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Today’s Lecture (Part 1)

n Part 1: Domain Name


n What is domain name?
Understanding Domain Name and n Structure of domain name
IP Address in Three Hours n Types of domain name
             Part 1: Domain Name n “JP” domain name and “ COM” domain
name
Japan Network Information Center n Is domain name “trademark”?
Masahiko Hakoda (hakoda@nic.ad.jp)

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Today’s Lecture (Part 2) Today’s Lecture (Part 3)


n Part 2: IP Address n Part 2: “DNS”
n Why is IP address necessary? n Domain name and IP address
n What is DNS? n Functions of DNS
n TCP/IP
n How to communicate in the Internet
n Routing
n Format (IPv4)
n Problems in address
n How to solve problems

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“Name” to Identify a Person


n To communicate with a particular person, we
must be able to identify the person.

What is Domain Name? “I want to speak to Jiro”


Taro ?
Jiro ?
Saburo

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1
Communication Method Other “Name” Used in the Internet
Than the Internet
Postal mail Telephone n Home page address (URL) nMail address
n Postal address n Phone number (URL)
and name Example:http://www.abc.co.jp/ Example:taro@abc.co.jp
郵便はがき
東京都千代田区神田小川町一ー二
山田 太郎 様

50
090-1234-5678
年賀
風雲堂ビル

B3484組 平成12年
お年玉 298284 nIP address Example:「210.138.91.144 」

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Usage of Domain Name Features of Domain Name


n Home page addres n Mail address 「abc.co.jp」「abc.com」
http://www.abc.co.jp/ taro@ abc.co.jp
n Consists of alphanumerical character and
hyphen
n Case-insensitive
n Easier to understand than IP
“Domain Name”
n Separated by dots

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Example of Domain Name


How to Identify Segment (in Japan)
The third level domain
The second level domain (SLD) Under what criteria is domain name specified?
The fourth level domain
The top level domain (TLD) ) The third level domain

www.abc.co.jp The fourth level domain


The second level domain (SLD)

The top level domain (TLD)


n Higher level segment to lower level
segment www.abc.co.jp
n Segments are separated by dots Japan
Company
n The segment at the right end is the
Orgamization registerd
highest level. as “abc”
Computer called “www”
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2
Structure of Domain Name Hierarchical Structure
(Conceptual Diagram)
Entire Internet jp
jp Top level
co ??
ne
abc co
Second level
www
abc
?? Third level

xyz www
Fourth level

www.abc.co.jp www.abc.co.jp
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Types of Top Level Domain (TLD) Other TLDs


n gTLD (generic TLD) .us United States
General top level domain .uk United Kingdom
n “.com”, “.net”, “.org”, etc. .de Germany
n “.com” is the most popular. .cn China
n Any organization can register “.com” in the world.
n ccTLD (country code TLD)
.fr France
Top level domain per country .hk Hong Kong
n “JP” domain name is ccTLD .tw Taiwan
n Complies with ISO3166, in principle .si Slovenia
n Some of countries in the world, for example, UK,
do not comply with ISO3166. (UK is “.gb” in .fm Micronesia
ISO3166.) Reference: http://www.uninett.no/navn/domreg.html
n ccTLD of America is “.us”
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Why Do We Need to If Two Organizations Use the


Register Domain Name? Same Domain Name・ ・・
Home page of ABC Home page of ABC
n To send an e-mail Electric Company Trading Company
n To access a home page www.abc.co.jp www.abc.co.jp
Target must be identified without fail
??
Neither can be identified.
Control to prevent the same domain
names from being registered

“I want to access www.abc.co.jp”


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3
Prevent Same Domain Names Domain Name Registration
from being Registered Control Agency
n One TLD is controlled by one organization
n Domain name is controlled per TLD
“.JP” “.COM” independently
jp com n Registration control policy varies
co abc
ne abc xyz depending TLD
xyz n Registration contact also changes per TLD
???
n “JP” domain name is controlled by
xyz

JPNIC controls InterNIC controls


the registration. the registration.
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Types of Japanese
Japanese Domain Name
Domain Names
n Last segment of Japanese domain Example:ABC.○○.JP
name is “JP” n Attribute domains (depends on a type of organization)
n AC domain name (University, technical school, school juridical
n Controlled by JPNIC person, etc.)
n CO domain name (Joint-stock company, limited private company,
n SLD presents a type of domain name etc.)
n GO domain name (Government agency, special corporation, etc.)
n Attribute domains (Eight types)
n OR domain name (Foundation, corporate juridical person, etc.)
n Depends on a type of organization n AD domain name (JPNIC member network, etc.)
n Regional domains n NE domain name (Network service)
n Depends on an area of organization n GR domain name (Private organization)
n ED domain name (Elementary school, junior high school,
n “JP” domain name is registered in the high school, etc.)
third level mainly Example: ○○○.CHIYODA.TOKYO.JP
n Regional domains (depends on an area of organization)
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Flow of Domain Name The Number of Registered


Registration Domain Names
n Registration of JP Domain Name 120000

Application by agent 100000 September 28, 1999,


the number of
JPNIC

80000 registered domains


Agent exceeded 100,000.
60000
Applicant

40000

20000
Direct 0
application
92

94

95

98

99
93

96

97
93

94

97

98
92

95

96

99

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Percentage of Each Difference Between TLDs
Attribute of JP Domain
CO As of November 1, 1999 n Registration control policy may vary
78.9% depending TLD
n How to specify priority
n Location of applicant
n Registration level of domain name
n Registration requirements
n Number of domain names available for
the registration
AC GO n Purchase, sale and assignment
1.7% AD GEO ED GR NE OR 0.4% →More details
0.2% 2.3% 0.9% 3.9% 5.7% 6.0%
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“JP” Domain Name and “COM” “JP” Domain Name and “COM”
Domain Name (gTLD) Domain Name (2)
“JP” Domain Name “COM” Domain Name “JP” Domain Name “COM” Domain Name (gTLD)
(gTLD)
How to specify priority Registration level of domain name
Third level domain (Attribute domain) Second level domain
In order of receipt In order of receipt
○○○.CO.JP ○○○.COM
of application of application
Registration requirements
Location of applicant
Changer per attribute
Within Japan (SLD) (Depends on a No requirement
Anywhere in the world
(Local presence) type of organization)
“JP” domain name is a country code top level The domain structure can be utilized effectively
domain (ccTLD) and is for the registration of in the “JP” domain name by specifying the
Japanese domestic organizations attribute in SLD.
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“JP” Domain Name and “COM”


Domain Name (3) CYBERSQUATTING
“JP” Domain Name “COM” Domain Name
n Registering a domain name identical with or
(gTLD)
extraordinarily similar to a certain trademark
Number of domain names available for the registration with “malicious” motives
One domain per organization Unlimited n Registering a domain name with “ malicious”
motives by an organization that has no
Purchase, sale and assignment
legitimate trademark right of such domain
Prohibited Free name

•Many organizations want to •One organization can register many What is the definition of
register the “J P” domain name domain names without limitation
•Effective for prevention of •Problem of cybersquatting became “malicious” registration or use?
cybersquatting serious
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5
Registration or Use of Domain Value of Domain Name
Name with “Malicious” Motives (the first half of the ‘90s)
How is “maliciousness” judged?
n The Internet was “invisible”
n Selling the registered domain name to a
trademark owner or to a competitor of the n There was almost no particular
trademark owner commercial value in the Internet.
n Trying to obtain a profit by misleading
Internet users intentionally
n Registration of a domain name for the
purpose of interfering an operation of Although there were problems related to
trademark owner trademark, the influence was not so
considerable.
Reference:Final Report of the WIPO Internet Domain Name Process
(http://wipo2.wipo.int/process/eng/final_report.html)

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Value of Domain Name Value of Domain Name


(the latter half of the ‘90s) (Today)
n Internet browsers appeared n blooms.com [ZD Network News 1999/8/26]
n 2,000 dollars or less (around 220,000 yen)
n The Internet became popular n ad.com [ZD Network News 1999/8/26]

n 500,000 dollars or more (around


55,000,000 yen)
Rise in commercial value of the Internet n wallstreet.com [Wired News 1999/4/23]

n 1,030,000 dollars. (around 113,300,000


yen)
n linux.com [Wired News 1999/3/2]
n Less than 5,000,000 dollars (less than 550,000,000 yen)

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Is Domain Name Various Problems


“Trademark”?
n Cybersquatting
n Domain name is just an identifier, originally. n Reverse domain name hijacking
n No particular meaning in domain name n To dispossess a bona fide party of its
n JPNIC treats the “JP” domain name as just a domain name with malicious motives
character string n The only one way of settling the dispute
(Refer to Article 2 of Regulations for Domain Name
Registration.) is lawsuit.

Many people consider domain name as trademark Many problems regarding intellectual
property (trademark) are coming up

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6
How to Settle Dispute (1) How to Settle Dispute (2)
Worldwide movement Efforts in Japan
n Establishment and application of DRP n JPNIC
(Dispute Resolution Policy) for gTLD n Discussing the establishment of DRP for
n Accumulation of judicial precedents the “JP” domain name
n Taking legal actions

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End of “Domain Name” Part 3: DNS

Continued to “IP Address” Domain Name and IP Address

Browsing a home page in the


Calling with Cellular Phone Internet
n A user doesn’t need to know a phone number n You don’t need to know the IP address if the
if the number is registered in a phonebook domain name is registered
78
567
8 56.
34
-
www.abc.co.jp
www.abc.co.jp
.234.
Taro Yamada -12 123
090
123.234.56.78
090-1234-5678
Taro Yamada
Taro Yamada
090-1234-5678 090-1234-5678

A user specifies an Specifies an access


A user specifies a called Specifies a called access target with the target with the IP
party with the name party with the phone domain name address
number
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Mechanism of Conversion
Domain Name into IP Address
(DNS)
Cellular phone
nMechanism to convert a domain name Realized by the phonebook
into IP address Taro Yamata function of cellular phone
 →Domain Name System (DNS) All the data stored in a
090-1234-5678 cellular phone
nic.ad.jp
? The Internet
Realized by the Domain
www.abc.co.jp Name System (DNS)
DNS
There are many data in
202.12.30.4 123.234.56.78 many places

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How to Find Terms of DNS


n Domain name has a hierarchical n Name Server
structure n Controls information at a certain level
jp
jp
n Makes an inquiry to the name server to obtain
the IP address of the domain name.
co
co n Route Server
n A name server to control TLD
n Located at the top of the hierarchical structure
abc
abc (above TLD)
n Resolver
www
www
n Makes an inquiry to a name server instead of
www.abc.co.jp application software such as a WWW browser
→Trace the domains from the top level
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Hierarchical Structure Function of DNS


of DNS
www.abc.co.jp Route name serve
Route Server “.jp” name server
Where is “.jp”?

?
j p”
W Over there

210.123.234.56
o.
“.c

jp
re

com .j p”?
is

“.co.jp” name
the
re

XYZ company b c.co


er
he

is “a server
Ov

re
Whe
way
Cache
Cache That
co
co
Where is ABC company
“xyz.co.jp” “www.abc.co.jp”?
abc
abc name server “abc.co.jp”
www
www This way name server
www.abc.co.jp www.abc.co.jp
Browser Resolver (210.123.234.56)

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8
Notation of Domain Name Is It Hard to Understand
nExpressed in alphanumerical Domain Name?
character and hyphen We would like to use Japanese
nHierarchical structure domain name
What is required for communication n iDNS
is IP address
n Anything other than alphanumerical
character can be used for domain name

n If conversion into the IP address is available, any For example, a domain name of
format of domain name is acceptable Tokyo University may be expressed
as “東京.学.日本”.
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Is Domain Name Domain Name and DNS


Unnecessary!? (2)
n Many people knows and understands more or
We seldom type a domain name in these days less alphabetical character

n It is hard to find a target home page n Distributed administration system with


hierarchical structure allows to control many
n Portal site
types of information efficiently and many
n Collection of Web links people can understand it easily more or less
n Graduate from net surfing Therefore
n “Bookmark” “Favorites”
DNS is used
Is domain name unnecessary? Really?

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Q&A
n Inquiry about domain name

query@domain.nic.ad.jp

n Inquiry about IP address

query@ip.nic.ad.jp

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