Question 1. Select a company of your choice.

Refer to the published information related to that company and list out some major technological changes the company has undergone in the past five years. Study the impact of these technological changes on the company as well. 2. Recall the current events where an organization has innovated. Keeping this in mind discuss the various stages of technological innovation. 3. Discuss any four perspectives of diffusion giving examples from real world situations. 4. Briefly discuss the objectives of Science and Technology Policy (2003) of India and how it has impacted the nation. 5. Explain in brief how venture capital has played a major role in Technology Development. Illustrate with the help of an example. Answer Select a company of your choice. Refer to the published information related to that company and list out some major technological changes the company has undergone in the past five years. Study the impact of these technological changes on the company as well. The organization, I am familiar with is a -a large manufacturer/ marketer of safety products -the products are used as [personal protection safety] [ industrial safety] -the products are distributed through the distributors as well as sold directly -the products are sold to various industries like mining/fireservices/defence/ as well as to various manufacturing companies. -the company employs about 235 people. -the company has the following functional departments *marketing *manufacturing *sales *finance/ administration *human resource *customer service *distribution *warehousing/ transportation *TQM THIS COMPANY HAD UNDERTAKEN A NUMBER OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN THE COMPETITIVENESS AND A 20% GROWTH ANNUALLY FOR FIVE YEARS. [SEE THE ATTACHED CHART --ABC COMPANY] 1.TECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCT INNOVATIONS. The company introduced 5 new technical products and followed the below stages for a successful results in all cases. Stages of Technological Innovation 1.Basic Research 2.Applied Research 3.Technology Development 4.Technology implementation

Concept Definition 3.Marketing 7.Proliferation 8.Business Plan ..Idea Generation 2. -the team developed the folllowing • Recognition of need • Study Alternatives • Select best solution • Make proposal for implementation 2. Market Analysis -the product manager / the marketing manager Finalized the following • Defining Markets • Analysis of current and future needs • Know the customers • Know the competitors • Window of Opportunity .Technical Analysis 5. Idea Generation -the marketing manager /product manager and the sales team conducted a field research.Production 6.Market Analysis 4. Concept Definition -the product manager developed • Conceptual Definition of Product/Service • Setting technical goals and priorities • Setting expected performance standards 3. -the team conducted a brainstorming session.Technology Enhancement Some minimalist definitions • • • • • • Science: How things are Technology: How to do things Management: How to get things done Technology Management: Doing things Entrepreneurship: Doing things to make money Innovation: Doing Entrepreneurship Process of Technological Innovation 1. Approved by Top Mgmt Development Test Marketing & Full Production C Commercialization Disposal 1.5.

Commercialization • Testing • Operational Control • Supply organization • Logistics . Test Marketing -the product manager / the marketing manager /the sales manager Finalized the following • • • • Strategy for market introduction Marketing Innovations Testing Measuring response 9. Economic analysis • Capital • Strategic outlook ( Identify NICHE area) 6. -swot analysis 6. Technical Analysis -the product manager/the R&D manager/the finanace manager reviewed the following /finalized • Resources required • Resources available • Time frame for development 5. Development 7.4. SWOT analysis -the product manager / the marketing manager Finalized the following and prepared the new product development plan. -the product manager / the R&D manager Finalized the following • R&D • Prototype • Testing • Start-up needs 8. Full Production -the product manager / the production manager Finalized the following • Production -the product manager / the marketing manager /the sales manager /distribution manager Finalized the following 10.

finished goods. accessories and finished goods. INTRODUCTION ERP SOFTWARE TO MANAGE -PRODUCTION -PRODUCTION PLANNING -TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT -TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT -MANUFACTURING PROCESS -CONTINOUS IMPROVEMENTS -JUST IN TIME INVENTORY MANAGEMENT -STRATEGIC CAPACITY PLANNING -FACILITY LAYOUT -PROJECT PLANNING AND CONTROL -AGGREGATE PLANNING -MATERIAL REQUIREMENT PLANNING [ MRP] -MATERIAL MANAGEMENT -PROCUREMENT THE INTEGRATED FUNCTION BRINGS IN A NUMBER OF ADVANTAGES TO THE ORGANIZATION. direct and control the warehouse and distribution activities to ensure the efficient and economical utilisation of facilities for storing and distributing the finished goods. develop. develop. direct and control the supply activities to maximise the quality and reliability of raw materials. *With the R&D Engineering Manager. *Wtih the Factory Services Manager. parts and accessories are available within required time frames and budgets.2. develop. direct the implementation of manufacturing sustainability strategies/ actions plans and continuous improvement programs. direct the the research & development/ engineering activities to ensure products and techniques achieve business needs within the standards set by the market and the regulatory standards bodies. develop. *Manage and Control the logistics function to ensure supplies of raw materials. direct the implementation of production business strategies and activities to enable the production to achieve output and quality objectives. *Wtih the Manufacturing Services Manager. direct the service operations and the factory warehousing management THE BELOW LISTED ELEMENTS IN THE OPERATION SHOW CLEARLY HOW THE ''CUSTOMER SERVICE'' / ''PACKAGING'' / ''PRODUCTION SCHEDULING'' ARE INTERLINKED FUNCTIONALLY IN THE PROCESS OF OPERATION. *With the Warehouse and Distribution Manager. parts. develop. develop. *With the Planning & Production Manager. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EACH OF THESE ELEMENTS ARE IMPROVED . *With the Demand Planning Manager.

MANUFACTURING/ PACKAGING INCLUDES -PRODUCTION PLANNING -PRODUCTION SCHEDULING -PRODUCTION -elimination of wastages in production -improving throughput effiiciency -process efficiency etc .RAW--INVENTORY -quicker replenishment -customer focused inventory building -logistical lead time reduction -demand based inventory etc ACTION PLANNING -better material availability -good/ usable inventory levels etc 5.THROUGH ''ACTION PLANNING''.PROCUREMANT -quicker stock replenishment -continual stock replenishment -reduction in lead time etc ACTION PLANNING -improving stock availability -reducing cost -reduction working capital etc 3.SUPPLY -better supply coordination -more effective communication with supplier -faster / timely communication etc ACTION PLANNING -developing supplier profile -developing suppliers networking etc 4. 1.DEMAND PLANNING -demand planning for core products -demand planning for parts/accessories -demand planning for critical items -developing product life cycle trends -product life cycle forecast for new products etc ACTION PLANNING -remove stock shortages -improve inventory levels. etc 2.

ORDER SERVICE -short--response time to query -shortening order cycle time etc ACTION PLANNING -making targeted delivery date -providing order status etc 8.FINISHED --INVENTORY -reduction in logical leadtime -full stock availability etc ACTION PLANNING -full total inventory -full stock / range availability etc 7. THE OPERATION MANAGEMENT IMPROVES THE EFFECIVENESS BY -IMPROVING MATERIAL FLOWS -REDUCE RAW MATERIAL INVENTORY LEVELS .DISTRIBUTION -order fill rate -ontime delivery -backorder by age -service/ parts availability -targeted delivery date -order completeness -delivery reliability etc ACTION PLANNING -improve order fill rate -improve on-time delivery -reduce shipment delays etc 9.CUSTOMER SERVICE -order status -delivery reliabilitty -documentation integrity etc ACTION PLANNING -timely order status -timely delivery status. etc THE EFFECTIVE OPERATION AIMS TO MAXIMIZE THE COMPANY RESULTS BY -IMPROVING CUSTOMER SERVICE -ADDS VALUE TO CUSTOMER SERVICE -TAILORING SERVICE TO CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS -LEVERAGING OPPORTUNITIES T O BETTER RESULTS.ACTION PLANNING -reducing back orders -improving targeted delivery date etc 6.

5 Inbound operations. manufacturing facilities. in collaboration with all suppliers. 8 Order promising. distribution centers. TO IMPROVE SKILLS/KNOWLEDGE/ AND COMPETENCIES.-REDUCING PURCHASING COST -REDUCE FREIGHT COST -REDUCE OBSOLETE STOCK LEVELS -IMPROVING WAREHOUSING OPERATIONS EFFICIENCY -OPTIMISE STOCK LEVELS -REDUCE LEAD TIME -REDUCE TOTAL INVENTORY LEVELS -REDUCE FINISHED STOCKS -IMPROVE DEMAND FORECASTING -IMPROVE MATERIAL RESOURCE PLANNING THE BELOW LISTED ELEMENTS SHOWS HOW THE ELEMENTS ARE CHAINED / LINKED IN THE OPERATION. 9 Performance tracking of all activities ALL THESE INTERLINKED INTEGRATION BRINGS -continuous improvements -improved effectiveness -improved efficiency -improved productivity -better sales results -better profit -better return on investment. The . including all fulfillment activities and transportation to customers. 7 Outbound operations. 6 Production operations. 3. including current inventory and forecast demand. 4 Sourcing planning. coordinating the demand forecast of all customers and sharing the forecast with all suppliers. After action review A process that helps teams to learn quickly from their successes and failures and share their learning with other teams. what actually happened and why it happened. this allows participants to learn how to sustain strengths and improve on weaknesses in subsequent tasks or projects. and other customers. Operational 1 Daily production and distribution planning. Involves conducting a structured and facilitated discussion after a task or project has been completed to review what should have happened. including transportation from suppliers and receiving inventory. including all suppliers. 3 Demand planning and forecasting. 2 Production scheduling for each manufacturing facility in the supply chain (minute by minute). accounting for all constraints in the supply chain. including all nodes in the supply chain. Balanced scorecard A business model developed by Kaplan and Norton as a tool to measure organisational performance against both short and long-term goals. including the consumption of materials and flow of finished goods.INTRODUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.

balanced scorecard is designed to focus managers' attention on those factors that most help the business strategy and so alongside financial measures. and so allow people to work together and share electronic communications and documents Information Data that has been organised within a context and translated into a form that has structure and meaning. internal processes and employee learning. it is rather difficult to define in a meaningful way).whether they be other organisations. Some people prefer to use the term 'good practice' as in reality it is debateable whether there is a single 'best' approach. and is therefore recommended as a model. which involves using knowledge to solve specific problems based on existing assumptions and often based on what has worked in the past. Extranets are only accessible to those specified organisations or people and are protected via passwords. Groupware Computer software applications that are linked together by networks. it adds measures for customers. Benchmarking The practice of comparing the performance of your organisation. Coaching A one-to-one relationship that aims to bring about individual learning and performance improvement. industry standards or internal departments. usually focusing on achieving predefined objectives within a specific time period. double-loop learning goes a step further and questions existing assumptions in order to create new insights. department or function against the performance of 'the best' . and to learn from their best practices as a basis for improving your own. Extranet A website that links an organisation with other specific organisations or people. (Note: while most people have an idea about what information is. Double-loop learning (or: Generative learning) In contrast to singleloop learning . the supply chain failures in an organization. <\l > E-Learning The use of electronic information systems (especially internet technologies) to deliver learning and training. Some organisations have used the balanced scorecard model in setting and measuring knowledge management strategies. The aim is to look at how well you are doing compared to others in the same field or industry. The role of the coach is to create a supportive environment in which to challenge and develop the critical thinking skills. so that they might reach their full potential. For example. Best practice (or: Good practice) A process or methodology that has been proven to work well and produce good results. ideas and behaviours of the person being coached. Intranet .

and to then use that knowledge to do things differently. observation.A computer network that functions like the internet. While organisational learning cannot happen without individual learning. Organisational learning occurs when an organisation becomes collectively more knowledgeable and skillful in pursuing a set of goals. Mentoring Mentoring is a one-to-one learning relationship in which a senior member of an organisation is assigned to support the development of a newer or more junior member by sharing his or her knowledge.) Organisational learning The ability of an organisation to gain knowledge from experience through experimentation. in coaching it lies in the coach's ability to facilitate and develop the other's own personal qualities. etc etc etc __________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Related term: Coaching (Note: While the strength of mentoring lies in transferring the mentor's specific knowledge and wisdom. _________________________________________________________________________________ The organization. I am familiar with is a -a large manufacturer/ marketer of safety products -the products are used as [personal protection safety] [ industrial safety] -the products are distributed through the distributors as well as sold directly -the products are sold to various industries like mining/fireservices/defence/ as well as to various manufacturing companies. and often based on what has worked in the past. but the information and web pages are located on computers within an organisation rather than being accessible to the general public.Single-loop learning (or: Adaptive learning) Single-loop learning involves using knowledge to solve specific problems based on existing assumptions. Continuous --Learning organisation An organisation that views its success in the future as being based on continuous learning and adaptive behaviour. individual learning does not necessarily produce organisational learning. -the company has the following functional departments *marketing *manufacturing *sales *finance/ administration *human resource *customer service *distribution *warehousing/ transportation . interpreting and retaining knowledge and then modifying its behaviour to reflect new knowledge and insights. It therefore becomes skilled at creating. acquiring. Keeping this in mind discuss the various stages of technological innovation. experience and wisdom with them. -the company employs about 235 people.Recall the current events where an organization has innovated. analysis and a willingness to examine both successes and failures.

Technical Analysis 5.Market Analysis 4. THIS SAFETY HELMET CONSISTED OF -unbreakable plastic -head cooling system for summer months -smart battery operated radio fitted.Idea Generation 2.Business Plan .Technology Enhancement Some minimalist definitions • Science: How things are • Technology: How to do things • Management: How to get things done • Technology Management: Doing things • Entrepreneurship: Doing things to make money • Innovation: Doing Entrepreneurship Process of Technological Innovation 1.Applied Research 3.Concept Definition 3.Concept Definition -the product manager developed • Conceptual Definition of Product/Service .Proliferation 8.Technology Development 4.Marketing 7.Production 6.Idea Generation -the marketing manager /product manager and the sales team conducted a field research..*TQM ============================================ THIS ORGANIZATION HAD AN IDEA TO DEVELOP A special type of SAFETY HELMET FOR WORKERS [ construction industry etc]. -the team conducted a brainstorming session.Technology implementation 5. Approved by Top Mgmt Development Test Marketing & Full Production C Commercialization Disposal @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ 1. -the team developed the folllowing • Recognition of need • Study Alternatives • Select best solution • Make proposal for implementation ==================================== 2. to keep workers motivated -soft inner lining etc Stages of Technological Innovation 1.Basic Research 2.

-swot analysis 6.Technical Analysis -the product manager/the R&D manager/the finanace manager reviewed the following /finalized • Resources required • Resources available • Time frame for development --------------------------------------------------------6. Economic analysis • Capital • Strategic outlook ( Identify NICHE area) ======================================= 7.Commercialization • Testing .• Setting technical goals and priorities • Setting expected performance standards =================================== 3.Development -the product manager / the R&D manager Finalized the following • R&D • Prototype • Testing • Start-up needs =============================== 8.Test Marketing -the product manager / the marketing manager /the sales manager Finalized the following • Strategy for market introduction • Marketing Innovations • Testing • Measuring response ============================ 9.Full Production -the product manager / the production manager Finalized the following • Production =========================== -the product manager / the marketing manager /the sales manager /distribution manager Finalized the following 10.SWOT analysis -the product manager / the marketing manager Finalized the following and prepared the new product development plan.Market Analysis -the product manager / the marketing manager Finalized the following • Defining Markets • Analysis of current and future needs • Know the customers • Know the competitors • Window of Opportunity ================================ 5.

trialability. The diffusion of a technology generally follows an S-shaped curve as early versions of technology are rather unsuccessful. the higher the relative advantage. In the case of a personal computer. and observability. change agents. opinion leaders.Discuss any four perspectives of diffusion giving examples from real world situations. . Relative advantage may be economic or non-economic. It is positively related to acceptance (i. Innovation Rogers proposes that there are five main attributes of innovative technologies which influence acceptance. nature of political institutions. habits and needs to the potential adopter. and is positively related to acceptance. Compatibility is the degree to which an innovation appears consistent with existing values. Observability is the perceived degree to which results of innovating are visible to others and is positively related to acceptance. Social system The social system provides a medium through which and boundaries within which. innovation is adopted. and vice versa). Complexity is the degree to which an innovation appears difficult to understand and use. it has made way beyond homes and into business settings. These are relative advantage. a low level of compatibility will slow acceptance. complexity. the higher the adoption level.• Operational Control • Supply organization • Logistics ######################################## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. These elements are derived from Diffusion of innovations theory using a communications-type approach. Trialability is the perceived degree to which an innovation may be tried on a limited basis. laws. and finally a dropping off in adoption as a technology reaches its maximum potential in a market. Information may be exchanged through two fundamentally different. yet complementary. the slower its acceptance. Communication channels Communication channels are the means by which a source conveys a message to a receiver. such as office workstations and server machines to host websites. Trialability can accelerate acceptance because smallscale testing reduces risk.. and is the degree to which an innovation is seen as superior to prior innovations fulfilling the same needs. Elements of diffusion Emphasis has been on four key elements of the technological change process: (1) an innovative technology (2) communicated through certain channels (3) to members of a social system (4) who adopt it over a period of time. while uncertainty reduction that leads to acceptance mostly results from face-to-face communication. channels of communication. followed by a period of successful innovation with high levels of adoption. the more complex an innovation. Diffusion ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The spread of a technology through a society or industry. Social norms. past experiences. Awareness is more often obtained through the mass media. Also involved are cultural setting. government and the consequences of innovations are all involved. compatibility. policies and administrative structures. The structure of the social system affects technological change in several ways.e.

On the other hand. it can not split their knowledge. to prevail the new technology in social. and sustained it. much of the technological advancements have not come from the governments of the world and most of the great government sponsored research projects have been failures. the Fifth generation computer project in Japan. It exerts its power and publishes laws to guarantee that investment can process properly. In another word. this above interpretation has problems with observation of the real major innovations such as the actual development of the transistor and creation of the microprocessor not including any of the major electronics companies of the time (the big tube manufactures). the bureaucracy plays an essential role. For example. In recent decades. the global social change is increasingly both a cause and effect of technological . The big tube manufactures did hire the best and brightest from the universities. it implies that social determines technology as technology advance can not separate from economic support and it brings economic value as well.2001. As knowledge which plays a role of force in technology is only granted to a limit population in technology experiment period. As the access to knowledge becomes easier with the spread of the Internet and access to everything from patent information to MIT class work and basic research papers approaches zero cost. economic. This change results in fundamental changes in the above concepts of elites and can result in innovation arising from multiple sources. In this case. Without the safe social circumstance. The time dimension relates to the innovativeness of an individual or other adopter.Time Time enters into the acceptance process in several ways. but all the good ideas created by their research labs couldn't float through vacuum tube management. politics. as it is “Socially bound knowledge” . it acquires the avant-guards who obtain knowledge as well. There are four factors motivate technology innovation. which involve intellectual agenda. Knowledge is not neutral. financial support is necessary. it is proved MacKenzie and Wajcman’s argument of “social determination of technology”. In order to continue elites’ experimentation. which is the relative earlyness or lateness with which an innovation is adopted.pp. Corporation Corporations which are driven by economic value benefit technology and are benefited as well. Moreover. Government To supply a steady environment for technology advance. By focusing on its process. which makes them able to manipulate new technology. corporation would like to invest the invention as the potential huge commercial benefits from it. However. and existing infrastructure . which prevents the invention processing properly in such chaos. the elites methodology will be stolen by the others(Green. The elites can create new technology as they are able to access knowledge physically and they can afford it. However. the knowledge of an individual becomes limited by his/her interests and ability to understand. which means it is social that realizing technology change. such as copyright. Both procedures underpin knowledge privilege within social context. it proves technology is not neutral. and in most case it is from corporation funding. Factors The term mythologised of technology refers to how technology start and elites who invented the new technology. 1-20). Elites It is elites who have intellectual agenda[3] make technology change possible. Globalization as macro-social context Globalization trend is realized by technology advanced and motivates it as well.

Perspective one: the digital divide The digital divide is defined as ‘the differential extent to which rich countries and poor countries benefit from various forms of IT’ (James. Example INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHYNOLOGY ICT can be a catalyst for effective development: but to play this key role it must be combined with appropriate developmental strategies. for instance. widening the telecommunications network. a development programme generally focuses on a combination of issues — including. women are looked down on. and makes communication access more conveniently. More recently. Satellites are used for both economically benefits and satisfy human curiosity. There is another way of how existing infrustration implements technology advance. the debate concerning the digital divide has broadened beyond physical access to computers and telecommunications: today the topic covers issues such as access to information and the additional resources that allow people to use . shelter. North vs South or information rich vs information poor. it not only benefits them enlarging their markets. and by which they established their roles as early communication adopters. Statistics suggest that developing countries own less than 4% of all computers: further. p.enhance(Green. Merchants appeal high technology. Before feminism movement. ICT has both beneficial and detrimental effects and intended and unintended consequences : one major mitigating response to the digital divide is the development of ICT infrastructure in developing countries: such response includes promoting the availability of more computers. In developing countries. But providing more computers does not necessarily result in bridging the digital divide. It implies a widening of the gulf between the haves and have-nots with respect to information. but also make them finish business trading quicker. ICT interventions in developing countries must address these issues and align with the development programmes of the country being dealt with . clean water and food for those who are not able to process the information. health care. communication and technology throughout the world. such as industrial vs developing countries. For instance. 1. and may in fact actually restrict access to basic needs such as education. capital. In order to examine the integration of ICT with developmental agendas we now turn our attention to four major perspectives on the adoption and implementation of ICT.3 million in the UK . computers or mobile phones) . such interpretations can be viewed as nonsense with the invention of satellites as being totally orthogonal to feminism. such as electronic business to run over-sea business. the alleviation of poverty. 2007. In a developing country. However.2001. rich vs poor countries. feminists invented satellite to provoke masculinity domination social pattern. 75% of the world’s telephone handsets can be found in the 9 richest countries. utilizing high technology realizes global social change. 1-20). education. the digital divide may occur where there is a lack of infrastructure (such as electricity supply) or lack of access to modern technology (the Internet.284). and hastening the growth of Internet service providers (ISPs) . so they provoke unequal social pattern by their contribution. Public policy can stimulate technology development . compared with 34. On the other hand.pp. The digital divide can be viewed from various perspectives. human skills building and the creation of a social environment that is conducive to the provision of universal access to basic welfare systems .31 million in September 2001. while internet subscriptions in all of Africa were only 6. employment.

community and social resources . technical. especially at the organizational level. over a period of time and among the members of a social system . This perspective reinforces the idea of change as a socio-technical dynamic. Hence. some pre-conditions have been identified as necessary before a society can adopt technology . Development may be measured through various interconnected factors.Perspective two: diffusion of innovation and transfer of ICT innovation Diffusion of innovation is the process by which technological innovation is communicated through channels. development considers human resource and infrastructure improvement whereas growth considers only per capita national income . language. and not a real reflection of the way ‘development’ is understood in today’s society . But this statement has been criticized as being too narrow. Economic indicators represent an aggregate measurement of a nation’s production. it has made a major contribution to the organizational perspective in IS research. especially in developing countries . many researchers argue that development may be measured by noneconomic or social indicators that indirectly enable the process of development . consumption and government purchase . including increasing people’s opportunities. education. it is essential to have access to a personal computer before accessing the Internet (technology is the central theme of this research. As a theory. such identification came under criticism in 1960 : simply put. it is possible to draw upon alternative theories. developing appropriate content and people’s capacities in using ICT. the core concept of development and then ICT’s interaction with it. such as Actor-Network Theory (ANT). It is common practice to measure development using two types of indicators — economic and noneconomic/social. Hence. 2. 3. Thus ANT can contribute significantly to knowledge while analysing the adoption and innovation of ICT interventions in developing countries.technology such as content. which consider both human (social) and non-human (technology) factors as central to the discussion . life expectancy reflects not only the level of medical service of a . investment.Perspective three: ICT and Development ICT and Development is a relatively broad concept that may be broken down into two sub-sections — first. These criticisms have led to changes in the way development is defined through various social-settings in a country. Development may be viewed with regard to any or all of a list of national goals or values in economic and social life . the current challenge of bridging the digital divide can be expressed in terms of the dimensions of societal concerns. such as social. Understanding the developmental agenda from the digital divide perspective is essential when prioritising ICT-led development projects and their specific target community/ies. cultural and political aspects . ANT replaces the concept of ‘diffusion’ by referring to ‘translation’ and examining how the actors ‘translate’ the interest of another. It explores the factors influencing the rate of diffusion and the innovation decision-making process. In light of the limitations concerning the traditional diffusion of innovation approach. In diffusion of innovation literature. literacy. share their own interests and develop a complex heterogeneous network of human and non-human artifacts . It focuses more on the social aspects — the major concern of Kling’s Social Informatics research. with less emphasis being placed on the social context of an innovation). and directly influence the development of a nation. Though there has long been a tendency to interchange development with growth. For example. economic. for example. It is noteworthy that IS researchers have also considered the social context while studying the organizational perspective of IS .

Researchers in this mode consider that ICT will not aid the development of developing countries because of deeprooted problems such as poverty3. diet. . income. There are two types of HPI. Soeftestad and Sein summarize the indices as follows: 1. ‘…capacity development is arguably one of the central development challenges of the day. poor telecommunication infrastructure and lack of IT investment . Sen considers that development which enables the core of national development may be understood as the enlargement of people’s opportunities for choice. Further. the choice to be educated. The optimistic viewpoint suggests that ICT can act as a catalyst for development by making information exchange faster and more frequent.nation. Overall. […] If the purpose of human development is to extend human capabilities. the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). researchers and global institutions such as the United Nations (UN). explain. value is added to the information system by increasing the adoption from one person to another. The pessimistic viewpoint expresses little hope that ICT will lead to national development in developing countries. ‘HPI-1’ for developing countries and ‘HPI2’ for industrial countries. a Nobel prize winner in economics. the World Bank. 4. it is an end in itself’ . These indicators highlight the complexities and difficulties of measuring noneconomic dimensions of development against economic dimensions . Over the last decade academicians. For example. In developing countries. educational level. the literature of ICT and development is clearly divided between two streams of thought. The MDG provide certain tasks and strategies to investigate how ICT can be enacted effectively in a country’s development. and by reducing costs. economics and policies. the choice of a healthy life. distribution of power. GDI focuses on the differences between genders 3. Sen’s human development viewpoint inspired the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to develop four standard indices to measure the development of a nation . based on optimistic and pessimistic viewpoints. developed his ‘capability approach’ . intensive statistical co-relations. Human Poverty Index (HPI): The causes of poverty from various dimensions. For example. Gender Development Index (GDI): In addition to HDI indices. but also the literacy rate. by introducing fax machines between many dispersed users. health and education . one fax machine has no value in transforming information unless the receiver also has a fax machine. telecentres and information kiosks enable poor people to receive information about their governments. then capacity development is not merely a stepping stone towards higher levels of human development. He argues that technology is just a dead box until it adds value and processes information. as much of the rest of social and economic progress will depend on it. Heeks attempts to resolve these two streams of thought with information rather than technology as central to his discussion. multivariate analysis and judgment are required to identify the most critical non-economic indicators for development . with particular attention on developing countries . Moreover. the choice of an improved standard of living and so on are key to developing a nation. These non-economic or social indicators of development reached prominence during and after the mid-1980s when Sen . 2. market prices. poverty rate and occupational structures of the community. Gender Equity Measure (GEM): The possibilities for women to be part of decision-making in business. Human Development Index (HDI): Life expectancy at birth. as well as other regional-national level agencies and various international development agencies have worked together to set the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) .

While. internet hosting. Heeks (2005b) suggests that it is necessary to follow the entire information chain in ICT related activities to achieve ICT and development. According to Heeks and Sen . or the level of computer ownership should not be the only solutions towards ICT led development in developing countries. in a poor community where people have no access to data. there is also the need to consider differing contexts. and 4) act upon the decision. These are data resources (relevant data). Heeks’ (2005a) Information Chain model provides a mechanism to 1) access data from the appropriate sources. data and action resources which assist human beings to transform data into information. According to Heeks . people’s capabilities to access and assess data and to acquire and share knowledge have added another dimension to ICT and development research . This may arise due to lack of financial resources or other social barriers . Most projects associated with needs analysis are of the top-down method. ICT for development projects should give a high priority to studying the user’s actual capabilities rather than the typical top-down need analysis. Heeks’ demand analysis relates to Sen’s capability approach by indicating the user’s willingness and ability to buy or get anything. For example. 2) assess the data relevance. computer training cannot provide benefits to poor people in under-developed countries unless it addresses or enhances the capability to transfer knowledge or skills to the real world. Focusing solely on technology factors assumes that people will automatically have access to and use the technology when it is available. For example. Access to information via the Internet or telecommunications is not a very difficult task — the major challenge is the assessment/transformation of data into meaningful knowledge and the availability of the social resources . Technology-focused projects often ignore understanding the user’s actual demands . confidence as to the data source. such as the rate of technology adoption. Gigler attempted to operationalise the capability approach while assessing ICT impact on indigenous people’s empowerment in Peru. hence they cannot act upon their decisions.Perspective four: ICT and organizational change Since the 1970s. researchers have been attempting to understand the mutual interconnection between IS and organizational change from the strategic . Heeks emphasizes the necessity to analyse want rather than need in ICT-led development projects. However. the establishment of technological infrastructure. while human capabilities needed to transform data and information into useful knowledge are often missing .According to Heeks . To ensure this process and achieve successful implementation of ICT projects. short-term analysis that ultimately determines what users actually demand . skills. Heeks’ approach to development is useful as a foundation of ICT related development activities. software. focusing merely on technological factors. but it is more relevant to conduct a want analysis . and user want/demand analysis tends to be a bottom-up. universal access (telecentres and information kiosks) and information content. Here. 4. emphasis has been given to the production of hardware. Avergou and Gigler argue that. they are not able to assess data as a meaningful concept. and action resources (skills and empowerment to act on decisions). similarly as with economic indicators. technology must be understood in its surrounding context of economic. four different types of resources are essential for humans to process information. social power and sociocultural influence. social. 3) apply the relevant data to a specific decision. the capability could be the level of literacy. In response to the challenge of ICT-related developmental programmes. economic resources (money. knowledge for access). technology). social resources (motivation from social setting.

as Bernard (1996) writes: ‘The emergent model tends to see change as driven from the bottom up rather than from the top down. External agents of change. According to how quickly change is enacted in an organization. it is noteworthy that there is substantial evidence to indicate that local context is of significance when designing new ICT projects in developing countries . consultation and context. Invariably ICT-led projects in developing countries involve the transfer of technologies and organizational practices which were originally deemed useful in other socio-organizational contexts. The evolutionary theorist examines small changes in the organization applying the same general working framework. Context is not seen as a barrier to action. However. and 3) refreezing the new level. this approach studies the process of organizational change over time. and how the actors (employees. The planned view of change has been a dominant model in organizational development and IS theory. Some researchers consider a mixture of both evolutionary and revolutionary theories . This view considers the complex nature of change as interplay of multiple variables within the organization. As NGOs and local community organizations are key sources when implementing ICT interventions in developing countries. senior management only are responsible for creating the vision of change and developing its agenda. . since the early 1980s. it is relevant for practitioners and researchers to analyze the potential impact of ICT interventions at the organizational level: the significance of context in ICT-led projects in the community cannot be over emphasized. the emergent view of change was conceptualised. In response to this criticism. so their potential value. their fit in the local socio-organizational conditions and their feasibility cannot be taken for granted. These researchers attempt to understand IS by examining the interaction between technical and social aspects . what now may be considered fundamental. senior management) behave purposefully in managing it . including such variables as political pressure. The study of context focuses on two issues: managing complex interorganisational factors or process. and stresses that change is an open-ended and continuous process of adaptation to changing conditions and circumstances’ . the planned approach has come under increasing criticism. because it may ignore the context of the changing business environment. the theories may be classified in two ways — evolutionary or revolutionary . the revolutionary theorist suggests radical changes for the entire organizational framework in order to achieve a competitive advantage . In the planned view of change.business and contextual points of view . Many theories have been developed to investigate internal/external factors affecting organizational change. Further. and examines the systems within which ICT is implemented. such as management consultants. Organizational context has become a dominant theme in IS/ICT-led organizational change research. 2) moving to a new level. so there is some implication that technological adoption within the changing business environment leads to core concepts of organizational change . thus the contexualist approach is appropriate when investigating change at the organization level. can assist the organization to initiate change. Lewin’s pioneering work provides a general framework for understanding the process of organizational change. but as an important element of managing ICT-led organizational change . that involves three main layers: 1) unfreezing the present level. and the potential value of ICT and IS can be achieved within an independent context surrounded by social actors . and mobilizing resources from the social context outside the organization . Indeed.

3. or toolbox) that provides specific functional capabilities (map. or building blocks. 4. 2. organisational and productional.The organizational perspective describes GIS in terms of its generic elements. .The technological perspective describes GIS as a certain form of technology (database. which specifically include the organisational and/or institutional implementation environment. database. technological.ANOTHER EXAMPLE The Four Perspectives of GIS Diffusion The definition classification system groups the definitions of GIS into four perspectives: identificational. 1.The productional perspective portrays GIS as the means in the production process undertaken by an organisation to generate the products and services expected by its clients. application. The perspectives are not exclusive. rather serve descriptive purposes for different aspects of understanding GIS and at different stages of development.The identificational perspective describes the unique features of GIS that distinguish GIS from other types of information systems. and spatial analysis).

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful