your family background and parental or sibling influences Experiences in Life: Whether one trusts or mistrusts others. influence the shaping of personality to a considerable extent. Punjabees are more diligent and hardworking. and the background and education of the parents and extended members of the family such as uncles and aunts. almost from birth. in several ways -by expressing and expecting their children to conform to their own values. is at least partially related to the 16 . during childhood than those born later. through role modeling. First-borns usually have different experiences. Family Background: The socio-economic status of the family. is miserly or generous. India being a vast country with a rich diversity of cultural background provides a good study on this. have a high or low self esteem and the like. For example. Thus. we have seen that people in Gujarat are more enterprising than people from other states. people from Bengal are more creative and with an intellectual bend and the likes.
our personality becomes shaped throughout our lives by at least some of the people and groups we interact with. People We Interact With "A Person is known by the company he or she keeps" is a common adage. etc. Thus.past experiences the individual has had. The implication is that people persuade each other and tends to associate with members who are more like them in their attitudes and values. Imagine if someone came to you and pleaded with you to lend him Rs. The influence of these various individuals and groups shapes our personality. we have to conform to the values of that group which mayor may not always be palatable to us. we may have to become less aggressive. Beginning childhood. one would think. Our desire to be a part of the group and belong to it as its member. we will not be treated as valued members of the group. will compel many of us to change certain aspects of our personality (for instance. and so on. if we are to be accepted as members of our work group. more cooperative. 100 which he promised to return in a week's time.). then our teachers and class mates. Instance. Primarily our. and you gave it to him even though it was the last note you had in your pocket to cover the expenses for the rest of that month. Thus. if we don't. What is the probability that you would trust another person who comes and asks you for a loan tomorrow? Rather low. 17 . Suppose that the individual never again showed his face to you and you have not been able to get hold of him for the past three months. the people we interact with influence us. Suppose also that three such incidents happened to you with three different individuals in the past few months. certain personality characteristics are moulded by frequently occurring positive or negative experiences in life. later our friends and colleagues. For. parents and siblings.
These tests are designed to draw conclusions about personality from observed behaviors.In summary. the more important that trait is in describing the individual. This distinctiveness. characteristics that describe an individual's 18 . are called personality traits. and timidity. loyalty. aggressiveness. PERSONALITY THEORIES Traits Theory The traditional approach of understanding personality was to identify and describe personality in terms of traits. we are then left to infer personality from the behaviors it manifests. our personality is a function of both heredity and other external factors that shape it. Psychologists thus use behavioral indicators in constructing projective tests. directly observe behaviors. In other words. submissiveness. In the following section we will be describing a few of these. Popular characteristics or traits include shyness. There are various standard tests and scales available to measure personality. As students of human behavior. ambition. It is important to know what specific personality predispositions influence work behaviors. Can Personality be measured? The answer to the question lies in the fact that we can. when they are exhibited in a large number of situations. in fact. The more consistent the characteristic and the more frequently it occurs in diverse situations. laziness. it viewed personality as revolving around attempts to identify and label permanent behavior.
but that can't be said for the five factor model of personality 'more typically called the Big Five. They like to organize and run activities. individualistic. The Big Five Model MBTI may be deficient in valid supporting evidence. versatile. and have a natural head for business or mechanics. They are characterized as skeptical. The TAT consists of drawings or photographs of real-life situations. decisive. determined. independent. and trained raters then score the recorded story for predefined themes. People taking the test are instructed to construct stories based on these images. INTJs are visionaries. logical. In contemporary. Psychologists assume that the stories people tell reflect the unconscious. and often stubborn. Motivate all others and encompass most of the significant variation in human personality . critical. Myers-Briggs Types Indicator (MBTI) was originally developed by a mother & daughter team which have the following components. ESTJs are organizers. an impressive body of research supports that five basic dimensions.Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) :It is a projective test that offers more validity. and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. They are realistic. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging problems but may neglect routine assignments. analytical. They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. The ENTP type is conceptualizer. He or she is pioneering. The Big Five factors are: 19 .
This dimension refers to an individual's tendency to defer to others. and unreliable. affectionate. Extraversion. and persistent. 4. and artistically sensitive. self-confident. the ego and the superego--work together to create complex human behaviors. These three elements of personality--known as the id. The final dimension addresses an individual's range of interests and fascination with novelty. People who score low on agreeableness are cold. Extraverts tend to be gregarious. SIGMUND FREUD'S PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY OF PERSONALITY. and trusting. Those at the other end of the open. This dimension taps a person's ability to bear up stress. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted. and antagonistic. and quiet. dependable. Depressed. This aspect of personality is entirely unconscious and includes of the 20 .ness category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.1. and sociable. This dimension is a measure of reliability. disagreeable. Highly agreeable people are cooperative. This dimension captures one's comfort level with relation ships. Extremely open people are creative. Those with highly negative scores tend to be nervous. and secure. assertive. A highly conscientious person is responsible. timid. organized. curious. 3. The Id The id is the only component of personality that is present from birth. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm. Conscientiousness. Agreeableness. Openness to experience. anxious. and insecure. Emotional stability. Introverts tend to be reserved. Personality is composed of three elements. disorganized. 2. 5.
The id is driven by the pleasure principle. According to Freud.instinctive and primitive behaviors. However. the id is the source of all psychic energy. because it ensures that an infants needs are met. The Ego The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. the id tries to resolve the tension created by the pleasure principle through the primary process. If the infant is hungry or uncomfortable. According to Freud. The id is very important early in life. he or she will cry until the demands of the id are met. we might find ourselves grabbing things we want out of other people's hands to satisfy our own cravings. which strives for immediate gratification of all desires. preconscious. The ego functions in both the conscious. and unconscious mind. According to Freud. If these needs are not satisfied immediately. and needs. The ego operates based on the reality principle. If we were ruled entirely by the pleasure principle. an increase in hunger or thirst should produce an immediate attempt to eat or drink. which strives to satisfy 21 . the result is a state anxiety or tension. making it the primary component of personality. which involves forming a mental image of the desired object as a way of satisfying the need. For example. wants. This sort of behavior would be both disruptive and socially unacceptable. immediately satisfying these needs is not always realistic or even possible. the ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world.
There are two parts of the superego: 1. In many cases.the id's desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways. According to Freud. value. 2. the superego begins to emerge at around age five. The ego also discharges tension created by unmet impulses through the secondary process. The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. in which the ego tries to find an object in the real world that matches the mental image created by the id's primary process. 22 . The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society--our sense of right and wrong. The Superego The last component of personality to develop is the superego. punishments. The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. but only in the appropriate time and place. and accomplishment. The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences. or feelings of guilt and remorse. These behaviors include those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or abandon impulses. the id's impulses can be satisfied through a process of delayed gratification--the ego will eventually allow the behavior. Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride.
Freud used the term ego strength to refer to the ego's ability to function despite these dueling forces. and Superego With so many competing forces. Each stage in Erikson’s theory is 23 . Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. the key to a healthy personality is a balance between the id. Unlike Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages. Freud. while those with too much or too little ego strength can become too unyielding or too disrupting. preconscious. A person with good ego strength is able to effectively manage these pressures. Ego. ego.1 Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction. ERIK ERIKSON’S Much like THEORY Sigmund OF PSYCHOSOCIAL Erikson believed that DEVELOPMENT is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. and the superego. Erikson also believed that a sense of competence also motivates behaviors and actions. According to Freud. The superego is present in the conscious. and unconscious. and superego. In addition to ego identity. The Interaction of the Id. One of the main elements of Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory is the develoment of ego identity. It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles. According to Erikson. the ego. our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experience and information we acquire in our daily interactions with others.The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. personality develops in a series of stages. it is easy to see how conflict might arise between the id.
Autonomy vs. these conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. If the stage is handled well. the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child’s caregivers. Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy. • • Because an infant is utterly dependent. emotionally unavailable. Psychosocial Stage 1 . In Erikson’s view.concerned with becoming competent in an area of life. the potential for personal growth is high.Trust vs. Shame and Doubt • The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable. Erikson's reasoning was quite different then 24 . In each stage. the person will feel a sense of mastery. or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for.2 • Like Freud. he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. which he sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality. During these times. Mistrust • The first stage of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life. However. Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development.2 If the stage is managed poorly. If a child successfully develops trust. Psychosocial Stage 2 . but so is the potential for failure. Caregivers who are inconsistent.
Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt. Psychosocial Stage 4 . 25 . Through social interactions.that of Freud's. children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities. or peers will doubt their ability to be successful. toy preferences. children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self. self-doubt and lack of initiative. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents. • Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident.Industry vs. Guilt • During the preschool years. Psychosocial Stage 3 . Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. and clothing selection. teachers.Initiative vs. Confusion • During adolescence. while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt. Psychosocial Stage 5 .Identity vs. Inferiority • • • This stage covers the early school years from approximately age 5 to 11. children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction. • • Other important events include gaining more control over food choices. Erikson believe that learning to control one’s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence.
Stagnation • • During adulthood. • Remember that each step builds on skills learned in previous steps.Integrity vs. and depression. Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world.Generativity vs.• Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Psychosocial Stage 7 . Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future. committed relationships with other people.Intimacy vs. loneliness. Isolation • • This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are exploring personal relationships. Psychosocial Stage 8 . Those who are successful at this step will develop relationships that are committed and secure. we continue to build our lives. Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community. Psychosocial Stage 6 . Studies have demonstrated that those with a poor sense of self tend to have less committed relationships and are more likely to suffer emotional isolation. focusing on our career and family. Despair 26 . Erikson believed that a strong sense of personal identity was important to developing intimate relationships.
Social 27 . Inferiority School Adolescence Identity vs. Preschool (3 to 5 years) Initiative vs. These individuals will attain wisdom. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval. Early Childhood Autonomy vs. Success leads to a sense of competence. Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. Toilet Training Children need to develop a sense of personal (2 to 3 years) Shame and control over physical skills and a sense of Doubt independence. • Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. failure results in feelings of shame and doubt. Success leads to feelings of autonomy. A lack of this will lead to mistrust. while failure results in feelings of inferiority. Teens needs to develop a sense of self and School Age (6 to 11 years) Industry vs. Guilt Exploration Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment.• • This phase occurs during old age and is focused on reflecting back on life. and affection. resulting in a sense of guilt. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Mistrust Important Events Feeding Outcome Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty. even when confronting death. care. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair. Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Summary Chart Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development Stage Infancy (birth to 18 months) Basic Conflict Trust vs.
bitterness. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom. while the more complex needs are located at the top of the pyramid. Stagnation Work and Parenthood Maturity(65 to death) Ego Integrity vs. Middle Adulthood Generativity (40 to 65 years) vs. sleep and warmth. loving relationships with other people. Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Once these lower-level needs have been met. 28 . Success leads to strong relationships. which are for safety and security. This hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other needs. while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self. Despair Reflection on Life Hierarchy of Needs The Five Levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Psychologist Abraham Maslow first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation"1 and his subsequent book. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is most often displayed as a pyramid. often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. people can move on to the next level of needs. Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them. water. while failure results in regret. and despair. Isolation Relationships Young adults need to form intimate. while failure results in loneliness and isolation. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself. Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical requirements including the need for food. Motivation and Personality.(12 to 18 years) Yound Adulthood (19 to 40 years) Role Confusion Relationships personal identity. Intimacy vs. while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.
Physiological. which is a process of growing and developing as a person to achieve individual potential. Five Levels of the Hierarchy of Needs There are five different levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Physiological Needs These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival. needs become increasingly psychological and social. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these physiological needs are met. Maslow emphasized the importance of self-actualization. Satisfying these lower-level needs is important in order to avoid unpleasant feelings or consequences. such as the need for water. food and sleep. Like Carl Rogers.As people progress up the pyramid. the need for love. Types of Needs Maslow believed that these needs are similar to instincts and play a major role in motivating behavior. Soon. and esteem needs are deficiency needs (also known as D-needs). Further up the pyramid. air. Maslow termed the highest-level of the pyramid as growth need (also known as being needs or B-needs). the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority. but rather from a desire to grow as a person. meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation. Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something. friendship and intimacy become important. social. security. 29 .
community or religious groups. romantic attachments and families help fulfill this need for companionship and acceptance. concerned with personal growth. social recognition and accomplishment. These include the need for things that reflect on self-esteem. safe neighborhoods and shelter from the environment. Self-actualizing Needs This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. personal worth. less concerned with the opinions of others and interested fulfilling their potential. Maslow considered these needs to be less basic than physiological and security needs. What Is Self-Actualization? 30 . Esteem Needs After the first three needs have been satisfied.Security Needs These include needs for safety and security. Relationships such as friendships. as does involvement in social. but they are not as demanding as the physiological needs. Examples of security needs include a desire for steady employment. Security needs are important for survival. love and affection. health insurance. Self-actualizing people are self-aware. esteem needs becomes increasingly important. Social Needs These include needs for belonging.
This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is. he must be. namely. Problem-centering: Self-actualized individuals are concerned with solving problems outside of themselves. Maslow noted that the order in which these needs are fulfilled does not always follow this standard progression. This need we may call selfactualization…It refers to the desire for self-fulfillment. including helping others and finding solutions to problems in the external world. the need for creative fulfillment may supersede even the most basic needs. Characteristics of Self-Actualized People In addition to describing what is meant by self-actualization in his theory. the need for self-esteem is more important than the need for love. to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially.1 For example. For others. 31 .What exactly is self-actualization? Located at the peak of Maslow’s hierarchy. he notes that for some individuals."1 While Maslow’s theory is generally portrayed as a fairly rigid hierarchy. Maslow also identified some of the key characteristics of selfactualized people: • • Acceptance and Realism: Self-actualized people have realistic perceptions of themselves. These people are often motivated by a sense of personal responsibility and ethics. others and the world around them. to become everything that one is capable of becoming. he described this high-level need in the following way: "What a man can be.
they also tend to be open and unconventional. awe and ecstasy. strengthened. • Peak Experiences: Individuals who are self-actualized often have what Maslow termed peak experiences. After these experiences. renewed or transformed. wonder. people feel inspired. these individuals need time to focus on developing their own individual potential.• Spontaneity: Self-actualized people are spontaneous in their internal thoughts and outward behavior. While they can conform to rules and social expectations. Even simple experiences continue to be a source of inspiration and pleasure. • Autonomy and Solitude: Another characteristics of self-actualized people is the need for independence and privacy. wonder and awe. 32 . • Continued Freshness of Appreciation: Self-actualized people tend to view the world with a continual sense of appreciation. or moments of intense joy. While they enjoy the company of others.
June 4. to succeed as an entrepreneur." says Michie Slaughter. when Kauffman still out-earned his boss. the president cut his commission rate. many employees have another reason for taking the plunge into the deep waters of business ownership. Its $2 billion endowment is used to help fund programs for others who want to start small businesses. That is when Kauffman. some of these individuals have become quite successful. Marion Laboratories. 2002. 33 . started his own drug company. after an angry experience with his previous employer. A short time later. Today. who died in 1993. such as by a layoff. business cost-cutting. The president responded by cutting Kauffman's sales territory. particularly in the midst of economic uncertainty. Kauffman. Most people who end up becoming entrepreneurs are either fulfilling a lifelong dream or are motivated to do so out of necessity. For example.Some thing to read about Anger Can Power the Creation of New Companies LEAD STORY-DATELINE: The Wall Street Journal. angry because of the president's actions. Many employees are simply angry with the companies and managers who make decisions that affect their lives. Ewing Marion Kauffman started his own drug company. Kauffman was such an outstanding salesman in the 1950s that he made more money than the president of the company. a previous executive at Marion Labs and a friend of Kauffman's. and set up the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation in Kansas City.2 billion. Marion Laboratories was so successful that in 1989. Dow Chemical Company purchased it for approximately $5. "Getting taken advantage of by an employer motivated Mr. corporate downsizing. and unrealistic management expectations. He was profoundly committed to entrepreneurship. In fact. Missouri.
Identify three strategies that managers might adopt to help retain a valuable employee who might consider leaving a firm because of his or her anger. Individuals often react very differently when dealing with strong emotions such as anger.. as a "sweet reward. 34 . which has sales of about $1 million. rewarding endeavors. "to escape from humiliating alpha-dog tyrannical management. TALKING IT OVER AND THINKING IT THROUGH! Almost everyone experiences anger during various times in his or her professional lives. insensitive managers who often mishandle employee-related situations. the greater the probability that the individual will make rational decisions when in a situation that evokes anger. he claims he left his previous employer of 11 years." In fact.Joseph B." Anger can indeed be a motivator that can lead to sweet rewards when channeled in the right direction. Inc. Wise managers know that many employee exits are simply a result of incompetent. THINKING ABOUT THE FUTURE! Emotions will always play a significant role in determining employee behavior. it can be used to help create a positive outcome for individuals. Although many individuals perceive anger as a negative emotion." Gordon believes that voluntarily leaving because of his anger "vindicated the humiliation of layoffs. a Connecticut auto parts maker. Many researchers agree that the more emotionally mature an individual is. Gordon considers his decision to start Differential Pressure Plus. Cite two examples of how your anger or the anger of someone you know became the catalyst that helped to direct you or someone else to more productive.
" founded in part by Martin E. "It's the happiest principle by which to live and the most intelligent principle by which to do business and make money. Kaufman also made a point to always treat others as he would like to be treated. But. psychologists have spent the majority of their time teaching people how not to feel bad. they think about feeling good and then feeling even better. 200 social scientists shared their research findings about happiness. or. in Washington D. co-sponsored by the Gallup Organization. and can even occasionally bring children or pets to work as needed.. For example. they had a lot of good stuff to talk about. That's right. Employee empowerment is indeed a major key to his company's success. It seems that for years. these folks were meeting to discuss the effects of feeling good and.D.. he allows all assemblers at his company to watch daytime television while performing their tasks. Where Happiness Lies: Social Scientists Reveal Their Research Findings in the Realm of Positive Psychology LEAD STORY-DATELINE: Monitor on Psychology. In a recent Positive Psychology Summit. has uncovered both anticipated and 35 . as it turns out. This new field of "positive psychology. January 2001. former president of the American Psychological Association. In addition. determine their own work hours. P. Gordon decided to create the exact opposite work environment from the firm he left.C. they perform their own quality checks. rather. Seligman. how to feel less bad. as Ed Diener of the University of Illinois points out. people don't lay in bed thinking about feeling less bad." he says.When he started his company. Ph.
in psychological terms.unanticipated benefits related to being in a positive emotional state-or.. find a quarter on the street." are more likely to put in more hours." Isen goes on to report that people in a positive emotional state become more flexible in their thinking and more creative and better problem solvers." instead of just "work. professor of management and organizational behavior at New York University." Isen reports." Why would an article on "positive psychology" be relevant in the world of business? Stay tuned for the answer. Other positive psychology studies have looked at what people like about their jobs. it doesn't take very much happiness to generate these positive effects. The slightest elevation in mood–even when it is barely perceptible–is enough to produce dramatic results. She also found that "small inductions of positive emotion make people smarter. For example. according to Isen." Furthermore. "Employees who feel good because their supervisors 'gave them pleasantries' or recognized their successes are more likely to work better and harder.D. more productive and more accurate. people who view their jobs as a "calling. Alice Isen. let's take a look at some of the research findings.. or receive an unexpected gift and this emotion makes them feel more generous. experiencing "positive affect. friendlier and healthier. But first. when radiologists were given a small present. of Cornell University. Research by Dr.. and are less defensive in stressful situations. these "happy" employees are better able to "take the other party's perspective in negotiations. has found that "people experience a thrill when they get a free sample. For example. 36 . Ph. how do people engaged in menial (lowlevel) jobs make their work more personally meaningful? According to Amy Wrzesniewski. they made more accurate diagnoses–a good reason to be nice to your radiologist! Very importantly.
In fact. Wrzesniewski says that although you would think that people who report higher satisfaction would have more "interesting" jobs than those reporting low satisfaction. Dr. it is how people personally view their work that seems to matter as opposed to some specific aspect inherent in the work. and report higher life satisfaction.miss less work. ATTITUDE 37 . this is not necessarily the case. Rather.
2. cognitive and affective part. attitudes can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very unfavorable. Third. If we have a positive attitude for a particular object. 3. When you form your opinion or judgment on the basis of available information and decide whether you have a favorable or unfavorable opinion on that. 1. it is likely to be translated into a particular type of behavior.ATTITUDE The attitude is the evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects. This is perhaps the most often referred part of attitude and decides mostly the desirable or undesirable aspect attitude. Affective Component of Attitude refers to the behavioral part of attitude. it the cognitive part of attitude we are talking about. they tend to persist unless something is done to change them. Conative Component of Attitude refers to the emotional aspect of attitude. More precisely attitudes can be defined as a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way toward some object which may include events or individuals as well. 38 . Second. Attitude can be characterized in three ways: First. attitudes are directed toward some object about which a person has feelings( sometimes called “affect”) and beliefs. people. such as buying or procuring that object. Components of Attitudes The three basic components of attitude are cognitive. Cognitive Component of Attitude refers to opinion or belief part of attitude. or events.
they will be better adjusted to their work. • The Adjustment Function. it is found from an attitude survey. During the subsequent week it is found that the attendance of the employees drops sharply from the previous standard. An understanding of attitudes is also important because attitudes help the employees to get adjusted to their work. Attitudes help people to adapt to their work environment. After introducing a particular policy. thus forming your value system. Functions of Attitude According to Katz. Attitudes often help people to adjust to their work environment. These develop over time. These are as follows. If the management can successfully develop a positive attitude among the employees. that the workers are not too happy about it. As you grow you watch the significant people around you behaving in a particular way. Here management may conclude that a negative attitude toward new work rules led to increased absenteeism. Well-treated employees tend to develop a positive attitude towards their job. These in turn give rise to development of your attitudes. management and the 39 . attitudes serve four important functions from the viewpoint of organizational behaviour. Attitudes help predict work behavior.Formation of Attitude How attitudes are formed? How do you develop your attitude? Essentially attitudes are the outward manifestation of your inner values and beliefs. you are being told to cherish certain things over others and you learn from your teachers and peers and come to value certain thins over other. The following example might help to illustrate it.
In other words. the management should try to change their attitude and help develop a more positive attitude in them. Attitudes help people to retain their dignity and self. • The Knowledge Function. the process of changing the attitude is not always easy. a manager who values hard and sincere work will be more vocal against an employee who is having a very casual approach towards work. If one has a strong negative attitude towards the management. even employee welfare programmes can be perceived as something ‘bad’ and as actually against them. Changing Attitudes Employees’ attitudes can be changed and sometimes it is in the best interests of managements to try to do so. For example.organization in general while berated and ill treated organizational members develop a negative attitude. Attitudes provide standards and frames of reference that allow people to understand and perceive the world around him. the older members might feel somewhat threatened by him. When a young faculty member who is full of fresh ideas and enthusiasm. There are two 40 . But they tend to disapprove his creative ideas as ‘crazy’ and ‘impractical’ and dismiss him altogether. if employees believe that their employer does not look after their welfare. • The Value-Expressive Function. Attitudes provide individuals with a basis for expressing their values. However. whatever the management does. • Ego-Defensive Function. joins the organization. There are some barriers which have to be overcome if one strives to change somebody’s attitude.image. attitudes help employees adjust to their environment and form a basis for future behaviour. For example.
Prior commitment when people feel a commitment towards a particular course of action that have already been agreed upon and thus it becomes difficult for them to change or accept the new ways of functioning. Sometimes a dramatic change in attitude is possible only by providing relevant and adequate information to the person concerned. he person might resolve the his dilemma. • Resolving Discrepancies. Scanty and incomplete information can be a major reason for brewing negative feeling and attitudes. • Use of Fear. the degree of the arousal of fear will have to be taken into consideration as well. it is often become difficult for him to decide which is right for him. People might resort to change their work habit for the fear of fear of unpleasant consequences. However. 41 .major categories of barriers that come in the way of changing attitudes: 1. Sometimes people simply see any reason to change their attitude due to unavailability of adequate information. 2. Insufficient information also acts as a major barrier to change attitudes. Whenever people face a dilemma or conflicting situation they feel confused in choosing a particular course of action. • Providing New Information. Attitudes can be changed through the use of fear. Some of the possible ways of changing attitudes are described below. Like in the case where one is to choose from between two alternative courses of action. Even when he chooses one over the other. If some one helps him in pointing out the positive points in favour of the chosen course of action. he might still feel confused.
it is often becomes very effective if you can include him in your own group. Important Attitudes Related to Organizations Job satisfaction and organizational commitment are some of the important attitudes which are important from the point of view of organization. 1976).• Influence of friends and peers. job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences (Locke. Job satisfaction. If for example. These are described in details bellow. provided these values are 42 . organizational commitment and organizational loyalty are some of the important attitudes related to work organizational set up. his positive feeling results from the perception of one’s job as fulfilling or allowing the fulfillment of one’s important job values. Job Satisfaction In a generalized way. they are all praise for a particular policy introduced in the work place. chances are high that an individual will slowly accept that even when he had initial reservations for that. Like in the case of the union leader who are all the time vehemently against any management decision. Their opinion and recommendation for something often proves to be more important. We will describe these now. can be the person who takes active initiative in implementing a new policy when he had participated in that decision making process himself. If you want to change the attitude of some body who belongs to a different group. A very effective way of changing one’s attitude is through his friends and colleagues. • Co-opting.
. 1976). Mottaz. Organizational rewards. 1977). According to Mottaz (1987). 1977. Two important groups of work rewards that have been identified that includes task. 1976). and organizational rewards. self-direction. 1988). satisfaction with one’s job reflects a person’s affective response resulting from an evaluation of the total job situation. refer to the extrinsic rewards provided by the organization for the purpose of facilitating or motivating task performance and maintaining membership (Katz & Van 43 . Based on the review of literature. on the other hand. Given that values refer to what one desires or seeks to attain (Locke.compatible with one’s needs (Locke. job satisfaction can be considered as reflecting a person’s value judgment regarding workrelated rewards. In sum. the job satisfaction construct can be considered to be a function of work-related rewards and values. Work rewards reflect the intrinsic and extrinsic benefits that workers receive from their jobs (Kalleberg. Locke and Henne (1986) defined job satisfaction as the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the achievement of one’s job values in the work situation. Task rewards refer to those intrinsic rewards directly associated with doing the job (Katz & Van Maanan. variety and opportunities to use one’s skills and abilities. They include such factors as interesting and challenging work. the following framework can be proposed for the understanding of job satisfaction. and responsibility.
1988).Maanan. and comfortable working conditions. 44 . They represent tangible rewards that are visible to others and include such factors like pay. Mottaz. promotions. security. fringe benefits. 1977.
PERCEPTION AND PERSON PERCEPTION 45 .
we are flooded with a myriad of stimuli impinging on our sense organs. a situation may be the same but the interpretation of that situation by two individuals may be immensely different. as it is never an exact recording of the event or the situation. We gather information through our five sense organs. like now as you are reading this particular page in front of you. The perceptual process can be depicted simplistically in the following way The model of perception helps one to understand the basic processes involved in human perception in a rather simplistic way. Definition: Perception is the set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information about the environment. As pointed out. but perception adds meaning to these sensory inputs. Perception is the process by which we organize and interpret our sensory impressions in order to give meaning to the environment. At a point of time.PERCEPTION AND PERSON PERCEPTION Perception refers to the way we try to understand the world around us. 46 . The process of perception is essentially subjective in nature.
Similarly. But each sense receptor requires a minimum level of energy to excite it before perception can take place. But these are. our eyes receive and convert light waves into electrical energy which are transmitted to the visual cortex of the brain to create the sensation of vision and subsequently leading to perception. hardly aware of all these sensory inputs reaching you. you are. If we examine the model above we will find that only those stimuli are given entry to the process of ‘registration’ which have got adequate attention or have aroused our interest. 47 . But our brain and the nervous system are not capable of processing so many pieces of information all together. etc. some body talking out aloud outside.light rays from the page are reaching your eyes. Thus what happens is that we only selectively choose from among a host of stimuli and process only those.the humming of the air conditioner. The differential threshold is the smallest amount by which two similar stimuli must be different in order to be perceived as different. the rustling of the papers on your table. As it is now happening with you. Factors affecting perception Internal Factors • Sensory Limits and Thresholds : Our sensory organs have specialized nerves which respond differently to the various forms of energy they receive. Light rays from every possible direction are also impinging on your retina as well. For instance. by no means. all. every sense organs of your body are bombarded with a number of different stimuli simultaneously. in all probability. At the same time you are also receiving a host of auditory stimuli --. The minimum level is called the absolute threshold a point below which we do not perceive energy.
External Factors • The Target : The characteristics of the target that is being observed can affect perception. Sometimes we commit errors in the process as well. we correctly assume the dot for an aero plane. The internal set or the inclination to perceive certain stimuli in a particular way also influences one’s perception. The accountant often becomes unduly suspicious when he finds a large bill and tends to believe that as an inflated bill. While hearing a droning sound high in the sky we point to a fleeting dot and say. attitude and personality are likely to get more attention than others. We have earlier noted (refer to 48 . automatically turn to your direction the moment you utter his name. that’s an aero plane up there’ where we virtually see nothing! But on the basis of our past experience. past experiences and learning and motives affect an individual’s perceptual process to considerable extent. a person who is sitting aloof from your group in a far away corner. We hardly rely too much on pure sensory inputs and perceive the reality in our own subjective way. if you happen to hear the word ‘management’ or ‘organizational behaviour’ while traveling in a public transport. As you must have noticed. These largely determine why people select and attend to a particular stimulus or situation over other. Things compatible to one’s learning. This happens because of one’s strong association (with one’s own name) or the current interest in the topics. your attention is surely going to the conversation.• Psychological Factors : Psychological factors such as personality. Likewise. ‘Oh! See. Similarly. Our past learning also affects the perceptual process and lends a typical orientation in what we perceive. interest. one’s expectancy can affect and even distort one’s perception.
the ICU of a hospital. depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behaviour. Large in size 2. mainly because we are prone to make inferences regarding the intentions of people and thus form judgment about them. The presence of a policeman near the police station hardly draws any attention. • Person Perception Our perceptions of people differ from the perceptions of inanimate objects like tables. but if one is found in your classroom will certainly be the topic of the day. Novel 8. The word ‘terminal’ can be perceived quite differently in the context of say. Repeated 9. Moving 3.Figure 11. Stand out from the background. Whenever we observe the behaviour of an individual. It has been found that there is a tendency to give more attention to stimuli which are : 1.1 above) that a pre-requisite of perception is attention. books. Bright 6. an airport or the computer lab. pencil. Loud 5. we attempt to determine whether it was 49 . Attribution theory refers to the ways in which we judge people differently. Contrasted 7. The perceptions and judgments regarding a person’s actions are often significantly influenced by the assumptions we make about the person’s internal state. • The Situation : The situation or the context in which we see objects or events is important to shape our perception. etc. chairs. Intense 4.
that is the person is seen as having been compelled to behave in a particular way by the force of the situation. Consensus refers to the uniformity of the behaviour shown by all the concerned people. 2.internally or externally caused. 3. it is easily assumed that there must be a severe traffic disruption in the city and thus the behaviour is externally attributed. Externally caused behaviour is seen as resulting from outside causes. Distinctiveness which refers to whether an individual displays different behaviour at different situations. Consistency is the reverse of distinctiveness. and you will feel hurt since it appeared that he is quite unconcerned and careless about your feeling. But if someone now points out about his recent increased responsibilities in the business after his father’s untimely death and acute time shortage. it is attributed as 50 . it is internally attributed. Internally caused behaviours are those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual or have been done deliberately by him. we tend to give the behaviour an external attribution. If the present behaviour is consistently found to occur in the past as well (that is being late at least three times a week). you tend to condone him as you are now ascribing his absence to the external factors. If every one reports late on a particular morning. Thus in judging the behaviour of an individual. and not because of his own choice. the person looks at his past record. the reverse. If the behaviour (say being late in the class on a particular day) is unusual. The determination of internally or externally caused behaviour depends chiefly on the following three factors : 1. When after repeated requests your friend failed to turn up at the special old school boys’ meet you might ascribe his absence as a deliberate move on his part. But if the consensus is low. and if it usual.
In other words. refers to the inclination for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors. If a manager 51 . Another noticeable tendency. the more consistent the behaviour. There are often some errors or biases in our judgment about others. called self-serving bias.3 below depicts the attribution theory in short. This is called fundamental attribution error.internally caused. Figure 11. we tend to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors. Self-fulfilling Prophecy or Pygmalion Effect : An interesting aspect of people perception is the fact that people’s expectations are often found to determine the actual performance level. the more the observer is inclined to attribute it to external causes. When we make judgment about other people’s behaviour.
nature of supervision or guidance or the general attitude towards the organization in general. We hardly have either time or inclination to process all the relevant inputs and we automatically select a few. The case would have been just the reverse if you were to present just after a superb presentation! 52 .g. they will only prove the same. experiences and attitudes. the process of employee performance evaluations. • Halo Effect : It refers to the tendency of forming a general about an individual on the basis of a single impression characteristic. requiring little or no verbal fluency. A few of the frequently committed mistakes are given below: • Selective Perception : People have a tendency to selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests. background. The smartly dressed guy who is very fluent in English often tends to create a favourable impression on the interviewer even when the job is of an accountant or engineer. As mentioned earlier. • Contrast Effect : It refers to the process of rating individuals in the light of other people’s performance which are close in time frame. Naturally chances are there to miss some important cues in the process. Surely the contrary is also true. You might be rated excellent in your project presentation if your predecessor makes a mess in his presentation. e.expects an excellent level of performance from his subordinates. Attributions are found to strongly affect various functions in an organization. we also tend to make various types of errors while judging others. If you feel your subordinates are a worthless bunch of people. chances are quite high that they will actually reach up to his expectation and will make impossible possible.
• Stereotyping : It is the process of judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that perception belongs to. 53 . Common examples include the debate regarding the effectiveness of a lady doctor or manager or MBA’S from prestigious B’schools.
LEARNING 54 .
Basic nature of learning 2. As Behaviour is collection of related activities. Theories of learning 3. so change in behaviour results in to change in activities which are responsible for the concerned change behaviour. what he learns are all important determinants of his behaviour. Application of learning principles in organizational context. People can learn unfavorable behaviors to hold prejudices or to restrict their output. we are not talking about the formal and structured types of learning that are expected to take place in classroom situations only. 55 . The present definition of learning has several components that deserve clarification. Learning is an extremely important area from the viewpoint of understanding human behaviour. the way an individual learns. learning may be defined as any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. for example-as well as favorable behaviors. Learning involves change. Change may be good or bad from an organizational point of view. In this lesson on learning we will thus try to understand the following: 1.LEARNING We will try to understand the process of learning in an individual. As we have mentioned earlier. A DEFINITION OF LEARNING According to Stephen Robbins. In this context. 1. Our definition is concerned with behavior.
3. we can say that changes in behavior indicate that learning has taken place. no change in behavior indicates no learning has taken place. These periods of no apparent change in behaviour is called the ‘incubation period’. there are some periods of time that follow the learning during which there is no indication of apparent changes.2. responds as a result of experience in a manner different from the way he formerly behaved. Similarly. This does not necessarily mean that no learning has taken place. For example if a word processing operator who key boarded 70 words a minute before taking a new training course can now key board 85 words in a minute. people behave in a changed way as a result of learning. the Requirement that learning must be relatively permanent rules out behavioral changes caused by fatigue Or temporary adaptations. Learning involves change in behaviour. we must depend on observation to see how much learning has occurred. Therefore. Temporary changes may be only reflexive and fail to represent any learning. It must however be remembered that in certain types of learning. 56 . The change must be relatively permanent. where the assimilation and internalization of learning take place. We can say that a person has learned whenever changes in behavior of that person take place. reacts. we can infer that learning has occurred. Learning takes place when there is a change in actions. But in a general way we may say that in the process of learning. In other words. Thus we infer that learning has taken place if an individual behaves.
we first need to be aware of its historical roots. 57 . ones you may not have thought about. When most teachers hear a bell one of the first things they do is walk out into the hallway to be a monitor just to keep a watchful eye on the students. Right? Well this guy had acquired such a habit that when he was at home and the doorbell rang he'd walk into a nearby hallway and "monitor" his family. Traditional view: Classical Conditioning To understand contemporary thinking of learning. And 3. perhaps the oldest model of change that is there. 2. For him it was simply such a strong habit that he'd produce the right behavior (going into the hall to monitor) at the wrong place (his own home). Social Learning. Operant Conditioning. In this section we will look at Classical Conditioning. It has several interesting applications to the classroom. various researchers have approached the problem from various perspectives. Let's look at the components of this model. This has given rise to different theories of learning. Classical Conditioning. We will review some of the most important theories of learning which are: 1. Classical conditioning is a simple form of learning in which conditioned response is linked with an unconditioned stimulus.THEORIES OF LEARNING In order to explain the complex topic like human learning . What do you do when you hear a bell ring? A teacher told this story on himself.
When Pavlov presented the dog with a piece of meat. Consider a hungry dog who sees a bowl of food. the dog began to salivate as soon as the bell rang. the dog exhibited a noticeable increase in salivation. Something like this might happen: 58 . the dog did not salivate. conducted this experiment. A simple surgical procedure allowed Pavlov to measure accurately the amount of saliva secreted by a dog. Ivan Pavlov. After repeatedly hearing the bell before getting the food. When Pavlov withheld the presentation of meat and merely rang a bell. Then Pavlov proceeded to link the meat and the ringing of the bell.COMPONENTS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING A Russian physiologist. Table 1 : Classical Conditioning The easiest place to start is with a little example.
because we are humans who have an insatiable curiosity. Thus. of course. • Bell • with • Food ---> Salivation We repeat this action (food and bell given simultaneously) at several meals. Bell ---> Salivate The bell elicits the same response the sight of the food gets. "Conditioning" from all this? Let me draw up the diagrams with the official terminology. We ring the bell (Ding-dong). we ring a bell. Now. the dog salivates. we do another experiment. after you've tricked your dog into drooling and acting even more stupidly than usual. the dog sees the food. Every time the dog sees the food.Food ---> Salivation The dog is hungry. where do we get the term. (And. It really is that simple. the dog also hears the bell. Now. When we present the food to the hungry dog (and before the dog salivates). the dog has learned to associate the bell with the food and now the bell has the power to produce the same response as the food. and unlearned relationship. an unconscious.) This is the essence of Classical Conditioning. Now. Then you add a third thing (bell) for several trials. because we are humans who like to play tricks on our pets. then salivate. See the food. this third thing may become so strongly associated that it has the power to produce the old behavior. Over repeated trials. This is a natural sequence of events. Ding-dong. but we don't show any food. Eventually. uncontrolled. You start with two things that are already connected with each other (food and salivation). Alpo. we experiment. you must give it a special treat. • Food ---------------------> Salivation • Unconditioned Stimulus ---> Unconditioned Response 59 . What does the dog do? Right.
hard wired together like a horse and carriage and love and marriage as the song goes. • Conditioning Stimulus • Bell • with • Food -----------------------> Salivation • Unconditioned Stimulus------> Unconditioned Response We already know that "Unconditioned" means unlearned. bond. preexisting."Unconditioned" simply means that the stimulus and the response are naturally connected. 2. 1. "Stimulus" simply means the thing that starts it while "response" means the thing that ends it. Unconditioned Stimulus: a thing that can already elicit a response. Unconditioned Response: a thing that is already elicited by a stimulus. They just came that way. true. And we want this new thing to elicit (rather than be elicited) so it will be a stimulus and not a response. already present.before-we-got-there.Unconditioned connection. It means that we are trying to associate. link something new with the old relationship. (This is circular reasoning. Finally. but hang in there. "Unconditioned" means that this connection was already present before we got there and started messing around with the dog or the child or the spouse. after many trials we hope for. "Conditioning" just means the opposite. untaught. A stimulus elicits and a response is elicited. connect. 3.) Another diagram. 60 Relationship: an existing stimulus-response . • Bell ---------------------> Salivation • Conditioned Stimulus ---> Conditioned Response Let's review these concepts.
First.4. we start with an existing relationship. • Conditioning Stimulus • BELL • with • Food ---------------------> Salivation • Unconditioned Stimulus ---> Unconditioned Response There is nothing in here about rewards or punishments. no terminology like that. Second. 5. not even an implication like that. We will look at reinforcement theory in a separate chapter. until the new thing has the power to elicit the old response. Conditioned Relationship: the new stimulus-response relationship we created by associating a new stimulus with an old response. Classical conditioning is built on creating relationships by association over trials. A LITTLE HISTORY AND A COMPARISON The example we used here is from the first studies on classical conditioning as described by Ivan Pavlov. There are two key parts. To keep them separated just look for the presence of rewards and punishments. but for now I do want to make a point. Some people confuse Classical Conditioning with Reinforcement Theory. The point is this: Classical conditioning says nothing about rewards and punishments which are key terms in reinforcement theory. 61 . Unconditioned Stimulus ---> Unconditioned Response. Consider our basic example. Pavlov discovered these important relationships around the turn of the century in his work with dogs (really). Conditioning Stimulus: a new stimulus we deliver the same time we give the old stimulus. He created the first learning theory which precedes the learning theory most teachers know quite well. reinforcement theory. the famous Russian physiologist. we pair a new thing (Conditioning Stimulus) with the existing relationship.
Particularly when the emotion is intensely felt or negative in direction. the animals come running even if you are opening a can of green beans. For example. Perhaps the strongest application of classical conditioning involves emotion. mildly aroused feeling (Unconditioned Response) in most men.EVERYDAY CLASSICAL CONDITIONING This type of influence is extremely common. the guy often experienced moments of dread in the late afternoons particularly when he was just walking around the city alone. If you have pets and you feed them with canned food. Even though he was quite safe. Common experience and careful research both confirm that human emotion conditions very rapidly and easily. Classical conditioning works with people. Go to K-Mart and watch what happens when the blue light turns on. what happens when you hit the can opener? Sure. it will condition quickly. many beer ads prominently feature attractive young women wearing bikinis.) And classical conditioning works with advertising. The same thing applies with the jingles and music that accompany many advertisements. I have heard from a person who. the research proves that people are more likely to buy the sale item under the blue light even if the item isn't a good value.") It was an unexpected and frightening experience. the lengthening shadows of the day were so strongly associated with the 62 . too. (And. The beer is simply associated with this effect. This event occurred just about dusk and for a long time thereafter. when was in college was robbed at gun point by a young man who gave him The Choice ("Your money or your life. The young women (Unconditioned Stimulus) naturally elicit a favorable. Cost conscious shoppers will make a beeline to that table because they associate a good sale with the blue light. For example. They have associated the sound of the opener with their food.
This is true because it is a natural feature of all humans and it is relatively simple and easy to accomplish. that he could not but help feel the emotion all over. 63 . Clearly. classical conditioning is a pervasive form of influence in our world.fear he experienced in the robbery.
when the employee finds the job assignment rewarding and fulfilling. people draw on their experiences and use past learning as a basis for present behavior. she will recognize that the choice was a good one and will understand why. Third. • • Second. These experiences represent presumed knowledge or cognitions. 64 . • First. So before knowing about operant conditioning let’s put learning in an organizational context. it assumes people are conscious. For example. active participants in how they learn. contemporary learning theory generally views learning as a cognitive process. Foremost is the operant conditioning or reinforcement theory which we will be studying in our next lesson. in the cognitive view. There fore several perspectives on learning take a cognitive view. people make choices about their behavior. that is . people recognize the consequences of their choices.The Contemporary view: learning as a cognitive process Although it is not tied to single theory or model. Thus. Finally people evaluate those consequences and add them to prior learning which affects future choices. an employee faced with a choice of job assignments will use previous experiences in deciding which one accept.
how to file an insurance claim. when to expect a paycheck. we should also note the pervasive extent to which learning also occurs in organizations. and so forth. whom to trust. whom to ask for assistance. Overview: In simplest form this theory suggests that behavior is a function of its consequences. for example. which job assignments to seek and which to avoid. whom to avoid . While this association is quite logical. newcomers to an organizations learn when to come to work.Learning in organizations: Most people associate learning with formal education and with school in particular. how to apply for annual leave. how to get promotions. and the like. And from a career perspective. what is expected of them in the way of performance outcomes. and so forth. employees learn how to get along with colleagues. how to dress. employees learn how to get ahead . which behaviors are acceptable and unacceptable. From a simple orientation perspective. This is also known as Reinforcement theory. From a social perspective. much of organizational life and the behavior of individuals within organizations are influenced by learning and learning processes. F. and what it takes to get rewarded. Operant conditioning We will now review the operant conditioning theory of learning today that was offered by B. Clearly. From performance perspective . Form a political perspective. and so on. Thus behavior that results in pleasant 65 . employees learn how to get along with their bosses. Skinner. then . the norms of the group. employees learn how to do their jobs more effectively.
g.consequences is more likely to be repeated. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Suppose a new employee wants to learn the best way to get along with his boss. the employee will continue this new set of behaviors because they result in positive consequences. In fact. In all likelihood. as already studied by us in our previous lesson. The distinctive characteristic of operant conditioning relative to previous forms of behaviorism (e. When a particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded). Thus. Because the boss does not react positively..F. Cognitions. Thorndike. and behavior that results in unpleasant consequences is less likely to be repeated. but the boss responds by acting aloof and. the employee starts acting more formal and professional and finds the boss much more receptive to this posture. Analysis of B.F. at times. annoyed. At first. hitting a ball.Skinner Theory of Operant Conditioning: The theory of B. or solving a math problem. contemporary theorists believe that people consciously explore different behaviors and systematically choose those that result in the most desirable outcomes. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. also play an important role. the employee is very friendly and informal. rather than assuming a mechanical stimulus-response linkage suggested by the traditional classical view of learning . Hull) is that the organism can emit responses instead of only eliciting response due to 66 . the employee is unlikely to continue this behavior. This theory further suggests that in any given situation. A response produces a consequence such as defining a word. the individual is conditioned to respond. Future behavioral choices are affected by the consequences of earlier behaviors. people will explore a variety of possible behaviors.
g.any stimulus that results in the increased frequency of a response when it is withdrawn (different from aversive stimuli -. Skinner explained drive (motivation) in terms of deprivation and reinforcement schedules. This theory was inferred Ivan Pavlov ‘s experiment of Dog–bell. Examples of positive reinforcements in the context of organizations include incentives. What Pavlov did for classical conditioning. In adding together. People will most likely to keep in desired behaviors if they are positively reinforced for doing so.which result in reduced responses).punishment -. For example. It could be verbal praise. Skinner's research extensively expanded our knowledge of operant conditioning. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S-R theory. the Harvard psychologist B F Skinner did for operant conditioning" Building on earlier work in the field. interval versus ratio) and their effects on establishing and maintaining behavior. One of the distinctive aspects of Skinner's theory is that it attempted to provide behavioral explanations for a broad range of cognitive phenomena. behavior that is not rewarded or is punished is less likely to be repeated. Skinner (1957) tried to account for verbal learning and language within the operant 67 . A great deal of attention was given to schedules of reinforcement (e. Rewards and Recognition are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response. Reinforcement. The theory also covers negative reinforcers -. bonus-policies for performers etc. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. People learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don't want. As got dog used to get meat after bell ringing which is positive reinforcements to that of the bell ringing. The tendency to repeat such behavior is influenced by the reinforcement or lack of reinforcement brought about by the consequences of the behavior. a good grade or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction. strengthens a behavior and increases the likelihood that it will be repeated. therefore.an external stimulus.
although this effort was strongly rejected by linguists and psycholinguists. Punishment 1)Positive reinforcement Positive reinforcement is a reward or other desirable consequence that follows behavior. intermittent reinforcement is particularly effective 2.conditioning paradigm. A compliment from the boss after completing a 68 . Positive reinforcement 2.. Behavior that is positively reinforced will recur. behavior modification) and as well as teaching (i. There are four basic forms of Reinforcement: 1. Extinction 4.e. classroom management) instruction). Avoidance 3.. Skinner (1971) deals with the issue of free will and social control. Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses can be reinforced ("shaping") 3. instructional development (e. Principles: 1.e.. Reinforcements will generalize across similar stimuli ("stimulus generalization") producing secondary conditioning. Reinforcement strengthens desirable behaviour by either bestowing positive consequences or withholding negative consequences and increases the likelihood that the behaviour will be repeated. Scope/Application: Operant conditioning has been widely applied in clinical settings (i. programmed Types of Reinforcement Managers can use various kinds of reinforcement to affect employee behavior.g.
The general affect of providing positive reinforcement after behavior is to maintain or increase the frequency of that behavior. however. the manager may find that such unstructured conversations now make it difficult to get her own job done. extinction tends to decrease the frequency of undesirable behavior. Managers might define “desirable” employee behavior as hard work. the person is given the opportunity to avoid an unpleasant consequence. It is another means of increasing the frequency of desirable behavior. a manager with small staff may encourage frequent visit from subordinates as a way to keep in touch with what is going on. Positive reinforcement is mainly intended to ensure the same type of behavior in future. promotions and the like. 3)Extinction Positive reinforcement and avoidance increase the frequency of desirable behavior. To avoid criticism. As the staff grow. 2)Avoidance Also known as negative reinforcement. attention to subordinates concerns and encouragement to come in again soon. the managers may reward them with pay increases. Rather than receiving a reward following a desirable behavior. consequence. loyalty and commitment to the organization. The employee is engaging in desirable behavior to avoid an unpleasant or aversive.difficult job and a salary increase following a period of high performance are examples of positive reinforcement. punctuality. Positive reinforcement might include cordial conversation. For example. Withdrawing the rewards 69 . an employee’s boss may habitually criticize individuals who dress casually. Then the manager might brush off casual conversation and talk to the point of “business” conversations. When employees exhibit these behaviors. For example. the employee may formally dress to suit the supervisor’s taste.
arguing with superiors and not following the rules framed by the organization. undesirable behavior might include being late. 4)Punishment Punishment. like extinction. Positive Reinforcement : 70 . In the work place. lay offs. loss of privileges. also tends to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors. pay cuts. Examples of punishment are verbal or written reprimands. and termination.for casual chatting probably will extinguish behavior of subordinates to enter into managers cabin again and again.
Schedules of Reinforcement When and how the reinforcements should be applied for effective learning? At times reinforcement takes place on a continuous basis. Every time a little child does her homework neatly. 71 . Continuous reinforcement schedules are found to lead to early satiation and behaviour tends to weaken rapidly after the reinforcers are withheld. But usually most reinforcements that are given in work and everyday life are partial in nature in the sense that sometimes it is given after the desired behaviour and sometimes not. It is however found that behaviour that is based on partial reinforcement schedule is much more persistent and is likely to continue even when reinforcement is removed. the teacher gives her a ‘gold star’. This is true despite of the fact that on partial reinforcement schedules less amount of reinforcement is offered.
To summarize. Four possible types of intermittent reinforcement includes the following: • Fixed Ratio when a fixed number of responses are required to be emitted for obtaining the reinforcement. we may conclude that there are two broad types of reinforcement schedules: Continuous reinforcement when a desired behaviour is reinforced each and every time it is demonstrated Intermittent reinforcement when a desired behaviour is reinforced often enough to make the behaviour worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated. • Variable interval when reinforcements are distributed in time so that these are unpredictable. the manger should use the schedule best suited to the kind of reinforcement being used and try to link outcomes with 72 .The little child might gradually loose the excitement in getting ‘gold star’ and might not be too bothered to do her homework neatly anymore. the variable schedules of reinforcements are found to be more effective because perhaps of the element of surprise being present. This is found in monthly or weekly payment system. In contrast. Instead. To sum up relying on any given schedule for all rewards is difficult or impractical. This is found to be offered as piece-rate payment system • Variable Ratio when a varying or random number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs. • Fixed interval when the reinforcements are spaced at uniform intervals of time. This is found to be implemented when the employees are given certain percentage on their performance as the incentive as ‘commission’.
behaviors according to the needs of the organization and its employees 73 .
MOTIVATION AND THEORIES 74 .
The behavior of the employees is influenced by the environment in which they find themselves. If employees lack the learned skills or innate talents to do a particular job. then performance will be less than optimal. Every employee is expected to show increased and qualitative productivity by the manager. then the employer may never have the benefit of their total performance. Work performance is also contingent upon employee abilities. an employee's behavior will be a function of that employee's innate drives or felt needs and the opportunities he or she has to satisfy those drives or needs in the workplace If employees are never given opportunities to utilize all of their skills. To achieve this the behavior of the employee is very important. 75 . A third dimension of performance is motivation.MOTIVATION & ITS THEORIES Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal. Finally.
to push right button to get desired reactions.” The following are the features of motivation : • Motivation is an act of managers • Motivation is a continuous process • Motivation can be positive or negative • Motivation is goal oriented • Motivation is complex in nature • Motivation is an art • Motivation is system-oriented • Motivation is different from job satisfaction MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS There are several factors that motivate a person to work.“Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get desired course of action. The motivational factors can be broadly divided into two groups: I. MONETARY FACTORS: Salaries or wages: 76 .
Salaries or wages is one of the most important motivational factors. Delegation of authority: Delegation of authority motivates a subordinate to perform the tasks with 77 . While fixing salaries the organization must consider such as : • Cost of living • Company ability to pay • Capability of company to pay etc. Incentives: The organization may also provide additional incentives such as medical allowance. Employees prefer and proud of higher designations. etc. Bonus: It refers to extra payment to employee over and above salary given as an incentive. The employees must be given adequate rate of bonus. Appreciation and recognition: Employees must be appreciated for their services. Special individual incentives: The are company to be may to provide special individual for incentives. HRA . II. giving Such incentives given deserving employees valuable suggestions. NON MONETARY FACTORS: Status or job title: By providing a higher status or designations the employee must be motivated.allowance. The praise should not come from immediate superior but also from higher authorities. educational allowance. Reasonable salaries must be paid on time.
Workers participation: Inviting the employee to be a member of quality circle. the subordinate knows that his superior has placed faith and trust in him. etc can also be a good way to motivate the employees. the superior needs to have superior knowledge and skills than that of his subordinates.dedication and commitment. When authority is delegated. motivates the employees. Other factors: There are several other factors of motivating the employees: 78 . For instance an executive who is involved in preparing and presenting reports of performance. Cordial relations: Good and healthy relations must exist throughout the organization. Job enrichment: Job enrichment involves more challenging tasks and responsibilities. Working conditions : Provision for better working conditions such as air-conditioned rooms. proper sanitation. In fact. This would definitely motivates the employees. may also asked to frame plans. experienced. matured. machines etc. equipment. or a committee. The very presence of superiors can motivate the subordinates. Good superiors: Subordinates want their superiors to be intelligent. Job security: Guarantee of job security or lack of fear dismissal. and having a good personality. proper plant layout. Employees who are kept temporarily for a long time may be frustrated and may leave the organization. or some other form of employee participation can also motivate the workforce.
Good relations. Reduced accidents. 79 . • Proper promotions and transfers. Improves a corporate image. • Flexible working hours. Reduces employee turn over. • Proper job placements.• Providing training to the employees. Money as a motivator It is normally believed that money acts as a motivator. when there is no direct relationship between reward and effort. Need and importance of motivation Motivation offers several importances to the organization and to the employees: • • • • • • • • • Higher efficiency Reduce absenteeism. the value of certain amount of money is quite high as compared to rich. Improved morale. • Proper welfare facilities. For poor person. Economic conditions of people influence the Importance of money. In general the role of money as a motivator depends upon certain factors: • • Money fails to motivate people. Facilitates initiative and innovation. Reduced wastages and breakages. • Proper performance feed back.
Motivational Theories: Maslow’s-Hierarchy of Needs Theory: This theory was proposed by Abraham Maslow and is based on the assumption that people are motivated by a series of five universal needs. according to the order in which they influence human behavior. • Employees are concerned not only wih the amount of money paid to them. A hungry person has a felt need. but it should be fair and equitable as paid to that of othe employees of same level or status. o Safety needs include a desire for security. This felt need sets up both psychological and physical tensions that manifest themselves in overt behaviors directed at reducing those tensions (getting something to eat). • Thus.• Money is a significant motivator at lower level of employees level however money may not be a significant factor for senior executives who have already fulfilled their lower level needs.level needs. in hierarchical fashion • Physiological needs are deemed to be the lowest. • Social attitudes towards money and wealth also decides the motivation to earn more and more. These needs include the needs such as food & water . These needs are ranked.become the motivators of human behavior. o So long as physiological needs are unsatisfied. and the need for food ceases to motivate.the needs for shelter and security -. 80 . the tension is reduced. safety needs -. stability. Once the hunger is sated. they exist as a driving or motivating force in a person's life. dependency. At this point (assuming that other physiological requirements are also satisfied) the next higher order need becomes the motivating need.
and a need for structure. these needs also include the desire for reputation. self-esteem. and the process of becoming all that a person is capable of becoming. glory. and law. prestige. o Esteem needs include the desire for self-respect. In the workplace. attention. recognition. freedom from fear and anxiety. and the esteem of others. order. dominance. and appreciation. • Social needs include the need for belongingness and love. • The highest need in Maslow's hierarchy is that of self-actualization. o Generally. importance. In the workplace this needs translates into a need for at least a minimal degree of employment security.protection. continuous self-development. status. 81 . as gregarious creatures. the knowledge that we cannot be fired on a whim and that appropriate levels of effort and productivity will ensure continued employment. the need for self-realization. • After social needs have been satisfied.. When focused externally. human have a need to belong. fame. ego and esteem needs become the motivating needs. this need may be satisfied by an ability to interact with one's coworkers and perhaps to be able to work collaboratively with these colleagues.
• Relatedness refers to the desire we have for maintaining interpersonal relationships. • Existence refers to our concern with basic material existence requirements.Alderfer's Hierarchy of Motivational Needs: Clayton Alderfer reworked Maslow's Need Hierarchy to align it more closely with empirical research. • Growth refers to an intrinsic desire for personal development. and self-actualization 82 . and Growth. similar to Maslow's social/love need. the intrinsic component of Maslow's esteem need. Relatedness. Alderfer's theory is called the ERG theory -Existence. what Maslow called physiological and safety needs. and the external component of his esteem need.
ERG theory counters by noting that when a higher. might increase the desire for more money or better working conditions. like Maslow. Inability to satisfy a need for social interaction. Alderfer also deals with frustration-regression. So frustration can lead to a regression to a lower need. that satisfied lowerorder needs lead to the desire to satisfy higher-order needs.level need takes place. That is. In summary. if a higherorder need is frustrated.level need can result in regression to a lower. an individual then seeks to increase the satisfaction of a lower-order need. ERG theory does not assume a rigid hierarchy where a lower need must be substantially satisfied before one can move on. and frustration in attempting to satisfy a higher.level need. ERG theory argues. 83 . but multiple needs can be operating as motivators at the same time.order need level is frustrated the individual’s desire to increase a lower. for instance. According to Maslow an individual would stay at a certain need level until that need was satisfied.Alderfer's ERG theory differs from Maslow's Need Hierarchy insofar as ERG theory demonstrates that more than one need may be operative at the same time.
that recognition refers to recognition for achievement as opposed to recognition in the human relations sense. their needs as animals to avoid pain 2. their needs as humans to grow psychologically Herzberg's study consisted of a series of interviews that sought to elicit responses to the questions: (1) Recall a time when you felt exceptionally good about your job. was derived from a study designed to test the concept that people have two sets of needs: 1. 2)DISSATISFACTION (HYGIENE): The determinants of job dissatisfaction were found to be: 85 . also known as the Motivation.Hygiene Theory. Research Results : it appeared from the research. It should be noted. that the things making people happy on the job and those making them unhappy had two separate themes.Two-factor Theory: Herzberg's Two Factor Theory.being? (2) Recall a time on the job that resulted in negative feelings? Describe the sequence of events that resulted in these negative feelings. 1)SATISFACTION (MOTIVATION): Five factors stood out as strong determiners of job satisfaction: • achievement • recognition • work itself • responsibility • advancement The last three factors were found to be most important for bringing about lasting changes of attitude. Why did you feel that way about the job? Did this feeling affect your job performance in any way? Did this feeling have an impact on your personal relationships or your well.
pay. physical working conditions relations with others and job security were characterized by Herzberg as hygiene factors. the factors leading to Job satisfaction are separate and distinct form those that lead to job dissatisfaction. conditions surrounding the job such as quality of supervision. 86 . If we want to motivate people on their jobs. responsibility and achievement seem to be related to job satisfaction. According to Herzberg. Intrinsic factors. pay . Certain characteristics tend to be consistently related to job satisfaction and others to job dissatisfaction. neither will they be satisfied. Respondents who felt good about their work tended to attribute these factors to themselves.• company policy • administrative policies • supervision • salary • interpersonal relations •working conditions From the results Hertzberg concluded that the replies people gave when they felt good about their jobs were significantly different from the replies given when they felt bad. company policies and working condition. company policies. such as promotional opportunities. They will be placating their workforce rather than motivating them. opportunities for personal growth. when they’re adequate. managers who seek to eliminate factors that can create job dissatisfaction may bring about peace but not necessarily motivation. On the other dissatisfied respondents tended to cite extrinsic factors such as supervision. such as work itself. people will not be dissatisfied . Hertzberg proposed that his findings indicated the existence of a dual continuum: the opposite of “satisfaction” is “ No satisfaction” and the opposite is Dissatisfaction. recognition. As a result. Herzberg suggested emphasizing factors associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived form it. Therefore.
responsibility and achievement.Expectancy Theory). Although there are a number of theories found with this general title. Critical to the understanding of the theory is the understanding that each of these factors represents a belief. they all have their roots in Victor Vroom's 1964 work on motivation. and Valence (V). The key elements to this theory are referred to as Expectancy (E). Instrumentality (I). probably the most popular motivational theory has been the Expectancy Theory (also known as the ValenceInstrumentality. These are the characteristics that people find intrinsically rewarding. ALTERNATIVES AND CHOICES: Vroom's theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. EXPECTANCY THEORY In recent years. ALTERNATIVES AND C 87 .
and elect to pursue the level that generates the greatest reward for him or her. 88 . then the employee will place a high value on performing well.Vroom's theory suggests that the individual will consider the outcomes associated with various levels of performance (from an entire spectrum of performance possibilities). Expectancy: "What's the probability that. if he or she believes that it can be done.0 ("I have no doubt whatsoever that I can do this job!") A number of factors can contribute to an employee's expectancy perceptions: • The level of confidence in the skills required for the task • The amount of support that may be expected from superiors and subordinates • The quality of the materials and equipment • The availability of pertinent information Previous success at the task has also been shown to strengthen expectancy beliefs. Vroom defines Instrumentality as a probability belief linking one outcome (a high level of performance. I'll be able to do a good job?" Expectancy refers to the strength of a person's belief about whether or not a particular job performance is attainable. an employee will be motivated to try a task. if I work very hard. Assuming all other things are equal. for example) to another outcome (a reward). Instrumentality: "What's the probability that. This expectancy of performance may be thought of in terms of probabilities ranging from zero (a case of "I can't do it!") to 1. if I do a good job. that there will be some kind of outcome in it for me?" If an employee believes that a high level of performance will be instrumental for the acquisition of outcomes which may be gratifying.
is attained) through zero (meaning there is no likely relationship between the first outcome and the second). layoffs) is negatively valent. stress. Valence: "Is the outcome I get of any value to me?" The term Valence refers to the emotional orientations people hold with respect to outcomes (rewards). and ensure that the connection is communicated to employees.the reward -. Valences refer to the level of satisfaction people expect to get from the outcome (as opposed to the actual satisfaction they get once they have attained the reward). Commission pay schemes are designed to make employees perceive that performance is positively instrumental for the acquisition of money. it must tie desired outcomes (positive valence) to high performance. Vroom suggests that an employee's beliefs about Expectancy. 89 .Instrumentality may range from a probability of 1. An outcome is positively valent if an employee would prefer having it to not having it. These preferences tend to reflect a person's underlying need state.is certain if the first outcome -. An example of zero instrumentality would be exam grades that were distributed randomly (as opposed to be awarded on the basis of excellent exam performance). noise.excellent job performance -. and Valence interact psychologically to create a motivational force such that the employee acts in ways that bring pleasure and avoid pain. Outcomes towards which the employee appears indifferent are said to have zero valence. For management to ensure high levels of performance. Instrumentality. An outcome that the employee would rather avoid ( fatigue. The VIE theory holds that people have preferences among various outcomes.0 (meaning that the attainment of the second outcome -.
90 . • Affiliation. people are driven by three motives: • Achievement. These studies strongly support the theory.People elect to pursue levels of job performance that they believe will maximize their overall best interests (their subjective expected utility). and • Influence. over 1. Since McClelland's first experiments.` There will be no motivational forces acting on an employee if any of these three conditions hold: (1) the person does not believe that he/she can successfully perform the required task (2) the person believes that successful task performance will not be associated with positively valent outcomes (3) the person believes that outcomes associated with successful task completion will be negatively valent (have no value for that person) MF= Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valance MCCLELLAND’S THEORY OF NEEDS: According to David McClelland.000 studies relevant to achievement motivation have been conducted. regardless of culture or gender.
controlled or threatened to do the work • Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction • Most employees consider security of job. recognizing which need is dominant in any particular individual affects the way in which that person can be motivated. Therefore. And the power motive is activated when people are allowed to have an impact. • Power: The need for power is characterized by a drive to control and influence others. a need to persuade and prevail According to McClelland. master complex tasks. or beat competitors. Summary: People with achievement motives are motivated by standards of excellence. get feedback on level of success. delineated roles and responsibilities and concrete.• Achievement: The need for achievement is characterized by the wish to take responsibility for finding solutions to problems. and a need to reduce uncertainty. • Employees dislike work. an enjoyment of teamwork. if possible avoid the same • Employees must be coerced. Those with affiliation motives are motivated when they can accomplish things with people they know and trust. one is negative called “Theory of X” and one is positive called “Theory of Y” a) Theory of X : Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the “Theory of X” in regard to their employees. THEORY OF “X” AND THEORY OF “Y”: Douglas McGregor observed two diametrically opposing view points of managers about their employees. impress those in power. most important of all other factors in the job and have very little ambition 91 . a concern about interpersonal relationships. timely feedback. from a manager's perspective. set goals. the presence of these motives or drives in an individual indicates a predisposition to behave in certain ways. a need to win arguments. • Affiliation: The need for affiliation is characterized by a desire to belong.
assumes Maslow’s higher level needs dominate in employees. 92 . and seeks security above all. controlled. With these assumptions the managerial role is to coerce and control employees Theory Y • • • Work is as natural as play or rest. some employees also possess it. alternate sets of assumptions about employees Theory X • • The Typical person dislikes work and will avoid it if possible. Whereas Theory of Y. Annexure for McGregor’s theory McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. Under proper. has little ambition. and creativity that can be applied to work. conditions they learn to accept and seek responsibility. With these assumptions the managerial role is to develop the potential in employees and help them release that potential toward common objectives. and threatened with punishment to get them to work. People are not inherently lazy. • People have potential. The typical person lacks responsibility. • Employees love work as play or rest • Employees are self directed and self controlled and committed to the organizational objectives • Employees accept and seek responsibilities • Innovative spirit is not confined to managers alone. Theory of X assumes Maslow’s lower level needs dominate in employees. ingenuity. People will excise self-direction and self control in the service of objectives to which they are committed. They have imagination.b) Theory of Y: Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the “Theory of Y” in regard to their employees. • Most people must be coerced. They have become that way as a result of experience.
that he/she is capable of performing task. REINFORCEMENT THEORY: This theory focus its attention as to what controls behaviour. increases acceptance of goal and involvements. • Participation of employees in goal has mixed result • Participation of setting goal. however. These are given below. This commitment depends on the following: o Goals are made public o Individual has an internal locus of control o Goals are self-set • Self –Efficiency : Self Efficiency is the belief or self confidence. which is 93 . In contrast to goal setting theory. Persons with high self-efficiency put up extra-efforts when they face challenges. Salient features of this theory are the following: • Specific goal fixes the needs of resources and efforts • It increases performance • Difficult goals result higher performance than easy job • Better feedback of results leads to better to better performance than lack of feed back. • Goal setting theory has identified two factors which influences the performance. In the case of low selfefficiency level they will lessen or even abandon when meeting challenges. o Goal commitment o Self efficiency • Goal commitment: Goal setting theory presupposes that the individual is committed to the goal.GOAL SETTING THEORY : Edwin Locke proposed that setting specific goals will improve motivation.
Behaviour. According to this theory level of motivation in an individual is related to his or her perception of equity and farness practiced by management. EQUITY THEORY: This theory of motivation centres around the principle of balance or equity.cognitive approach focus attention on what initiates behaviour. In this assessment of fairness. Greater the fairness perceived higher the motivation and vice versa. employee makes comparison of input in the job ( in terms of contribution) with that of outcome (in terms of compensation) and compares the same with that of another colleague of equivalent cadre. Reinforcement theory argues that behaviour is reinforced and controlled by external events. 94 . as per cognitive approach is initiated by internal events. The classical conditioning proposed by Pavlov which we have already studied in our earlier lessons explains this in a better way.
LEADERSHIP AND APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP 95 .
Within a team environment. a manager decided to impress his subordinates with his authority. Yes. Newly appointed to the position of supervisor in a large industrial plant. motivates behavior toward the achievement of those goals. schedule. shapes the goals of a group or organization. that individual has authority. on the other hand. The functions of this role may well be quite different from those of the leader (to motivate followers towards the achievement of team goals). as a process. Not all leaders are managers. Leader ship versus Management : Although some managers are able to influence followers to work toward the achievement of organizational goals. So students There is an interesting story. but whether or not they are able to influence their subordinates may depend on more that just that authority. which nicely illustrates the difference between a manager and a leader.coordinate. Leadership. It is primarily a process of influence. A leader. contact. procure -their affairs.Leadership and approaches to leadership Definition and Meaning of leadership Leadership is the ability to influence individuals or groups toward the achievement of goals. Most teams require a manager to "manage" -. Striding purposefully onto the 96 . and similarly. must have the ability to influence other team members. liaise. organize. Management roles need not presuppose any ability to influence. manager and leader are simply roles taken on by members of the team. and helps define group or organizational culture. not all managers are leaders. the conferring of formal authority upon a manager does not necessarily make that individual a leader.
in the eerie silence of the large plant. So. A leader must. Then. without followers. Once he had arrived at the workstation manned by the union shop steward. A manager administers. a leader does the right thing. all the workers shut off their equipment. the union shop steward is the leader. let's see you run it. it will be found that it has the following implications: 97 . have followers. whereas a leader’s focus is on people . "I want to make one thing perfectly clear: I RUN THIS PLANT!" Unimpressed. To understand leadership. the supervisor had authority. In this scenario. by definition. while a leader has an eye on the horizon . the shop steward challenged the manager: "OK. he announced. A manager focuses on systems and structures. but a leader innovates . we must explore the relationship which leaders have with their followers If we examine the term leadership more minutely. in words loud enough for most workers to hear. However. A manager does things right. by virtue of his appointment to the position of manager. In spite of the authority inherent in the position of supervisor ." Clearly. On seeing his signal. A manager relies on control. So now lets sort out the fundamental difference between a manager and a leader: . the manager carefully chose the subject of his wellrehearsed address. while a leader develops .plant floor. A manager keeps an eye on the bottom line. but a leader inspires trust . A manager maintains. he was no leader.the workers chose to follow the directives of the shop steward. the shop steward held up his hand. So students I think now u are clear with the difference between a leader and the Manager.
the whole idea of leadership does not make any sense. Good leadership also involves the effective delegation of power and authority. Needless to say. i. Power. It is important to note that leadership is a dynamic process involving changes in the leader-follower relationship. it relies heavily on the process of effective communication. Leadership involves an unequal distribution of power between leaders and other group members. The concept of power is inherently implied in the process of leadership. Leadership is related to someone’s ability to motivate others and managing interpersonal behaviour. to change the attitude or behaviour of individuals 98 . as we understand the term in this context.e. Leadership is important in attempting to reduce employee dissatisfaction. The leader-follower relationship is a two-way process and is essentially a reciprocal one in nature. In the absence of followers or employees. is one’s ability to exert influence.Leadership involves other people.
This is in effect the opposite of reward power. recognition. The greater the number ofthese power sources available. promotion. granting of privileges etc. Let us try to understand each of these power sources. Legitimate power is thus based on authority and not on the nature of personal relationship with others. allocation and arrangement of work. legitimate power. 99 . • Coercive power is based on fear and the subordinate’s perception that the leader has the ability to punish or to cause an unpleasant experience for those who do not comply with directives. There are five possible bases of power as identified by French and Raven (1968) which are: reward power. formal reprimands or possibly dismissal. the greater is one’s potential for effective leadership.and the groups. • Legitimate power is based on subordinate’s perception that the leader has a right to exercise influence because of holding a particular position in the hierarchy of organizational structure. promotion or privileges. increased responsibilities. withdrawal of friendship or support. leader’s ability to influence the decisions regarding pay. • Reward power is based on the subordinate’s perception that the leader has the ability to control rewards that the followers are looking for. The followers obey the leader because of their respect and esteem towards him. for example. • Referent power is based on the subordinate’s identification with the leader. and expert power. coercive power. Examples include withholding pay raises. referent power. praise. allocation of undesirable duties or responsibilities. The leader is able to influence the followers because of the interpersonal attraction and his personal charisma.
100 .• Expert power is derived from the subordinate’s perception of the leader as someone who has access to information and relevant knowledge.
and it's quite likely you will get a response that suggests good leadership can somehow be defined in terms of traits or characteristics. viz. there are four distinct approaches to leadership. whereas a leader’s focus is on people A manager relies on control. Each researcher working in the field has tried to explain leadership from a different perspective. Behaviouristic theory. while a leader has an eye on the horizon A manager does things right. Broadly. Traits Theory Ask people what good leadership is. while a leader develops A manager focuses on systems and structures.MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP Though the terms ‘management’ and ‘leadership’ are often used interchangeably there are certain fundamental differences between these two. Contingency theory and Charismatic theories of Leadership. but a leader inspires trust A manager keeps an eye on the bottom line. a leader does the right thing. if one were to ask people to design an experiment aimed at defining good leadership. Hollingsworth (1989) lists at least six fundamental differences between management and leadership. leadership does not necessarily take place within the hierarchical structure of the organization and there is a clear implication that leadership is not part of the job but a quality that can be brought to a job. but a leader innovates A manager maintains. As Belbin (1997) pointed out. Similarly. Approaches To Leadership The subject of leadership is so vast and perceived to be so critical. • • • • • • A manager administers. Traits theory. it's likely the 101 . it has generated a huge body of literature.
How. formal research into leadership was all about. selected. To measure traits. and installed into leadership positions. integrity. loyalty. for example. This is exactly what the initial. There was also a feeling that people with such traits could then be recruited. Traits. researchers turned to an examination of 102 . or diligence? Another approach in the study of leadership had to be found.response will be an attempt to isolate the characteristics of leaders of organizations deemed to be successful (by whatever terms that success is measured. BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORY: The results of the trait studies were inconclusive. There was a sense among researchers that some critical leadership traits could be isolated. researchers had to rely on constructs which lacked reliability and. among other things. also lacked validity. After the problems with the trait approach became evident. do we measure traits such as honesty. given differing definitions. were hard to measure.
However. Behaviors. it appeared that the key behaviors could be grouped or categorized.ordinates. It was thus decided to examine the behaviors of successful (again. Both studies concluded that leadership behaviors could be classified into two groups. both studies arrived at similar conclusions. Likert found that employee. The University of Michigan studies (Rensis Likert) identified two styles of leader behavior: • Production centered behavior: when a leader pays close attention to the work of sub. could be observed. These two styles of leader behavior were believed to lie at the ends of a single continuum. establishes formal lines of communication. • Initiating structure behavior: when the leader clearly defines the leader subordinate. Interestingly. • Employee centered behavior: when the leader is interested in developing a cohesive work group and in ensuring employees are satisfied with their jobs. over time. friendly. The initial phases of the behavioral research seemed as frustrating as the trait approach -. • Consideration behavior: the leader shows concern for subordinates and attempts to establish a warm. The most prominent studies were those undertaken by the University of Michigan and by Ohio State University. and is keenly interested in performance.the number of behaviors identified was staggering. and supportive climate. contrary to traits. explains work procedures. Researchers at Ohio State leadership found results which suggested two basic leader behaviors or styles. and determines how tasks are to be performed. With behaviors.leader behaviors. 103 . researchers could rely on empirical evidence. by whatever means success was measured) leaders.centered leader behavior generally tended to be more effective.
but as independent variables. The managerial grid thus identifies the propensity of a leader to act in a particular way.1) style is known as task management which focuses wholly on production. The (9.Unlike the Michigan Studies. as the trait approach did. Managers with this style are exceptionally competent with the technicalities of a particular job but are miserable failures in dealing with people. Rather than concentrating on what leaders are. THE MANAGERIAL GRID Blake and Mouton (1985) tried to show an individual’s style of leadership on a 9x9 grid consisting of two separate dimensions. these two behaviors were not viewed as opposite ends of a continuum.9) style or team management style where there is maximum concern for both people and production. The grid has nine possible positions along each axis creating a total of eighty-one possible styles of leader behaviour. concern for production and concern for people which are similar to the concept of employee-centered and production-centered styles of leadership as mentioned earlier. The basic criticisms against the behaviouristic theories are that: of the situational factors.9) style in contrast emphasizes people to the exclusion of task performance and is known as country club style of management. the behavioral approach forced looking at what leaders do. The ideal style of leadership. Thus the leader can exhibit varying degrees of both initiating structure and consideration at the same time. The (1. The research evidence in favour of the view that managers perform best under (9. 104 Lack of generalizations of the findings as they found to vary widely Ignoring the significant influence . as envisioned by the theory of managerial grid is the (9.9) style is however scanty. The main shortcomings of the behavioral approach was its focus on finding a dependable prescription for effective leadership. viz.
"The first and perhaps most popular. These emphasis by researchers led to theories about leadership. situational theory to be advanced was the ‘Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness' developed by Fred E. These factors are known as leadership style and situational favorableness. budgeting scarce resources. Over the years researchers have emphasized the influences of leadership on the activities of subordinates. Fiedler" This theory explains that group performance is a result of interaction of two factors. and serving as a source of communication. These influences include motivating subordinates. These two factors will be discussed along with other 105 .CONTINGENCY THEORIES Managerial leadership has influenced organizational activities in many ways.
aspects of Fiedler's theory. This person can be someone form the past or someone he or she is currently working with. Fiedlers has developed an index called the least-preferred coworker (LPC) scale. those who rate the coworker in a relatively unfavorable light get satisfaction out of successful task performance" . This method reveals an individual's emotional reaction to people with whom he or she 106 . In order to classify leadership styles. while a low LPC score indicates a task orientation. and then to describe the one person with whom he or she worked the least well with. The LPC scale asks a leader to think of all the persons with whom he or she has ever worked. From a scale of 1 through 8. "In Fiedler's model. fixed" . thus. leadership effectiveness is the result of interaction between the style of the leader and the characteristics of the environment in which the leader works" . Fiedler's logic is that individuals who rate their least preferred coworker in relatively favorable light on these scales derive satisfaction out of interpersonal relationship. This is the consistent system of interaction that takes place between a leader and work group. leader are asked to describe this person on a series of bipolar scales such as those shown below: Unfriendly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Friendly Uncooperative 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cooperative Hostile 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Supportive Guarded 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Open The responses to these scales (usually sixteen in total) are summed and averaged: a high LPC score suggests that the leader has a human relations orientation. an individual's leadership style depends upon his or her personality and is. The first major factor in Fiedler's theory is known as the leadership style. "According to Fiedler.
cannot work. It is also stressed that is not always an accurate measurement. "According to Fiedler, the effectiveness of a leader is determined by the degree of match between a dominant trait of the leader and the favorableness of the situation for the leader.... The dominant trait is a personality factor causing the leader to either relationship-oriented or task-orientated" . Leaders who describe their preferred coworker in favorable terms, with a high LPC, are purported to derive major satisfaction from establishing close relationships with fellow workers. High LPC leaders are said to be relationship-orientated. These leaders see that good interpersonal relations as a requirement for task accomplishment. Leaders who describe their least preferred coworker unfavorable terms, with a low LPC, are derived major satisfaction by successfully completing a task. These leaders are said to be task orientated. They are more concerned with successful task accomplishment and worry about interpersonal relations later. The second major factor in Fiedler's theory is known as situational favorableness or environmental variable. This basically is defined as the degree a situation enables a leader to exert influence over a group. Fiedler then extends his analysis by focusing on three key situational factors, which are leader-member, task structure and position power. Each factor is defined in the following: 1. Leader-member relations: the degree to which the employees accept the leader. 2. Task structure: the degree to which the subordinates jobs are described in detail. 3. Position power: the amount of formal authority the leader possesses by virtue of his or her position in the organization.
For leader-member relations, Fiedler maintains that the leader will has more influence if they maintain good relationships with group members who like, respect, and trust them, than if they do not. Fiedler explains that task structure is the second most important factor in determining structural favorableness. He contends that highly structured tasks, which specify how a job is to be done in detail provide a leader with more influences over group actions than do unstructured tasks. Finally, as for position power, leads who have the power to hire and fire, discipline and reward, have more power than those who do not. For example, the head of a department has more power than a file clerk. By classifying a group according to three variables, it is possible to identify eight different group situations or leadership style. These eight different possible combinations were then classified as either task orientation or relationship orientated. The following information shows that task orientated leadership was successful in five situations, and relationship-orientated in three. Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Leader-Member Task Position Power Successful Leadership Relations Structure Of Leader Style Good -- Structured -- Strong -- Task Orientation Good -- Structured -- Weak -- Task Orientation Good -- Unstructured -- Strong -- Task Orientation Good -- Unstructured -- Weak -- Consideration Poor -- Structured -- Strong -- Consideration Poor -- Structured -- Weak -- Consideration Poor -- Unstructured -- Strong -- Task Orientation Poor -- Unstructured -- Weak -- Task Orientation "According to Fiedler, a task-orientated style of leadership is more effective than a considerate (relationship-orientated) style under 108
extreme situations, that is, when the situations, is either very favorable (certain) or very unfavorable ( uncertain)" . Task-orientated leadership would be advisable in natural disaster, like a flood or fire. In and uncertain situation the leader-member relations are usually poor, the task is unstructured, and the position power is weak. The one who emerges as a leader to direct the group's activity usually does not know any of his or her subordinates personally. The task-orientated leader who gets things accomplished proves to be the most successful. If the leader is considerate (relationship-orientated), he or she may waste so much time in the disaster, which may lead things to get out of control and lives might get lost. Blue-collar workers generally want to know exactly what they are supposed to do. Therefore it is usually highly structured. The leader's position power is strong if management backs his or her decision. Finally, even though the leader may not be relationship-orientated, leader-member relations may be extremely strong if he or she is able to gain promotions and salary increases for subordinates. Under these situations is the task-orientated style of leadership is preferred over the (considerate) relationship-orientated style. "The considerate style of leadership seems to be appropriate when the environmental or certain situation is moderately favorable or certain, for example, when (1) leader-member relations are good, (2) the task is unstructured, and (3) position power is weak" . For example, research scientists do not like superiors to structure the task for them. They prefer to follow their own creative leads in order to solve problems. Now under a situation like this is when a considerate style of leadership is preferred over the task-orientated style. Fiedler's theory has some very interesting implications for the management of leaders in organizations: 1. The favorableness of leadership situations should be assessed using the instruments developed by Fiedler (or, at the very least, by a subjective evaluation). 109
or influencing leader member relations. 3. If a leadership situation is being chosen for a particular candidate. the effectiveness of a leader can be improved by designing the job to fit the manager. by increasing or decreasing a leader's position power.2. it is not accurate to speak of effective and ineffective leaders. Candidates for leadership positions should be evaluated using the LPC scale. changing the structure of a task. almost anyone can be a leader by carefully selecting those situations that match his or her leadership style. Several other implications can be derived from Fiedler's findings. has been cautious of accepting all conclusions. If a leader is being sought for a particular leadership position. there is some doubt whether the LPC is a true measure of leadership style. Lastly. There are also some uncertainties about Fiedler's measurement of different variables.) should be chosen which matches his/her LPC profile (very favorable or unfavorable for taskorientated leaders and intermediate favorableness for relationshiporientated leader). In conclusion. Second. Evidence suggests that other situational variables. a situation (work team. etc. a leader with the appropriate LPC profile should be chosen (taskorientated for very favorable or very unfavorable situations and relationship-orientated for intermediate favorableness). "Despite these and other criticisms. the Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership. an organization can alter a situation to better fit a leader's style. Fiedler goes on by suggesting that there are only leader who perform better in some situations. For instance. Fiedler's work is not without problems or critics. First. but not all situations. like training and experience have an impact in a leader's effectiveness. For instance. department. Fiedler's contingency theory represents an important 110 . 4.
addition to our understanding of effective leadership". His theory made a major contribution to knowledge in the leadership area. 111 . Fred Fiedler's theory became an important discovery in the study of leadership.
A selling style of leadership (high concern for both task and relationship) is required for dealing with the followers with the next higher level of maturity. The able but unwilling followers are the next matured group and require a participating style from the leader. Finally the most matured followers who are both able and willing requires a delegating style of leadership. viz. According to the situational mode. developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard. characterized by high concern for consideration and low emphasis on task orientation. suggests that the leader’s behaviour should be adjusted according to the maturity level of the followers. a leader should use a telling style (high concern for task and low concern for people) with the least matured group of followers who are neither able nor willing to perform (R1). 112 . The level of maturity or the readiness of the followers were assessed to the extent the followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. The leader working with this kind of followers must learn to restrain himself from showing too much concern for either task or relationship as the followers themselves do accept the responsibility for their performance. production orientation and people orientation. Four possible categories of followers’ maturity were identified: R1 : Unable and Unwilling R2 : Unable but Willing R3 : Able but Unwilling R4 : Able and Willing The leader behaviour was determined by the same dimensions as used in the Ohio studies. that is those who are willing but unable to perform the task at the required level (R2).HERSEY AND BLANCHARD’S SITUATIONAL MODEL The situational leadership model.
Though this theory is difficult to be tested empirically. this is a high-task. the theory focuses attention on followers as a significant determinant of any leadership process. high relationship style. low relationship style. this is a high-task. this is a low-task.two matrix shown in the small figure indicates that four leadership styles are possible. The two by. • Participating Style—emphasizing shared ideas and participative decisions on task directions. • Telling Style—giving specific task directions and closely supervising work. In addition. it has its intuitive appeal and is widely used for training and development in organizations. • Selling Style—explaining task directions in a supportive and persuasive way. this is a low-task. • Delegating Style—allowing the group to take responsibility for task decisions. low-relationship style 113 . high-relationship style.
In other words. support. and (2) it complements the followers’ environment by providing the coaching.THE PATH GOAL THEORY In the recent time. According to this theory. participative. the path-goal theory assumes that leaders adapt their behaviour and style to fit the characteristics of the followers and the environment in which they work. and rewards necessary for realizing the linkage between the level of their performance and the attainment of the rewards available. which is based on the expectancy theory of motivation. guidance. Actual tests of the path-goal theory provides conflicting evidence and therefore it is premature to either fully accept or reject the theory at this point. supportive. Nevertheless the path-goal theory does have intuitive appeal and offers a number of constructive ideas for leaders who lead in a variety of followers in a variety of work environments. 114 . The leader selects from any of the four styles of behaviour which is most suitable for the followers at a given point of time. and the achievement-oriented according to the need and expectations of the followers. These are directive. the effectiveness of a leader depends on the following propositions: • leader behaviour is acceptable and satisfying to followers to the extent that they see it as an immediate source of satisfaction or as instrumental to future satisfaction • leader behaviour is motivational to the extent that (1) it makes the followers’ needs satisfaction contingent or dependent on effective performance. one of the most appreciated theories of leadership is the path-goal theory as offered by Robert House.
Vision. 115 . 2. Thus leaders like Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose or Gandhiji could inspire their followers to submit their own personal goals of pursuing lucrative academic or professional careers and sacrifice everything for the sake of the freedom of their motherland from the British rules. By the force of their personal abilities they transform their followers by raising the sense of the importance and value of their tasks. self confidence. Five leadership attributes have been identified as important in this context which are 1.The Path-Goal Model Transformational Leadership Transformational or charismatic leaders are those who could inspire their followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organizations or for a greater objective.
An extensive project has been undertaken jointly by GLOBE foundation and Wharton Business School to identify the impact of culture on leadership across the world. Ability to create an image of a change agent.3. 116 . which concluded only recently. The findings from the completed phases of the study however suggest the presence of a strong influence of cultural bias on the success and effectiveness of the leaders. The study has identified lists of both positive and negative leader attributes which have been universally accepted across culture. It is however important to note that the effect of cultural difference in the context of leadership must be considered in order to understand and identify the effective leadership behaviour. 4. Strong conviction in that vision. Extraordinary or novel behaviour 5.
GROUP AND FORMATION OF GROUPS 117 .
Further more there are number of reasons why people join groups which are as follows. an established set of roles. 1. or a standardized pattern of interaction. There are a number of general tendencies within us such as: The similarity-attraction effect: we like people who are similar to us in some way Exposure: we like people whom we have been exposed to repeatedly Reciprocity: we like people who like us Basking in reflected glory: we seek to associate with successful.. we also tend to avoid individuals who possess objectionable characteristics. There is more information in a group than in any one of its members. and groups tend to provide a greater number of approaches to solving any particular problem.. they have some common purpose or goal... there exists a relatively stable structure -.a hierarchy (perhaps a leader). Groups provide a natural way for people to gather in order to satisfy their social needs... • Goal achievement Problems and tasks that require the utilization of knowledge tend to give groups an advantage over individuals.GROUP AND FORMATION OF GROUPS Defining a group : Two or more people constitute a group if. 118 . prestigious groups Furthermore. this collection of people see themselves as being part of that group "Why do groups form?". 2. 3. • Affiliation Humans are by nature gregarious.
"there is safety in numbers". Neighbors may form a "Block Watch" group to ensure the security and protection of their neighborhood. Although groups can change. the self-esteem of all members may be boosted. 119 . So as to gain that status people join in such groups Self-esteem • As suggested by Maslow. • Status Membership in a particular service clubs or a political body may be seen to confer status on members. Stability. These individuals may seek security in group membership. THE • • IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUPS ARE AS FOLLOWS: Social interaction. there must be some stable relationship • that keeps the group members together and functioning as a unit.• Power Individuals gain power in their relationship with their employers by forming unions. people have a basic desire for selfesteem. If one belongs to a successful group. The members of a group affect each other and there is a definite pattern of interaction among them. Members of a group must share some common interests or goals that bind the group together. which often they do. Security • Sometimes individuals need protection from other groups or more powerful individuals -. Common interests or goals. Group membership may nurture self-esteem. Groups also must possess a stable structure.
• Task groups. The members of the group must also perceive themselves as a group. develop rather spontaneously among an organization’s members without any direction from the organizational authorities. 120 . There are various types of Formal groups that are found in an organization. The most common way of distinguishing between groups is to categorizing the groups into formal or informal groups. These are: • Command group which is determined by the organizational chart depicting the approved formal connections between individuals in an organization. TYPES OF GROUPS There can be different types of groups that might exist. school principal and teachers.• Recognition as being a group. Task groups are often not restricted to the organizational hierarchy and can be cross functional in nature. production manager and supervisors. comprising some individuals with special interest or expertise. Examples of task group might be people working on a particular project. etc. are created by the organizational authorities to work together in order to complete a specific task. The Informal groups. Examples of command group are Director and the faculty members in a business school. It is not just being together would ensure the formation of a proper group. They must recognize each other as a member of their group and can distinguish them from nonmembers. Formal groups are deliberately created by the organization in order to help the organizational members achieve some of the important the organizational goals. which have been depicted in Figure 1 below. in contrast.
• Reference groups are the groups. etc. The reference group might exist outside the organization as well when an individual compares himself with his batch mates working in other organizations or an ideal group of people he likes to become. These could be within the organization when a middle level executive compares himself with the higher level executive and longs for the perks and benefits enjoyed by the latter. like protesting some organizational policy or joining the union to achieve a higher amount of bonus. • Task force / ad hoc committee. Meetings can also come under this category. is a temporary committee formed by organizational members from across various functional areas for a special purpose. in contrast. Examples of standing committees include the standing committee in a university to discuss various academic and administrative issues.• Standing committee is a permanent committee in an organization to deal with some specific types of problems that may arise more or less on a regular basis. with which individuals identify and compare themselves. 121 . • Friendship groups develop among the organizational members when they share some common interest like participating in some sports activities or staging the office drama. Various types of Informal groups are: • Interest groups are formed when a group of employees band together to seek some common objectives.
According to the Five-Stage Model of group development. These are as follows: Five-Stage Model • Forming is the initial stage of group development when the group members first come in contact with others and get acquainted with each other.Figure 1: Types of Groups HOW GROUPS ARE FORMED? Formation of Groups Two models of group development have been offered by the researchers in the field of social sciences to explain how groups are formed. Storming is the next stage that is characterized by a high degree of conflict among the members. Members often show hostility towards each other and resist the leader’s control. If these conflicts are not adequately resolved. These are: a) Five-Stage Model and b) Punctuated Equilibrium Model. groups go through five distinct stages during the process of its development. This stage is characterized predominantly by a feeling of uncertainty among the group members as they now try to establish • ground rules and pattern of relationship among themselves. 122 . the group may even be disbanded.
Norming stage is complete when the group members can set a common target and agree on the way of achieving this.But. As the group is now fully formed after resolving their internal conflicts of acceptance and sharing responsibility. Sometimes. • Norming is the third stage of the group development process during which the group members become closer to each other and the group starts functioning as a cohesive unit. high levels of conflict are conducive to high group performance. The group members now identify themselves with the group and share responsibility for achieving the desired level of performance of the group. after achieving the objectives for which it was created. So we might expect to find situations in which groups in Stage II outperform those in Stages III or IV. Similarly. 123 . usually the group eventually comes in terms with each other and accepts the leadership role at the end of this stage. in fact. what makes a group effective is more complex than this model acknowledges. While this assumption may be generally true. • Adjourning is the final stage when the group. several stages go on simultaneously. they can now devote energy to achieve its objectives. Therefore. starts to gradually dissolve itself. • Performing is the fourth stage when the group is finally ready to start working. groups do not always proceed clearly from one stage to the next. even the strongest proponents of this model do not assume that all groups follow its five-stage process precisely or that Stage IV is always the most preferable. Many interpreters of the five-stage model have assumed that a group becomes more effective as it progresses through the first four stages. Groups even occasionally regress to previous stages. as when groups are storming and performing at the same time. Under some conditions.
• Norms or the rules and mutual expectations that develop within the group. information. in terms of understanding work. three strangers as. Role ambiguity takes place when the person holding the • role feels confused and does not know what is being expected from him. Role expectations refer to the behaviours that are expected from the person playing the role. and makes the group functioning orderly and predictable. Norms can be of two types: prescriptive when it dictates behaviours that should be performed and proscriptive when it 124 . The role incumbent is said to suffer from the problem role identity when he faces difficulty in accepting the assigned role. determine and allocate re. This context provided the rules. a study of a cockpit crew in an airliner found that. What allowed for this speedy group development was the strong organizational context surrounding the tasks of the cockpit crew. Four important aspects of group’s structure are: • Role or the typical part played by an individual group member in accordance with the expectations of other members from him. within 10 minutes.sources.signed to fly together for the first time had become a high-performing group. This refers to the generally agreed upon rules that guide the group members’ behaviour.Another problem with the five-stage model. Norms have profound effect on members’ behaviour as it ensures conformity among them. For instance. is that it ignores organizational context. They didn't need to develop plans. The person holding the role is known as the role incumbent. Group Structure refers to the pattern of interrelationship that exists among the group members. assign roles. and resources needed for the group to perform. task definitions.related behavior. resolve conflicts. and set norms the way the fivestage model predicts.
• Group cohesiveness referring to the strength of group members’ desires to remain a part of the group. the amount of time spent by the group members with each other and the success of the group. The degree of cohesiveness has been found to depend on external threats. GROUPS AND TEAMS 125 . This occurs because of the social facilitation effect which refers to the tendency for performance of an individual group member to improve in response to the presence of other members. However. The term group synergy refers to the fact the action of two or more group members result in an effect that is different from the individual summation of their contributions. This is known as social loafing when members are found to enjoy a ‘free ride’ which tends to increase with group’s size. the group performance is not always guaranteed to improve as often group members are found to exert less individual effort. People often join the core group or a renowned club because of the prestige associated with these groups.dictates specific behaviours that should be avoided by the group members. • Status or the relative prestige or social position given to groups or individuals by others. the difficulty in getting included in the group. This also refers to the degree of attraction of the group members for each other and the ‘we-feeling’ among the members. Individual’s Performance in Groups Groups are formed with individuals. but the output of the groups is not just the sum-total of individual’s contribution towards the group.
A team can be defined as a special type of group whose members have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose or set of goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. In the recent times, a lot of emphasis is being given on developing teams. The importance of teams has long been appreciated in the world of sports, and now it is being used increasingly in the realm of business and industry as well. Though there are similarities between groups and teams and these two terms are often used interchangeably, there are in fact a few striking differences between the two. The following table will help to summarize this.
Implications for Managers
The recognition of the existence of both formal and informal groups in any organization and an understanding of the basic processes involved have created a profound effect on the functioning and outlook of the managers in today’s workplace. Understandably, there is now a great deal of concern in developing groups and effective teams as there is ample evidence to support the view that organizational performance improved when the employees are encouraged to work in groups rather than working as an individual member.
STRESS AND STRESS MANAGEMENT
The feeling is of frustration. May be. ‘Stress’ is defined as a response of the human body to a felt need. which is the condition when there is a sense of helplessness in being able to achieve. dilation of pupils. Levels of Stress There are four basic levels of stress symptoms. lack of 129 . some fear of whether the desirable things may happen. because success is seen as impossible. restlessness. 2. 2. In management literature. There is no success. The stress condition remains. there is more irritability. etc. Motivation is high. difficulty in concentrating. there is no attempt even. It is a state of is comfort felt in the mind and experienced by the body. The first is the normal initial response and is characterised by increased heart beat rates. stuttering and stammering. which is the condition in which there is drive and effort to fulfill the needs.Stress and Stress Management What is Stress The common expression for stress is ‘tension’ One is said to be tense. Stress is identified as of two kinds. 1. 1. increased blood pressure. The other is Distress. One is called EuStress. At the second level. sweat in palms and reduced activity in the stomach. When there is tension. Achievement is seen as possible. There is success. the body may become weak. when there is some anxiety. The situation is challenging. whether something may go wrong. Stress disappears when the need is fulfilled.
stroke. stomach aches. One will give up much too easily. insomnia. 3. 2. The fourth level would be characterised by ulcers. depression etc. It should not be avoided. alcoholism. At the third level. diarrhea.appetite and tendency to increased smoking or drinking for those so habituated. Managing Stress Stress cannot be avoided. The steps are: • Recognise the stress levels • Show concern • Encourage talking • Listen • Empathise • Explain and show how it can be done 130 . one can ensure that subordinates are not put to undue stress and also that they are helped to get out of stress situations as quickly as possible. there will be no attempt to try the difficult. As the Manager As the boss. The second is to try to get back to normal as quickly as one can and not continue to be in a state of stress for too long. One is that one should not develop stress to the point that one becomes non-functional . One will not succeed in doing even what one is easily capable of. there would be more headaches. because even the normal faculties will not come into play There are two aspects to take care of in managing stress. Without stress. psychosis etc. 1. sweating. 4. drug addiction.
That is the only way to growth. They must be given challenging assignments. it should be managed through reassurance. blaming • Avoid pressurising too much • Provide social support All the above. People like challenges.• Provide support • Discuss and involve them in decisions • Show respect to the individuals • Avoid insult. coercion. particularly in public • Avoid manipulation. abuse. It is not suggested that the demands on people should be lowered. denunciation. But if there is a sensing of extreme stress. 131 . render support and help to reduce anxieties. not by withdrawing the assignment. reprimand.
. Become aware of your stressors and your emotional and physical reactions. • The stress reaction is triggered by your perception of danger. in what specific ways? 2. Can you change your stressors by avoiding or eliminating them completely? Can you reduce their intensity (manage them over a period of time instead of on a daily or weekly basis)? Can you shorten your exposure to stress (take a break. Reduce the intensity of your emotional reactions to stress. Don't ignore it. and delayed gratification strategies may be helpful here)? 3.physical danger and/or emotional danger. Do you become nervous or physically upset? If so.. leave the physical premises)? Can you devote the time and energy necessary to making a change (goal setting. Recognize what you can change. time management techniques. Determine what events distress you. Don't gloss over your problems. What are you telling yourself about meaning of these events? Determine how your body responds to the stress. Notice your distress.1. Are you viewing your stressors in exaggerated terms and/or taking a difficult situation and making it a disaster? • • Are you expecting to please everyone? Are you overreacting and viewing things as absolutely critical and urgent? Do you feel you must always prevail in every situation? 133 .
Be as consistent with your sleep schedule as possible. Electronic biofeedback can help you gain voluntary control over such things as muscle tension.• Work at adopting more moderate views. rather than goals others have or you that you do not share. • Exercise for cardiovascular fitness three to four times a week (moderate. Pursue realistic goals which are meaningful to you. prolonged rhythmic exercise is best. deep breathing will bring your heart rate and respiration back to normal. Do not labor on the negative aspects and the "what 4. However. and other stimulants. • Try if's. can help in the short term in moderating your physical reactions. cycling. Take breaks and get away when you can. • Learning to moderate these reactions on your own is a preferable long-term solution. such as walking. excessive caffeine. Mix leisure with work. 5. Get enough sleep. or jogging). 6. 134 . swimming." to temper excess emotions. nutritious meals. Maintain your ideal weight. Relaxation techniques can reduce muscle tension. • • Develop some mutually supportive friendships/relationships. • • Slow. • • • • Eat well-balanced. and blood pressure. they alone are not the answer. heart rate. Avoid nicotine. Build your physical reserves. when prescribed by a physician. Learn to moderate your physical reactions to stress. Maintain your emotional reserves. situation perspective. try to see the stress as something you can your cope with rather than Put something the that in overpowers you. • Medications.
Expect some frustrations, failures, and sorrows. Always be kind and gentle with yourself -- be a friend to yourself.
ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE What is organizational culture? A single definition of organizational culture has proven to be very elusive. No one definition of organizational culture has emerged in the literature. One of the issues involving culture is that it is defined both in terms of its causes and effect. For example, these are the two ways in which cultures often defined. 1. Outcomes- Defining culture as a manifest pattern of behavior- Many people use the term culture to describe patterns of cross individual behavioral consistency For example, when people say that culture is “The way we do things around here,” they are defining consistent way is in which people perform tasks, solve problems, resolve conflicts, treat customers, and treat employees. 2. Process- Defining culture as a set of mechanisms creating cross individual behavioral consistency- In this case culture is defined as the informal values, norms, and beliefs that control how individuals and groups in an organization interact with each other and with people outside the organization. Functions of organizational culture 1. Behavioral control 2. Encourages stability 3. Provides source of identity Draw backs of culture 1. Barrier to change and improvement 2. Barrier to diversity 3. Barrier to cross departmental and cross organizational cooperation 4. Barrier to mergers and acquisitions
These could be : • • • The physical infrastructure Routine behaviour. ceremonies Gender equality.The degree to which the organization focuses on and is adaptive to changes in its environment NATURE OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE The culture of an organisation may reflect in various forms adopted by the organisation.The degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals • Customer Focus versus Cost Control. • Task Versus Social Focus. goals and results rather than on techniques. processes. or methods used to achieve these results. equity in payment 138 . cultures are described in terms of the following variables: • Innovation versus Stability.The relative emphasis on effect of decisions on organizational members and relationships over task accomplishment at all costs • Team versus Individual orientation. • Strategic versus Operational Focus.The degree to which the members of the management team focus on the long term big picture versus attention to detail. • Outcome versus Process Orientation. language.The degree to which managers and employees are concerned about customer satisfaction and Service rather than minimizing costs • Internal verses External Orientation.What Types of Behavior Does Culture Control? Using the outcome approach.The degree to which management focuses on outcomes.The degree to which organizational members are encouraged to be innovative. creative and to take risks.
Fig. technology and other visible forms of behaviour like ceremonies and rituals. efficiency and so on Philosophy that guides the organization’s policies towards it employees and customers like ‘customer first’ and ‘customer is king’.• • Dominant values such as quality.2 identifies these levels. Though the culture would be 139 . 1. and the manner in which employees deal with customers. LEVELS OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE One comes across a number of elements in the organisation which depict its culture. 1. At Level One the organisational culture can be observed in the form of physical objects. Organisational culture can be viewed at three levels based on manifestations of the culture in tangible and intangible forms.
however at the same time it may influence objective and rational thinking. Level Three represents a process of conversion. while a weak culture opens avenues for each one of the members showing concerns unique to themselves. The conversion process has both advantages. If the group is successful there will be shared perception of that ‘success’. leading to cognitive changes turning perception into values and beliefs. People in the organisation try solutions of a problem in ways which have been tried and tested earlier. Soft vs. When the group repeatedly observes that the method that was tried earlier works most of the time. 3. it becomes the ‘preferred solution’ and gets converted into underlying assumptions or dominant value orientation. people may interact with one another but what the underlying feelings are or whether there is understanding among them would require probing. The higher the sharedness and commitment. The advantages are that the dominant value orientation guides behaviour. Some of the bases of the differentiation are presented below: 1. For example. Types of Organizational Culture Organisational culture can vary in a number of ways. it would be only at the superficial level. Strong vs. weak culture: Organisational culture can be labeled as strong or weak based on sharedness of the core values among organisational members and the degree of commitment the members have to these core values. At Level Two there is greater awareness and internalisation of cultural values. 2. hard culture: Soft work culture can emerge in an organisation where the organisation pursues multiple and conflicting 140 . 2. the stronger the culture increases the possibility of behaviour consistency amongst its members. It is these variances that differentiate one organisation from the others.visible in various forms.
3. The culture is welfare oriented. informal culture: The work culture of an organisation. Formal vs. people are held accountable for their mistakes but are not rewarded for good performance.goals.1 presents some of the components of formal culture and their implication for organisations. Roles. A typical example of soft culture can be found in a number of public sector organisations in India where the management feels constrained to take action against employees to maintain high productivity. They set the expectations that the organisation has from every member and indicates the consequences if these expectations are not fulfilled. rules and regulations are components of formal culture. accountability. is influenced by the formal components of organisational culture. 141 . the employees consider work to be less important than personal and social obligations. Table 1. responsibilities. In a soft culture the employees choose to pursue a few objectives which serve personal or sectional interests. Consequently. to a large extent.
Secondly. EVOLUTION OF ORGANIZATION CULTURE An organization’s current customs.Informal culture on the other hand has tangible and intangible. traditions. 142 . rites. The founder’s entire personality becomes embedded in the culture of the organization. and general way of doing things largely on what it has done before and the degree of success it had achieved using that mode. specific and non – specific manifestations of shared values. the founders’ vision becomes recognized as the primary determinant of success. The founder members of the organization start the organization with a vision of their own. symbols. beliefs. and assumptions. values. and stories is highlighted in almost all the definitions of organisational culture. They start every thing anew and are not bound by previous customs or ideologies as there is hardly any at that point of time. and assumptions. When the organization succeeds. they indoctrinate and socialize these employees to their way of thinking and feeling. \ First. founders only hire and keep employees who think and feel the way do. And finally. the process of culture occurs in three ways. The founders of an organization typically have a major impact on an organization’s culture particularly during its initial days of existence. the founders’ own behaviour acts as a role model that encourages employees to identify with them and thereby internalize their beliefs. ceremonies. More specifically. This part of organisational culture comprising of artifacts.
the often understated part of the selection process is to check whether there is the possibility of the candidate’s acceptance of the organizational values and cultures.Sustaining Organizational Culture Three important forces play particularly important role in sustaining a culture. That is why we find a number of interviews to take place for an initially short listed candidate with organizational members at different levels. • Socialization. They are: • Selection. This is however crucial in sustaining the culture as well. This refers to the process that adapts employees to the organization’s culture. skills and abilities. This becomes typically apparent during the changes in management. Even when the organization selects its 143 . Even though he explicit goal of any selection process is to identify and hire individuals who have the required level of job related knowledge. The role of top management has been discussed in the context of developing a culture. • Top management.
it is always required to reorient them properly in order to imbibe the organizational culture.members carefully. 144 .
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