DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMAnCS
University of Sri Jayewardenepura
NUFlOOa
Sd 'Mn. (CeJ
University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Faculty of Graduate Studies
Department of Mathematics
IMPROVED NEWTON'S METHOD FOR
SOLVING NONLINEAR EQUATIONS
A Thesis
By
T.G.I. FERNANDO
Submitted in Partial Fulfilment
of the Requirements
for the Degree of
Master of Science
.
In
Industrial Mathematics
I grant the University of Sri Jayewardenepura the nonexclusive right to uo;;e this work
for the University's own purposes and to make single copies of the work available to
the public on a notfarprofit basis if copies are not otherwise available.
u ' J ~ ~
(T.G.I. F ando) . .
We approve the Masters degree m Industrial Mathematics, thesis of
T.G.I. Fernando.
Date:
J\ ' ,
... . ........ \ ...... ' ......... . ............ .......... .
Dr. SunetlITa Weerakoon
Principal Supervisor
Coordinator
M. Sc. in Industrial Mathematics
Department of Mathematics
University of Sri Jayewardenepma .
..... ? ~ J . t . t . ' 1 1 ..... . . .. . .. ~ ................. .
Dr. G.K. Watugala
Depaltment of Mechanical ELgineeling
University ofMoratuwa .
....... ~ .. y../ .Y! . i. ? .... . ...... ~ .. ~ .. 4 ......... ...... ...... .
Ms. G.S. Makalanda
Coordinator of Computer Centre
Department of Mathematics
University of Sri Jayewardencpura.
ABSTRACT
An iterative scheme is introduced improving Newton's method which is widely
used for solving nonlinear equations. The method is developed for both functions of
one variable and two variables.
Proposed scheme replaces the rectangular approximation of the indefinite
integral involved in Newton's Method by a trapezium. It is shown that ' ~ h e order of
convergence of the new method is at least three for functions of one variable.
Computational results overwhelmingly support this theory and the computational order
of convergence is even more than three for certain functions.
Algorithms constlUcted were implemented by using the high level computer
language Turbo Pascal (Ver. 7)
Key words: Convergence, Newton's method, Improved Newton's method, Nonlinear
equations, Root finding, Order of convergence, Iterative methods
Abstract
Chapter 1
Introduction
Chapter 2
Preliminaries
2.1
2.2
Chapter 3
CONTENTS
Functions of One Variable
Functions of Two Variables
Numerical schemes for functions of one variable
3.1
3.2
Newton's Method
Improved Newton's Method
3.3 Third Order Convergent Methods
3.3.1 Chebyshev Method
3.3.2 Multipoint Iteration Methods
3.3.3 Parabolic Extension of Newton's Method
Page
01
04
07
14
16
17
18
19
Chapter 4
Numelical schemes for functions of two variables
4.1
4.2
Chapter 5
Newton's Method
Improved Newton's Method
20
23
Analysis of Convergence of Improved Newton's Method for functions of one valiable
5.1
5.2
Chapter 6
Second Order Convergence
Third Order Convergence
Computational Results and Discussion
Appendix A (Real world problems)
Appendix B
References
28
31
34
41
47
73
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am deeply indebted to my supervisors Dr. Sunethra Weerakoon and Ms. G.S.
Makalanda of the Department of Mathematics, Ulliversity of Sli Jayewardenepura and
Dr. G.K. Watugala of Department of Mechanical Engineelmg, University of Moratuwa
for providing me invaluable guidance, helpful suggestions and encouragement at every
stage in the research process.
I also thank Prof M.K. Jain ofDepaltment of Mathematics, Faculty of Science,
University of Mamitius, Reduit, Mamitius and Prof S.R.K. Iyengar, Head of
Mathematics Depaltment, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi for providing me
proofs of third order convergence of Multipoint Iterative Methods.
I wish to pay my gratitude to the staff of Department of Mathematics,
University of Sri Jayewardenepura for encouraging me during all the peIiod of research
work.
Finally I wish to express my sincere appreciations to my loving parents and my
friend Mr. H.K. G. De Z. Amarasekara who gave me valuable assistance to make this
endeavour a success.
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1
One topic which has always been of paramount imp0l1ance ill numerical
analysis is that of approximating roots of nonlinear equations in one variable, be they
algebraic or transcendental. According to the great French mathematician Galois, even
for some polynomials of degree n ~ 5, no closedform solutions can be found using
integers and the operations +, , x, :, exponentiation, and taking second through nth
roots. Even though the closed form solutions for polynomials with degree n = 3, 4 are
available they are very complex and not easy to memorize as the quadratic formula.
Thus, one can only give numerical approximations for this type of rroblems. In
practical situations we do not require the actual foot and we need only a solution
which is close to the tme solution to some extent. Newton' s method that approximates
the root of a nonlinear equation in one variable using the value of the function and its
delivative, in an iterative fashion, is probably the best known and most widely used
algOlithm and it converges to the root quadratically. In other words, after some
iterations, this process approximately doubles the number of conect decimal places or
significant digits at each iteration.
In our high school education and undergraduate level we leamt how to solve
systems of linear equations in two or more variables. But in most of the practical
problems we should deal with systems of nonlinear equations. Solving these systems
analytically, is impossible for most of the cases. Newton's method can be readily
extended to solve systems of nonlinear equations numerically and it uses the function
2
(of several variables) and its Jacobian at each iteration. It is known that Newton's
method converges to the root quadratically(3) even for functions of several variables.
In this study, we suggest an improvement to the iterations of Newton's method
at the expense of one additional first derivative evaluation of the function for the one
dimensional case. Furthermore, we have extended the suggested method to systems of
nonlinear equations in two variables. Derivation of Newton's method involves an
indefinite integral of the derivative of the function to be solved and the relevant area is
approximated by a rectangle. In the proposed method, we approximate this indefinite
integral by a trapezium instead of a rectangle.
It is shown that the suggested method converges to the root and the order of
convergence is at least 3 in a neighbourhood of the root whenever the first, second and
third derivatives of the function exist in a neighbourhood of the root. i. e. our method
approximately trebles the number of significant digits after some iterations.
Computational results overwhelmingly support this theory and the computational order
of convergence is even more than three for certain functions. Further, even in the
absence of the second derivative and higher derivatives, the second order convergence
of the new method can be guaranteed.
Furthermore, we discuss some of the existing 3rd order convergent methods
and compare these methods with the new method.
3
Even though we did not prove that our method is third order for the systems of
nonlinear equations in two variables, the computational results suggest that our
method is of order three.
Chapter 2
PRELIl\1IN ARIES
(2.1) Functions of One Variable
Definition (2.1.1) :
A function f is Lipschitz continuous with constant y in a set A, written f E Lip y (A),
if V X,y E A => I f{x)  f{y) I :::; y I x y I (2. l.1)
Lemma (2.1.1) :
For an open intexval 0 , let f : 0 ~ 91 and let f l E Lip y (D). Then for any x,YED,
Proof:
I f{y)  f{x)  f l (x)(y  x) I :::; y I y  x I 2
I f{y)  f{x)  f l (x) (y x) I
= I f l ( ~ ) (y  x)  f l (x) (y x) I
= I Y  xi i f l ( ~ )  f l (x) I
:::; Iy  xl y I ~  x I
:::; y Iy  Xl2
Lemma (2.1.2)[3] :
(2.1.2)
(by Mean Value Theorem)
(by Lipschitz continuity)
(since x :::; ~ :::; y) o
For an open intexval 0 , let f : 0 ~ 91 and let e E Lip y (D). Then for any x,YED,
I f{y)  f{x)  f l (x) (y  x) I :::; (y / 2 )1 y  x I 2 (2. 1.3)
4
5
Proof:
y
f(y) f(x) f'(x)(yx) = f[f'(z) f'(x)}dz
x
Let z = x + (y  x) t , then dz = (y  x) dt
Substituting these in the integral gives:
1
f(y) f(x) f'(x)(yx) = f [f'(x+(yx)t) f'(x)](yx)dt
o
Lipschitz continuity of f l together with triangular inequality gives :
I
If(y) f(x) f'(x)(yx)1 ::::; Iyxlf rlt(yx)ldt = Lly_ x l
2
0
2
Definition (2.1.2)1
3
) :
Let a E ~ , X n E ~ , n = 0, 1,2, .... Then the sequence {x n} = {x O,X I,X 2, ... } is said to
converge to a if
Ifin addition, there exists a constant c;::: 0, an integer no;::: and p ;::: such that for all
n > n 0,
Ix n+1  al::::; cl x n  al P, (2. 1.4 )
then {x n} is said to converge to a with qorder at least p. If p = 2 or 3, the
convergence is said to be qquadratic or qcubic, respectively.
Iffor some {c n} which converges to 0,
IXn+l al:::; cn lx n a1
2
,
then {x n} is said to converge qsuperquadratically to a.
Definition (2.1.3) :
6
(2. 1.5)
Let a be a root of the function f(x) and suppose that x n+l, X n & x n 1 be the
consecutive iterations closer to the root, a .
Then the Computational Order of Convergence p can be approximated by :
1
oX
n .
a
n
.X a
p
""
1
oX a
n
oX
n  I
a
Theorem (2.1.1)  Intermediate Value Theorem:
Suppose that f : [a,b] ~ iR is continuous. Then f has the intermediate property on
[a,b]. That is, if k is any value between f (a) and f (b) [ i.e. f (a) < k < f (b) or
feb) < k < f(a)], then there exists c E (a,b) S.t. fCc) = k.
Defmition (2.1.4)  Machine Precision(3) :
Usually numerical algOIithms will depend on the machine precision. It is impOltant,
therefore, to characterise machine precision in such a way that discussions and
computer programs can be reasonably independent of any particular machine. The
concept commonly used is machine epSilon, abbreviated macheps; it is defined as the
smallest positive number 1" such that 1 +r > 1 on the computer in question.
7
Defrnition (2.1.4)  Stopping Criteria[3
1
:
Since there may be no computer representable a such that f{a) = 0, we must expect
our algorithms to provide only solutions to approximate the problem or the last two
iterates stayed in virtually the same place. So we adopt the following stopping criteria
for computer programs.
(i) I f{Xn+l) I < V (macheps)
(ii) I Xn+l  Xn I < V (macheps)
(2.2) Functions of Two Varia hIes
Definition (2.2.1) :
Let D c ~ 2 . A function f of two variables is a rule that assigns to each ordered pair
(x,y) in D, a unique real number denoted by f{x,y). The set D is the domain off and its
range is the set of values that ftakes on, that is, {f{x,y) I (x,y) ED}. We often write
z = f{x,y) to make explicit the value taken on by f at the general point (x,y). The
variables x and yare independent variables and z is the dependent variable.
Definition (2.2.2) :
lffis a function of two variables with domain D, the graph offis the set
S = {(x,y,z) E 91
3
I z = f{x,y), (x,y) E D}
Defmition (2.2.3) :
The level curves or contour curves of a function f of two variables are the curves with
equations f{x,y) = k, where k is a constant (in the range off)
8
Definition (2.2.4) :
Iff is a function of two variables, its partial derivative with respect to x and yare the
functions f x and f y defined by
f x (x,y) = lim f(x+h,y) f(x,y)
h>O h
f (
" ) = lim f(x, y+h) f(x , y)
y x,y
. h>O h
To give a geometlic interpretation of partial derivatives we should understand that the
equation z = f(x,y) represents a surface S (the graph of f). If f(a,b) = c then the point
P(a,b,c) lies on S. The vertical plane y = b intersects S in a curve C
1
(In other words,
C I is the trace of S in the plane y = b). Likewise the veltical plane x = a intersects S in
a curve C
2
. Both of the CUlves C
1
and C
2
pass through the point P (see Figure 2.2.1).
Notice that the curve C
1
is the graph of the function g(x) = f(x,b), so the slope of its
tangent TI at P is g I(a) = f x (a,b). The cwve C
2
is the graph of the function
G(y) = f(a,y), so the slope of its tangent T2 at Pis G
I
(b) = fy(a,b)
Thus the partial derivatives fx (a,b) and f y (a,b) can be interpreted geometrically as the
slope of the tangent lines at P( a,b,c) to the traces C I and C
2
of S in the planes y = b
and x = a.
9
z
~                         . y
x
Figure (2.2.1)
Definition (2.2.5) :
Suppose a smface has equation z = f{x,y), where f has continuous first partial
derivatives, and let P(a,b,c) be a point on S. As in the previous definition, let C, and C
2
be the curves obtained by intersecting the vertical planes y = b and x = a with the
surface S. Then the point P lies on both C] and C
2
. Let T] and T2 be the tangent lines
to the CUIves C] and C
2
at the point P. Then the tangent plane to the surface S at the
point P is defined to be the plane that contains both of the tangent lines T, and T
2
. (See
Figure 2.2.1)
It can be sho\\ITI that if C is any other curve that lies on the sulface S which
passes through P, then its tangent line at P also lies in the tangent plane. Therefore, we
10
can think of the tangent plane to S at P as consisting of all possible tangent lines at P to
curves that lie on S which pass through P. The tangent plane at P is the plane that most
closely approximates the surface S near the point P.
It can be shown that the equation of the tangent plane to the surface z = f(x,y)
(2.2.1)
Definition (2.2.6),3) :
A continuous function f : ~ 2 + ~ is said to be continuously differentiable at
x = (x,y)T E ~ 2 , if fx (x,y) and f y (x,y) exist and is continuous. The gradient of f at
(x,y) is then defined as
V'f(x) = V'f(x,y) = [fx (x,y) , f y (x,y)] T
Note (2.2.1) :
We denote the open and closed line segments connecting x , x 1 E ~ 2 by (x,x I) and
[X, X/] respectively, and D c ~ 2 is called a convex set, if for every x,x
l
E D, [x,x I] C D.
Lemma (2.2.1)[3) :
Let f: 9:e + ~ be continuously differentiable in an open convex set D c ~ 2 . Then, for
x = (X,y)T E D and any nonzero pelturbation p = (p J , P2)T E ~ 2 , the directional
derivative off at x in the direction of p, defined by
Dpf(x) = Dpf(x,y) = lim f(x + h Pl'y +: pJ  f(x,y)
~ o
11
exists and is equal to Vf(X)T . p. For any x, x+p ED,
1
f(x +p) = f(x) + J V'f(x + tp)T . pdt (2.2.2)
o
and there exists Z E (x , x+p) such that
f{x + p) = f{x) + V'f{z{p (2.2.3)
[This is the Mean Value Theorem for functions of several variables]
Proof:
We simply parameterise f along the line through x and x+p as a function of one
variable
g : 9t ~ 9t , get) = f(x + tp) = f(x + tp[,y + tP2)
and apply calculus of one variable to g.
Differentiating g with respect to t
(2.2.4)
Then by the fundamental theorem of calculus or Newton's theorem,
1
gel) = g(O)+ J g'(t)dt
o
which, by the definition of g and (2.2.4), is equivalent to
I
J(x+p)= f(x)+ JVf(x+tp)T . pdt
o
and proves (2.2.2). Finally, by the mean value theorem for functions of one valiable,
g(l) g(O) + gl ( ~ ) , ~ E ( O , l )
12
which by the definition of g and (2.2.4), is equivalent to
f{x+p) = f{x) + V'f(x + ~ p(p ~ E (0,1)
and proves (2.2.3). 0
Definition (2.2.7)[3] :
A continuously differentiable function f : 91
2
~ 91 is said to be twice continuously
differentiable at x E 91
2
, if(02f l OXiOxj)(X) exists and is continuous, 1 ~ ij ~ 2. The
Hessian off at x is then defined as the 2 x 2 matrix: whose (i,j)th element is
Clairaut's Theorem (2.2.1) :
Suppose fis defined on Dc 91
2
that contains the point (a,b). If the functions fx v and
fyx are both continuous on D, then
Cy (a,b) = f yx (a,b)
Definition (2.2.8)1
3
] :
A continuous function F : 91
2
~ 91
2
is continuously differentiable at x E 91
2
if each
component function f{x,Y) and g(x,y) is continuously differentiable at x. The derivative
of F at x is sometimes called the Jacobian (matrix:) of F at x, and its transpose is
sometimes called the gradient ofF at x.
13
The common notations are:
Definition (2.2.9) :
Let a be a solution of the system of nonlinear equations
f(x) = 0
g(x) = 0
and suppose that x 0+1, X 0 & x 0 1 be the consecutive iterations closer to the root, a .
Then the Computational Order of Convergence can be approximated by :
p ::::::
Ilx n + I

a
II
In
Ilx n

a
II
Ilx
"

a
II
In
IIx
II
n  I

a
where II . II is the norm infinity.
14
Chapter 3
NUMERICAL SCHEMES FOR
FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE
(3.1) Newton's Method [NM] :
Newton's algOlithm to approximate the root a of the nonlinear
equation f{x) = 0 is to start with an initial approximation x '0 sufficiently close to a and
to use the one point iteration scheme
(3.1.1)
where x* n is the nth iterate.
It is impOltant to understand how Newton's method is constmcted. At
each iteration step we constmct a local linear model of our function f{x) at the point
X*n and solve for the root (X*n+l) of the local model. In Newton's method, [Figure
(3.1.1)] this local linear model is the tangent drawn to the function f{x) at the CUlTent
point x* n.
Local linear model at x* n is :
(3.] .2)
This local linear model can be interpreted(3) in another way.
From the Newton's Theorem:
x
f(x) f(x:)+ f f'().,)dA
(3.1.3)
.
Xn
15
In Newton's method, the indefinite integral involved in (3. 1.3) is approximated by the
rectangle ABCD. [See figure (3.l.2)]
x
l.e.
f f' (A ) d A ~ f' ( x : ) (x  x: ) ~ (3.l.4)
.
X n
which will result in the model given in (3.1.2).
y
x
Figure (3.1.1) : Newton's iterative step
E
f/(A) ~
D C
A B
x
Figure (3.1.2) : Approximating the area by the rectangle ABeD
16
(3.2) Improved Newton's Method [INM] :
From the Newton's Theorem:
J ( x ) J(X
n
)+ J J'(/L)d/L
(3.2.1)
Xn
In the proposed scheme, we approximate the indefinite integral involved in (3.6) by the
trapezium ABED.
1. e. J f ' ( A) d A ~ (t) (x  X 11 ) [ f ' ( X /1 ) + f' ( x )] ~ (3.2.2)
x
A
*
X n
E
~
.. c
B
x
Figm'e (3.2.1) : Approximating the area by the trapezium ABED
Thus the local model equivalent to (3.l.2) is :
M n (x)= !(x,,)+(+)(xx/1H!'(x
ll
)+ ! ' ( X ) ] ~ (3.2.3)
Note that just like the linear model for Newton's Method this nonlinear model and the
delivative of the model agree with the function f{x) and the derivative of the
function f I(X) respectively when x = x n. In addition to these prope11ies, the second
delivatives of the model and the function agree at the CUlTent iterate x = x n. Note that
this property does not hold for the local model for Newton's method. i.e. the model
17
matches with the values of the slope, f/(x n), of the function, as well as with its
cUlVature in terms of e
l
(Xn). The resultant model is a tangential nonlinear CU1ve to the
function f{x) at x = X n.
We take the next iterative point as the root ofthe local model (3.2.3).
M n (x n +1) = 0
l.e.
~ f ( X II ) + (t)( x n +1  X II )[ f ' (x n ) +
2f(x
n
)
[f'(x
ll
)+ f'(x
n
+
I
)]
Obviously, this is an implicit scheme, which requires to have the delivative of the
function at the (n+ 1 )th iterative step to calculate the (n+ 1 )th iterate itself We could
overcome this difficulty by making use of the Newton's iterative step to compute the
(n+ 1 )th iterate on the right hand side.
Thus the resulting new scheme, which is very appropriately named as Improved
Newton's Method (JNM) is :
Xn+l = xn
[f'(x
n
) + f'(x:+
1
)]'
where
*
xn+l=xn
f(xn)
f'(x
n
)
(3.3) Third Order Convergent Methods:
(3.3.1) Chebyshev Method [5] [CM] :
n=012 , , ,
+ (3.2.4)
Chebyshev method uses a second degree Taylor polynomial as the local model of the
function near the point x = x
n
.
18
Thus, the local model for the Chebyshev method is :
The next iterative value ( x n + 1) is taken as the root of this local model.
Replacing (Xn+ 1  Xn) on the right hand side by f(xn) / f l (xn) [by using of Newton's
method] , we get the Chebyshev method
x = x _ j (x /1 ) _ ~ ( j (x n ) ) 2 ( j /I (x n ) n = 0 1 2 .. . ~
n+1 n j'(x
n
) 2 f'(x /1 ) f'(x
n
' " ,
(3.3.1)
(3.3.2) Multipoint iteration methods [51 :
It is possible to modifY the Chebyshev method and obtain third order iterative methods
which do not require the evaluation of the second derivative. We give below two
multipoint iterative methods.
(i) [MPMl]
f(x,,)
x +1 = X  ., n = 0,1,2, ...
" "f'( )
xn+l
(3.3.2)
1 f(x
n
)
where x +1 = xn  ':"""":":"':""
n 2 f'(x
n
)
This method requires one function and two first derivative evaluations per iteration.
(ii) [MPM2]
j(X; +1 )
xn+l=xn  j'(x
n
) , n=O,l,2, . ..
(3.3.3)
j(xn)
where x +1 = X  ':........:..:..':""
n n j'(x
n
)
This method requires two functions and one first derivative evaluations per iteration.
19
(3.3.3) Parabolic Extension of Newton's Method [4] [PENM] :
This method involves the construction of a parabola through the point (x n,i{x n,
which also matches the value of the slope, f I (x n), of the function, as well as its
curvature in terms of fll (x n). The desired quadratic is precisely the second degree
Taylor polynomial
The desired root a of i{x) should lie near a root x n+l, of P(x). Solving for (x n+l  X n)
by the quadratic formula, gives
x =X + j'(x
n
)[f'(x
n
)2 2j(x
n
)j"(x
n
)] X
n+
1
n j "( X n )
(3.3.4)
First there is the ambiguity of the '' sign. Here, the sign opposite to that of the term
in front of it is taken (i.e. taking the sign of f I (x n, so that this adjustment term is
forced to become zero. It can be handled automatically by dividing numerator and
denominator by f I (x n) (assuming a nonzero derivative) and selecting the positive
branch. Then (3.13) becomes
x = x + 1 + {1 2[j(x
n
) I J'(xn)][j"(xJ I J'(xJ]}Yz
n+l n J"(x
n
) I J'(xJ
~ ( 3 . 3 . 5 )
Rationalising the numerator, gives
2[f(xJ I J'(xJ]
[PENlVl] xn+1 =xn 1+{12[f(x,JI f'(x,J][f"(x,JI f'(x,J]} X ~ ( 3 . 3 . 6 )
Chapter 4
NUMERICAL SCHEMES FOR
FUNCTIONS OF TWO VARIABLES
20
(4.1) Newton's Method for systems of nonlinear equations with two variables:
Suppose that f: Dc ill
2
~ ill and g : D c ill
2
~ ill then the problem of finding the
solution of a system of two nonlinear equations can be stated as :
Find (a,[3) ED s.t.
f(a,[3) = 0
g(a,[3) = 0 (4.1.1)
Now the Newton's scheme for this problem is that solving the system of linear
equations
fx (X*n, Y*n) (X*n+l  X*n) + fy (X*n, Y*n) (Y*n+l  yOn) =  f(X*n, Y*n)
gx (x' n , y' n ) ( x' n+l  x' n) + g y (x' n , y' n) ( y' n+l  Y* n) =  g(x* n , Y' n) ~ ( 4 . l . 2 )
where (x * n , y' n) is the nth iterate.
Letting PI = X'n+l  X*n and P2 = y'n+l  y'n, we can find the (n+ 1)th iterate
y' n+l = P2 + y' n (4.l.3)
As in the one dimensional case, it is possible to interpret Newtcn's scheme
geometl1cally for the two dimensional case. Hence we also approximate the two
functions f(x,y) and g(x,y) by local linear models in the neighbourhood of (x' n , y* n). In
Newton's method, these local linear models are the tangent planes drawn to the
functions f(x,y) and g(x,y) at the CWTent iterate (X*n, Y*n). [say MI (x,y) and M2 (x,y)
resp ectively]
21
Then the correspondillg equations of these planes are:
MI (x,y) = f{X*n, Y*n) + Ex (X' n, y' n) ( x  X' n) + f y (X' n, Y*n) (y  Y*n)
M2 (x,y) = g(x* n , y* n) + gx (x* n , y* n ) ( X  x' n) + g y (x' n , y' n ) (y y* n) ~ ( 4 . l . 4 )
At the next iterate (x' n+1 , y' n+I), it is assumed that both MI (x,y) and M2 (x,y) vanish.
L. e.
Now we solve these two equations simultaneously to obtain (x' n+1 , y' n+I).
We can visualise (X' n+l , y' n+ l) geometrically as follows. Since we are solving the two
nonlinear equations f{x,y) = 0 and g(x,y) = 0 in the xyplane, we are interested in only
the traces of planes MJ (x,Y) and M2 (x,y) in the xyplane. These two traces are lines
(say Ll and L
2
) in the xyplane and corresponding equations are:
Then (X*n+l , Y*n+l) is the intersecting point of these lines LI and L
2
.
As in thp, one dimensional case, above linear model can be interpreted in another way.
Let x*n = (x' n , y' n ), p = (PJ,P2) and by (2.2.2) we shall obtain
I
I(x: + p) = l(x:J + f Vf(x: + tp/ . pdt
o
22
I I
=/(x:)+ Plf[/y(x: +tpl'Y: +tp2)dt +P2f / y(x: +tppy: +tpz)]dt
0
Let x = x*u + p , then we have
I
/ (x, y) = f ( x : , y: ) + (x  x: ) f [It (x: + t PI ' y: + t P 2 )dt
1
~ ( 4 . 1 . 7 )
+(y y:)f f/x: +tP1>Y: +tp2)]dt
o
The local model MJ (x,y) [see equation (4.1.4)] is obtained by approximating the two
indefinite integrals by the rectangles
I
f Iy (x: + l PI' y: + t P2 )dt ~ It (x:, y:) and
o
I
f / y(x: +tPl'Y: +tp2)dt ~ /y(x:,y:)
o
Similarly, we can obtain the local model M2 (x,y).
AJgorithm (4.1.1) :
Newton's Method for Systems of Nonlinear Equations with Two Variables
Given f : 91
2
~ 91 and g : 91
2
491 continuously differentiable and Xo = (xo,yo)T E 91
2
:
at each iteration n, solve
X*11+1 = x*u + pu (4.l.8)
23
(4.2) Improved Newton's Method for systems of nonlinear equations with two
variables:
(4.2.1) Formulation oflocal models:
From the equation (4.1. 7) :
I
!(x,y)= !(Xn,Yn)+(xxn)f[!x(X
n
+tPPYn +tpz)dt
o
1
+(Y Yn)f ! y(Xn +tPPYn +tpz)]dt
o
In this case, we approximate indefinite integrals by trapeziums
I
f [,(X
n
+tPI,Yn +tp2)dt (Yz)[[,(Xn,Yn)+ [,(X
n
+ PI , Yn + pz)]
o
I
f Iv (x n + t PI , Y n + t P2 )dt (Yz)[ly (x n' Y n) + !y (x n + PI ,Y n + P2)]
o
Let x = Xu + p, then we have
I
f [,(x
n
+ t PpYn + t P2)dt (Yz)[[y(xn,Yn)+ [,(x,y)]
o
1
f Iy(xn +tPl'Y
n
+tp2)dt
o
Thus the local model for function f(x,y) in a neighbourhood ofx
n
is:
m I (x,y) = f{ X n , y n) + (112) (x  x n)[ f x (x n , y n) + f x (x,y)]
+ (112) (y  y n)[ f y (x n , y n) + f y (4.2.1)
Similarly, the local model for the function g (x,y) in a neighbourhood ofx
n
is:
+ (112) (y  Yn)[ gy (xn, Yn) + gy (4.2.2)
24
(4.2.2) Properties of the local models:
(i) When x = X nand y = y n
(ii) The gradient ofm 1 at x
\lm I (x) = [ (1/2)( fx (Xu) + fx (x + (112) (x  x
n
) f xx (x) + (1/2) (y  Yn) fy x (x),
(112)( f y (x u) + f y (x + (1/2) (y  y n) f y y (x) + (1/2) (x  x n) f x y (x)] T
When x = X n and y = y n
Similarly, it can be sho\Vll that
Since the normal line to a smface at a point is parallel to gradient vector at that point
and the equivalency of the function values and the gradient vectors imply that the
resultant models are tangent smfaces to the corresponding functions at the point x n.
(iii) Let H (x) be the Hessian matlix of the model m (x) and then we have
where
= (1I2)[2fx x (x) + (x  xn)fxxx (x) + (y  Yn)fyxx (x)]
25
= (1I2)[fxy (x) + fyx (x) + (x  xn)fxxy (x) + (y  Yn)fyxy (x)]
= (1I2)[fxy (x) + fyx (x) + (y  Yn)fyyx (x) + (x  xn)fxyx (x)]
= (1I2)[2fyy (x) + (y  Yn)fyyy (x) + (x  xn)fxyy (x)]
When x = Xn, the elements of the Hessian matrix becomes
[Assuming both fxy and fyx continuous on D and by the
use of Clair aut's Theorem]
h21 = (1I2)[fx y (x) + fyx (x)]
[Assuming both f x y and fy x continuous on D and by the
use of Clairaut' s Theorem]
Thus, the Hessian matrix of the local model m 1 (x) at x = XlI
Similarly, it can be shown that, if the Hessian matIix of the local model m2 (x) IS
H2 (x) then
26
Thus, the Hessian matrices H I (x) and H 2 (x) for the local models m I (x) and m 2 (x)
agree with the Hessian matrices of the two functions f (x) and g (x) at x = Xu
respectively. Note that this property does not hold for the local models for Newton's
method.
At the next iterative point x n + I, we assume both the local models m I (x) and ill 2 (x)
vanish. Then we obtain the following system of equations
(Xn+ 1 Xn)[ fx (Xu) + fx (Xn+ I)] + (Yn+ 1 Yn)[ fy (xu) + fy (Xn+ 1)] = 2 f{xu)
(Xn+ 1  Xn)[ gx (Xn) + gx (xu+d] + (Yn+ 1  Yn)[ gy (xu) + gy (Xu+ I)] = 2 g(xu)
Obviously, as in the one dimensional case, this is an implicit scheme, which requires to
have the first partial derivatives of the functions f and g at the (n+ I )th iterative step to
calculate the (n+ l)th iterate itself We could overcome this problem by making use of
the Newton's iterative step to compute the first partial derivatives of f and g at the
(n+ 1 )th iterate.
Then the resulting scheme is :
(Xn+ 1  Xn)[ f.: (xu) + f.: (X*n+ 1)] + (Yn+ 1  Yn)[ fy (xu) + fy (X*u+I)] = 2 f{xu)
(Xn+ 1  Xn)[ gx (xu) + g" (X*n+I)] + (Yn+ 1 Yn)[ gy (Xu) + gy (X*u+I)] = 2 g(x n)
where x*u+ I is (n+l)th iterate obtained by applying Newton's Method.
27
Algorithm (4.2.1) :
Improved Newton's Method for Systems of Nonlinear Equations with Two
Variables
Given f: i}12 ~ i}1 and g : i}12 ~ i}1 continuously differentiable and Xo = (Xo,yo)T E i}12 :
at each iteration n, solve
Xn+l=Xn+Pn (4.2.3)
where
Chapter 5
ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENCE OF INM FOR
FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE
5.1 Second Order Convergence
Lemma (5.1.1) :
28
Let f: D 91 for an open interval D and let fiE Lip y (D). Assume that for some
p>o, Ie (x)1 p for every XED. Iff{x) = has a solution a E D, then
I x ,: + 1  a I S; (:/zp) I x II  a I 2
Proof:
x* n+1
X*n+1  a
Theorem (5.1.1) :
<
xnf{xn)/e(x
n
)
(x n  a)  f{ x n) I e (x n)
[e(x n)r' { f{a)  f{x n)  e(x n)( a  x n)}
I [e(x n)r' ll f{a)  f{x n)  e(x n)( a  x n)1
I [e(x n)r'l ( yl2 )( a  x n) 2 [by lemma (2.2)]
(y/2p)lx
n
aI
2
0
Let f: for an open interval D and fl E Lip 1 (D). Assume that for some p > 0,
If/(x)1 p for every XED. If f{x) has a simple root at a E D and x 0 is sufficiently
close to a, then ::J e > such that the Improved Newton's method defined by (3.9)
satisfYing the following inequality :
29
2r r
{ 1+e }e2
() 4p n n
(5.1.1)
Here e n = 1 x n  a I
Proof:
By the Improved Newton's Method:
x = X
11 +1 TI
2f(xn) .
n = 0,1,2,
[!'(X
n
)+ !'(X:+
1
)]'
where
f( x n )
f '(X" )
x = X
n+l n
and f{a) = 0.
Thus (X n+l  a) = (x n  a)
2f(X ,J
Then by the triangular inequality,
e n+l :::;
By the Lemma (2.1.2),
e n+l :::; 1 [f/(X n) + e(X*n+l)]"ll {(y/2)(a  X n)2
+ 1 f{a)  f{x n)  f/(X*n+l)(a  Xn)I}
:::; 1 [e(x n) + f/(X*n+l)r11 { (y/2)e n
2
+ 1 f{a)  f{x n)
 f/(X n)(a  x n) +f/(x n)(a  x n) f/(X* n+l)(axn)l}
Then again by the triangular inequality,
e n+l :::;
Lemma (2. 1.2) and Lipschitz continuity ofe implies,
e n+1
~ ![f/(X n) + f
/
(X*n+l)r
l
l { (y/2)e n
2
+ (y/2)e n
2
+ ylx*n+1  x nle n}
I [e(x n) + e(x* n+l)r
l
l {y e n
2
+ y I(X*n+1  a) + (a  x n)le n}
~ l[f/(X n) + f/(X*n+I)]"11
{y e n
2
+ y IX*n+1  al en + y la  x nle n}
By the Lemma (5 . 1.1),
e n+1 ~ l[f/(X n) + f /(X*n+I)]"11 { y e n
2
+ y (y/2p)la  x nl 2 e n + Y e n
2
}
~ I[f /(x n) + e(X*n+I)]"11 {2 Y e n
2
+ (y/2p) e n
3
} ~
Obviously 1 e (x) + e (y) I :;t; 0, '\j x , Y E D.
For
if l [ I (x) + [ I (y) 1 = 0 for some x, y E D
~ e (x) = e (y) = 0 or e (x) =  f l (y)
iff l (x) = f l (y) = 0, it contradicts the assumption If I (x)1 ~ p > 0, '\j XED.
if e (x) =  f l (y)
~ [ I (x) < 0 < fl (y) or e (y) < 0 < [ I (x)
(5 . 1.2)
30
~ ::l zED s.t. f l (z) = 0 (by the Intermediate Value Theorem, f l E Lip "I (D) &
hence f I is continuous on D) which contradicts our assumption that
[ I (x)1 ~ p > 0, '\j xED.
Thus 1 f l (x) + f l (y) I > 0, '\j x, Y E D.
Hence::l 8 > 0 S.t. I f l (x) + [ I (y) 1 > 8 > 0 , '\j x, Y E D.
In particular, we have
I f /(X n) + [ I(x* n+l) I ~ 8
[ I f l(X n) + f /(x* n+l) 1 r
l
~ (118) (5. 1.3)
Substituting (5.1.3) in (5.1.2)
e n+1
e n+l
2y
e
5.2 Third Order Convergence
Theorem (5.2.1) :
31
o
Let f : D ~ 9 1 for an open interval D. Assume that f has fiTst , second and third
delivatives in the interval D. If f{x) has a simple root at a E D and x 0 is sufficiently
close to a , then the Improved Newton's method defined by (3.2.4) satisfies the
following enol' equation:
where en = X n  a and C
j
= (1/ jl) fG)(a)/f(I)(a),j = L2,3, ...
Proof:
Improved Newton Method [INM] is
Xn +l = XII
[f'(x
n
) + f'(x:+
1
)]'
*
where
xn+l = xn
f(xl/)
f'(x
n
)
n=012 , , ,
Let a is a simple root off{x) [i.e. f{a) = 0 and e(a) =I:. 0] and Xn = a+e
n
We use the following Taylor expansions
(5.2.1)
32
f(l)(a)[e
n
+ C
2
e} + C
3
e
n
3
+ O(e
n
4
)]
where C j = (11 j!) f(j) (a)/f(l) (a)
(5.2.2)
f (ll (Xn) = f(ll(a+e
n
)
rl)(a) + f(2) (a)e
n
+ (112!) f(3
l
(a) e} + O(e
n
3
)
fO\a)[l + f(2) (a) I f(l)(a) en + (1I2!) f(3
l
(a) I fOl(a) e/ + O(e
n
3
)]
= (5.2.3)
Dividing (5.2.2) by (5.2.3)
ttxn)/f(l)(x n)= [en + C2 e n
2
+ C
3
e n
3
+ O(e n
4
)][1 + 2C 2 en + 3C 3 e n
2
+ O(e n
3
)r
l
[en + C2 e n
2
+ C3 e n
3
+ O(e n
4
)]{1 [2C 2 en + 3C 3 e n
2
+ O(e n
3
)] +
[2C 2 en + 3C 3 e n
2
+ O(e/)] 2  ... }
[en + C2 e / + C3 e n
3
+ O(e n
4
)]{ 1 [2C 2 en + 3C 3 e n
2
+ O ( e n ~ ) ] +
4C/ e n
2
+ .. . }
[en + C2 e n
2
+ C3 e n
3
+ O(e n
4
)][ 1  2C 2 en + (4C/  3C 3 ) e n
2
+
O(e n
3
)]
(5.2.4)
X*n+l xnttxn)/f(ll(Xn)
a + en  [en  C2 e n
2
+ (2C 2
2
 2C 3 ) e n
3
+ O(e n
4
)] (By 5.2.4)
(5.2.5)
Again by (5.2.5) and the Taylor's expansion
Adding (5.2.3) and (5.2.6)
(5.2.7)
From equations (5.2.2) and (5.2.7)
(5.2.8)
Thus
Xn+J
(by 5.2.8)
(5.2.9) 0
(5.2.9) establishes the third order convergence of the INM, beyond any doubt.
Chapter 6
COlVlPUTATIONAL RESULTS
AND DISCUSSION
34
The objective of this study was to improve Newton's Method which is used to
solve functions of one variable and systems of nonlinear equations. We designed a new
method called Improved Newton's Method [INM] for functions of one variable and
functions of two variables. Even though we have developed INM up to two variables
only, we can readily extend INM for functions of several variables, in general. The
improvement was made by replacing the indefinite integral involved in the derivation of
Newton's Method by the area of a trapezium instead of a rectangle.
In chapter 2 we have discussed preliminaries required to design and analyse
Newton's Method [NM] and Improved Newton's Method. Furthermore, we defined
order of convergence of a numerical scheme and how to measure the order of
convergence approximately when three consecutive iterations closer to the required
root are available.
In chapter 3, we have discussed Newton's Method [NM], Improved Newton's
Method [INM] and existing third order convergent methods such as Chebyshev
Method [CM], Multipoint Iterative Methods [MPMI and MPM2] and Parabolic
Extension of Newton's Method [PENM] for nonlinear equations in one variable.
35
We applied these iterative methods to polynomial, exponential and
trigonometIic functions [Table 6.3]. The efficiency of these methods were compared
by the number of iterations required to reach the actual root to 15 decimal places
starting from the same initial guess. Note that in all cases INM converges to the root
faster than the NM. Compared to the third order convergent methods available, we can
see that in most cases U\TM take the same number of iterations or sometimes it requires
even a lesser number of iterations than the existing third order convergent methods.
Computational order of convergence [COC] suggests that INM is of third order. For
certain functions COC even more than three and for Newton's Method, it is even less
than two for most functions. In table (6.3), PENM does not converge to the root due
to the OCCUlTence of the negative value in the square root of the scheme. [Eqn 3.3.4]
CompaIing with the third order convergent methods, INM is simpler than the
Chebyshev Method and PENM. The other important characteristic of the INM is that
unlike the other third or higher order methods, it is not required to compute second or
higher derivatives of the function to carryout iterations.
The local model for the INM has an additional property which does not hold
for the local linear model of Newton's Method. i.e. the second derivative of the local
model agrees with the second derivative of the function at the cunent iterate. In other
words, the model matches with the values of the slope, as well as with its curvature in
terms of the second derivative of the function.
36
In chapter 5, we have shown that the INM is at least third order convergent
provided the first, second and third derivatives of the function exist [Theorem 5.2.1].
Moreover the suggested method guarantees the second order convergence whenever
the first derivative of the function exists and is Lipschitz continuous in a
neighbourhood of the root [Theorem 5.l.1].
Apparently, the INM needs one more function evaluation at each iteration,
when compared to Newton's Method. However, it is evident by the computed results
[Table 6.3] that, the total number of function evaluations required is less than that of
Newton's Method.
In chapter 4, we have discussed Newton's Method for systems of nonlinear
equations with two variables and giving a geometric interpretation. In section 4.2.1 we
extended the INM to systems of nonlinear equations with two variables. Moreover, we
showed that local models for INM are tangent surfaces to the corresponding function
at the current iterative point. Just as in the case of functions of one variable, for
functions of several variables, the local models for INM has an additional propelty than
Newton's Method [Section 4.2.2]. i.e. Hessian matrices oflocal models agree with the
Hessian matrices of corresponding functions at the present iterate.
We applied these two iterative methods [NM and INM] to systems of nonlinear
equations of two variables with the same initial guess [Table 6.4]. As in the one
dimensional case, the efficiency of these methods were compared by the number of
iterations required to reach the actual root to 15 decimal places. As we expected, by
applying INM to the systems of nonlinear equations, we can arrive at the root faster.
37
Computational order of convergence [COC] for the INM was almost three for most of
the systems we checked. For certain functions COC is even more than three and for
Newton's Method, it is less than two for most systems. These results suggest that the
third order convergence of INM is valid for systems of nonlinear equations as well.
By applying both Newton's Method and Improved Newton's Method for the
car loan problem in section A3 of Appendix  A, the following results were obtained.
n Newton's Method Error
1 2.3886456015E02 7.6113543985E02
2 1.2742981700E02 1. 1143474316E02
3 8.9187859799E03 3.8241957199E03
4 7.8291580298E03 1.0896279701E03
5 7.7032682357E03 1.2588977406E04
6 7.7014728591E03 1. 7953765763E06
7 7.7014724900E03 3.6913405665EI0
Table (6.1) Newton's Method for the car loan problem
Monthly rate = 0.77%
Annual rate = 9.24%
38
n Improved Newton's Method Error
1 6.5887577790E03 9.3411242221E02
2 7.6750417329E03 1.0862839539E03
,
7.7014722681E03 2.6430535158E05 .J
4 7.7014724894E03 2.2135537847E10
Table (6.2) Improved Newton's Method for the car loan problem
Monthly rate = 0.77%
Annual rate = 9.24%
In both cases we used the same initial guess (= 0.10) and ultimately obtained the
annual interest rate as 9.24%. According to the above tables, INM gives the monthly
interest rate faster than that of Newton's Method. Notice that the number of function
evaluations required to obtain this result is 14 for NM and only 12 for INM.
Function xo
f(x)
1) xj+4XL_10
0.5
1
2
0.3
2) sinL(x)xL+1 1
3
3) xLe
x
3x+2 2
3
4) cos(x)x 1
1.7
0.3
5) (x1),j1 3.5
2.5
6) x,j10 1.5
7) xexp(xL)sinL(x)+3cos(x)+5 2
8) xLsinL(x)+exp[xLcos(x)sin(x)]28 5
9) exp(x
L
+ 7x30)1 3.5
3.25
NM  Newton's Method
INM Improved Newton Method
CM  Chebyshev Method
MPM1  MultiPoint Method 1
MPM2  MultiPoint Method 2
i
I
N N C
M M M
109 6 5
5 3 3
5 3 3
113 6 8
5 4 5
6 3 4
4 4 3
6 4 4
4 2 3
4 3 3
5 3 NC
7 4 5
5 4 4
5 4 4
8 5 6
9 5 I\lC
11 8 8
8 5 5
PENM  Parabolic Extension of Newton's Method
COC
P M M P M
E P P I E P
N M M N N C N M
M 1 2 M M M M 1
NC 10 8 1.98 2.96 2.91 NO 2.92
3 3 3 1.98 NO NO NO NO
3 3 3 1.99 NO NO NO NO
NC 17 69 1.99 3.05 2.76 NO 2.73
3 4 16 1.98 3.04 3.05 NO 3.03
4 4 4 1.98 NO 2.76 2.84 2.91
I\lC 3 3 1.56 3.01 1\10 NO 1\10
NC 4 4 1.66 3.04 3.43 NO 3.39
3 3 3 1.99 NO NO NO NO
3 3 3 1.99 NO NO NO 1\10
3 4 6 1.98 NO NO NO 3.05
NC 4 5 1.98 2.67 2.55 NO 2.75
3 3 4 1.99 2.99 2.96 NO NO
3 4 5 1.99 3.01 3.16 NO 2.87
I\lC 5 6 1.99 2.92 2.01 NO 2.99
I\lC 5 7 1.99 2.87 1\10 NO 2.98
I\lC 7 8 1.99 2.96 2.68 NO 2.91
NC 5 6 1.99 2.81 2.82 NO 2.93
NC  Does not converge to the root
COC  Computational Order of Convergence
ND  Not defined
NOFE  Total no of function evaluations
M
P
M
2
2.92
NO
NO
2.69
2.85
2.91
1\10
3.39
NO
1\10
3.32
2.74
2.95
3.02
2.99
2.98
2.91
2.93
NOFE Root
I
N N
M M
218 18 1.36523001341448
10 9 00
10 9 00
226 18 00
10 12 1.40449164821621
12 9 00
8 12 0.257530285439771
12 12 00
8 6 0.739085133214758
8 9 00
10 9 00
14 12 2
10 12 00
10 12 2.15443469003367
16 15 1 .20764782713013
18 15 4.82458931731526
22 24 3
16 15 00
Xo  Initial guess
 No of iterations to approximate
the root to 15 places
Table (6.3) Computed results for functions of one variable
Functions Initial Guess No of Iterations
f(x,y) & g(x,Y) (xo,Yo) NM
1) XL+yL_2
(1,2) 6
X
2
+y2 1
2) X
4
+y4_67
(10,20) 16
x33xy2+35
(1.8,2.7) 6
3) XL 1 Ox+yL+8 (1,2) 6
xl+x10y+8
(5,2) 106
4) XL+yL_2
(2,3) 8
e
X
.
1
+l2
5) _XL x+2y18 (5,5) 9
2 2 5
(x1) +(y6) 2
6) 2cos(y)+ 7sin(x)1 Ox (200,0) 13
7 cos(x)2si n(y)1 Oy
(2,2) 6
7) 16x
L
80X+yL+32 (1,2) 6
xl+4x10Y+16
Newton Method NM
INM
CDC
Improved Newton Method
Computational Order of Convergence
INM
4
11
4
4
17
5
6
6
4
4
CDC Root
NM INM
1.97 2.93 (1.22474487139152,0.70706781186667)
1.99 2.40 (1.88364520891082 , 2.71594753880345)
1.95 2.91 00
1.83 3.04 (1 , 1)
2.03 2.96 00
1.70 3.51 (1 , 1)
1.99 2.46 (2,10)
2.01 2.99 (0.526522621918048 , 0.507919719037091)
1.99 2.99 00
1.23 2.97 (0.5 , 2)
Table (6.4) Computed results for functions of two variables
41
APPENDIXA
We gIVe below some practical situations where the solution of nonlinear
equations, becomes the major problem We have tried the suggested INM along with
NM to show the advantages of adopting the former.
A.I The Ladder in the Mine [2)
1
7'
Figure A.I.I
There are two intersecting mine shafts that meet at an angle of 123 0, as shown
in Fig. (A. 1. 1). The straight shaft has a width of 7 ft, while the entrance shaft is 9 ft
wide. Here we want to find the longest ladder that can negotiate the tum. We can
neglect the thickness of the ladder members and assume it is not tipped as it is
manoeuvred around the comer. Our solution should provide for the general case in
which the angle A is a variable, as well as for the widths of the shafts.
Here is one way to analyse our ladder problem Visualise the ladder in
successive locations as we carry it around the comer; there will be a critical position in
which the two ends of the ladder touch the walls while a point along the ladder touches
42
the corner where the two shafts intersect. [See Fig. (Al.2)] Let C be the angle
between the ladder and the wall when it is in this critical position. It is usually
preferable to solve this problem in general telms, so we work with variables C, A, B,
Consider a series of lines drawn in this critical position  their lengths vary with
the angle C, and the following relations hold (angles are expressed in radian measme):
I = ~
I sinB'
W
1 = __ 1_.
2 sin C'
B = n  A  C;
W W
I=f +1 = 2 +_1_
I 2 sine n  A  C) sin C
Figure A.1.2
The maximum length of the ladder that can negotiate the turn is the minimum
of f as a function of angle C. We hence set d f / dC = o.
df w
2
cos(n  A  C) WI cos C
=  =0
de sin 2 (n  A  C) sin 2 C
43
We can solve the general problem if we can find the value of C that satisfies
this equation. With the critical angle determined, the ladder length is given by
1= w
2
+ ~
sin(n  A  C) sin C
As this analysis shows; to solve the specific problem we must solve a
transcendental equation for the value ofC:
9 cos (n  2.147  C) _ 7 cos C = 0
sin 2 (n  2.147  C) sin 2 C
aud then substitute C into
1= 9 +_7_
sin(n  2.147  C) sin C'
where we have convelted 123 0 into 2.147 radians.
A.2 Molecular Configuration of a Compound [3)
A scientist may wish to determine the molecular configuration of a celtain
compound. The researcher derives an equation t{x) giving the potential energy of a
possible configuration as a function of the tangent x of the angle between its two
components. Then, since the nature will force the molecule to assume the
configuration with the minimum potential energy, it is desirable to find the x for which
f{x) is minimised. This is a minimisation problem in the single variable x and we should
find clitical x values s. t. df / dx = o. The equation is likely to be highly nonlinear,
owing to the physics of the function f
44
A.3 Interest Rate of a Loan
In real life we borrow loans at the expense of certain interest rates. Sometimes
we need to find the interest rate when the principaL periodic payment for an annuity,
and total number of periodic payments in an annuity of a loan are available. For
example, suppose you get a fouryear monthly car loan ofRs. 200,000/ and the lender
ask you to pay Rs. 5,000/ at the end of each month. Now the problem is that finding
the annual interest rate of the loan.
To solve this problem we should find the roots [between 0 and 1] of the following
equation.
where P Ptincipal
A Periodic instalment (Payment)
n Total number of instalments
I 0 or 1 (0 ifpayments are made at the end of the period and 1 if
payments are made at the beginning of the period)
For solving the car loan problem, substituting
P 200,000
A  5,000 (cash you payout represented by a negative number) and
n 4.12 = 48
I 0 (since payments are made at the end of the month)
we shall obtain,
=>
200,000(1 + r)" 5,000(1 + r.ofl+ r;" 1] ~ 0
200,000(1 + r)"  5,000[ (J +rr 1] ~ 0
( 40r  1)(1 + r t
8
+ 1 = 0
45
This is a higher degree polynomial equation and according to the Galois Theorem, we
can't find closed form solutions. Thus we should apply a numerical method for finding
a root between 0 and 1 (Since interest rate is a ratio).
A.4 Nonlinear Least Squares(3)
Many real world problems involve, selecting the best one from family of
curves to fit data provided by some experiment or some sample population. Usually, in
Regression analysis, we deal with curves which are linear in parameters. Thus, the
equations obtained are linear when the residual least squares are minimised.
But one may want to fit a curve that is nonlinear in parameters. For example, a
researcher may want to fit a bellshaped curve for his data collected from an
experiment . Suppose that (t l,y d, (t 2,y 2), ... , (t n,y n) be any n such pieces of data. In
practice, however, there was experimental elTor in the points and in order to draw
conclusions from the data, the researcher wants to find the bellshaped curve that
comes "closest" to the n points.
46
Since the general equation for a bellshaped CUIVe is
it requires choosing x I, x 2, X 3, and x 4 to minimise some aggregate measure of the
discrepancies (residuals) between the data points and the CUIVe; they are given by
The most commonly used aggregate measure is the sum of squares of the r j 's, leading
to determination of the bellshaped curve by the solution of the nonlinear leastsquares
problem,
n
mIll f(x)
x e91 '
L (XI + x
2
e(I+X3)2/
X4
 Yi)2.
i= I
The problem is called a nonlinear leastsquares problem because the residual
functions r j(x) are nonlinear functions of some of the parameters x I, X2, X3, X4.
When f is minimising, we obtain four nonlinear equations and it is impossible to
find a closed form solution and one can only give numerical approximations. In this
case, numerical methods play an important role in finding the suitable approximations
for XI, X2, X3, and X4.
APPENDIX B
B.t This program is used to compare numerical algorithms for finding roots of nonlinear
equations in one variable.
{$N+}
uses
crt , pro I_com, pro3_com; (Units prol_com and pro3 Jom defined in Appendix  D)
type
menu type
fc
element
var
record
op: string[ 10];
hp:integer;
end;
object(fu) (fu is defined in prol_com)
end;
object(item) (Item is defined in pro3 _com)
end;
op,ch,ch 1 char;
menuar array[l.. 9] of menutype;
m boolean;
ij,k Integer;
xiO,xcO, (Current iterative values)
xi,xc, (Next iterative values)
ierror,cerror, {En"or values}
pi,pc, (Computational Order Convergence)
aierror,acerror, (Actual Enor Values)
epsilon (lvfachine Precision)
el,ec
fcn
el
real;
array [1..3] ofreal; (Keeps three consecutive errors)
fc;
element;
procedure menusc; (Draws the Main Menu)
begin
clrscr;
eldrawbox(8,2,72,24) ;
el.drawbox(6,1,74,25);
eJ.drawbox(27,3,53,5);
textcolor(O);
textbackground(7);
eJ.centertxt(4,'Dv1PROVED NEWfON METHOD');
textcolor(7);
textbackground(O);
eLdrawbox(28,21 ,51 ,23);
e1.centertxt(22,'ENTER YOUR SELECTION');
gotoxy(l6,8);
write('ewton Method');
47
gotoxy(l6, 12);
writeChebyshev Method');
gotoxy( 46, 8);
write(,arabolie Extension of NM');
gotoxy( 46, 12);
Write('ultipoi nt Methods');
writeCUIT');
gotoxy(38, 19);
write(");
texteolor(O);
textbackground(7);
gotoxy(l5, 8);
write('N');
gotoxy(l5,12);
wri tee C');
gotoxy(45,8);
writeCP);
gotoxy( 45,12);
writeCM);
gotoxy(3 6,16);
writeCQ');
gotoxy(3 7,19);
texteolor(7);
textbaekground(O);
texteolor(O);
textbackground(O);
gotoxy(52,22);
write(");
textcolor(7);
textbaekground(O);
endj{ofmenusc}
function eps : real;
(Finds the machine epsilon)
va,"
ep : real;
begin
ep:= 1;
while I +ep > I do
ep := ep/2;
eps := ep;
end;{of eps}
procedure initialize;
begin
clrser;
fen.fen menu;
fen.fnehoiee := readkey;
write(fen.fnehoiee);
while not(fcn.fnchoice in ['a' .. 'p']) do
begin
sound(250);
delay(500);
nowund;
clrser;
48
fen.fen _menu;
fen.fnehoice := readkey;
write(fcn.fnchoice);
writeln;
end; {of wh ile)
writeln;
writelnC Acnlal root ',fcn.root);
writeln;
write (' Enter the initial point ');
readln(xiO);
xeO:= xiO;
end;(of initialize)
procedure cal_nm (yO : real; var y : real );
(Newton Method)
begin
y := yO  Cfcn.fx(yO)/fcn.fd(yO));
end;
procedure cal_inm (yc : real; var y : real);
(improved Vewtol1 's Method)
var
z,t real ;
begin
z := yc  (fcn.fx(yc)/fcn.fd(ye));
t := fcn.fd(yc)+fcn.fdCz);
y= yc  2*fcn.fx(yc)/t;
end;
procedure cal_cbysbev (yc : real; var y : real);
(Chebyshev Method)
begin
y := yc  fcn.fx(yc)/fcn.fd(yc)  (l12)*sqrCfcn.fx(ye)/fcn.fd(Yc))*Cfcn.fsd(yc)/fcn.fd(yc));
end;
procedure cal_multi! (yc : real; var y : real);
(J'vlultipoint Iterative Method I)
var
z real;
begin
z := yc  (l/2)*(fcn.fx(yc)/fcn.fd(yc));
y := yc  (fcn.fx(yc)/fcn.fdCz));
end;
procedure cal_multi2 (yc : real; var y : rea!);
(.'v/ultipoint Iterative Method 2)
var
z real ;
begin
z := yc  Cfcn.fx(yc)/fcn .fd(yc));
y := z  fcn.fxCz)/fcn.fd(yc);
end;
procedure cal_para (ye : real; var y : real);
(Parabolic Extension Newton Method)
begin
y := yc  2 *(fcn.fx(yc)/fcn.fd(yc ))/C l+sqrt(l2*(fcn.fx(yc )/fcn.fd(yc ))*(fcn. fsd(yc )/fcn. fdCyc ))));
end;
49
procedure error(x,y : real; var e : real);
(Ret urns e as the absolute error between two numbers x & y)
begin
e= abs(xy);
end;
procedure title (wl,w2 : string; i,j : integer);
begin
writelnC ',wi,' ':i,w2,' ':j,'i');
wri te I n(' ');
end;
procedure line;
begin
wri t el n(' ');
end;
procedure print_result (n : integer; x,y : real;wl,w2 : string; i,j : integer);
var
k : integer;
begin
k :=nmod15;
if (k = 0) then
begin
writeC ',x,' ',y,' ',n);
writeln;
line;
writelnC Enter the RETURN key');
readin;
cIrscr;
title(wl,w2,i,j);
end {ofi/k=O}
else
begin
writeC ',x,' ';;y,' I,n);
writeln
end;{of else k=O)
end; (ofprintJ esult)
procedure cal_compare_mtds;
50
(Selects the appropriate Numerical method and calculates the new value and the error accordingly)
begin
i:=i+l;
case upcase(ch) of
'C' : cal_cbyshev(xcO,xc);
'P : calyara(xcO,xc);
'0' : cal_multil(xcO,xc);
'T' : cal_ multi2(xcO,xc);
'N' : cal_nm(xcO,xc);
end;{of case ch)
cal_inmCxiO,xi);
error(xc,xcO,cerror);
error(xi,xiO,ierror\
errore xcJcn. root,acerror);
error(xiJcn.root,aierror);
xcO := xc;
xiO := xi;
end;{of cal_compare _ mtds)
51
procedure compare_mtds;
(Compare Numerical iVlethods with Improved Newton's Alethod, Errors and Computational Order 0/
Convergence)
begin
drscr;
gotoxy(20,4);
writelnC * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *');
gotoxy(20,5);
case upcase(ch) of
'C' : writeln(,B : Chebyshev and Improved methods');
'P' : writelnCB : PENM and Improved methods' );
'0' : writeJnCB : .MPMI and Improved methods');
'T' : writelnCB : .MPM2 and Improved methods');
'N' : writelnCB : Newton and Improved methods');
end; (a/case ch)
gotoxy(20,6);
writelnCE : Errors');
gotoxy(20,7);
writeln('C : Computational Order of Convergence' );
gotoxy(20,8);
wri tel nC * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *');
gotoxy(20, 1 0);
wTite(,Enter your selection : ');
chI := readkey;
case upcase(chl) of
'E':begin
initialize;
i=O;
drscr;
titleCError(Comp) ','Error(INM) ',12,13);
t"epeat
cal_compare _ mtds;
print_ result(i,acerror,aierror,'Error(Comp) ','Error(INM) ',12,13);
until (cerror < sqrt(epsilon and (abs(fcn.fx(xc < sqrt(epsilon) and
((ierror < sqrt(epsilon and (abs(fcn.fx(xi < sqrt(epsilonor (i>299);
end; (a/case E)
'B':begin
initialize;
i:=O;
clrscr;
title('Comp. Mtd ','Improved Mtd',13,13);
repeat
cal_compare _ mtds;
print_ result(i,xc,xi,'Comp. Mtd ','Improved Mtd', 13, 13);
until (cerror < sqrt(epsilon and (abs(fcn.fx(xc < sqrt(epsilon) and
((ierror < sqrt(epsilon and (abs(fcn.fx(xi < sqrt(epsilonor (i>299);
end; (a/case B)
'C':begin
initialize;
i:=O;
j:=O;
drscr;
writeln(, Computational order of convergence');
writelnC * **** ****** **** **************** ***');
writeln;
titie(,Comp. Mtd ','Improved Mtd',16,13);
for k := I to 3 do {Keeps three consecutive errors}
begin
ei[k] := abs(xiOfcn.root);
ec[k] := abs(xcOfcn.root) ;
end; {offor}
repeat
cal_compare _ mtds;
ei[l] := ei[2J;
ei[2] := ei[3];
ei[3] := aierror;
ec[l] := ec[2];
ec[2] = ec[3];
ec[3] := acerror;
if i > 2 then
begin
if (ei[1] <>ei[2]) and (ei[3] > sqrt(epsiIon)) then
pi := abs((ln( ei[3]/ei[2]))/(ln( ei[2]/ei[ 1 ])));
if (ec[I]<>ec[2]) and (ec[3] > sqrt(epsiIon)) then
pc := abs((ln( ec[3]/ee[2]))/(In( ee[2]/ee[ 1 ])));
j := i mod 10;
if (j = 0) then
begin
if (ei[I] <>ei[2]) and (ei[3] > sqrt(epsilon)) then
if (ee[ 1] <>ec[2]) and (ee[3] > sqrt(epsilon)) then
writeC ',pc,' ',pi,' ',i)
else
writeC ',' * ',pi,' ',i)
else
if (ec[I] <>ee[2]) and (ee[3] > sqrt(epsilon)) then
writeC ',pc,'
else
write(' *
writeln;
line;
*
, ,i)
*
writelnC Enter the RETURN key');
readIn;
elrscr;
writeinC Computational order of convergence');
writeIn(, *** ** * ************** * * **** * ** ** ** *');
writeln;
titJe('Comp. Mtd ','Improved mtd' , 16, 13);
end (ofifj =O)
else
begin
if (ei[J] <>ei[2]) and (ei[3] > sqrt(epsilon)) then
if (ee[l] <>ee[2]) and (ee[3] > sqrt(epsi\on)) then
writeC ',pc,' ',pi,' ',i)
else
writeC ',' * ',pi,' ',i)
else
if (ee[I] <>ee[2]) and (ee[3] > sqrt(epsiIon)) then
writeC ',pc,' * ',i)
else
write(' *
writeln;
end;{of else j=O}
end;{ofifi >2}
*
I , i ) ~
until (cerror < sqrt(epsilon)) and (abs(fcn.fx(xc)) < sqrt(epsilon))) and
ierror < sqrt(epsilon)) and (abs(fcD.fx(xi)) < sqrt(epsilon)))) or (i>299);
S2
end;{of case C)
end;(ofcase chi)
line;
writeln(, Enter the RETURN key);
readln;
end; (of Compare _ mtds)
procedure menusc_multi_mtds;
(Draws the submenu jar Nfuihpoint Methoru)
begin
cJrscc
wri tel n(' >I< >I< * * >I< * >I< >I< >I< >I< >I< * * * * * * * * * * * *');
gotoxy(25,lO);
writeln(,O : Multipoint Method I');
gotoxy(25,l1);
writelnCT : Multipoint Method 2');
gotoxy(25, 12);
wri tel nC * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** ** * * * ***');
gotoxy(25, 14);
writeCEnter your selection : ');
ch : = readkey;
end; {ofmenusc_multi _ mtd,>}
begin (of main program)
m:=true;
epsilon:=eps;
WHILEmDO
begin
menusc;
case upcase(cb) of
'e': compare_mtds;
'P: compare_mtds;
'N' : compare_mtds;
'M': begin
menusc _multi _ mtds;
compare _ mtds;
end;{of case AI}
'Q','g' :m:=false
else
begin
sound(250);
delay(500);
nosound;
end;{of cas'e else)
end;{ofcase ch)
end;(ofwhile m}
el.endsc;
end.{ofmain program}
53
54
B.2 This program is used to compare Newton's Method and Improved Newton's Method for
solving systems of nonlinear equations in two variables.
{$N+}
uses
crt, matrix, pro2 _com, pr03 _ com;{Uni ts matrix. pro2 _com and pr03 _com defined in AppendixD}
type
menu type record
op: string[ 1 0];
hp:integer;
end;
fc object(fu) (fit is defined in pr02J om)
end;
matrices object(m) (m is del/ned in matrix)
end;
element object(item) (item is defined in pro3 _com)
end;
var
ch
menuar
m
char;
array[l.. 9] of menutype;
boolean;
i,j,k integer;
xnO,xiO, (Cun'ent iterative vectors)
xn,xi, (Next iterative vectors)
root (.4ctual root)
el,en
nerror,ierror, (Error vectors)
vector;
array [1..3] ofreal; (Keeps three consecutive errors)
pi ,pn, , (Computational Order Convergence)
anerror,aierror, (.4ctual Error vector!>')
epsilon (.\lachine Precision)
fcn
mx
el
pt"ocedure menusc;
(Draws the Alain Afenu)
begin
c1rscr;
el.drawbox(8,2, 72,24);
el.drawbox(6, 1,74,25);
el.drawbox(27,3,53,5);
textcolor(O);
textbackground(7);
real;
fc;
matrices;
element;
el.centertxt(4,'I.MPROVED NEWTON METHOD');
textcolor(7);
textbackground(O);
eldrawbox(28,21,51,23);
elcentertxt(22,'ENTER YOUR SELECTION');
gotoxy(l6,8);
writeCMPROVED NEWTON) ;
gotoxy(l6,14) ;
writeCUIT');
gotoxy( 46,8);
writeCEWTON'):
gotoxy(46,14);
writeCOMP ORDER CVG ');
texteo1or(O);
textbackground(7);
gotoxy(l5,8);
wri te(T);
gotoxy(l5,14);
writeCQ'):
gotoxy( 45,8);
writeCN');
gotoxy( 45, 14);
write('C);
texteolor(7);
textbaekground(O);
texteolor(O);
textbaekground(O);
gotoxy(52,22);
write(");
texteolor(7);
textbaekground(O);
end; {of menus c)
function eps : real;
(Finds the machine epsilon)
var
ep real ;
begin
ep:= 1;
while 1 +ep > 1 do
ep := ep/2;
eps := ep;
end;((if eps)
procedUle ioitialize;
begin
clrser;
fen.fen_menu;
fen.fnehoiee := readkey;
write(fcnfnehoiee );
writeln;
while not(fcn.fnchoice in ['a' . .'0']) do
begin
sOl'nd(250);
delay(500);
nosound;
clrser;
fen.fen_menu;
fen.fnehoiee := readkey;
write(fcn.fnchoice);
writeln;
end; {while)
writeln;
55
writelnC Actual root x
writelnC Actual root y
writeln;
root(1] := fen .rootx;
root(2] = fen.roory,
write (' Enter the initial point
readln(xnO[ 1 ],xnO[2]);
xiO[I] := xnO[l];
xiO[2] := xnO[2];
end; {of initialize)
, ,fen.rootx);
',fen. rooty);
');
p.ocedure Jacobian (x : vector; var J : mtrix);
(Find'S the Jacobian matrix J of F(x))
begin
J[I,1] := fcn.fdx(x);
J[I,2] := fcn.fdy(x);
J[2,1] := fcn.gdx(x);
J[2,2] := fcn.gdy(x);
end; {of Jacobian)
procedure CombF (x : vector; val" F : vector);
(Returns I'aector valuedfunction F(x))
begin
F[l] := fcn.f(x);
F[2] := fcn.g(x);
end; {of Comb F)
procedure cal_nm (yO: vector; var y : vector);
(Newton ;\.Jethod)
var
s,F,Fneg
J,Jinv
vector;
mtrix;
begin
Jacobian(yO,J);
CombP(yO,F);
mx.invert(J,Jinv);
mx. vnegate(F ,Fneg);
rnx .vtnultiply(Jinv,fneg,s) ;
mx.vadd(yO,s,y)
end; (ofcal_nm)
procedure c a l ~ n m (yO : vector; var y : vector);
(improved Newton s l'vfethod)
va ..
s,F,Fneg,yt,p,twoFneg vector;
JO,JOinv,Jt,J,Jinv mtrix;
begin
Jacobian(yO,JO);
CombF(yO,f );
mx.invert(JO,JOinv);
mx. vnegate(F,f negt
mx.vmultiply(JOinv,Fneg,s);
mx.vadd(yO,s,yt) ;
Jacobian(yt,Jt);
mx.add(JO,Jt,J);
mx.invert(J,Jinv);
twoFneg[l] := 2*Fneg[1J;
twoFneg[2] := 2*Fneg[2J;
S6
mx.vmultiply(Jinv,twoFneg,p);
mx.vadd(yO,p,Y);
end; {ofcaUnm}
procedure error(x,y : vector; var e : real);
(Returns the norm infinity of error vector of two vectors x and y)
var
n vector;
begin
mx. vsubstract(x,Y ,n);
if abs(n[l]) >= abs(n[2]) then
e := abs(n[l])
else
e := abs(n[2]);
end;{oferror)
procedure title (wl,w2 : string; i,j : integer);
begin
writeln(, ',wI,' ':i,w2,' ':j,'i');
wri tel nC' ');
end; {of title)
procedure line;
begin
wri tel n(' ');
end; {of lin e)
procedure print_result (n : integer; x,y : real;wl,w2 : string; i,j : integer);
var
k : integer;
begin
k:=nmod15;
if (k = 0) then
begin
\Vrite(' ',x; ',Y,' I , n ) ~
writeln;
line;
writeln(' Enter the RETURN key');
readln;
c1rscr;
title(wl,w2,i ,j);
end {ofifk=O}
else
begin
writeC ',x,' ',y,' I , n ) ~
writeln
end; {of else k=O)
end; {of print JesuIt}
procedure cal_mtds;
{Calculate lIIumerical Methods andjinds errors}
begin
initialize;
i:=O;
clrscr;
title('Xi
repeat
i:=i+l;
','Yi ',14,13);
57
case upcase(cb) of
N: cal_nm(xnO,xn);
'1': cal_inmlxnO,xn);
end;{case ch)
error(xn,xnO,nerror);
error(xn,root,anerror);
xnO:= xn;
print_resuJt(i,xn[1],xn[2],'Xi ','Yi
until (nerror < sqrt(epsilon)) or (i>299);
line,
writeln;
writelnC Enter the RETURN key);
readln;
end;{of cal_mtds)
procedure coc;
',14,13);
(Calculate Computational Order of Convergence )
begin
initialize;
i:=O;
j:=O;
cJrscr;
writelnC Computational order of convergence' );
writeln(' *** * ** ** * ** *** *** *** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * I ) ~
writeln;
titleCNewton mtd','Improved mtd',16,13);
for k := 1 to 3 do (Keeps three consecutive errors)
begin
error(xiO,root,ei [k]);
error(xnO,root,en[k]);
end; (offor)
repeat
i:=i+l;
cal_ nm(xnO,xn);
caUnm(xiO,xi);
error(xn,xnO,nerror);
error(xi,xiO,ierror);
error(xn,root,anerror);
errore xi ,root,aierror);
xnO := xn;
xiO :=xi;
ei[l] = ei[2];
ei[2] = ei[3];
ei[3] := alerror;
en[l] = en[2J;
en[2] := en[3];
en[3] := anerror;
ifi > 2 then
begin
if (ei[I]<>ei[2]) and (ei[3] > sqrt(epsilon)) then
pi = abs((ln( ei[3]/ei[2]))/(ln( ei[2]/ei[l])));
if (en[1] <>en[2]) and (en[3] > sqrt(epsilon)) then
pn := abs((ln( en[3]/en[2]))/(ln( en[2]/en[ 1 ])));
j := i mod 10;
if (j = 0) then
begin
if (ei[I]<>ei[2]) and (ei[3] > sqrt(epsilon)) then
if (en[1]<>en[2]) and (en[3] > sqrt(epsilon)) then
S8
writeC ',pn,' ',pi,' ',i)
else
writeC ' ,1 * ',pi,' ',i)
else
if (en[1] <>en[2]) and (en[3] > sqrt(epsilon)) then
writeC ',pn,'
else
write(, *
writeln;
line;
*
',i)
*
writeln(' Enter the RETURN key');
readln;
elrscr;
',i);
writelnC Computational order of convergence');
writelnC * * ********* ********************* **');
writeln;
titleCNewton mtd','Improved mtd',16,13);
end{ofifj =O}
else
begin
if (ei[I] <>ei[2]) and (ei[3] > sqrt(epsilon)) then
if (en[1] <>en[2]) and (en[3] > sqrt(epsilon)) then
writeC ',pn,' ',pi,' ',i)
else
writeC ',' * ',pi,' ',i)
else
if (en[I] <>en[2]) and (en[3] > sqrt(epsilon)) then
writeC ',pn,'
else
writeC *
writeln;
end; {of elsej=O}
end;{ofifi >2}
*
, ,i)
*
until nerror < sql't(epsilon)) and (ierror < sqrt(epsilon) or (i>299);
line;
writeln;
writelnC Enter the RETURN key');
readln;
end;{ofcoc)
begin(ofmain program}
m:=true;
epsilon = eps;
while m do
begin
m e n u s c ~
ch:=readkey;
case upcase(ch) of
'N':cal_mtds;
'I':cal mtds;
'C':coc;
'Q':m:=false
else
begin
sound(2S0);
delay(SOO);
nosound;
end;{of case else}
59
end;{f case ch}
end; {ofwhilej
el.endsc;
end.{of main program)
60
61
B.3 This unit is used in the program inm jcn _ oCone_variable to input functions of one variable
and it's properties.
unit prol_com;
{$N+}
interface
uses
crt;
type
fll = object
fnchoice
end;
procedure fcn_menu;
function root
function fx (x:real)
function fd (x: real)
function fsd (x:real)
implementation
: char;
: real ;
: real ;
: real ;
: real;
function power (x : real; n : integer) : real;
{Evaluate x to the power n}
var
a : real;
1 : integer;
begin
a:=I;
i:=l;
while i <= abs(n) do
begin
a:=a*x;
i:=i+l;
end; {o(while}
ifn> 0 then
power:=a
else
ifn < 0 then
power:=lIa
else
power:=I;
end; {o/pmller}
procedure fu.feD_menu;
{Drm!:" the Function Menu}
begin
clrscr;
writelnC FUNCTION MENU);
writelnC * ** *** **** * *** *********** **************** *** ** *** ** ** *');
writelnC
writelnC
writelnC
writelnC
writelnC
writeln('
a
b
c
d
e
f
x/\3+4x/\2IO');
(sinx)/\2x/\2+ I');
x/\2expx3x+2');
cosxx');
(xl )/\31');
x/\310');
writelnC
writelnC
writeln(,
writelnC
write]n('
writeln(,
writelnC
writelnC
writelnC
writelne
writelnC
writeln;
g xexp(x"2)(sinxY\2+ 3eosx+5');
h (xsinx)"2+exp(x"2eosx+sinx)28');
exp(x"2+ 7x30)I');
J exp(eosx)I');
k 16x+l/(l+x)"201');
x"2] ');
m x"22x+l');
n sin(x"2+ 1 0)');
o sinxx');
p x"lOlO');
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * I ) ~
write (' SELECT YOUR CHOICE ');
end j (of filfen _menu)
function fu.root : real;
{4ctual roots of the functions}
begin
case fnchoice of
'a' root
'b' root
'e' root
'd' root
'e' root
'f root
'g' root
'h' root
'i' root
'j' root
'k' root
'I' root
'm' root
'n' root
'0' root
'p' root
end j {of case fnchoice)
endj {ofJiI. root)
function fu.fx (x:real) : realj
(Evaluate function fx at x)
begin
case fnchoice of
'a' fx
'b' fx
'e' fx
'd' fx
'e' fx
'f fx
'g' fx
'h' fx
IiI
fx
'j' fx
'k' fx
'I' fx
'm' fx
'n' fx
'0' fx
'p' fx
1.36523001341448;
1. 40449164821621;
0.257530285439771 ;
0.739085133214758;
2;
2.15443469003367;
1.20764782713013;
4.82458931731526;
3;
pil2;
0.0222623113 071165;
1 ;
1 ;
sqrt( 4*pi1O);
I;
1.2589254] ]79383;
x*sqr(x)+4*sqr(x)10;
sqr(sin(xsqr(x)+ 1;
sqr(x)exp(x)3 *x+2;
eos(x)x;
(xl )*sqr(xl )1;
x*sqr(x)IO;
x*exp(sqr(xsqr(sin(x+ 3*eos(x)+ 5;
sqr(x*sin(x+exp(sqr(x)*eos(x)+sin(x28;
exp(sqr(x)+7*x30)I;
exp(cos(xI;
16*x+power( 1 +x, 20)1;
sqr(x)I;
sqr(x)2*x+ I;
sin(sqr(x)+ I 0);
sin(x)x;
power(x, 1 0)1 0;
62
end; (oIcase fochOlce)
end; (offu./x)
function fu.fd (x:real) : real;
{Evaluate first derivative oIIx at x}
begin
case fnchoice of
'a' fd
'b' fd
Ie'
fd
'd' fd
'e' fd
'f fd
'g' fd
'h' fd
Iii
fd
'j' fd
'k' fd
']'
fd
']'
fd
'n' fd
'0' fd
'p' fd
end;{oI casefnchoice)
end; {offil.jd}
3*sqr(x)+8*x;
sin(2*x)2*x;
2*xexp(x)3;
sin(x)l;
3*sqr(xl);
3*sqr(x);
(1 +2 *sqr(x*exp(sqr(x) )sin(x)*(3+ 2 *cos(x);
2*x*sin(x)*(sin(x)+x*cos(x))+( cos(x)*( 1 +2*x)
sqr( x)* sine x) )*exp( sqr( x )*cos( x )+si n(x;
(2 *x+ 7)*exp(sqr(x)+7*x30);
sin(x)*exp( cos(x;
1620*power(1+x,21);
2*x;
2*x2;
2*x*cos(sqr(x)+ 1 0);
cos(x)l;
10*power(x,9);
function fu.fsd (x:real) : real;
(Evaluate second derivative of the Ix at x)
begin
case fnchoice of
'a' fsd
'b' fsd
'c' fsd
'd'
'e'
'f
'g'
'h'
Ii'
'j'
'k'
']'
'1'
'n'
'0'
fsd
fsd
fsd
fsd
fsd
fsd
fsd
fsd
fsd
fsd
fsd
fsd
'p' fsd
end;(oIcasefr/choice)
end; (oIfuJsd)
end.{ofunit)
6*x+8;
2*cos(2*x)2;
2exp(x);
cos(x);
6*(xI );
6*x;
4*x*( 1 +sqr(x*exp(sqr(x 3 *x*cos(x)2 *cos(2*x);
4*x*sin(2*x)+(2*sqr(x)])*cos(2*x)+ 1 +((2*cos(x)sin(x)
4*x*si n(x)sqr(x)*cos(x+( cos(x)*( 1 +2 *x)sqr(x)*
sin(x *(3 *x*cos(x)
sqr(x)*sin(x))*exp(sqr(x)*cos(x)+sin(x));
(2+sqr(2*x+ 7)*exp(sqr(x)+ 7*x30);
(sqr( sin(x) )cos(x* exp( cos( x);
420*power( 1+x,22);
2;
2;
2*cos(sqr(x)+ 1 0)4*sqr(x)*sin(sqr(x)+ 1 0);
sin(x);
90*power(x,8);
63
B.4 ThIs unit is used in the program inmjcn_oCtwo_ variables to input functions and it's
properties
unit pro2_com;
{$N+}
interlace
uses
crt,matrix;
type
matrices
end;
object(m)
fu = object
end;
fnchoice : char;
procedure fcn_menu;
function rootx : real;
function rooty : real;
function f (x: vector)
function fdx (x : vector)
function fdy (x : vector)
function g (x: vector)
function gdx (x : vector)
function gdy (x : vector)
: real;
: real;
: real;
: real;
: real;
: real;
var
mx matrices;
implementation
function power (x:real;n:integer) : real;
(Evaluate x ta the power nj
va ..
a:real ;
i:integer;
begin
a:=l;
i:=l;
while i <= abs(n) do
begin
a:=a*x;
i:=i+l;
end;{afwhilej
if n > 0 then
power:=a
else
ifn < 0 then
power:=lIa
else
power:=l;
end; {o("pawer/
64
pmcedure fu.fcn_menu;
{Prints the f unction menu}
begin
clrscr;
FUNCTION MENU);
65
writelnC
writelnC
writelnC
\.\TitelnC
writelnC
writelnC
writelnC
\.\TitelnC
writelnC
writelnC
writelnC
writelnC
writelnC
writelnC
*********************************************************************');
a f(x,y)=x2.+f2 , g(X,y)=x2_y2_1');
b f(X,y)=(X2)2.f(y2)Z67, g(x,y)=x*x23*xy2.f 35 .);
c f(x,y)=xqO*x+y2.fS ,g(x,y)=x*y2.fxlO*y+S);
d f(x,y)=x2.fy2x, g(x,y)=xZ_y2_y');
e : f(x,y)=x+y*y25y22yIO, g(x,y)=x+y*y2.fy214y29');
f : f(X,y)=X2_X+2yJS, g(x,y)=(xl )2.fCy6)225');
g : f(x,y)=5x2_y2, g(x,y)=y0.25*(sin(x)+cos(y)) ');
h : f(x,y)=3x2_y2, g(x,y)=3xy2x*x21 ');
i : f(x,y)=16x2S0x+y2.f32, g(x,y)=xy2.f4xlOy+16');
j f(x,y)=2cos(y)+ 7sin(x)1 Ox , g(x,y)=7cos(x)2sin(y)1 Oy');
k : f(X,y)=x2.fy2_2, g(x,y)=exp(xl)+y*y2_2
*********************************************************************'):
writeln;
write (' SELECT YOUR CHOICE ');
end; {offufcn _menu}
function fu.rootx : real; {x component of the Actual root}
begin
case fnchoice of
'a' : rootx= sqrtCl.5);
'b
'
: rootx := 1883645208910S2;
'c' : root x := 1;
'd' : rootx := 0;
'e' : rootx := 34.1993336862070;
'f : root x := 2;
'g' : root x := 0;
'h' : rootx := 0;
'i' : rootx := 0.5;
'j' : rootx := o 52652262191S04S;
'k' : rootx := 1;
end; (offi1choice)
end; (ojjil. rootx)
function fu.rooty : real; {y component of the Actual root}
begin
case fnchoice of
'a' : rooty
'b' : rooty
'c' : rooty
'd' : rooty
'e' : moty
'f : rooty
'g' : rooty
'h' : rooty
'i' : rooty
'j' : rooty
'k' : rooty
end; (offochoice)
end; {offil. rooty}
sqrt(0.5);
2.71594753880345;
1 ;
0;
3. 041241452319S1;
10;
0;
0;
2;
0.507919719037091 ;
l;
function fu.f (x : vector) : real;
(Returns the value off)
begin
case fnchoice of
'a' : f:= sqrex[I])+sqr(x[2])2;
'b' . f:= sqr(sqrex[I]))+sqr(sqr(x[2]))67;
'e' : f := sqr(x[ 1])(1 O*x[ 1])+sqr(x[2])+8;
'd' : f:= sqr(x[I])+sqr(x[2])x[l];
'e' : f:= x[I]+x[2]*sqr(x[2])5*sqr(x[2])2*x[2]10;
'f : f := sqr(x[1])x[I]+2*x[2]18;
'g' : f:= 5*sqr(x[1])sqr(x[2]);
'h' : f:= 3*sqr(x[I])sqr(x[2]);
' i' : f= 16*sqr(x[l])80*x[1]+sqr(x[2])+32;
'j' : f= 2*eos(x[2])+7*sin(x[1])10*x[l);
'k' : f= sqr(x[J])+sqr(x[2])2;
end; (vffochoice)
end; {offu.j}
function fu.fdx (x : vector) : real;
(Returns the first partial derivative offw.r.t. x)
begin
case fnchoice of
'a' : fdx
'b' : fdx
'e' : fdx
'd' : fdx
'e' : fdx
'f : fdx
'g' : fdx
'h' : fdx
'i' : fdx
'j' : fdx
'k' : fdx
end; {ojfhchoice}
end; (offufdx)
2*x[l);
4*x[ I] *sqr(x[ I]);
(2*x[IDIO;
2*x[I]1;
1 ;
(2*x[I]+ 1);
10*x[1];
6*x[1];
32*x[l]80;
7*eos(x [I ])1 0;
2*x[1);
function fu.fdy (x : vector) : real;
(Returns thejirstpartial derivative offwr.t. y)
begin
case fnchoice of
'a' : fdy
'b' : fdy
'e' : fdy
'd' : fdy
'e' : fdy
'f : fdy
'g' : fdy
'h': fdy
'i' : fdy
'j' : fdy
'k': fdy
end; (offochoice)
end; (offiIJdy)
2*x[2];
4*x[2]*sqr(x[2]);
2*x[2];
2*x[2];
3*sqr(x[2])10*x[2]2;
2
,
2*x[2J;
2*x[2J;
2*x[2J;
2 *sin(x [2]);
2*x[2];
66
function fu.g (x : vector) : real;
(Returns the value of g)
begin
case fnchoice of
'a': g
'b': g
'e': g
'd': g
'e': g
'f : g
'g'. g
'h' : g
'i' : g
'j' : g
'k': g
end; (offochoice)
end; (offu.g)
sqr(x[ 1 ])sqr(x [2])1;
x[ 1] *sqr(x [1 ])3 *x[1] *sqr(x[2])+ 35;
(x [1] *sqr(x[2])+x[ 1 ]( 1 O*x [2])+8;
sqr(x [1 ])sqrex[2])x[2];
x[ 1 ]+x[2]*sqr(x[2])+sqrex[2])14*x[2]29;
sqr(x[ 1 ]1 )+sqr(x[2]6)25;
x[2]0.25*(sin(x[ 1])+eos(x[2]));
3 *x[1] *sqr(x[2])x[ 1 ]*sqr(x[ 1 ])1 ;
x[l]*sqr(x[2])+4*x[ 1]1 0*x[2]+ 16;
7*eos(x[ I ])2*sin(x[2])1 0*x[2] ;
exp(x[ 1 ]l)+(sqr(x [2])*x[2])2;
function fu.gdx (x : vector) : real;
(Returns the first partial derivative of g w.r.l. x)
begin
case fnchoice of
'a'. gdx
'b' : gdx
'e' : gdx
'd': gdx
'e' : gdx
'f: gdx
'g': gdx
'h' : gdx
'i' : gdx
'j' : gdx
'k' : gdx
end; (offnchoice)
end; (offu.gdx)
2*x[l];
3 *sqr(x[ 1 ])3 *sqr(x[2]);
sqr(x[2])+ 1;
2*x[l];
1 ;
2*ex[1]1);
0.25 *eos(x[l]);
3 * sqr(x [2])3 *sqrex[ 1]);
sqr(x[2])+4;
7*sinex[1]);
exp(x[I]I);
function fu.gdy (x : vector) : Ieal;
(Returns ihe/irst partial derivative ofg w.r.t. y)
begin
case fnchoice of
'a' : gdy
'b': gdy
'e': gdy
'd': gdy
'e': gdy
'f: gdy
'g': gdy
'h': gdy
'j': gdy
'j' : gdy
'k': gdy
end; (offochoice)
end; (offu.gdy)
end.(o(l/nit pro2Jom}
2*x[2];
6*x[I]*x[2];
(2*x( 1]*x[2])1 0;
2*x[2]1 ;
3 *sqr(x[2])+2*x[2]14;
2*(x[2]6);
I +0.25*sin(x[2]);
6*x[ 1] *x[2];
2*x[l]*x[2] I 0;
2*eos(x[2]) I 0;
3*sqr(x[2]);
67
B.S Create an object that uses to draw a box, center a text, etc,
unit pro3_com;
interface
uses
crt;
type
item = object
end;
procedure drawbox (xl,yl,x2,y2 : integer);
procedure centertxt (r : integer; its : string);
procedure endsc;
implementation
procedure item.drawbox(xl,yl,xl,y2:integer);
va.
i:integer;
begin
for i:=x J+ 1 to x21 do
begin
goto)':y(i,yl );
write(chr(205));
gotoxy(i,y2);
write(chr(205));
end;
for i:=yJ+ 1 to y21 do
begin
gotoxy(x I ,i);
write(chr(l86));
gotoxy(x2,i);
write(chr(l86));
end;
gotoxy(x 1 ,yl);
write(chr(201));
gotoxy(x2,y2);
write(chr(l8S));
gotoxy(x 1 ,y2);
write(chr(200));
gotoxy(x2,yl);
write(chr(lS7));
end;{ofilem,drawbox}
procedure item.centertxt(r:integerjlts:string)j
val"
x,l:integer;
begin
I:=length(lts);
x=roundSOI)I2);
gotoxy(x,r);
write(lts);
end;{of item, centertxI}
68
procedure item.endsc;
begin
textbackground(7);
centertxt( 14,'end of program');
end; {o/ item. endsc}
end.{o/unit pro3 Jam}
69
B.6 Create an object to perform matrix operations.
unit matrix;
{$N+}
interface
uses
crt;
const
n = 2;
type
mtrix = array [1..n, 1..n] ofreal;
vector = array [1..n] of real;
m = object
end;
procedure multiply
procedure add
procedure substract
procedure negate
procedure invert
procedure transpose
procedure vmultiply
procedure vadd
procedure vsubstract
procedure vnegate
implementation
(a,b : mtrix; var c : mtrix);
(a,b : mtrix; var c : mtrix);
(a,b : mtrix; var c : mtrix);
(a : mtrix; var c : mtrix);
(a : mtrix; var c : mtrix);
(a : mtrix; var c : mtrix);
(a : mtrix; b : vector; var c : vector);
(a,b : vector; var c : vector);
(a,b : vector; var c : vector);
(a : vector; var c : vector);
procedure m.multiply (a,b : mtrix; var c : mtrix);
(Multiply matrices a and b)
var
ij ,k : integer;
begin
for i := 1 to n do
for j := 1 to n do
begin
c[ij] := 0;
for k := 1 to n do
c[i,j] := c[i,j] + a[i,k]*b[kj];
end; {offor j)
end; (ofm. multiply)
procedure m.add (a,b : mtrix; var c : mtrix);
(4dd matrices a and b)
var
1,J: integer;
begin
for i : = 1 to n do
for j : = 1 to n do
c[i,j] := a[ij] + b[ij];
end;{ofm.add)
70
procedure m.substlact (a,b : mtrix; var c : mtrix);
(Substract matrix h fjom matrix a)
val'
i,j: integer;
begin
for i := 1 to n do
for j := 1 to n do
e[i,j] := a[i,j]  b[i,j];
end;{of m.substract}
procedure m.negate (a : mtrix; var c : mtrix);
( egate vector a)
var
I,J: integer;
begin
for i := 1 to n do
for j := 1 to n do
e[iJ] := a[i,j];
end;{ofm.negate)
procedure m.invert (a : mtrix; var c : mtrix);
(Invert matrix a)
var
det: real;
begin
det:= a[1 , 1]*a[2,2]  a[1,2]*a[2,1]; (Determinant of matrix a)
if (det = 0) then
writeln(,Matrix is Singular')
else
begin
e[l,l] := a[2,2]/det;
e[l,2] := a[l,2]/det;
e[2,l] := a[2,l]/det;
e[2,2] := a[l,l]/det;
end;
end;{ofm.invert)
procedure m.transpose (a : mtrix; var c : mtrix); (Returns the transpose of matrix a)
var
IJ: integer;
begin
for i := 1 to n do
for j = 1 to n do
e[i,j] .= a[j,i];
end; (m. transpose)
71
procedure m.vmultiply (a : mtrix; b : vector; val' c : vector); {lvJultiply matrix a and vector h}
var
I,J: integer;
begin
for i := 1 to n do
begin
eli] := 0;
for j : = 1 to n do
eli] := eli] + a[i,j]*b[j];
end;
end; {ofm. vmultiply)
procedure m.vadd (a,b : vector;var c : vector);
~ 4 d d vectors a and b)
val
integer;
begin
for i := 1 to n do
eli] := ali] + b[i];
end;{ofm vadd)
procedule m.vsubstract (a,b : vector;var c : vector);
(Substract vector b from vector a)
var
1 integer;
begin
for i := 1 to n do
eli] := ali]  b[i];
end;{ofm vsubstract)
procedure m.vnegate (a : vector; var c : vector);
( Negate vector a)
var
I integer;
begin
for i := 1 to n do
eli] := ali];
end;{ofm. vnegate)
end. (afmatrix)
72
73
REFERENCES
1. Burden Richard L & Faires Douglas 1. (1993). Numerical Analysis  PWS  Kent
Publishing Co, Bosten.
2. Curtis F. Gerald & Patrick O. Wheatley (1989). Applied Numerical Analysis.
AddisonWesley Publishing Company.
3. Dennis 1.E. & Schnable Robert B. (1983). Numerical methods for unconstrained
optimisation and nonlinear equations. Prentice Hall, Inc.
4. Gordon Sheldon P. & Von Eschen Ellis R. (1988). A Parabolic extension of
Newton's method. International Jomnal for Math. Educ. Sci. Technol.
5. Jain M.K: , Iyenger S.R.K. & Jain R.K. (1993). Numerical Methods (Problems and
.,. "
Solutions)  New Age International Limited / Wiley Eastern Limited.
;!
46. Weerakoon Sunethra (1996). Numerical solution of nonlinear equations in the
absence of the derivative. Journal for Natn. Sci .. Coun. Sri Lanka 1996 24(4) :
309318
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10. 1). 0741 1422
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