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BY IRA SAMUEL GRIFFITH of the Chairman Manual Arts Department University of Missouri THE MANUAL ARTS PRESS PEORIA. ILLINOIS .

COPYRIGHT 1916 BY IRA SAMUEL GRIFFITH 1919 FOURTH EDITION. .

G. I.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS To my father. franklin G. . The photographs are the work of James F. for most of the excellent drawings text. is also Acknowledgment the made of assistance jrom magazines and books on carpentry. Columbia. Mo-. grateful acknowledgment derived made. Barham. from few Credit is due Mr. Elwood. which accompany and clarify the A number of the drawings were penciled by Gordon Kellar. S. the various trade Peoria. whose patient instruction and forbearing oversight during the period of car- pentry apprenticeship is has made possible the practical aspect of this present volume. Boston.

.

PREFACE
is

the author's hope that the following text

may be of

service

manual training students. The author's as a carpenter leads him to feel that not a few journeyexperience man carpenters may find their horizon widened and their usefulness
students,

IT

to apprentices to the trade, to vocational

and trade school

and

to

as f ramers of the unusual roof increased

by a study

of

Chapter IV
be "gen-

where an

effort

has been

made

to indicate

how

the principles in-

volved in framing the square and octagonal roof
eralized" so as to

may

make

possible their application to roofs of
this,

any

number

of sides.

Beyond

the book

makes claims

to being

nothing more than an elementary treatise of the essentials of
carpentry.

No apology is

offered for

making use

of trigonometric solutions

of plane right triangles as a basis for developing generalized roof

framing principles in Chapter IV.

There

is

absolutely nothing in

the use of natural trigonometric functions to prevent their intro-

academic tradition.

duction early in the mathematical experience of a boy, except The author has made use of this mathe-

matical tool with upper

grammar grade boys with

less effort

upon

their part in mastering the principles

ing square root.

than was expended in masterThe ease with which roof framing problems lend

themselves to solution by the use of natural trigonometric functions and the readiness with which problems may be generalized thereby has emboldened the author to make use of it in a text as elementary
as this.

No

the Appendix provides
of

previous knowledge of trigonometry is presupposed, all the information required for the solution
herein.
7

any problem given

8

PREFACE
Should a reader, because of lack of time or for any other cause,

not care to consider more than roof framing of the square cornered building, he will find a complete treatise in Chapter III without
reference to solutions other than

TV

offers

a

still

by common arithmetic. Appendix more abbreviated approach to both square and
' '

octagonal roof framing.

The greatest good in studying the chapter on Estimating " will come only when each student is provided with a set of plans and
completely drawn, as by a practicing architect. Plans and specifications, such as will serve the purpose, can be purchased at small cost from architectural companies, should local
specifications

architects be unwilling to provide sets for the schools. Also, there must be provided for each student, catalogs of lumber and millwork specifications and prices. These can be obtained from mail order lumber and millwork companies. As a
rule, local

data, but

it

lumber and millwork companies are glad to provide such must be in a form complete, and readily accessible to be
IRA
S.

of the greatest value.

GRIFFITH.

COLUMBIA, MISSOURI,
September, 1916.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.

I.

FOUNDATIONS
2.

13

Grade line; 3. Excavation; 4. FoundaLaying out; 5. Foundation materials; 6. Forms for contions; footings; crete walls; 7. Waterproofing; 8. Basement frames.

CHAPTER
9.

II.

MAIN FRAME
of framing superstructure;
12. 10.
Sills

27
and
girders;

Methods

II.

Bridging;

partitions; joists

Trimmers and headers; 13. Walls and and rough floors; 14. Openings in framework.

CHAPTER
15.

III.

ROOF FRAME:
16.

SQUARE CORNERED BUILDING
rafter; laying

45

Roof framing;

Framing the common
rafter seat cut
rafter;

out

the
18.

plumb
Laying
20.
22.

cut;
off

17.

Finding the length of a

common
cut.
19.

rafter;

a

common

and end

piece;
rafters;

Hip and valley

21.

Ridge Framing hip and valley
23.

Side or cheek cut of hip or valley rafter;

Deter-

mining length of hip or valley rafter; 24. Laying off seat cut and end cut of hip rafter; 25. Reduction of hip or valley length
because of ridge piece;
rafters;

26.

Backing a hip
rafters;

rafter;

27.

Valley
29.

28.

Framing jack

plumb

cut;

side cut;

Lengths of jacks.

CHAPTER IV.
30.

ROOF FRAME: ANY POLYGON
31.

....
32. of
sides;

69

Tangents; miter cuts of plate;
rafter
for

Octagonal roofs;

Common

plate

of

any number

33.

Hip and valley

rafters for

octagon and other polygons; 34. Plumb

cut of octagonal and other polygonal hips and valleys; 35. Side or cheek cuts of hip or valley rafters, any polygon; 36. Rafter lengths of octagonal and other polygonal hips and valleys; 37.

Reductions in lengths for king-post; 38. Seat cut and end cut of octagonal and other polygonal hips and valleys; 39. Backing octagonal and other hips; 40. Framing octagonal and other polygonal jacks; 41. Side cut of octagonal and other polygonal
jacks;
42.

Lengths of octagonal and other polygonal jacks;
9

Placing door. 82. Translating framing problems from protractor to framing square and vice versa. Decks. 68. and other trim. 55. EXTERIOR COVERING AND FINISH 50. of materials. Strength of materials. 51. 76. Risers and treads. Scaffolding. Shingling. . (brief) deduced. Example of form for car83. screw sizes. 47. 74. 72. 60. 65. Interpolation. Contents of brick walls. grounds. APPENDIX I. Useful tables. window. Setting window and door Finishing exterior walls. Shingling hips and valleys. INTERIOR FINISH Interior walls. Fitting a door. porch steps. 115 Lathing. . Board measure table. chimney openings.. 80. Hanging doors. '. Grading rules. Stresses for structural timbers. finish. 95 mouldings. Framing a roof of one pitch to another of different pitch. tities. 63. 142 Methods 78.. 58. Laying and scraping floors. 48. 62. Table for estimating by cubic77.10 CONTENTS 43. Setting door jambs. Example of form for bill Estimating labor costs. 46. CHAPTER VII. nails. Sheathing. Cornice. 71. Hinging a door. Framing roof of uneven pitch. Door and window frames. 44. CHAPTER VI. Estimating millwork quantities. 69. 57. Siding. pentry costs. 56. 66. Woodwork in masonry structures. Fitting locks. Framing an octagon bay. foot unit. Raked 53. 59. 49. ESTIMATING of estimating. Interior 64. frames. Stair building. Table of natural functions (for degrees only). 54. 158 formulae Natural trigonometric functions. Solution II. Length and number of Wire brads. CHAPTER V. 61. 73. Estimating quantities of nails. Estimating lumber quan79. Porches. 70. Wood and machine Fractional equivalents for decimal values. 81. 67. 52. Fitting window sash. 45. Framing by means of a protractor. of right triangles. 75. Total building costs by percentages. III.

Masonry. Bibliography of References . Painting. Excavations. Slate. V. 11 Directions for Griffith's Framing Tables.CONTENTS LVc Short cuts to roof framing. Estimating. Plaster.

.

after which stakes may be set. for the carpenter to be present and to assist the mason customary in the laying out of the foundations.CARPENTRY CHAPTER 1. by means of which the observer may fix the line of sight very accurately. dial After the fixed tele- has been adjusted. 1. Fig. 1. Where buildings are large and important. I FOUNDATIONS In most communities it is Laying out Foundations. this work is done by an engineer with a tape and a surveyor's instrument. Fig. A cir- cular dial contains a magnetic needle which enables the fixed dial to be set with reference to the true north and south line of the observer. This instrusteel ment is known as a builder's transit. Transit 13 . the scope may be swung to the right or the left until the circular graduations indicate that it points in the direction wanted. and consists of rests a tripod tele- upon which a small scope with crossed hair wires within.

to It has no attachment for measuring vertical angles. (2) While sighting from one of these stakes to the other. a helper carrying the leveling rod. may next be located. a distance apart sufficient to guarantee the placing of the cross-lines for the back and front of the house The process of without restaking these. hold relative to the lot side Drive stakes here.14 CARPENTRY level A sight grades upon the telescope enables the observer or levels. Suppose it is desired to locate a building by means lot line. Fig. of the side lot line: (1) Measure from the side along the front and along the back lot lines. This is done by measurement from the Fig-. the level being the most essential part. To do 2 this. Upon ordinary residence work a surveyor lot lines. a distance equal to that which it is desired the house shall line. preferably for the front of the building. first locate a front corner stake upon the first line Leveling Rod just located. 3 shows a more common Y-level and differs from the other in that it is less complete. . This is an architect's Fig. Fig. however. have an assistant locate two other stakes in the line of sight. instrument. a second line of indefinite length. since the builder seldom needs such an attachment. 4. Y-levels are made both with and without compass attachments. 2. (3) Having located a line of indefinite length for one side of the house. laying out lines for a house is almost identical with that used in laying out a rectangle on a drawing board. This is not serious. A-B. is employed to locate lines are Once these located the builder is able to locate the building lines by measurement.

shift the cords at until the diagonals C and D. Fig. drive top of the stake to more accurately locate this corner. A Fig. located by If laying it off at 90 degrees is from the side the front line line already located. the front (4) building line must be shifted until it does. the Before this placed. 4. will an instrument is available it be located over this stake and the front line A-C. Those shown types. other line In a similar manner. 4. It should measure 10 feet. measure off 8 feet along the and then measure the hypothenuse of the triangle so If it formed. is A giving the starting point. 4. (5) Test the squareness of the whole lay-out by measuring the diagonals A-D and B-C. no instrument available. however. along one line a distance of 6 feet and sticking a a pencil mark may be used when the cord is white. With these two lines located. (6) become equal. This angle should be verified by the 6-8-10 method. They should be placed free of the foundation proposed by at least 3 or 4 feet. Once the lay-out is correct. If they are not equal.FOUNDATIONS street line. . the remaining two lines nail of stake may be located by measure- ment from them. This consists in measuring from the Fig. does not. may be laid off at right angles to A-B by holding a framing square at their intersection. Batter Boards intersection at A pin in the line at that point. retaining their parallelism. 15 a If nail in the Having located and driven in this stake. the batter boards should be are common Batter boards are variously constructed. If the building lay-out is square the diagonals should be equal. attempted. .

These kerfs and permit the cords being removed re- placed without further measuring. Grade Line. determining old grade lines and of establishing new ones is by means of the transit. will show properly drawn set of plans which the building is to both the present lay of the ground upon be erected and the new grade line which is to be established after 2. (1) set the instrument at some . 3 and 5. To locate levels for the masonry. usually the street walk. 2. 1. 5. The telescope is set level and sights taken thru it rod. with the the building Both instruments operate upon the same principle in grade work. Figs. A Fig. Fig.16 CARPENTRY kerfs should saw be made in the batter boards where the cords are will placed. Taking Sights with Y-Lcvel The most convenient method of is completed. The reading of the target's position upon the rod compared with the height of the telescope above the base. to the target upon the rod. determines the difference in grade of that particular placing of the target. or the Y-level. Fig.

Grade levels are established usually only after the builders are thru. especially where are to be maintained as the layers of material are placed. except that the have the grade indicated for him where the wall above the grade is to be differently finished from that mason will below. surveyor's level is at hand.FOUNDATIONS 17 convenient place and level the dial. suc- cessively stakes at each corner of the building with the required level marked it thereon. As a the mason has his own Y-level levels and uses freely as the wall is constructed. the of mason of or carpenter will secure the levels by means a straight-edge some 14 feet A common level is placed upon this'plank as shown in By successive levels with stakes driven to indicate the . Fig. 6. Fig. swing the telescope about and. such as the street walk. Where no in length. place rule. making allowance for the difference in level as shown by the drawings. Leveling with Straight-edge In a similar manner the earth grade about the building may be located. 6. (2) Having determined the height of the instrument above some predetermined base. stakes being driven into the ground at frequent intervals " " and the amount of fill or reduction indicated thereon.

and of such thickness and so bonded that the weight of the building may be evenly fetributed. and for waterproofing. 7. Footings. may be carried quite a distance with- out very great variations. In brick walls this footing draws into the wall by "stepped" courses of brick. Foundations. due to variations of in the Foundation Detail strength the supporting ground or the unequal weight placed upon this ground. than the proposed foundation that the made enough larger mason may have room to wield his trowel in pointing the outer joints. Because of the tendency of a building to rOOTlliG: Fig. WALL WATERPROOFING Excavations should be accordingly.IS CARPENTRY a grade successive levelings. All foundations must be the frost GRAVEL TILL CONCRETE carried well below line. residence resting suffice. The thickness of wall will depend ipon the weight to be sup- ported and upon the character of the soil. made DRAIN TIL' IMEnrjLOOR.or 12-inch wall will upon a footing 2 wide and 8 or 10 inches deep . 7. foundations must be constructed of some non-yielding material such as brick or stone. The amount of footing used is usually twice the thickness of the foundation wall. Excavations. Fig. settle unevenly. every foundation should have a footing. Unless rock or gravel is encountered. Excavations should be 3. 4. each For ordinary layer being narrower than the one just preceding. work with ordinary feet soil conditions a 10. An extra foot of ex- cavation upon each side will usually be required.

will be 10 inches deep by walls carrying no unusual load need not be over 8 inches in A safe footing for supporting posts of thickness. for 18 inches square.FOUNDATIONS 19 6" x6" yellow pine. Partition most soils. CLOSERr .

both along the Bricks laid with their lengths in the same direction as that of the wall are known as stretchers. those laid with their lengths across the wall are known as headers. Fig. 8. The manner of 1 . is secured by placing the brick or stone so that they shall faces of the wall and across overlap one another. This strength bonding the wall.20 CARPENTRY in filling the voids or spaces between the members has little as compared with that of the stone or brick itself.

FOUNDATIONS 21 THRU STONE RANDOM RUBBLE -3TONE BOHD ERJCK BACKING METAL COUR5ED A5HLAR FACING' BROKEN ASHLAR ROCKFACED ASHLAR. Types of Stone Work . 11. Fig.

Not infrequently a wall will be constructed with an ashlar In facing attached to a brick backing by means of metal bonds. making an unsightly The term " ashlar" refers to a wall WIRI- Fig. the wall is When as the horizontal joints are not continuous random rubble or broken ashlar. unless more than 8 inches in thickness and well bonded into the wall. the faced ashlar. When either rubble work or ashlar is laid up in courses it is known as coursed rubble or coursed ashlar. "Form" for Concrete builded of stones having finished faces. X4'S the effects of frost and moisture. such a wall. They must be laid upon a good bed of stiff mortar with their stratifications in a horizontal position. In the construction of both brick and stone walls the work . should not known be considered in esti- mating the strength of the wall.22 CARPENTRY In rubble work the stones are rough and unhewn. Otherwise. the face of the wall might "peel" from as well as a weaker wall. 12.

A good spading tool This allows is made by straightening out an ordinary garden hoe. For ordinary foundation work 1-inch boards studs being placed not over may be by used. A line is then stretched between the corners and. Forms for Concrete Walls. upon ordinary walls. the cement and mortar to flow next to the form and hold this place while the filling proceeds. No more than 3 feet above the rest of the wall. . etc. 12. is corner should. 6. and by props placed against the dirt wall of the excavation. In both brick and stone walls the corners are run up with stepped courses. the 2 feet apart. the corners being plumbed as the wall is carried upward. are better woods to use than will hard or Georgia pine. a "wet mix" being used. to remain until the concrete will Forms should be allowed resist indentation with the thumb. shows a type of form suitable for foundation Such forms should be made of semi-seasoned stock.FOUNDATIONS 24 should be carried up as nearly as possible at the same levels. that is is. 12 Thoroly seasoned stock placed. warp badly when the wet concrete is Spruce. wires placed as in Fig. walls to to be applied. layer by layer. These studs may be assisted materially in holding the forms in position. Norway pine. a matter importance in building con- work. is The economical of building of forms for concrete walls struction. Fig. The smoothness of the resulting faces is increased by an additional spading of the mixture away from the form. ordinarily. Where forms which no plaster are placed to give finished walls.. they should be aligned with no greater variation than %" from the lines specified. be carried In the case of unleveled every 15 to 18 inches in its coursed stone work the wall height. the rest of the wall filled in. In placing the concrete a 4-inch layer is laid and then or ' ' " spaded "worked" well into place.

By coating the top of the footing and the top of the concrete floor just before the finish floor of cement is placed. There are other ways of waterproofing basement walls. Waterproofing. tion waterproofing may be secured by appropriate additions to the mixture of waterproofing materials such as slacked lime. just before the mixture is placed.24 CARPENTRY There is no limit to the ingenuity illustration given is one may make use of in form building. A especially if gravel is placed against the wall above it. little water will enter. 7. 7 illustrates than those in well drained locations. The merely suggestive. drain tile carried about the house as shown in Fig. The extent to which a wall should be the location of the building. 13. Cellar Frame with Sash Fig. waterproofed will depend upon Foundations near running water must naturally be better protected Fig. The exterior face of the wall is covered with several layers of asphaltum or tar. will meet every emergency. 7. . no external applications being required. but this In monolithic construcis typical of the external wall treatments. a treatment which will prove quite safe for almost all localities.

are Frames such as heavy stock and and the window frame as plank frames.UG5 TEMPORARY 5TAY vCELLAR \riOOR. Fig. penter as soon as the mason has prepared Fig. 14 shows a frame plumbed and stayed. 25 Basement Frames. ready for the mason to lay the adjacent . 14. of Fig. made of are known Basement frames are held of the in place by means of wooden blocks nailed to the sides of the frame. 13. Fig. form of In this type the sash is hinged to the top of the frame. basement window frame construction. with . Fig. and a catch or button The at the bottom of the frame secures the sash when closed.FOUNDATIONS &. as well as frame itself. 14 illustrates a this. The frame is set by the projecting "lugs" and plumbed by the carthe sill. 13 illustrates one successful sash. basement door frame. Basement Door Frame construction sash is is such as to best shut out wind and water when the closed.

so is that a dovetailed effect secured. .26 wall. Where it is necessary to attach frames or other brick walls. CARPENTRY of Fig. it is mason insert woodwork to wooden Fig. 15. and should be constructed with the edge to be laid back in the wall thicker than the front edge. Wooden bricks are of the same size as is which other bricks. 15 indicates the position plumb and ' ' ting of a frame. The edges of a door frame are customary to have the level in the set" sighted for wind. Plumbing and Leveling Cellar Frame is "bricks" as the wall constructed.

With the growing scarcity of lumber the "half frame" of Fig. ' "10 JOIST Full Frame House . Figs." Such frames consisted of heavy and solid timbers mortised and tenoned and pinned together. Methods of Framing the Superstructure. In the early when lumber was plentiful. 18 became common. houses and barns were framed days in what is known as "full frame. 16.CHAPTER II - MAIN FRAME 9. are constructed by what is known as "balloon framing" in houses and "plank framing" in barns. planks and To-day the vast majority of buildings. and 4x6 GI more use nails. In view of this. 16 and 17. 19 and 20. makes use of heavy timbers and wooden of pins. Figs. less it will This latter be seen. attention will be directed 27 Fig. where wood is the material used. type.

17. 6*6 Fig. Heavy Timber Barn must be understood. able to frame a house should have no trouble with plank barn framing. where drawings show the details. too. with suitable detailed drawings provided him. A mastery of this one type should enable the student to work out other types.28 CARPENTRY One who is to balloon framing only. that there are quite a variety of ways framing a balloon and a plank frame. It will be possible It of in this chapter to treat of but one type. .

sill In Fig. then blocks should be spiked between the studs. Balloon Frame House various parts of the building. 19. 18. Half-Frame House Fig. 21 be found illustrated sill three types of box construction. Whatever the used. Sills 29 will and Girders. If the sill does not inhibit. care must be taken to so plan that mice may not have free access to the Fig. fire Such blocks serve as breaks. .MAIN FRAME 10.

30 CARPENTRY .

which is not the case in the type shown inFig. is This second somewhat easier type to frame. The advantage type of girder lies of this mainly in the fact that it leaves the headroom of a basement clear.MAIN FRAME The bed box sill plate of the should be selected from stock with straight In the framing of edges. manner of framing the Three 2"x joists to it. the whole thoroly spiked gether.22-b. form the to- girder. Fig. up when in that the position. 21. 21. 22-a illustrates built a up girder. and is therefore greatly used where the owner does not object. and in placing the joists see most crowning middle of a are in the room. 10"'s with and the a 2"x4" at- tached to each side. Fig. Three Types of Box Sills . to Joists are fastened sills their as in Fig. plan so that the crowning edges shall be joists.

beginning at one side or end of a room. 23. Sthe ^MK^^"" 1-^! Bridging. O? of. 22-b. For ordinary dwellings 23. stock two inches use thick should be Fig. l"x 3" stock will serve. To add to carrying power of floor ^^^aal joists. 4 feet in length. should be Fig. 22-a. a multiple Any remainder after such a spacing should be allowed to come at the side or & end of the 11. Fig. room. bridging is cut in be- tween them as shown in Fig. First floor joists. since the lath are all of 16 inches. made Cutting Bridging Bridging should be spaced not . Girder Types spaced 16 inches from center to center.32 It is better CARPENTRY where furnace stacks must be placed in a partition above it. like second floor joists and studs. Not to make such provision would cause a waste in lathing. large work.

place it as in i'ig. and. of a room. 24. then saw as indicated. With a mark the locations try^quare. after cutting a bevel on one end. 1 x 6 or 2"x4". may be used in cutting bridging. set at the appropriate angle. of the joists. Laying off a Stay it the beveled end above the lower edge of the joist against which rests. 24. 33 A miter-box. the joist must be spaced and properly " " This is done by placing a piece of stock. all the pieces being cut at one time with the exception of those for the odd spacings at the side or end A more common practice is to take a piece of stock. and "tacked. sawing vertically and along the joist. a distance slightly in excess of the thickness of the stock.MAIN FRAME more than 8 feet apart. fastened in place." A second method consists in by being joists there . Before placing bridging. 23 with SPACING STAY GIRDER Fig. This board may then be transferred to the center of the room and the held in place spaced according to the marks. as in Fig.

25-a-b.34 CARPENTRY Fig. Headers and Trimmers in Floor Frame .

Bridging should be nailed with two nails at each end of the piece. such as at an ordinary Fig. Fig. Floor Frame and Rough Floor chimney in . leaving the heads project enough that they may later be withdrawn with a Still claw hammer. Placing Trimmers and HeadIn the making of stair Headers and Trimmers it and chimney openings becomes necessary to support the ends of joists other than in the usual manner. 27. 12. This tacking consists in driving the nails only partially in. ers. 27. 26. 25. This is done by cutting in headers as in Figs. 26 and Where the span is not great. another method is to lay off the "stay" by measurement with the framing square so that it corresponds with the spacings of the joists at the side walls.MAIN FRAME 35 placing the spacing board in the center of the room and having a second person sight the joists for straightness while the first party places them as directed and 'tacks them.

tail by spiking only. Except upon long spans.R TRU55ED 5ET OH EDGE. as the case may be. be used instead of spikes in joining headers to carrying joists where spikes would weaken the carrying joist and would not give VIEADE. or carrying joist. 28-a. or the case of double doors. is at the ceiling level. Headers and Trimmers in Wall Frame sufficient strength to the joint. Studding cut in below window open- . Fig. headers are beams are to be Where many joists not doubled and are merely spiked in place. /tRIPPLE. a 2" x4" being spiked firmly to the header as a support. 28. 28-b. The term "header" joist in also used to designate the studding.36 CARPENTRY two tail residence work. and then plan to allow at 6". 121. measured from the proposed nosing line of the treads up to the proposed location of the trimmer. are to be carried. or header. headers or trimmers. On should be framed to the header as joists are framed long spans they to a girder. in which but one or carried. beams are usually fastened to the header In determining the amount of space to allow for head room in framing about a well hole for a stair. determine the run and rise of the stair least 6' from the plan and elevation. placed horizontally over Fig. -' Fig. Fig. or Iron stirrups or hangers should carrying joists must be doubled. window and door openings.

The illustration shows framing for openings of different widths. Headers and Trimmers in Wall P'rame STOPS - SICOttD TLOOR_ JOIST Fig. also known as header. A small " window may require but one thickness of 2 x 4 ". 29. Stud and Joist Patterns ings forms the stool. 30.MAIN FRAME 37 Fig. A medium single sized opening will have a header of two pieces of 2" x 4". Where the manner of .

of Figs. 16. and marking about them with . 13. 18. The other studs at a time or joists of similar dimensions are laid off one by superimposing pencil. as in the case of double door openings. these patterns Fig. etc. 30. tions and their rela- one to another. 31.38 CARPENTRY is the opening rather large. To these patterns. Corner Post Types fences are attached near the two ends and at the middle. used in the building and are therefore counted in with the total number of pieces to be framed. Fig. . 31. 32-b. 17. In laying a pattern is first off studs. Whether side walls shall be framed and raised before the rough or false floor of the first story is laid will depend of sill upon the type Fig. stops and framed. 20 and 29 should give an understanding of the essential members of wall of the framed a building. 32-c. Marking Joists from Pattern construction made use of. two joists will be set on edge over the opening as header.. Fig. 19. Fig. These patterns are afterward joists. A study Walls and Partitions Joists and Rough Floors. 32-a. Fig.

Corner posts are plumbed and stayed in two directions. off and plate by means of Sometimes ribband boards and plates are laid by measurement. 34. Where the span is too long for any available length of ribband board. has illustrates a more of common type construction. and trantry- scribing the marks to the ribband board square and pencil. The most the serious objec- tion to this type is fact that the Fig.MAIN FRAME alongside the 39 Ribband or ribbon boards and plates are laid off by placing them " layout" for the studs made upon the sills. 33. board attached to corner post and stud. after which the stud will be plumbed and Studs are framed before being raised so that ribband boards may be "let into " them as shown in Fig. 32-b much mend it. as are Corner posts are constructed first and placed. sills. Fig. These studs will be raised immediately after the corner posts. 32-a shows a section of a corner post which to comFig. With the corner posts the ribband boards are placed. Fig. Fig. Sec- ond and third floor joists will be notched to slip over these boards . after being Either 2" x 4" or 1" x 6" stock will be used for set. stays. 33. 34. the ribband stayed. raised. Corner Post Being Plumbed and Stayed post must be furred after the lather has placed 'the lath upon one side of the room. in laying out the ribband boards provision must be made for their "breaking" joints upon studs.

40 CARPENTRY will be spiked to the studs in addition. of the raising of the With the completion which are to bear the two outside walls middle partition. A joist ends. Remaining studs are and nailing the foot while placed one at a time. 34. one man setting up and JOIST Fig. Side Wall Stayed another fastens the ribband board to the stud at the second floor line. the . 35. paralleling these walls shonld b^ framed and raised. should there be one. Fig.

the studs at the ends of the house will may be set up. This marking is best done by placing the joist Setting up Studs and Attaching to Ribbon Board upon the sill and transcribing the marks laid out upon the sill to the joist. Having placed the second floor joists. Just as far as first and second floor joists possible should be spaced to rest one directly above another and in line with the supporting studs of partitions so that furnace stacks may be placed with ease. is that is. 35.MAIN FRAME slightly different procedure 41 is from that just described followed. even to the cutting When is a section such as the number of men after available can raise ready. studs and be the sills. placed at the end of the house. . tions are The studs of parti- framed but one story high and "plated" at such a height that second floor joists may be placed thereon in splicing. If joists rest upon partition plates and not directly above studs. instead of raising one stud at a time the whole partition floor. etc. and stayed being plumbed. Double plates will next be framed. framed and nailed together upon the in of headers. They should break upon marked by transcribing the marks for the studs from At the corners the plates will be framed with butt the joints. Their locations be marked upon sill and upon second floor joist which is to be Fig. the same is raised. the second set lapping over the joints made by first plate. after which it is to be raised into place. a double plate must be made use of.

Such floors are laid either across the joists. either door or window. 14. material available for etc. Such openings are cut and headers and stools placed after the walls are up and ready for sheathing. In general." that larities are is. carpenters plan to have the studs on either side of an opening. casioned (O by this The seeming waste ocmethod is slight since is the cut-out headings.42 CARPENTRY of the second story is Next. Beginners are frequently troubled in determining the proper opening. Fig. marked plainly This pole placed alongside the stud to be cut and the mark transcribed from pole to stud. This is nothing more than a piece of 1" x2" or 1" x3" stock with the heights of the openings from the rough floor or joists. The attic floor joists are raised as was that of second floor. Most carpenters make a story pole to be used in laying off window and door heights in cutting out studs. where the rough is floor is not laid. so set that the outer edges of the exterior . any irregu- taken out by additional stays. placed as were those for the All walls and partitions are now "lined up. Openings in Framework. the sustaining middle partition the first story. False or rough floors are laid in the various stories where not already placed. from the thereon. n n bridging being placed and openings for stairs and chimneys framed. diagonally or straight The diagonal floor is considered better. Studs in outside walls are set without reference to openings for doors and windows. 27. even when the size of the window is specified.

upon their centers. 36. excess side measurement due to the meeting rail. Estimate an opening vertically. rabbet to rabbet." Window sashes with muntins require an addition of ^" for each muntin. 37. glass in upper sash. 2" or 3". The width between studs would be estimated thus: Width of . where frame is made with bottom of rabbet. The thicknesses of header carpenter would say. space for head jamb and lugs of side jambs. glass from edge to in lower sash.MAIN FRAME casings will break Windows are specified by the width and height of their glass and the number of divisions or The distribution of lights. width always being specified first. 79". 34". meeting rail. "Add and stool must be considered in addition to the measurement just mentioned when studs are sawed. 2". Rail and stile widths and rails or stiles is shown in Fig. total. A 11" to the glass measurement to get vertical height between stool and header. 1" . from one. 34". sash thicknesses will vary from those given when any very great DOOR 3'x7' 3-7 Fig. 36. subsill. bottom rail. thus: Sill. 1". top and bottom rails. Fig. Framing Wall Openings is increase in size of window made. 3". 2". Fig. top rail. 37. Manufacturers of sash and doors provide catalogs in which stock sizes are listed.

total from j ambSj joist. total spacing of studs center to center. thres- / 5 " 5X" s tr. to %"\ head jamb 3/ fnmsn rtooR . easiest in laying off to estimate from the center each way rather than to estimate total width. both window and door. Threshold Detail 9". 3'. Distance be- tween studs will be 3' 7". For the 3' x T door.-ROUGH TLOOR. may be 7' 5". floor. : Height of door. hold. both orders of procedure are common. and space for lugs of side " 2 to 3". Since main frame. allowance for rough finish floor. 4". total 40". Comparing this with the width of glass it will be stiles. 37 and 38. makes use general rule: Add 10" to the glass measurement to get distance between studs. This will leave space enough to put the doubling studs on each side between header locations of openings in the and floor. 3' 9". After these openings are made. it is are dimensioned to the centers of the openings.44 glass. 8". therefore. or the roof may be framed. A carpenter. CARPENTRY 28". 38. at 4^" each. stud. . %". estimate the opening as follows 7'. where a 4" or 4J/2" casing is used with this type of window frame. %". width of casings. Figs. For the width estimate: Fig. of opening Width of door. the frame of the house may be covered with sheathing. is seen that the difference of a 12". distance from center of stud to casings. width of width of center of from rabbeted edge to outer edge.

Before any rafter can be framed. 39.CHAPTER Roof Framing. and jack have four cuts each. 43. Fig. be seen. without GABLE SHED Fig. has three cuts plumb or ridge cut. valley. a side cut or cheek cut is possessed by each in addition to the to be made it will three cuts belonging to the common rafter. must be known. The common rafter. HIP GAMBREL Roof Types are used. and end cut. The hip." 42 illustrate the rafter In Fig. 41. 40. the rise and run of the common rafter. In roof framing. standing rather than and dependence placed upon this underupon mere knowledge of what figures to use knowing why those figures upon the square to get the cuts. The problem a difficult members of framing the various one provided the underlying principles are understood. and forms and the names of the various cuts in framing the members to place. Figs. 39 are illustrated four types of roof. the pitch of the roof. of a roof is not III ROOF FRAME: SQUARE CORNERED BUILDINGS 15. seat or heel or plate cut. The . in other words. the "run" of a rafter when in place is the horizontal distance measured from the extreme end of the seat to a point directly below the ridge 45 end of the rafter. An effort will be made in this treatment to indicate the "why.

rafter length another set of . CRIPPLE JACK -31DECUT PLUMB CUT PLATE TAIL END CUT CVT Fig.CARPENTRY RIDGE PIECE COMMON RAFTER HIP RATTER. 41. HIP JACK RATTER. VALLEY JACK. Plan of Roof Rafters "rise" is the vertical distance from the ridge end of the rafter to the level of the seat. still The terms rise. run. The "pitch" and of a roof or have rafter is the ratio of the rise of the rafter to the span or whole width of the building. Roof Details HTP RATTER Fig. 40. VALLEY RATTER.

or 12 ". and the blade for the opposite. There are occasions when the reverse order is is necessary no matter which form only one way. 42. this and the other unit lengths or constants are computed from The numerical values of these constants will be constant. is taken along the tongue and the rise per foot of run along the blade of the square. In such cases 12" of run of the common rafter is assumed as the base. Raising the Rafters It will be noted in Fig. followed. however. if he keeps the tongue for either rise or run. of the subject of roof computed as the development their use necessarv.ROOF FRAME: SQUARE CORNERED BUILDINGS meanings all 47 they may be used to designate "unit" lengths. the beginner will generally find it easier to visualize his work. so that it is unwise to insist upon The variation in terminology in roof framing is so general that the beginner will do well to familiarize himself with the most com- . framing makes Fig. 44 that the constant of run. It is not essential that this order be followed.

Upon intricate plans. cannot be too strongly emphasized. seat cut. experienced mer . 43. The value to a beginner of a carefully made plan of a roof to be framed with necessary data such as rafter lengths and positions indicated thereon. Hereafter an effort will be made end to confine the text to the following: plumb cut. side cut. Unit Length of Common Rafter mon. Architects not infrequently prepare elaborate and complete framing plans for the use of the carpenter. Run. 44.CARPENTRY a = RISE C=LEWGTH A=AtiGLEOr INCLiriATlOM Fig. cut. Rise and Length Fig.

16.45-b. Laying off Common Rafter be understood that it is equally as convenient and more common among carpenters to begin the framing of the members of a square cornered roof frame with the end and seat cuts. lengths of rafters. Framing the Common Rafter. such as measurements along the plate for spacing the rafters. ridge pieces. than a square cornered roof begin with the plumb cut. 43 illustrates a framing plan ready for the placing thereon of the necessary data. taking 12 "on the tongue and upon the blade the rise in inches per foot of run. 5mon or OPERATOR. whether the buildings have four more or less. numbers against the crowning.ROOF FRAME: SQUARE CORNERED BUILDINGS 4 prepare plans before attempting to frame the same. it should L LEIiGTH OF TAIL^X \>LEttGTH OF <TTT< RATTER. Fig. is first described. etc. plumb . (1) as the run. This gives . 45-a-b. or what is to become and scribe along the blade. these Keep the top edge of the rafter. Place the framing square as in Fig. it is In framing other somewhat more convenient to The method all of framing of the common rafter is the sides or same for buildings. 46siT10tt OF OPERATOR Fig.While in this discussion the cut Laying out the Plumb Cut.

Position in Laying off Plumb Cut when Laid off before Seat Cut beginner but he should learn to visualize his work while in this thru position that the efficiency of framing may not be reduced the awkward position first likely to be assumed. 46 and 47 illustrate the proper position of the worker will relative to his work. the run of tail or length of lookout must be considered. Such a position seem awkward to the Fig. Occasionally a carpenter will be found who frames a center line rather than the top edge of a rafter. To Find the Length First of a Common Rafter. 45-a and In estimating the total length of stock for a 48. third. 46. The problem. the length of a .50 the to CARPENTRY plumb cut. From an examination of Fig. Fig. Figs. is Method: The theoretic length of a rafter indicated by the center lines in Figs. 45. rafter having a tail. Laying is off Plumb Cut when Seat Cut First Laid off The pitches most com- monly used are the half. 17. 43 it will be seen that common rafter is the hypotenuse of a right triangle whose legs are the rise and the run of the roof. 47. and quarter. then.

48. The . the ratio of rise to run remaining the same. TAIL Rafter Length length of the rafter increases proportionately. therefore. Instead. per foot of run square. Practical carpenters would not consider economy to take time to solve for rafter lengths in this manner. has an additional cut be discussed in another section. however. the length of rafter for common any given pitch can be found by merely multiplying the constant given by the amount of run for that particular rafter. in which the length of rafter for each foot of run. for each of the pitches is given. for every variation in rise or run would necessitate a rather long solution. Fig. 49 shows such a table worked out for a rather extended number of pitches. therefore. what is said of the common rafter is also true of the jack rafter. and that the A taken upon the other member of the framing jack rafter as will be illustrated later is but a shortened common which rafter.ROOF FRAME: SQUARE CORNERED BUILDINGS of finding the length of 51 a common rafter when it the rise and run are known is merely that of solving the equation c2 = a?-\-b 2 . Fig. they have discovered that for every foot of run of a rafter the OF Fig. is From this table it will be seen that the number rise in inches to take as a constant for the run is 12". With a table. 44. will jack.

TABLE.52 CARPENTRY Example: Determine the length of a common rafter of a house with a 25' span and a quarter pitch.0EAT CUT . TOR ANI> COMMON JACK RATTERS SQUARE t OCTAGONAL ROOT /^ / / g pj HUN. without tail.

scale on the framing square. using that side of the square divided into inches and twelfths. 51. and the fractions as inches. TOOT RArTEK. the rounded corner makes it impossible to secure the accuracy demanded. Upon ordinary work where g ^at accuracy is not required carpenters sometimes determine this constant for a given pitch by placing the framing square as in Fig. be the same as that obtained by computation from the tables. if the work is very accurately done. even to the hundredths place decimal.ROOF FRAME: SQUARE CORNERED BUILDINGS 53 common or jack rafter lengths. (3) the number directly below this zo PER. taking upon the tongue the run and on the . and take off any fractional remainder Read this divider spacing upon a very sharp pointed pair by means of the hundredths of dividers. Do not use the end of the blade. place one square treme accuracy is required if the constant considerable length of run. the following pro- suggested: Selecting the run as 12" on the tongue and the upon anshown in Fig. 50. " As a check cedure rise in is for rafter length computations. The result should.5 II 16 SHEATHING I IM VALLtY 22 I I 2 I ill Fig. reading across the blade in the space marked Length of Common Rafter Per Foot of Run" gives the length per foot for that particular rise or pitch. the numbers representing the run and Read the whole num- ber of inches as feet. III III ill ll ii Framing Square Detail mark. Exother as inches per foot of run on the blade. is to be used for rafters of Read the diagonal length between rise. (1) consider the run as 12" taken on the tongue. 4o or 47. (2) select upon the blade along its outer edge the inch mark which represents the rise of the roof per foot of run required to give the pitch specified.

the seat cut cf.54 CARPENTRY rise. an equally com- mon practice is to lay the framing square as is shown in Fig. 45-a. using the set of numbers first . As these numbers do not allow enough of the square to rest on the rafter to give a full line. The tance between these marks is then read on a square placed along the edge. Second Method: In determining rafter length. and another scribed. In addition tion of would be advanced that fractional part which the fracthe run was of 12". the square would be placed as many times as there were full feet in the run. In addition to this 7 the square would be advanced using T ? of 12" or 7" on the tongue and T2? of 6" or 83/2" n the blade. Finding Rafter Length by Scaling rafter. that is 12" may be moved up. While in this is position scribed. and also a short sharp line scribed along the other member The along. of the square at the top edge of the square is rafter. in a run of 12' 7". moved using the same numbers. many times as there are feet in the run of the common With a span of 24' the operation would be repeated 12 times. the square would be advanced 12 times using the number 12 on the tongue and 6 on the blade. Should the run not happen to be in even feet. with a it 3< roof of pitch. advance This op- mark as eration is repeated just Fig. 51. blade the dismarking along both tongue and blade. as soon as the advance limit of rafter length is indicated the square used. Section 18. For example.

ROOF FRAME: SQUARE CORNERED BUILDINGS and 6". The final position of the square. Laying out Rafter tance equal to the fractional foot of total run. 44. may be obtained by simply sliding the member. used in laying out the last full foot line which parallels the seat cut. 17. therefore. length is obtained similarly. The tail Laying off Common Rafter Seat Cut and End Cut. times 12. and of good length. be used to transmit fractional parts of a . first method. Fig. this last operation is simplified by always equals itself. 52. 55 On common rafters. Fig. Fig. off (1) lay off this length along the upper edge beginof feet is ning at the plumb cut. an additional dis- noting that the fractional run. divided by 12. 44. First Method: Having determined the rafter length as directed in Sec. " The whole number more safely "taken by means of The rule or square may a pole marked in feet. 18.

as 3-4. measure along The distance 1-3 may be increased equal to one-half that of 1-2. and scribe a plumb line as indicated at 1-2. (4) Place the square as at c. certain kinds of work permit the ends is be cut at the same time the remainder of the rafter this latter framed. 52. (2) CARPENTRY Place square as at "b. Fig. 45-b. Fig. 53. 44 and (5) the end cut scribed. tails are usually framed and are then spiked to the ends of the plate. 2^" on 3 and scribe a line for Fig. 52. it advisable. 52. While many carpenters allow end cutting of the rafter tails to wait until the rafters are set in place so that they may be lined and cut while in to position. 53. 52. or decreased somewhat when an extreme pitch makes to 3". Independent Rafter Tail Fig. above or below the . method the square is placed as in Fig. Fig. 52. Fig. 54. (3) From the the line marked 1-2 a distance point 1. The point of cutoff on the tail is determined in the same manner as that used in determining rafter length. Where a cornice is of independent of the rafters rafters either unusual width. These last marks give the bird's mouth joint which is to fit over the plate." Fig. with the edge of the tongue resting As a rule this should be & THICKNESS OF ^DIAGONAL OF HIP- RIDGE -j RIDGE THEORETIC LENGTH OF RIDGE REAL LEttGTH- Fig. standing as in Fig. Length of Ridge Piece the seat cut. the run In of the tail being considered and the tail length being measured from the point 1.56 foot.

These marks are transcribed upon the ridge board by means of the square and pencil. 54. center.ROOF FRAME: SQUARE CORNERED BUILDINGS 57 Section 17. Fig. operator will stand as in Fig. is employed. will be equal of the to the length of the parallel plate diminished r>late at right by the length This. is the theoretic length of ridge as measured from center to Enough extra stock must be will left hip cheeks. and will be laid off by placing the ridge board alongside the plate after the rafter positions have been marked upon the plate. however. on the ridge when framing it to allow full contact of This additional measurement at each end of the ridge l l be equal to /2 the diagonal thickness of the hip plus /% the thickness of the ridge. On a hip roof. Upon a gabled roof the length of ridge piece will be the same as that of the plate easier. making a total addition equal to the . especially somewhat which it is to parallel. Upon an ordinary " " dwelling a ridge piece is usually a 1 x 6 board. Fig. ridge piece. before the Second Method: Where the second method of finding length. one rafter has been laid out it is cut and used as a pattern plumb cut. Rafter for Ridge Piece. the length of a ridge piece angles to this. 45-a. Determining Diagonal Fig. Roofs may be framed with or without a The use of a ridge piece makes the assembly or raising -REDUCTION Fig. rafters. The by which to cut similar Ridge Piece. Reduction of Common Thickness of Hip of Square Corner. the end cut and seat cut will be laid out When 19. 54. of a roof a hip roof. 56. 55.

The manner of determining the num- ber to use on the tongue of the square as a constant for the run.58 CARPENTRY Fig. in terms of the 12" constant run of the common rafter. 57. 20. Fig. 58-a. In reckoning the length of is a common to rest rafter which the total Fig. Or RIDGE AND HATTERS 1 I TAHGEHTGal Fig. when the rise of the hip or valley rafter per foot of common run is taken on the blade. 58-b. as on and jack rafters. against a ridge. Hip and Valley Rafters of Square Cornered Buildings. of the hip plus the thickness of the ridge. 56. diagonal thickness of the square to determine the diagonal 55 illustrates the placing a hip rafter the ridge at an which strikes thickness of angle of 45 degrees. and the manner of constructing a table of unit lengths of hip . OF WDGE CENTCR. length must be - Hip or Valley Rafter of is Diagonal reduced Square Prism by an amount equal to one-half the thickness of the ridge measured at right angles to the plumb cut. J Hip is Rafter. Fig. First Method: The line of measurement for length of a hip and CENTER. Valley Rafter valley rafter common along the middle of the back or top edge.

58. and for its height in Figs. The length of the diagonal of the base of such a prism. Fig. the plumb cut may be laid off first. .ROOF FRAME: SQUARE CORNERED BUILDINGS and valley will rafter. . In measuring the length of a hip or valley rafter by the first method. In laying on the square. are illustrated 59 and 60. and run When tangent 2 . the run of the hip or valley equals 16. for each of the pitches represented. 57. and valley lengths per foot of run of common will be formed by solving the right triangle assumed by the worker in framing a hip being taken on the blade. rafter. which for prac- purposes of carpentry is considered as 17". then. 12- TANGENT cv<rMr Fig. is f $y^ r&>. the rise of the roof. 17" will be taken upon the tongue. On a square cornered building the run and tangent are always equal. Fig. in framing a hip or valley rafter of a square cornered building. 59. From a study of these illustrations it be seen that a hip or valley rafter of a square cornered building is in either case the diagonal of a square prism which has for its base dimensions the tangent and run of the roof.97 ". are equal and each taken as 12". The table of hip 60. The upper end of the . 57. The positions to be or valley rafter are similar to those to be assumed in framing the common rafter. found by the formula 2 2 58. the rise of the roof per tical foot of run of common rafter or per 17" of run of hip or valley rafter. 59. Determining Unit Length of Hip or Valley Rafter. c' = a' +6' Fig. c" 2 = a" 2 +6"2 Fig. 59 per foot of run of common rafter. which is the run of the hip or valley rafter.

21. lay off the rise plumb cut using 17" on the tongue. and on the blade the per TABLL fORHIP OE. The measurement for length will arris. 61. Laying off Plumb Cut of Hip or Valley Rafter for Square Cornered Buildings. Assuming a position with reference to the rafter similar to that in framing the common rafter.60 CARPENTRY shown in is framed with a side cut as hip rafter will have to be Fig. be made from a point along the the second middle of the top the end and seat cuts are laid Where method employed.WLLT* RATTER. SQUARE CORliERED ROOF . off first.

ANSLEA -A-B Fig. If a table of unit lengths of hip or valley per foot of run of common rafter is available. The respective tables are based in every upon 12" run of the common rafter. or any other case number of sides. the total rafter length may be Method: determined by multiplying the unit of hip or valley rafter length per foot of run of common rafter by the total run of common rafter. out with the true Remember that these 12" run of the common rafter is tables are all worked This is as the base. as at 61 D-E. eight sided. rafter per foot of taking 17" on the tongue and the length of hip or valley run of common rafter for the pitch required on the blade. 61. Second Method: This method of laying off side or cheek cut consists in laying the framing square across the top edge of the . and the setting is obtained for all side cuts of hip or valley rafters of that pitch of roof. the top edge of the rafter. Laying off Side Cut rafter. Fig. Fig. 62. 60. Now adjust the bevel to Scribe this line on pass thru E and F. no matter whether the house four sided. and scribing along the blade. Side Cut Fig.ROOF FRAME: SQUARE CORNERED BUILDINGS of the rafter with the square. Do not make the mistake of trying to multiply by the run of the hip or valley rafter. Measurements for lengths of hip or valley are to be made along . 62. Carry it down the remaining side using the same numbers on the square as were used in laying off the plumb cut on the first side. First Determining Length of Hip or Valley Rafter. 23.

Laying off Seat and End Cut of Hip Rafter for Square Cornered Building. There will be this difference. and the rise on the blade. the numbers are 17 on the tongue. Second Method: This method of determining length of a hip or second method described for the comvalley rafter is not unlike the Here. For square the fractional advance take iV of 17" or 9H" (the framing square is laid off in twelfths on one side) on the tongue and T^ of 6" rafter of 12' 7 ". 61. the numbers to be used on the square will be 17" on the tongue instead of 12" as in the case of the common rafter. having a run of Advance the framing 12 times. Should there be a fraction of a &THICKHE55 OF MATTER. as many times as there are feet of run of common rafter. and seat cuts are scribed. Fractional foot length will be determined in a similar manner. the run or horizontal extension. using 17" on the tongue and 6 "on the blade. The rise per foot of run will be the same as . or the lookout. 24. Miter Cut of Hip Rafter End % pitch. 18. foot in the run of common rafter an additional and proportional advancement must be made. 63. after which the square is advanced step by step. bers. The end per foot of run of roof or of common rafter. and scribe the limit. The seat cut and end cut of a hip rafter will be laid seat off in a manner quite similar to that used in laying of the off the and end cuts common rafter as described in Sec. to frame a hip for a square roof of Fig. of course. Fig. using these same num- mon rafter. For example.62 CARPENTRY the top edge of the stock beginning at the line for side cut and midway between the point and heel. common or 33/" of tail on the blade. of the common rafter deter- mining the number of times the square must be advanced using 17" and 6" for the above given pitch.

Fig. Fig. Backing the Hip Reduction of Hip or Valley Rafter Length Because of Ridge If a hip rafter of a square cornered building is to be framed against a ridge piece. fascia. Fig. \ J K^ ' BACKING TOR. 64. end cut of a hip rafter must be mitered to receive the amount to be taken off for a square cornered building will be indicated by laying off lines a distance equal to onehalf the thickness of the rafter. Fig. measure square back correspondingly. must be the same on hip and valley as on common rafter of the same pitch of roof. 61-A-B. arrises is The laying out and removal of these known The amount as backing the hip. will depend upon the and the number of sides to . Since these cuts are identical with the side cut at the upper end of hip or valley. its length must be reduced such allowance. HIP ON >L 50UAR.LC0RHER. The distance 1-3. of backing for a hip rafter rafter thickness. 52. First Method: Since the line of To make Backing a Hip Rafter for Square Cornered Building. THICKNESS OF RATTER MEASURED IN PLANE Section 22. The The meas- AnOUrtTOFLKOP no BACKING ured straight back from the lay-out of the end cut. Fig. Fig. the rafter is framed with the same plumb distance as was given the common rafters. the pitch of the roof. 26. the square may be used as in laying off a side cut.-fe. 64. 1-3. 63. 40. OF PLATE Rafter Piece. 52. measurement of a hip rafter is along if the center of the top edge. cf . The run of the tail of the common determines the length of lookout or the number of times the square will be advanced.ROOF FRAME: SQUARE CORNERED BUILDINGS for the 63 rafter common rafter. second method. from the line of plumb cut a distance equal to }/% the diagonal thickness of the ridge. it stands to reason that the roof boards will not fit the top edge of the hip properly until the arrises of the hip have been removed as in the cross-section of Fig. 25.

Fig. Framing Valley Rafter at Plate the hip back along the tongue a distance equal to of the rafter. and indicated by gage lines on either side and one on gage the top edge of the rafter. 17". 64. This point gives the setting for the gage. FOR SQUARE CORN. 65-a. (1) place the square on the hip as in the backing is to be laying out the seat cut for the hip on which placed. The amount of reduction. and the length of hip or valley per foot . Fig. that is. the amount of drop the hip must make is equal to the plumb height of the backing. Second Method: Take the rise in inches per foot of run of common rafter on the tongue. (3) % the thickness arrises as and mark. of the hip. Fig. To determine the location of these lines on the sides of the rafter. if the house is on the tongue and the rise on the blade. 64. Fig. Carpenters more frequently frame a t. In order to keep these arrises in the same planes as the tops of the common rafters. 52.o Gage both sides of the rafter and then remove the cross-section.64 CARPENTRY is the plate. x fe THICKME53 OF RAFTER FOR OCTAGOH MEASURED n PLANE 07 I % PLATE- Fig. the constant. allowing the roof boards upon the arrises forming a small triangular space between the roof boards and the top edge of the hip. (2) Measure from the edge of rectangular. rest shown in the of the hip. hip without backing. '/Z THICKNESS OF RAFTER. 65-b. they must reduce the plumb height 1-3.

as described in Sec. scribe along the tongue to get the angle of backing. is The jack rafter. the end. cut square across as in the case of a common rafter resting against a ridge. 24. plumb line must be come directly may is The ends of roof boards will rest upon the valley rafter at its center line. 28. in the same Like the hip rafter. valley rafters have their lengths. being but a portion of a common . There is one difference. To lay out of the cuts shown in Fig. 65 in order that the over the corner of the building. rafter. framed against a hip are known as hip jacks. Valley Rafters. 65-b. plumb its seat and seat cuts determined like hip rafters. Side Jack rafters Square Cornered Buildings which have their top ends . which line plane as that of the common rafters. those having the lower ends framed against a valley are known as valley jacks. those which are framed in between hip and valley are known as cripple jacks. the valley rafter at framed as in Fig. for Plumb Cut. proceed as in laying out the end of a hip rafter. 63. Fig. As has been indicated in previous seccuts. is same rise and run. Framing the Jack Rafter Cut. 27. the upper end may be laid out first. Fig. The upper end second valley rafter is framed with a plumb cut such as of the would be given a hip or valley however. unlike ridge. the top edge. tions of the text. In Figs. the measurement being made along the middle of the back of the rafter. 40 and 41 is shown a valley rafter framed thru to the This is done to give the valley support. Against this valley rafter is of this framed a second valley rafter. for a valley. 65-a. In the case an octagon the amount would be T2 of that used for the square.ROOF FRAME: SQUARE CORNERED BUILDINGS of run of 65 common rafter on the blade. a hip. is not self supporting when the jacks are attached. after which the rafter length is measured from this.

62. These may be gotten from the manufacturers. Equalcommon is the practice of beginning with the end and seat cuts. Fig. laying the square across the edge of the rafter and scribing along the blade. 49. different makers of squares use different numbers for side cuts. and the common run for the pitch given. 66 shows that in a recis tangular house the run of a jack the same as the length of plate . To make use of this table we shall need to know the run of each First Method: separate jack. off This is done just as in laying the side cut of the hip rafter on a square cornered building. To lay may common rafter having the same rise. Where a table of common rafter lengths per foot of run is available. a second method of laying out the side cut of a jack rafter consists in taking 12" on the tongue of the framing square. used in framing the common The chief difference is in the fact that the jack rafter has a their posi- side or cheek cut. An examination of Fig. 29. ratios of the numbers used upon the tongue and the blade are always the same for any given pitch. The framing table for common rafters and jack rafters. Fig. first method only. Fig.66 CARPENTRY like that framed in a manner quite rafter. 50 contains data which makes of the possible the laying out of side cuts for the square cornered building by means of While the numbers taken upon tongue and blade. may be made use of in determining lengths of jacks. (4) Lay off the seat cut just as in laying off the seat cut common rafter for the same pitch of roof. and that the lengths of jacks vary with tion along the plate. on the blade. ly The framing square of Fig. Lengths of Jack Rafters for Square Cornered Roofs. . just as for a is. and the rise per foot of run on the (2) Lay off the side cut or cheek cut. Section 18. The student will have to have special directions for each different make of square. using 12" on the tongue. off The order of procedure the plumb cut. (3) Lay off the length of the jack as determined in the next rafter length per foot of section. 49. be: (1) that blade scribe along the blade.

56. . 61. along the arris. the diagonal thickness of hip or valley. measured straight back from the plumb cut. such measurements are along the and allowance must be made be in the length of the jacks for the thickness of hip or valley rafter. In the case of the cripple jack this amount of reduction will the diagonal equal to J^ the diagonal thickness of the hip plus thickness of the valley. or ^ measured in the plane of the plate. instead of along the center of the top edge. 67 This is true of hip jack. or cripple jack. Fig.ROOF FRAME: SQUARE CORNERED BUILDINGS or of ridge which forms the angle. but in nailing them in place the T x lower ends must be held up so that their center lines will strike the center of the valley rafter. no reduction being made for thickness of hip and valley. ' Len s ths of J ack Rafters - In determining the true length of hip jack and valley jack we should know that a reduction of }/2 the diagonal thickness of hip or valley. jack. In the case of a valley jack resting against a ridge piece. In actual practice carpenters usually measure the length of hip or valley jack from the long point. measured at right angles to the plumb cut. 19. Their tops will be kept even with the outer arrises of the hip whether the Fig 66 " hip is backed or not. valley centers of the top edges of the rafters However. is to be made. no reduction being made for Cripple jacks are measured ^ from long point to long point. or a parallel plane. an additional reduction must be made as described in Section Fig. Top and bottom ends of cripples are alike.

difference. In a similar manner the second jack can be framed. and difference. by reducdifference. This applicable to roofs of of sides. 50 also shows such a table for the square roof.68 CARPENTRY Second Method: Where jacks are framed so that equal spacings may be laid off. If any number Determining Length Jack Rafters of Third Method: we begin to frame with the shortest jack instead of the longest. and divide the length rafter common The by this number. is etc. Fig. to get the to each succeeding jack add the common length of the next. To the length of this second jack. 67. a table consisting of the common the various pitches will be found convenient. The steel square of Fig. Fourth Method: As rafters are usually spaced either 16" or 24" differences in lengths for apart. we first determine the length of the shortest jack. 49. the simplest is method of determining lengths of jacks to first count the number of spaces between jacks. result will be the common differ- ence between lengths of jacks. as in Fig. remembering that its run in the square cornered building will be the same as its spacing from the corner along the plate. The first longest jack will be framed by reducing the length of rafter by the common The next. 67. ing the jack just framed by the common common method Fig. beginning with a full length common rafter. . or along the ridge in case of a valley jack. is The difference in the lengths of these two the common difference. which must be of laid off on ridge or on plate.

The tangent at the plate. By making use of a circle with a radius of 12" we represent the value of this tangent graphically in terms of the constant of common rafter run.CHAPTER IV ROOF FRAME: ANY POLYGON 30. to which reference was made is the tangent of the angle having for its adjacent sides the run of the common rafter and the run of the hip or valley. A tangent of an angle of a right triangle is CONSTANT OF COttMOH RATTER Fig. may By line constructing these figures very carefully and measuring the marked tangent. a clearer idea of the term tangent as used in roof framing must be had. Tangents. we may obtain the value of the tangent for 69 . Tangents the ratio or fractional value obtained side opposite that angle by by dividing the value of the the value of the adjacent side. 68. Fig. 68. Before the prin- ciples involved in the laying out of rafters on any type of roof can be understood. Miter Cuts of the Plate.

or unit of run of considered as feet. A safer way. common rafter. using the graphic at intervals of one degree are given in the Table of Natural tangents Fig. 69-b. serve all practical purposes. by the twirling of one disk within the other.97". rafter. 69 is illustrated a handy device one side of which. The . 68 = 22K about a point) In roof framing 1' (TJ of the sum of all the angles Tan 22X = -4143 1 as Tables are builded with a base. 69-a. values Appendix be found. In Fig. Table of Tangents Fig. in terms of a 12" base. Angle A' of Fig. for any number of degrees. By interpolation. can be made to give tangent values. is to make described in use of values secured thru the trigonometric solutions solutions as checks. . or 12" is taken as the constant or base. which equals 4.70 CARPENTRY of run of the common the polygon measured in inches to the foot if made to the 1/100 of an inch will Such measurements. fractional degree may Example: Find the value Solution: of the tangent for an octagonal plate. II. The values of Appendix I. however. Functions. Rafter Table.4143 may be In a similar manner tangents may be found for plates of buildings of any number of sides.

Second. This is discussed in Sec. 39. as will be shown in Sec. Appendix II.97" is equivalent to 5" for all practical purposes. For the square cornered building 12" and 12" would be used in making the plate miter lay-out. Solution: The octagon has 8 sides. 35. Such a key will be found a convenient way in which to carry needed data and should be easily understood and intelligently used. of course. this tangent value is is determined for any regular polygon by the proposition: The plate or miter angle of any regular polygon = 90 central angle s Example: Find the value of the plate miter of the octagon. 70. we are able to get the lay-out for the miter joint of the plate. This Third. of needed in determining the amount backing to be given hip rafters. by taking 12" on the tongue and the tangent value in inches per foot of common rafter run upon the blade of the square. Five inches is taken as tangent since the real value 4. once the principles discussed in this chapter are mastered. 71-b illustrates the square placed for the lay-out of the octagonal plate or sill miter. this tangent value is needed in determining the cheek or side cut of hip. Not infrequently the plate miter in degrees is required. 45 90 -T- therefore central angle = 45 2 = .ROOF FRAME: ANY POLYGON reverse side of this 71 "key" gives data to be used in the framing of square cornered and octagonal roofs. in which case 12" must be taken on the blade. found in Appendix IV. Now as to some of the uses for tangent values: First. valley and jack rafters. Fig. Fig. since the tangent of 45 is 1 according to the Table. but it is best to consider 12" on the tongue. Any other like numbers would give a tangent value of 1. will be An explanation of the author's key.

0 O I) JlsstI H B 'a 1151 K : S Sr .72 CARPENTRY .

Length of side = spanx tangent of plate. determine the length of plate for any side. and vice versa.46" = 7' 5. using 12" as base. the tangent value is needed in finding the length of a side of a polygon.97" (to each 12" of run) 18 X 4. the span or run of the polygon being known. \ .46" = 5#*.ROOF FRAME: ANY POLYGON 73 Fourth. Solution: The tangent value of the octagon 7' = 4. Example: An octagonal silo has a span of 18'.97" = 89.

33.. represented c". whose tangent was found to be 4. The rise will be found the same for full length common rafters and hips. it is necessary to deter- mine the tangent values of these polygons. Hip and Valley Rafters for Octagonal and other Polygons. Having mastered the principles involved in these two forms.74 of determining the CARPENTRY numbers to use on the square to lay out the plumb and seat cuts. b". Before the table of constants for hips and valleys for octagonal and other polygonal roofs can be formed. By referring to Figs. are determined for a building of number of sides just as for the square cornered building. For practical purposes this is con- . c'. Common Rafter for Plate of any Number of Sides. common rafter was taken as 12". too. 68 by the lines b. 72.97" when c* the run of the 2 . = a?-\-b by the Valleys. represented in Fig. 32. 68 for their runs the and 72 it will be seen that common rafters have of the apothem polygon made by the plate. Plumb Cut of Octagonal and other Polygonal Hips and The run of an octagonal hip or valley is 12. 30. The run by the of the hip is line c. the run of the octagon hip or valley will be found to be 12. 49. the student should be able to work out framing problems for roofs of any number of sides. b'. 34.99" for each foot of run of common rafter. formula Fig.99" for each foot of run of the common rafter. clination of The Run of of Common is degree of injack rafter is Rafter of any Roof common and Apothem Polygon applicable. Proceeding with the octagon. Fig. as described in Sec. Plumb and seat cuts foot of run of and lengths per common rafters and jacks any Fig. 72. will be found developed herein for both square and octagonal roof. etc.

AALLCY /a / / / 1 ' / UH.SEAT CUT . valley. In a similar manner.ROOF FRAME: ANY POLYGON sidered as 13". having determined the tangent of any polygon under consideration. rise an octagonal hip or per foot of run of com- mon rafter on the blade. 73 . the run of hip or valley per foot of TABLE FOR OCTAGON HIP OR. on the blade. take 13" 75 To lay off a plumb cut scribe for on the tongue and the Fig.

Fig. Scribe along the tongue A-C.76 CARPENTRY the constant of the run of the being framed. as might be supposed. 74. and on the tongue (2) 12". or valley It will be observed that in where the junction angle is 45. (8) Scribe a plumb cut E line upon the reverse surface of the stock. Hip or Valley. according RAFTER Fig. Measure square back from this plumb cut line the distance A-B of Fig. 74. common rafter. hip. blade the and upon the tongue the constant of the run of the to the requirements for that parhip or valley or jack. With the (3) Lay B-C across the edge as indicated. Fig. This. 74. square. one case the square is laid across the " " edge with 12 on the tongue and 12 on the blade. carry the line off the plumb cut for the required pitch. 74-b. any Polygon (4) member as determined by the style of roof. is for finding the cheek or side cut for jack. 74-a. or jack 5" must be taken upon the . Laying ticular off Side Cut of Jack. In the case of the octagonal hip. (7) Adjust the bevel to pass thru and F. Fig. taking upon the rise. valley. Fig. (5) Thru point A scribe a line D-A parallel to that of the plumb cut line and (6) square this across the edge as at D-E. 74-a.

such as that for the octagon in Fig.). according to the change in the junction angle. Various Angles of the plate. Securing Value of A-B of Fig. valley unit rafter lengths. is obtained. 74. the upward projection of the plan of the miter cut. These figures are for use only when the timbers lie in the plane Fig. by the position of the square on the plan of the roof. Fig. 12" as base being taken on the tongue. 75-b. then. 73. First Method: Knowing the run of a hip or valley for the polygon under consideration (17" for the square. The reason for using the tangent and run for this wofk is in- dicated 75. Rafter Lengths of Octagonal and other Polygonal Hips and 36. 76. multiply the hip or valley length per foot of run of common rafter . Fig. or rise. When rafters take on pitch or however. etc. any parallel plane. pitches by assuming the respective rises for the various and solving c' 2 = a' 2 +6' 2 Fig. To determine a rafter length. will determine the side cut as just described. having available such a table. since that 71 is the tangent value of 22|. Fig. 74-b. This tangent value will vary. 13" for the octagon. Fig. data pertaining to hip or .ROOF FRAMK: ANY POLYGON blade. 74. 75-a. Valleys.

76. Reduce to feet. A fractional part of a foot in run will be treated in a manner similar to that described for the square Fig. The successive advances will be de- termined. have been edge of the will down the top Lengths of hip or valley tails be determined in a similar table. when this latter method Example: is used. Take or tf of 13" or 6>" on the tongue and & & X 6" or 3" on the blade for the fractional foot of run. Such lengths will be laid the side by measurement from or cheek cut. of The run common rafter = 12' 6".78 CARPENTRY by the run of the as given in the table common off rafter of that roof. An octagonal roof of y^ pitch has a span of 25'. by the the number of feet in the run of common rafter of this roof. Suitable allowance must be made for the fact that the length of rafter is along the middle of the top edge of the rafter. which will laid off. manner from the same in Second Method: This consists successive placings of the square. Taking 13" on the tongue and 6" on the blade lay off successively 12 measof or urements. King-Post cornered building. . as in the hip or valley of a square cornered building. using the same numbers on tongue and blade as will be used in laying out the plumb cut for this particular roof. rafter.

is of octagonal similar to that described for the square hip. and end cuts End Cut of Octagonal and other Polygonal Hips The method of procedure in laying out the seat and other polygonal hips and valleys will differ. 79 Reductions in Lengths for King-Post. should there be one. measured straight back from the plumb 74-a and 75-b. and the rise may be figured by the tables. or the framing square may be advanced successively as many times as there are feet in the run of the tail or the lookout of the common rafter of that roof. The length of tail be 13" on the tongue. . same as those to of common The second pair be similarly framed but the lengths }/% will each be reduced an amount equal straight the thickness of the first pair. Where the width of the square a king-post is used the reduction will be of which the king-post is formed. as heretofore described. These rafters will have to have double It will be noted that these of side cuts as indicated in Fig. as in reducing rafter lengths for ridge piece. 38. In the case of the octagon the numbers will on the blade. except of course. Fig. Seat and and Valleys. Suitable reduc- tion rafter thicknesses should must be made for king-post. 75-b. with cuts Fig. 76. 56. 75-b. making the framing of the side cut similar to that of a square cornered building except that these are given double cheeks. rafters. and by the rise in inches per foot of run of common rafter. Fig. or for no king-post be used. common Where an apex at the top the will is formed as in }/ framed each with a run equal to one pair of hips is the octagon's diagonal. cut. measuring will back from the plumb cut. Figs.ROOF FRAME: ANY POLYGON 37. be reduced an amount equal to The third and fourth pairs ^ the diagonal thickness of the rafters already framed. Fig. the measurement being made out ^ square back from the line of the plumb cut. if such are available. 75-b. the numbers to use on the square These numbers will be determined by the run of the hip for that particular roof. latter rafters meet the others at an angle 45 degrees.

Laying out Backing Octagon Hip hl P S on SC* uare > octa g n > and hexagon as they would appear the plan plates. 65-b. Figs. on the square we measured . A'. Backing Octagonal and other of Hips. Fig. Fig. and angle as A. 64 their final position in and 77. 78. or in the plane of the plate. A". 78 it will be seen that the more sides a roof possesses the less will be the backing Fig. as well as that of other polythat for backing hips for gons. The ratio of the backing of the octagon or any other polygonal roof hip to that of the square of equal rise will be proportional to their tangent values. For the valley rafter will vary is 5" the measurement from the end cut octagon. is similar to the square cornered building. 77. 39. (2) Referring to Fig. 78 represents the required. if upon made to stand straight up at the corners of the The backing is in each case is determined is by the tangent of the angle whose adjacent side equivalent to \% the rafter thickness. This same ratio will hold for the measurement at the crotch of the valley. Fig. ^ the central The fact that the hips are inclined and not vertical in a roof makes no difference in the principle of determining backing because of the fact that our measurements are made in a horizontal plane. 77. The principle rafters for involved in determining the amount backing on hip the octagon.O\J on CARPENTRY The miter cut on the end of a hip rafter and in the crotch of a with the tangent value of the plate. whose angle Fig. whose tangent that used on the square cornered to it will be and at right angles A building. for . (1) Place the framing square the hip as for upon making the seat cut of the octagon hip rafter. For illustration.

]/2 the thickness of the rafter. and scribing on the blade. i ? of ^ the thickness of off. 78. The seat cuts will be deter- Side cuts. In the case of a 2" rafter. In laying the rafter. end cuts. taking the tangent value of the polygon on the tongue. TT" will be set using that side of the square containing graduations in 12ths. by the rise and run of the com- mon rafter of that particular roof. for reasons made plain in Fig. Second Method: If a table of common rafter lengths per foot of run is available. 73. RHaftSTT-fcxfe ' THICKNESS Backing for Hip of any Polygon 40. jacks 41. as well. Consult Fig. 77. (3) Where backing is not desired the rafter will be dropped a plumb distance equal to the plumb distance of the backing of the rafter. off the octagon backing we should lay 5 off along the tongue in the line of the octagon seat cut. Fig. 64. and lengths of are determined as described in Sections 41 and 42. \ ^THICKNESS OF RATTER y TH1CKHE5S z fe imCKHE33 THICKME35 Fig. Fig. and the length of common rafter per foot of of the run on the blade. the side cut of any polygonal jack may be laid out by placing the framing square across the top of the rafter. Plumb cuts of jacks are determined Framing the Octagonal and other Polygonal Jacks. The tangent polygon forms the opposite side . First Method: The method described in Section 35 is applicable to jacks mined by the same numbers. from the top edge of the hip. 78. Side Cut of Octagonal and other Polygonal Jacks.ROOF FRAME: ANY POLYGON 81 along the tongue of the square.

common rafter by that number. etc.97" or practically The runs. of jacks for the square. The blade and read the degree of inclination of rafter for the pitch required. it is To lay off a seat cut. Framing by Means of a Protractor. when its the run of common rafter is the same. Lengths of Octagonal and other Polygonal Jacks. of the square is 12" when run of com- mon 5". or a combination tool in Fig. whatever is being framed. will be V 24" from the corner. and. The methods of procedure in determining the lengths of jacks for other than square cornered buildings differs from that described for the square cornered building only in the fact that the runs. run. simplified. Figs. hence the lengths. and the tool applied as Since a pro- The plumb cut and seat cut are complementary. the octagon. the lengths of octagon jacks will differ one with reference to another. therefore.82 of CARPENTRY a triangle in which the adjacent side is the length of common or jack rafter per foot of run. hence lengths. or common merely necessary to look in the table rafter. By means of a pro- tractor used in connection with the measurements. For example. jack. valley. side cut of jack. its times that of a jack on a square cornered building similarly placed. roof framing may be greatly 49. 68 and 72 will show that the runs. . 79.. and therefore its length. while that of the octagon is 4. columns containing degree and 73. the tangent will vary inversely as the tangent ratio. Second Method: Difference in lengths of jacks may be determined by counting the spacings along the plate and dividing the length of 43. An examination of Figs. of hip. The angle formed being the angle of 42. rafter is 12". of the jacks must be determined differently. 60. may be used. If V of those of the jacks for the rests an octagon jack square building. of a T-bevel is set by means of the protractor to this angle.

the value of which is also easily determined once the principles of Fig. and will be found for each inch of rise in the tables. The side b is A-B of Fig. 49. and omitted for lack of space. Laying off Seat Cut with Framing Tool Fig. the manner of determining the same having been described. To secure the angle of side cut only necessary to solve triangle a b c by simple trigonometric formulae. For Example: Data for side cuts of jack. The manner of applying the combination tool for laying out plumb and the amount Fig. 81 the data found in these tables and 82. hip and valley for square and octagonal roofs will be found in Figs. 80. The angle A is the angle of inclination of hip or jack or valley. 79. no more difficult than that already given. is The manner of determining a matter of trigonometric solution. of setting for a side or cheek cut. may The degree for backing. 74. and 73. the and then a' b' c' of Fig. the gage setting of drop where no backing is used will be found under appropriate columns in the tables referred to above. With a combination tool. 79. 62. 74 are . one setting of the tool serves to lay out both seat and plumb cut.ROOF FRAME: ANY POLYGON tractor setting is 83 made to read in either of two directions. side cut and end cut is indicated in Figs. In these tables will be found a column marked ' ' Degree of side cut it is of hip or valley. 60. the plumb cut be got by adding to or subtracting from 90 degrees the angle of inclination of that rafter. seat cut. Laying off Plumb Cut with Framing Tool cut." also of jack. Such problems may well form a part of the pupil's work in mathematics. 80.

44.93".) In a similar manner the number to be taken on the blade. run of common rafter takes 12" on one square for constant of run. member of the Therefore. 82. when the inclination of any other common or jack rafter is given. Appendix II). from degrees to numbers to be used upon the framing problems steel square. Find the numbers to take on the square to frame seat and plumb cuts. Translating Framing Problems from Protractor to Fram- Frequently it is desirable to translate ing Square and Vice Versa. 62 as given in the tables. 81. or 6H". may be . To change from degree framing to Fig. Side Cut Fig. agreement. must be taken on the other member of the square.5774. and vice versa. End Cut square framing it is only necessary to remember that the to use on the square must be numbers such that their to the other shall give a tangent value equal to that given ratio one steel numbers in the Table of Natural Functions. rise must be 6.84 CARPENTRY With this mastered. data the student may find the angle A' of Fig. (The base of the table is 1 so that for 12" run we must have 12" x .577 (by Table. Example: Given: Angle of inclination of common rafter or of roof = 30 degrees. for the angle under consideration. Solution: Tan 30 = By . Appendix II. Rafter lengths are determined as previously described in connection with framing with the steel square.

any number other than 12" might have been assumed on the tongue.7813 By agreement. is framed with 17" on the To -A Solution: = . Find the numbers to use on the framing square to lay off this same angle. Referring to Figs. Example: Given: Side cut of jack rafter. 72 and 83-a it will be seen that the octagon bay is but a portion of a full octagon set up against the side of a house. will be according to principles discussed in previous sections of the text. its obligatory upon the builder to know how to properly frame it.. framing of the plate. which will necessitate clination the blade by when one 17 and 13 respectively to find the or the other of these is number to take on taken on the tongue. on the blade must be. jacks that rest against hips. find the angle of inclination of the hip. . use Whatever may be one's opinion as to the propriety of the octagon very common makes it bay architecturally.4706 is The angle whose tan = 45. we shall The number to be taken take 12" on the tongue. it 85 must be remembered that 17" In the case of the hip or valley inclination. is to be taken on the tongue for multiplying the tangent value of the angle of in- the run in the square cornered house.ROOF FRAME: ANY POLYGON determined. therefore. sills. and side or cheek cuts of etc. From this it follows that the the laying out of plumb and seat cuts. with 13" in the octagon. The chief thing which needs explanation is the matter of laying out side cuts for hips and jacks which are to rest against the side of the building.) Example: Given: A hip rafter on a square roof which tongue and 8" on the blade. 12" x . Solution: Tan 38 = .7813 = m" (In the case of the side cut.4706 . however. or hip or valley = 38 degrees. 25 19' Framing an Octagon Bay.

83-a.97" ALOMG TONGUC Fig. is so obvious. 84-a. the manner of setting and placing lies et seq. joists are seldom run thus but are run parallel with other joists of the house. (2) Octagon Bay Place the square as in Fig. Fig. 83-b. with the used where ceiling joist or floor joist of octagon bay are run parallel rafters.86 CARPENTRY Consider the bay as cut along the line /-/. of Framing Rafters or 5" on the blade. or the combination tool. To frame the hip nearest the building: (1) the rafter give the side or cheek cut of the rafter involved when has no pitch. which will be found to be 22%. The framing . Fig. this case the angle 83-a proceed in a manner made by the hip will when be it lies in the plane of the plate and the side of the house tool 67% degrees. (2) With one such rafter mates may be laid out by transposition. that is. In similar to that just described. 83-b and scribe along the tongue. (3) Once having framed the this miter when the rafter in the plane of the plate. To frame the remaining hips of Fig. No special directions are needed for setting the protractor. 83-a. proceed as directed in Sec. Fig. 35. when it lies in the plane of the plate. If we wish to use a framing square instead of a framing tool we may readily translate the 22%. Why? Fig. We shall find that 12" taken on the tongue O of the square will require 4. Determine the angle which would 83-a indicates the manner of determining this angle. On small bays. Remember that this gives the miter when the This would give the cut to be rafter lies in the plane of the plate.

or either taken on the tongue. Note cotan- when a gent value is used. (2) el seq. 84-b. but that the scribing done along the blade and not along the tongue as is the case when tangent values are used. Fig. take other smaller numbers having the same he might' better take the cotangent value of 67^. one wishes to use the framing square he will find that by using the tangent value of 67^ he gets 28. 12" is still taken on the tongue and the for same number as that grees the tangent value of number is of de- Fig.ROOF FRAME: ANY POLYGON or protractor If 87 and T-bevel provide the simplest means of framing. (1) Proceed to find the miter for the intercepted jack when it . By this time the student should have observed that the tangent value of any angle increases as the cotangent value of the angle decreases and vice that versa. = .97" or 5". Fig. taken on the Framing Octagon Hip Intercepted at is blade. 84-b and scribe along the blade. Solution: Angle A' Cot 67^ When (1) b' = 67X. To frame the jack intercepted by the side of the house. of course. 35. 84-a. Cot of an angle of a right triangle is the ratio of the adjacent side to the opposite side. = 12" cot A' = 4.97" to take on the blade is when 12" He may ratio. This he cannot find. (2) Proceed from this point as in Sec. 85-a. Place the square as in Fig. 84-a. Fig.414 when b' = 1.

= 12 ". Fig. 83-a. 85-b. give this data. (2) Place the square as in Fig..88 lies in CARPENTRY the plane of the plate. Fig. From this on. tool or protractor any pitch. upon small bays. Framing an Intercepted Jack such work as this. jacks. 83-a. Fig. (2) By means of the table of rafter lengths per foot of run compute the length of rafter it is under consideration. 85-b scribe along the tongue. Tan 45 = " degrees 12 when and (2) et seq. To determine the length of hip or jack intercepted by the side of the house and the plate: (1) Determine the run of the intercepted part of the common or jack rafter. 85-a. use in carpentry. are usually sill determined by actual measurement from the plate or proper point of intersection to the on the building as indicated by a . Nothing but tradition prevents its more general Having determined the lay-out for the side cut the length of each must next be determined. of these rafters. when actual lengths of the various dimensioned. 35. etc. continue as in Sec. From these solutions the student should be able to generalize sufficiently to care for rafters of any angle of intersection with the side of a building. in practical carpentry. as b. b " Tan 45 (3) degrees =1 when b" = l. In determining the run of an intercepted part necessary to have data concerning the cut off by the building. The hips. It is 45 degrees. and T-square is strongly recommended upon and of The use of the framing Fig. size of the The lines octagon and the amount E-D and F-D.

intercepted common rafter nearest the building.ROOF FRAMK: AXV POLYGON' stick or extension rule held at the proper angle. The allowance necessary in order to do this may be secured by measuring the length from the long point instead of the middle of the side or cheek cut. Suitable reduction. the rafter must be set over one-half its thickness that it may be nailed against the side of the building. Fig. and run of intercepted common rafter rising over side b. In framing. This amount will be from the plumb cut. of hip of the rafter. if the combination tool is to be used. too. 73. To This value represents common rafter run for hip rafter rising over side c. To determine the cut. must be made for the hip thickness in this case one-half the diagonal across the top edge of the hip. Length hip. 35. 49. in framing the suitable reductions must be made. large scale large drawing is made and is the runs taken from Upon work where accuracy necessary and measurements im- possible. laid off 22}/. laid off at an angle of and 12" on the square. merely find the difference in degrees of the angles .) Length of intercepted b x unit length of rafter in terms of common rafter or jack nearest house = common rafter. 83-a. (Table of lengths of common run of common rafter. 89 Sometimes a this. Sec. Length 46. Fig. Pitch. (2) el seq. c determine the length of the intercepted hip rafter over of triangle a b c Fig. or 5" straight back of the must be measured along the middle of top Framing a Roof One Pitch to Another of Different Occasionally one must frame a roof of one pitch against a roof of another pitch. trigonometric solutions should be used. For example.) theoretic lengths meas- It must be remembered that these are ured down the middle of the top edge of the rafters. the value of b must first be secured. of intercepted hip rising over side c = b x unit length of (Table of lengths of octagon hips in terms of run of common rafter.

and apply the tool as indicated in the tables for making any other The seat cut will be determined plumb by the cut. any numbers may be used . 86. Next lay a second square as at B. 87.90 of inclination of the CARPENTRY two rafters. being different upon the different pitches. rise 60 and 73. of course. as at A. It is the applications to uneven advisable to prepare a framing plan as shown make From such a plan it may be seen that the seat and plumb cuts of common and jack rafters are determined in the usual in Fig. lay the square as in framing a plumb cut on the shed rafter. in laying out seat and plumb cuts of hip or valley rafters of intersecting roofs of different pitches. remains for the student to pitches. taking on the blade the rise and on the tongue the run of the rafter of the main of roof. Blade of 47. Lengths of common rafters will be determined for any pitch by the tables already made use of. All of the principles necessary Fig. manner. is Where the framing square to be used. Uneven Not infrequently a roof must be framed in which several pitches are involved. the run being known or determined. taking on the tongue. but determined as for any given pitch. and on the blade the rise of the shed rafter. 86. 86. Fig. Figs. 49. of B gives the cut. the run. Fig. using the blade A as a reference edge. In selecting the numbers to use on the tongue and the blade of the square. of the shed and run rafter in the usual manner. Laying off Cut of Shed Rafter for framing such a roof It have been developed. Framing a Roof Pitch.

hip or jacks are determined according to principles developed in Sec. Side or cheek cuts for valley. 88-a. made scale The where following example will is make clear the method of attack it desired to develop a constant for hip or valley in terms of the Example: Given: common rafter of one of the pitches. Lengths of cripple The not be of uniform length. . in terms of the run of the common rafter over b.ROOF FRAME: ANY POLYGON 91 providing they have a ratio equal to that of the run and rise of the Since the angle of intersection changes with rafter being framed. 87. jacks will 42. as in even pitched roofs. 39. makes with the Fig. Rise Minor (1) = 8'. 35. -fs pitch. Run = 6' = pitch. every change of pitch. Rise roof. Plan of Uneven Pitches Lengths of hip and valley jacks are determined as in Sec. runs for such jacks may be obtained with sufficient accuracy by measurements taken from an accurately drawing. while the removed on each will hip vary. The amount to be removed from each side must be separately determined according to the angle the hip plate. it is hardly worth while developing a constant to be used on the tongue in framing hip and valley rafters on irregular pitches. Main roof. Run = 12' = = 5'. The backing amount to be side of the of hips on roofs of uneven pitches. is determined by the principles developed in Sec. Fig. Find the run of valley rafter over c.

88-a. take 7j/" on the blade (always the run of intercepted common For rafter of major roof).) Length of valley rafter. rafter over The numbers just given will give N j / - x the plumb cut and f ^/A _h \ tk e seat cut valley rafter. run of the common rafter of the and 6" on the tongue (always the minor roof) scribe on the blade. (Check this value by scale drawing.5' Fig. against the ridge of the minor roof.20" on the tongue with 10" on the blade.(a : 12 ::5 :8.60': 6':: * : 12".20*. c=9. advancing the setting as many times the as there are feet in the run of common b. fitted to a ridge of the major roof. whose tangent=. (2) tm>s Find the the side cut of valley it rests rafter when RISE.60' Expressing this run of valley in terms of 12" of run of 9. 8S-a. This lay-out in either case for the rafter when . is ($ of 12") found by taking 19. whence a = common rafter over b.92 Solution: c 2 CARPENTRY = a +& = (7H) +6 2 2 2 2 . to rest in the plane of the 40') Uneven Pitches Solution: The side cut of the valley when allowed b plate = angle B. the lay-out of the plate is obtained by means of these same numbers. then. x = 19. but the scribing is done side cut of valley rafter when it is to be when in the plane is on the tongue. Fig.800=38 Therefore. .= yj7 ( =^5 6/12 =.

ERE Fig. uneven or irregular cornice member one pitches. tongue of the square the run of the common rafter of the minor common rafter roof. 88-b. Side Cuts of Jacks for Uneven Pitches take the length of rafter of the minor roof. For the side cut of jacks on a major roof. 88-b. and on the blade the length of the intercepted of the major roof. This difficulty is A new overcome by raising the plate of the steeper roof an amount equal to the difference in the rises of the that of the projecting cornice. take on the Fig. in a half-pitch the In a quarter- would be 24" rise for for a run of 24" in the cornice. 35. by the and the length of the rafter over b. 88-c. proceed as in Side cuts of jacks for the minor roof are determined length of the ridge over a. Fig. the major roof (inches for feet) and on the tongue . 7%' here. the cornice cannot be made to meet in the same plane. 93 Having secured this. 88-c. Manifestly.ROOF FRAME: ANY POLYGON lying in the plane of the plate. 88-a. \ SCRIBE. A general rule may be derived. rise two pitches for a run equal to For example. scribe on the tongue. a difference in rises . the problem of making the projecting with another. pitch a 24" run of cornice would be 12". (2). scribe on the blade. if one part of a roof is steeper than problem arises in connection with another and the plate the same height all around the building. Sec. But the length of the ridge over a= the run of the inter- cepted common rafter of the major roof. Fig. Fig. therefore: For the side cut of a jack on a minor roof take on the blade of the square the run of the intercepted common rafter of SCRIBE .

and finally the common and jack deck rafters. Should flooring. On large decks the outer deck frame is doubled. 89. Fig. in roof framing to prevent Decks are sometimes used above the remainder. Next. the joists be placed before the must be braced to withstand the pressure rafters common against their sides. then the flooring on the deck. . Chimney openings are framed as shown in Fig. 48. CARPENTRY The plate of the steeper roof must be raised that much higher than that for the lower pitch. Upon strips Deck Frame these feathering flooring is laid. the hip rafters are placed. The deck is framed. Decks. Such decks are framed of joist some part of the roof from rising too high stock spiked together with butt joints. each direcin two to three inches eight to ten feet. 89. Upon the top of such deck joists are placed feathering strips so sawed as to give the deck a slight "fall" in tion. being held up by studding placed under each corner.94 of 12". Chimney Openings. raised and braced.

by sheeting placed diagonally as in Fig. horizontally across the studs or diagonally.49. For slate. placed either sometimes both ways. 90. especially where the building is braced at the corners or by studs cut in diagonally. is After the frame work of a for building erected and the openings made in the frame Sheeting is windows and doors. depending upon the specifications of the architect. Roof sheeting for shingle roofs may best be of unmatched boards Fig. Building paper should be placed upon the sheeting to further protect the interior from cold. at the corners Such sheeting should be matched nailed with and well to each two 8d nails stud. 90. The horizontal is satisfactory upon ordinary frame dwellings. The diagonal is some- what stronger but is more expensive. being set to the complement of the angle used in 95 making the side or cheek cut . matched stock should be used this covered with a tar or asphalt paper. In making the face cut on roof boards for hips or valleys the framing tool or the T-bevel may be made use of. the sheeting is to be placed. Sheathing and spaced about 2" apart. Sheathing or Sheeting.

Planks are placed upon . 93 illustrates a type. Carpenters more frequently. 91. is to against hip or valley A framing tool might be used. if angle of the side cut of jack.96 CARPENTRY rafters. the framing square is to be used. 91. to the studs. get the angles for sawing roof boards by laying the board the hip or to be cut out over valley rafter. the beam being placed across the edge of EHVAT10K Fig. Cornice is placed after sheeting. 92. Scaffolding. however. 50. A second T-bevel may be set as in Fig. common Sawing Roof Boards Stock 2"x4" is horizontal members and braces used for the uprights. Fig. weather boarding often applied directly no sheeting being the frame being strongly braced at the corners. To do this necessary advantageously it is to erect scaffolding or staging. the jack and at right with the blade adjusted Setting T-bevel to the cheek or sawed surface fit of the Roof Boards jack which rafter. and I"x6" for the or stays. on jack less the The complement angle in this case equals 90 Or. In warm is climates. for angles to it. then sawing along the side the rafter as in Fig. used. the same numbers used in side cut of the jack will be used in laying out the face cut of roof boards. with the scribing being done making the BEAM BLADI along the tongue instead of along the blade as in the case of the side cut.

Scaffold Bracket .EXTERIOR COVERING AND FINISH 97 Fig. 94.

with is satisfactory. these horizontals as shown. The illusskeleton. . from roof The the cuts of the jack rafter cheeks. the various necessary cuts laid out in its sides to determine the Some experimenting will be necessary upon the part of the beginner manner of placing the moulding in the box to give the correct cut. The student BED MOULDING SHINGLES ROOT BQARDIN CROW MQULDIN FA5C Fig. Cornices are generally classified as open or and box. In making the various cuts on cornice work. 49. Cornice. be available for mouldings. a miter-box must The old type of wood miter box. Box Cornice should familiarize himself with the various of common forms. 96. Figs. trations shown will serve the purposes of this text. cuts for the plancher. which rests in the planes of a hipped and which must be membered around a corner are determined in a manner similar to that described for roof boards.98 CARPENTRY Fig. details which may be got from any good. are staging. 95. Skeleton Cornice Fig. Each of these types will be found constructed in almost endless variety of forms. 95 and 96. Sec. 94 illustrates a substitute for laid. a scaffold bracket upon which planks 51. modern book on building details.

97-b. Box Cornice. POST Fig. STUD Fig. 97a. Also there is illustrated of placing lookouts in gables for a is the manner box cornice. gables where a skeleton cornice 97 illustrates the manner of "framing in" the lookouts on' is used. these blocks are merely fastened to the .EXTERIOR COVERING AND FINISH 99 LOOKOUT HALVED IN GABLE. Unless the cornice quite wide.5CIA PLAKCHER. Fig. GABIX RAf TER' -CORWER. GABLE RATTEK. RATTER. Skeleton Cornice ROOT BOARD CROWN KOULDIMG EA.

(2) a moulding with a new face may be worked which will member with the eaves moulding when their reverse surfaces are fitted to the fascia or. 98. measured horizontally from A-B. (2) Draw a number of lines thru the more important referFig. as up a gable. as crown or bed moulding at the eaves. To member by means of the second method proceed as follows: (1) Make a full sized drawing of a cross-section of the moulding. Raked Mouldings. ence points of the moulding at an angle equal to the pitch of the (3) Draw horizontal lines thru the points of reference and gable. to pitch lines meas- . transfer the distances of the various points on the eaves moulding. (5) Using the lines A-B and C-D as reference lines. one of two things must be done to make the surfaces of the mouldings match or memis ber properly at the joint: (1) ing at the eave Fig. to the frieze. Fig. The mouldtop edge lies in may have its its Laying out Gable or Raked Moulding tipped forward until the top edge same plane as the top edge of the corresponding gable moulding. where a moulding resting in one plane. 98. In all cases 52. 98. no wood crown mould being used. the oblique a perpendicular thru these passing thru the back of the (4) Lay off a line C-D. perpendicular to lines. in case of bed moulding. A fall of >2 inch to every 10 feet is usually given gutters. of these blocks will ends of the rafters. to be membered with moulding swung up out of that plane.100 CARPENTRY The depth depend upon the manner of framing fhe tail underside of the roof boards at intervals of 3 or 4 feet. erect mould as A-B. be found in common use upon ordinary house construction. Metallic gutters made to assume the form will of the crown mould.

\ / Fig.EXTERIOR COVERING AXD FINISH ured obliquely. but reversed. this practice is not followed except upon large or A important work. Cornices are usually designed so as to avoid 99 and 100 illustrate two miter-boxes constructed for use in cutting rake mouldings in gables. 100. Figs. have to be worked up especially for any would. such work. Miter Box for Raked Gable Moulding Cut at Eaves Fig. The box will have the side cuts perpendicular to the top edge and the angles across the top edges will be determined by the miter of the plate. Miter Box for Plumb Cut of Gable Mouldings zontal members. upside on the down. For the miter cuts of the rake or gable member. far side of the box. special boxes would best be constructed. For the cut of the gable member . the horiThe moulding will be set is needed. 12" and 12" being taken on the square. no special box In making the miter cuts on mouldings of the eaves. sill. Since this moulding shape in all probability. particular job. On the octagonal building 5" and 12" would be used in laying out the miter. 45. or corner of the On a square cornered building this miter will be one of building. with scribing side of each gable done along the 5" member of the square. are made in each box so that the moulding for each may be readily cut. Two cuts of each kind. of the 101 curve traced thru these points will give the moulding required for the gable. 99.

etc. using on the framing square the numbers which give the plumb cut of the common rafter. etc. 101. the miter sill. Fig. Figs. one box may contain all these cuts to advantage instead of having three boxes. 101. 100. A little consideration will make clear the remaining cuts upon ordinary cornice work. 99. 100. The reason for placing cornice before base or window frames. Manifestly. lines as (2) Down the sides of the box lay off the slanting shown in the common determined by the plumb cut of Fig. being careful keep the backs of the of the box. Shingling. serve in cutting the miters on ends of the gable fascia. is to allow the workmen to work inside should . For the plumb cut ing. left. Fig. 53. A good mouldings adjusted to the side and bottom is to drive a nail or two in the bottom plan the box against which the moulding may be made to rest. the building. (1) lay of the gable mould- off lines across the edges of the box as in Fig. In splicing mouldings. especial care being taken to have the backs of the mouldings adjusted to the back of the box.. 99. at angles the moulding in the box as indicated rafter. These cuts. 99 and 100. Spliced Comer Boards and Moulding Square these box and saw.102 CARPENTRY it where joins the eave moulding: (1) Lay off across the top of the or corner of miter-box. a mitered joint is best and should be made so as to shed water from the joint. lines (3) down the sides of the The moulding will be placed in the box as shown in the cross-section view of Fig. (3) Lay by the to cross-section. right and of the plate. (2) Fig.. Lay off a right and a left cut as shown. corner boards. once the proper of position is determined by trial.

102. it to the butts by shingle nails driven into the butts. CHALK LIME 5H1HGLE LAYER OF 5HIHGLE. .EXTERIOR COVERING AND FINISH 103 inclement weather overtake building operations at any time.5 Fig. Lay the shingles at the gables first. In no case should The shingle most used is 16 inches this exposure exceed 5 inches. then at intervals of about ten feet. The first layer of shingles should be a double one with joints properly broken. will follow cornice work. and with the butts projecting over the crown moulding about 1^" to 2". of shingle to The amount long. and each shingle should lap two courses beneath it. 102. by quarters. Stretch a chalk line between these fastening Fig. When DOUBLE. the dimensions used on the main body of the roof should be increased or decreased so as to make the final layer show under the comb or ridge or saddle boards properly. Beginning Course nearing the ridge or comb of a roof in shingling. therefore. The worker should begin such or five feet of the ridge so calculations when within about four that changes of exposure of the different layers able and so that the line of shingle butts may not be noticemay be kept parallel with the ridge. The usual amount of lay is from 4" to 4%". be exposed to the weather will depend in general upon the pitch of the roof. Shingling.

is The chalking of a line so as to conserve the chalk one of the tricks of the trade which must be mastered early. line is chalked and snapped for three courses at a time. the line to the roof as sighted person holds is by an end man and the snapping done on each half of the line.104 CARPENTRY The remaining courses may be laid by means of a straight-edge or by means of a chalk line. this chalking and in laying shingles. clapboard. after a little practice. On long courses a third person may be utilized in In chalking. shingles straight is able to keep the butts of the so that they shall follow the and to sight them chalk line mark. Where a straight-edge is used. 103. it is usually a piece of lap siding or tacked. Both practices have ardent advocates. Shingling. The The me- OHinGIX Fig. Toe Hold chanic. It consists in . and is held in place by being lightly In using the chalk line a man for each end is required.

Saddle or Comb Boards. 54. To avoid any such danger. Other forms are equally common. Scaffolding for roof work. laid tight together. the line being held between the chalk and the ball of the thumb. the shingles having such holes are driven down the roof slightly by striking their surfaces a glancing stroke. is usually constructed nailing shingles to by 2" x 4" as shown in Figs. or toe hold. Hip and valley shingles are usually sawed to shape before . Toe Holds It is best to split shingles over 10 inches wide before laying them. Apparently the holes left by the nails used to fasten the toe hold to the roof would cause a leak in the roof. Dry shingles should not be y% inch between is not unusual with dry shingles. Flashing. Shingling Hips and Valleys.EXTERIOR COVERING AND FINISH 105 rotating the chalk about its hemispherical axis while being worked backward and forward along the line. Each shingle should have at least two nails. Cut nails should be used in preference to wire nails because of their greater rust-resisting quality. Fig. the average is two nails for every four to six inches of shingle. 104. Shingling. tho such danger is slight because of the swelling of the wood fiber upon the application of moisture. 103 and 104. Otherwise the line would soon sever the chalk.

105. to place these tins after the roof has been shingled because the action of the weather "lifts" the nails when exposed this thus. Shingle Tins Fig. Valley shingles. 105. It is not good practice to nail thru these tins after the roof has been covered. that is. and still extend enough under the next course of shingles to permit the nails holding the tins to be covered. the face cut being the same as that used and plancher members interabout a corner of a hipped roof where plancher lies in the secting plane of the roof.106 CARPENTRY being taken to the roof. The cut across the edge of such shingles is made across the face of the roof boards square to the face. Of the many ways of protecting the intersection of hip shingles is when in place upon a roof. Such shingles should be of sufficient length to allow the corners to be turned under as far shown in Fig. Upon steep roofs and short valleys width may be reduced to . 106. Valleys are covered with a strip of metal to a width of 20 inches. the simplest that of employing tin Tin BCAKDS Fig.

Fig. Shingling Valley ley shingles should be kept well shingles. water. the space at the top of the valley may well be 1 inch to each side of the valley center line. depend upon the For a J^ pitch with a length of twelve to fourteen feet of valley. as 107 Space must be in Figs. back from the valley edge of the Flashing consists in placing tin shingles or other material about the members making up a joint so that the joint shall "turn Counterflashing consists in placing a double layer of tins in such a way as to doubly insure turning water from a joint. 107. Fig. A layer of tins is placed as in flashing against siding except their top edges are not . 109 illustrates a counterflashed chimney. The amount will length of the valley and the steepness of the roof.EXTERIOR COVERING AND FINISH 16 inches. each side. widening gradually toward the lower end to 2^ inches to Chalk lines snapped upon the tin or other metal formNails in val- ing the valley indicate the location of shingle edges. 106 left between the edges of valley shingles shown and 107. 108 is siding. several inches of lap being allowed all about. an illustration of flashing Shingle tins where shingles meet lap are forced under the siding on one side and either under or over the shingles." Fig.

A simple form is obtained by creasing to the appropriate angle a strip of tin eight inches in width. edges being inserted raked out so that this can be done % a second layer is placed as shown. 110 illustrates the manner of constructing an exterior wall having a water table and lap siding. Flashing Fig. 2J/2 or 3 inches at the narrowest place. the top between the layers of brick. 109. . COUNTER. also the relation of the various parts of an exterior wall. With the roof completed. Fig. also to hold the last course of shingles in place. Finishing Exterior Walls. one board should overlap the other and extend a beyond to turn water from the joint so made. the mortar being . after which the cracks are with cement. side walls are next covered except where porches are to be attached. rolls may be purchased in stock styles. These turned edges are held in place by theinsertion of a wedging nail or tack. an elastic roofing composition.108 CARPENTRY Over these tins " inserted. Place this on the ridge and nail its edges at intervals of 3 or 4 inches. Galvanized ridge 55. 108. or better. FLASHING Fig. Where half inch boards are used. They are used to give the ridge a finished appearance and to turn any water which might happen to strike thereon. Flashed and Counter-flashed Saddle or comb boards are of various forms. Tins should be carried high enough to prevent drifted snow from filled entering.

EXTERIOR COVERING AND FINISH 109 g^ Ssfl" u>sy%^yS ( lilJlsli|gP*M2I igegp Hp^ggg^^ c .

56. Ill. are plumbed and the (4) If the work is carefully done the frame casings finish nailed. to the frames are insure warmth. (3) The casing frame and A should be square. are frequently furred instead of being rabbeted. this belt course is furred out in order to throw the course into greater relief. Frieze boards. 111. Corner boards and casing edges should be very slightly beveled so that the siding Fig. as in fact they do on much other carpentry work. of the is given a nail close to the sill at each side the sides of the jambs. too. More elaborate belt courses are common. etc. . the lower edge of the belt board must be rabbeted to receive the top edge of the siding. Such a course is often constructed like the Building paper should be stripped about the openings for doors and windows before set. In case this is not done.. Leveling Door Sill may it is take a slight squeeze as placed. Two men usually work together in setting frames. sill and shingle points inserted under the where needed to give solidity support. Fig. furring a building.110 CARPENTRY A belt course is sometimes used between the first and second stories of water table. Like the water table or base. rough floor. also about corner boards and cornice. (2) When and done the door sill is carefully leveled. Care in setting insure a saving of Setting Window and Door Frames. frames and in making casing edges true will time in placing siding. rest on a level with finished this is In setting door frames on outer walls (1) the must be cut away so that the top of the sill may floor when that is in place.

a stiff stick may be cut this length and used in placing dows in position for height. 57. will Upon this stick marks be made which will indicate the spacing of the siding.EXTERIOR COVERING AND FINISH Where heads of several 111 windows are a given distance from the winfloor. Fig. Preparatory to siding. and casings nailed at intervals of about a foot. Using Siding Stick piece of Y% inch stock about 1 inch in width. marking under the sill upon the will stick. run from 4^ to 4% inches on ordinary lap or bevel siding. To lay off this stick a given space is taken. water table drip cap to the lower edge of a window sill for example. these marks being transferred to corner boards and casing edges. the jambs are plumbed. . Fig. 113. (1) This space may be transcribed upon the stick easiest by setting the stick upon the drip cap and against the casing edge. 112. 113. (2) This space is "stepped off" by means of a Exposures pair of dividers set to the amount of exposure desired. a siding stick should stick is be made. Plumbing Frame Fig. Siding. 112. Such a made by planing parallel edges upon a Fig. The window sills will be leveled as are door sills.

but sawed under on the back side slightly so as to . 114. Marking Length of Siding Fig. The differover the whole space instead of over ence is thus divided equally Fig. by transferring its marks to the building paper. etc. On long lateral spaces this stick will be used to keep the lower edges of the boards in position between the casings. A bunch of siding boards should have one end of each sawed square . an amount sufficient to give an equal In practice this amount is found by stepping off as suggested and then making necessary adjustments by guess and again stepping. exposure must be increased or decreased. This is continued until the desired result is attained. and there almost always is. In a similar manner a another space of the same stick is laid off and stepped for the space between the bottom of the window sill and the top of the drip cap above the head casing of the window. the whichever is necessary.across the face. 115. stepping down from one of these marks with a pair (4) of dividers to the lower edge of the siding board being placed. or even number of divisions. Using Siding Hook stick. or the last courses as in shingling.112 (3) CARPENTRY Should there be a remainder.

plus the depth of rabbet. Under windows be necessary to trim off part of the upper edges of the siding boards. care must be taken to place the nail so that it shall pass thru both boards it will where lapped. and a sharp. with block plane the board upside necessary. and Occasionally the carpenter is called upon to side a circular tower or rounded corner of a building. In nailing. Set off this amount on the siding board cut. To . or groove in the under side of the window sill into which the upper edge of the siding board must fit. Another way to mark indicated in Fig. That the lower edge of each board may rest in a horizontal plane it will be necessary to shape that edge before applying the board to the side of the building. (5) One end is next is fitted. To determine the Siding Circular Tower amount to be removed. 116. with a knife. Fig. from the butt or under edge at each end of proposed connect with straight-edge. used to outline the part to be removed. scoring with knife. 114. after which (6) the length down and marking on marked by turning the lower edge of the board. which length tool is is uppermost. This tool is called a siding hook or this and method possesses the advantage of caring for any lack of squareness in the frame or trim. deep knife scoring along a straight-edge should be SECTION Of SIDIHG BOARD IN P051TIOti Fig.EXTERIOR COVERING AND FINISH insure a if fit 113 on the surface. 115. set the dividers to the amount of spacing used for the boards in the space under the window. Saw kerfs at either side of the part to be cut.

(5) With a radius equal to B-C an arc with B as a center which shall cut the siding board as shown. Draw this upon a scale sufficiently large and make use of accuracy such as will insure a result equal to the requirements of the occasion. Place a section of a clapboard in the position sheeting. (3) (2) Draw the line A-B of indefinite length. amount it taking an equal Occasionally wall. Fig. off the edge at each end. as at abc. Fig. determine the amount of curvature to give such an edge proceed as (1) Plot a curve to represent the plan of the tower.114 CARPENTRY follows: 116. a pair of sharp dividers being made to follow the contour of the wall with one point while the other marks or scribes the casing. sawing under slightly to insure a at the face. A saw will be used to fit cut to these lines. fit becomes necessary to a casing against a sided This casing is scribed as indicated in Fig. 117. Scribing against Irregular Surface . 117. 116. it will have on the describe and (4) extend a line along the face surface to meet A-B. Fig.

That the plasterer may make walls true and of uniform thick- ness about door are placed as in and window openings and along the floor. In lathing. placed at right angles to the usual run of lath on the wall because uneven shrinkage would cause the plaster to crack. 118. cracks will be sure to appear in the plastering. grounds " " " Such grounds are of stock if x 1 or 2 Fig. joints must be broken upon different studevery dozen lath.CHAPTER VI INTERIOR FINISH 58. such as short lath nailed at one end only. so that the wall Grounds for base should be placed be lathed and plastered entirely to the floor that cold and vermin may be kept out. may 115 . 118. Lathing . the plasterer depends in no small degree The success of car- upon the way the penter corners are does this work. and joints are not to be allowed about a door or window opending ing where their presence would weaken the wall. If not firmly constructed. Grounds. DUND5 Neither are lath to be Plaster Grounds Fig. Lathing is usually considered a part is of the plasterer's work but the carpenter expected to prepare the grounds and place the necessary furrings. nailed firmly to the studding.

Detail of Partition Wall especially For grounds on external corners in a room.116 CARPENTRY HEAD CASING 3TUD3 BA5L MX BOARD. The beginner will ing attention in preparing for the plasterer. metallic corners manufactured for this purpose are recommended. 5HOIMOU MOULD. . HARD WOOD nrtDH Z*\Q JOIST- ?INl3rIrLOOR: BLARING JOISTS Fig. 119. be surprised at the numberless places requirHe should visualize every corner and angle as he thinks the plasterer or lather must have it.

However. partition studs. the first requisite is to know its rise and run. and wedging with a shingle point. to be used. be doubled for strength. basement and often attic stairs. In setting studs for interior door jambs where studs are to be doubled on the inside. Porch Steps. 121.INTERIOR FINISH 59. A cleat nailed to the side of the stud after wedging will give the original strength. Thresholds are no longer used with openings where both rooms are to be heated. almost thru. is For to the height of opening. 60. also window openings Interior door jambs are not usually placed until after ing has been done. an interior wall which is to be recommended highly for All door studding are to of unusual size. 120 illustrates three he may also have to build common types of stair. The rise in this case is the vertical distance measured . add 2^" Remember that enough more must be cut from vertical studs to allow for thickness of header. Make allowance for the extra thickness of stud on each side. 117 Interior Walls. as in figuring openings between studs for outside door jambs. the main stair. 119 illustrates the construction of a corner of strength. add to the width of door enough to make the outer edges of the casings center on studs. In planning a Fig. to allow furnace pipes to enter. and double inside these. where no threshold height of the door. stair. plasterinterior Joists doubled to support partitions should be spread sufficiently and still provide bearing for Badly crooked studs in a partition wall may be straightened by sawing a kerf on the hollow side. Stair building is an art in and as such belongs to millwork rather than to carpentry. Fig. In smaller communities Fig. the carpenter must know the principles of simple stair lay-out and construction for he is called upon to construct porch steps. itself Stair Building . Straight studs should be selected for use about openings.

118 CARPENTRY .

and the The number rise of risers will be found by per step by measuring one of these . Continue this until a setting is obtained which gives no remainder. increase or diminish the divider's space and again step off the space. An old rule for per foot. but the student Fig. The the horizontal span of the stair. tread should equal 24".INTERIOR FINISH from the top run is 119 of the first floor to the top of the second floor. If there is a remainder. Rise and Run of Stair take these dimensions as starting dimensions unless otherwise Steps should not be either too steep. total rise (2) by placing the pole upright Set a pair of dividers to 1" and step off this distance so marked." Proceed as follows: of the stair (1) Lay off on a story pole the in the well hole. determining the relation of rise to tread is: "Twice the rise plus the may directed. counting the spaces. Variations will have to be A made in both rise and tread to meet conditions. 121. due to excessive rise " or slow" due to extreme width of step. good average stair for a cottage will have a rise per step of 7 inches and a run of tread of 10 inches.

the run is per step JOINTED EDGE inches risers Fig. obtained by dividing the total run in by the number one. Continue to lay the square as in (5) until the required number of steps have been laid out. 124. (5) Joint one edge of each stringer straight and square and Fig. at a equal to the rise diminished (7) by the thickness of the proposed tread. 123. 122 and scribe along both blade and tongue. not of exact specification or tread may be (some variation is usually possible) the run per step the rule just given. Pitch Board. This is nothing more than a piece of stock which serves as a template by which to lay out the . 122. of less The Laying out String numbers thus obtained for rise and run per step are the ones to be used on the framing square in laying out the stringers. (4) Since there riser is always one more than tread. If a definite total run is specidetermined the run of the stair is fied the tread by must be figured. Economical Center Stringer place the framing square as in Fig.120 CARPENTRY (3) If spaces. A pitch board might have been constructed and made use of instead of the framing square in laying out the stringers. Fig. distance from (6) Scribe it the line A parallel to the 9" run.

a combination of and wall board framed type of construction often stringers are of 1 " commonly used. Fig. the treads should overhang at their ends an amount equal to that given the front. 120. such as and porch. treads risers are placed as in Fig. being nailed to place. Fig. 126 illustrates the manner of framing a modern stair suit- .INTERIOR FINISH rise 121 and run of each step. floor stair Such construction not suited for first work where the effects of shrinkage would show to greater disadvantage. In this the side stock and then nailed to the wall board is of similar thickness. (8) There remains the sawing out. nailed to its top edge the waste cut stringers. stair. Where the exposed ends of risers would make a bad appearance. a 2"x 4" having from the side or wall 61. risers first and then porch steps and open stringers. A cleat or fence nailed to one edge after the three edges have been planed to dimensions permits easy and accurate placing of the same. if On one be used. Fig. On open stringers this is done by sawing square across the board or plank.. etc. of the riser will be flush with ^^ Fig 125 ' Q "^x^ 5TR. 125 illustrates a used upon attic stairs. the cuts in the stringers for risers are made mitering and the ends of the risers are WALL BOARD. Fig. mitered correspondIn either case the end 1 O UClvs 1 _ . 123. ingly.1MGLR. The cove. the exposed side of the stringer or string. end On stringer enclosed or semi-enclosed is stringers. ' 124 illustrates an Stringer for Attic Stair economical way of constructing a center stringer. Upon and the common treads. attic Risers and Treads. should be carried around and "returned" under the of the tread.

Rough stringers must be placed far enough from the sides board may settle in place and that the wedges may be easily placed. Porches. Fig. the plastering under these stringers will have been placed. of the well-hole so that the wall 62. If the stairway is an open one or semi- GROOVE5 -WEDGE) DRIVEN AHD GLUED in PLACE Fig. the stair being put together on the floor If the well-hole is and then raised to its place. As a rule. such that the stair must be assembled while the strings or wall boards are in place. usually about 4" or 5" from the wall will be sufficient. Main Stair Detail open. 126. will be done at a mill and the carpenter will stair brought to the building knock-down. and placed them so that they may be used as a temporary have stair for the workmen. 127 illustrates the manner of framing . The framed the rough stringers which are to support the ceiling below the stair. the lath left off and plaster must be the rough stringers until after the stair has been assembled and the wedges glued and driven in place as shown in the illustration.122 CARPENTRY such stair work able for a first floor where the best type of construction is demanded.

128 illustrates the manner of placing water table and CEILIHG JOtSTi LOOKOUT- 2/4 HffEMPORARTf SUPPORT Fig. Fig. 123 Such framework should be given a pitch " downward away from the house of about 1 in 10' that the water may be drained. 127. Detail of Porch Framing flooring. etc. the corners being mitered and the whole furred out from the frame about a quarter of an inch to allow any dampness to escape. Water table is first placed. have with lead just before beiag .INTERIOR FINISH the floor of a porch. their joints painted Porch floors should laid.

Fig. roof. PIAHCHER EEDMOUUSfflG CASING DOOR SIDIttG TU3CAN COLUMN TLOORTHG FLOOR. 128 also illustrates a common type of trim for porch .- CEILING JOIST CRQWttMOUU} FASCIA. Fig. ceiling joists and rafters for a hip roof. In Fig. 128. 127 is . be kept below sill the window line of the second story.also shown the manner of framing the bearing RAFTER. usually. ^^| Tl ' ' ' f / I WALL WATER. TABLE \BA5Z. TURRinG STRIP BOARD Detail of Porch Finish joists. The various cuts are obtained in the roof.124 CARPENTRY Posts and balusters are usually placed after the porch roof has been placed. the upper frame being temporarily supported by studs. same manner as are similar cuts on the main Porch roofs are seldom given as much pitch as the main They do not need as much and must. ' . JOIST f f i f / r r r I .

or "got out" his trim much set or matter. 63. Even door and window frames are usually purchased from the mill. each jamb and (5) scribe along the top of this to indicate where the jambs must be finish floor against the face of Lay a piece of off to fit cut the finish floor when it is placed. etc. plumbed. (4) Level the head jamb and lightly tack the second jamb. 64. by hand but and cheaper to buy the machinepleasanter made product of the mill. the head .INTERIOR FINISH Where supporting plates are long. cornice. If It is taken for is granted that the finish floor is to be laid last. a finish floor not to be used. the setting of the door jamb should be an easy If this work has not been properly done. floor to the in its proper place. either assembled or knock-down. A spread stick cut to hold the jambs apart properly at the base is desirable. inserting wedging blocks or shingle points between the jamb and stud. or if it is to be placed before the wall trim. A placing of all interior finish. (1) Saw off the the head lugs just enough to allow the frame to be placed in the open(2) Cut a spacing stick of a length sufficient to reach from the ing. have been carefully selected for straightness and properly openings today he finds it Formerly the carpenter made. door jambs. part of the carpenter's duty is the such as base boards. necessity for Too much emphasis cannot be placed upon proper placing of studs and jambs. a flitch is formed of them by the insertion between them of a structural steel of suitable length and width. 125 plate girder stiff plate of Interior Finish. this under surface of the head jamb when that member is (3) Place the head jamb at one of its ends upon stick and tack the jamb to the stud lightly. If the studs about interior door Setting Door Jambs. the operation of making a door stops properly is a most trying one and the result usually unsatisfactory. If a jamb should fit its not be set plumb and out of wind. considerable ingenuity will be required oftentimes to get the frame set so that its edges are out of wind and the frame plumb.

Fitting is Window Sash. Meeting Rails it Scribing Bottom Lower Sash is of both on its face side and face edge. Setting Dividers at Fig. Shingles placed point to point provide easy blocking where the space is not too large. (2) Cut and fit the meeting about the parting stops remembering to leave a little "play. 65. See that the jamb at the right height length. (8) by Tack inserting the blocks offflooring used in scribing to the second side-jamb close to the head. A straight-edge placed against the face of a it jamb will indicate whether has been sprung in the blocking or wedging between jamb and stud. 130. chamfering the arrises very slightly by a stroke or two with the plane. amount will the jamb to rest at the right height when cut to (6) Remove the jamb and saw to the scribed feet. the scribed lines. 129. (3) Joint the edges of the lower . (9) Sight until across the edges of these jambs and adjust the loose jamb the frame is out of wind.126 CARPENTRY will jamb be leveled but not located as to height. being set so that the proper (7) Replace the frame and tack it at one side after plumbing Fig. Sash are often fitted before the (1) house plastered and before the sash are glazed. Plumb its face. rails T&" on each side is not too much. the dividers being used to scribe the be cut off to allow lines. Joint the top and sides of the top sash." that successive coats of paint on the stops may not cause binding. blocking the back.

good carpenter will have his sash cords coming The cord can be cut the estimated length after the No weight has been attached. only the lugs sawed the meeting rails will appear with reference to one another as in Fig. the end of the sash cord is then fastened to the longer cord. In case weights are not placed before the lath and plaster. Placing Door. they are easiest placed The proper tying of a sash cord so that it shall not work loose with time is a matter for careful instruction by the before lathing. (4) 127 Since the bottom off. teacher. If the sash has been glazed so that the outer face of the bottom. (6) Saw and then plane Where sash weights are to be used. 130. and a knot or loop tied in the free end so that the cord shall not slip thru the pulley. In Fig. bottom rail as indicated in Fig. to that Set a pair of dividers to a distance equal between the tops of the meeting rails. see that the meeting rails are apart a uniform distance across the sash. Window. This duck " is usually a piece of lead beaten about one end of a piece of stout ' ' short cord. mark and cut the cord about four or five inches below the opening in the edge of the sash in which the knotted end of the cord is to rest. after removing the duck. and other Trim. it will be necessary to make use of a "duck" to draw the end of the sash cord up thru the removed pocket cover of the jamb. setting a sash upon the sill. untied. 66. Before scribing the bottom to the scribed line. 110-a .INTERIOR FINISH sash. 129. This lead weight is lowered thru the pulley by means of a longer cord. To the top of the determine the length of sash cord. and then drawn up and thru the pulley. This can be done by (5) Scribe the placing the dividers between the meeting rails.rail inside. rail has not been beveled. draw the sash weight to jamb and. the scribing is is not accessible from the of the to be done on the inside sill bottom rail and a T-bevel set to the slope of the angle to the edges of the sash. and this used to transfer the rail.

then fit the stool to this allowing may enough "play" that subsequent paint or varnish not cause the stool to bind the lower rail of the sash. like that of casings. to be constructed at one time.128 is CARPENTRY shown one of the many styles of casing in common use. a piece of dividers otherwise the (2) would be used. Base blocks and casing stock are prepared at the mill and the carpenter has but to cut these to the proper lengths and fit and attach them. such as will allow the Where the finish floor is laid last. Cut and place the side casings. is prepared at and needs only to be cut to length and have the ends "returned" to match the face edge. where necessary. tho some workmen first. this block will be scribed at of its bottom by means flooring. (3) The head member is next made up and placed. 131. that tight joints door casings are not placed flush They should be kept back about may result. . T". In all casing work the expedient of sawing under at the back should be supplemented by the use of the block plane. a mill Window stool stock. (2) (3) Place and nail the apron. Using Block to Locate door and window heads. After the blocks are placed the casings are cut to length and nailed. This is to allow the easy placing of hinges and also for appearance' sake. It should be Door Stop Position on Jamb noted that with the face of the jamb. (1) The base block is first placed. where built up. prefer to it fit the base cutting to a length proper placing of the block after the base is nailed in position. (1) Lower the sash. It is customary for all Fig.

In the fitting of large doors. . Fig. Internal corners of base mould and picture face. 131. when coped. until after the door is hung. except to saw away the lugs of the stiles. Stop beads may next be placed in the windows and beted.. the door is scribed to fit the thickness of the proposed threshold. allowed at top and each side of a door.-. the finish floor is to be laid afterward. A block of side stops a width equal to the thickness of the door will Head 101 be an aid in placing stops easily. Where a threshold is to be used. . joints. then closed and the bottom scribed to the floor so as to allow the door to swing over rugs or carpet freely. The door or paint. .IXTKRIOR FINISH Note that 129 side casings are placed flush with the face of the jambs. mould. . . J/g" should be allowed at the bottom of the door for play. 132. Fig. If a door has a stile with a bow in its face. 67. . Base boards and base mould may now be placed. such as in Hanging Doors. Window stops should be so placed that the lower sash . of irregular should be External corners should have mitered Shoe mould will be placed after the PAttEL finish floor is laid.. it should be turned so that the bow is next the stop of the lock side. . allowance must be made for subsequent coats of varnish dwellings. Door Parts may move freely as it is raised. (4) Place the head... usually a scant TS is is " hinged. Blocks of a thickness of the finish floor placed along the wall at frequent intervals will serve to locate when the position of the base above the rough floor. The crack so formed is concealed when the stop bead is placed. The bottom of a door is often not touched. in such doors as are not rab- stops are placed first and the then coped to these.

is beyond the rails. (2) straight.130 CARPENTRY 68. A me- chanic. An examination slightly of the movement of an ordinary house door will show the reason for this. in planing. it fits Plane the top edge of the door until the will first the frame properly when door planed edge be determined by scribing is in position. and saw off the lugs. place the door against the frame often enough to see where the allowances must be made for (4) irregularities in the frame. Fitting a Door. Fig. 134. of tests A test or series first may be made with square and straight-edge. If the frame It is not wise to take this edge may be planed straight. 133. however. 132. The edge . usually planes an edge until it fits the frame. of the door which is to swing free is usually planed lower at the back arris than at the front. and transfer these dimensions to the top and bottom of the door. for granted the square- ness or straightness of a frame. it (5) The length of the to the floor after being hinged. When approaching the line. Fig. testing by holding the door against the frame as near to position as Fig. (3) Measure the its width of the frame at top and bottom. 133. the parts of the stiles which proa try-square ject Plane an edge of the door until it fits the side of the frame against which it is to be hung. The names of the parts of a door and (1) Mark with their relative positions are indicated in Fig. its its size will Measuring Opening allow.

By removing the pins the door may be removed without taking the screws out of the hinge. Fig. Fig. (3) from the Laying off Width With the knife or chisel mark on both door and frame at the points just located. 131 The hinges most commonly used in Hinging a Door. 138. depth the hinge is to be sunk Fig. is lower hinge placed the Fig. Use a spiral drill to make openings for the screws. and gage both door and frame. (6) Set another gage for width of openings. Measure from top and bottom door to locate the position for the top of the the higher hinge of and the bottom hinge. hinges in which the two parts are joined by a loose pin are generally used. (1) Place the door in position. separate the parts and fasten them in place. Such hinges are more easily applied than those with the fixed pin. (8) If loose-pin butts are used. lower the Usually. and mark along the ends with a knife. (7) Chisel out these gains on door and frame. somewhat the farther from bottom than is higher hinge top. 137 and gage both door and frame. 139. 136. keeping the head of the gage against the front of the door. 134. 135. Fig. Where the door stands in carpentry a vertical position. (4) Take out the door. keep (2) it tight against the top and the of the hinge side of the frame. To insure the hinges' pulling tight against the side of the gain just a little nearer the make the holes back side of the screw hole of the hinge . place the hinge as in Fig. are the kind known as butts. In a similar manner mark the frame.'INTERIOR FINISH 69. Make certain that the openings on door and on frame are laid off so as to (5) Set the gage for the correspond before proceeding further.

the mortise lock. Fasten the screws and cut off the surplus paper with a knife. deeper at its By chiseling at the front only and feathering the cut toward the back. 135. therefore. 136. take off hinge on door or frame. the rim and lock. 70. It is a good mechanic it is who can make a door hang properly the first time put up.132 CARPENTRY in place Put the door and insert the pins. the gain needs to be cut but about one-half as deep as if the whole hinge were sunk. to insert but one or two screws in each part of a hinge until the door has been tried. If the door should fail to shut Fig. Fig. is used upon cheap . Locating Hinge Position because the hinge edge strikes the frame to soon the screws of the > offending hinge must be loosened and a piece of heavy paper or cardboard inserted along the entire edge of the gain. Knifing Hinge Location Fitting Locks. butt hinges are used the operations are similar to those If plain just described except that the whole hinge must be fastened to the door and the door held in place while fastening the hinges to the frame. take it off. It is better. (9) If the door hangs away from the frame on the hinge side. in Two types of lock are common use upon dwelling doors. or both if the crack is large. chisel the gain front. The rim 140. Fig.

138. (4) Locate To place a mortise lock. locate the knob spindle and . Fig. (3) (2) Remove Fig. replacing in reversed position. and attach the strike or latch plate. 141: (1) In a manner similar to that used in placing the rim lock. Door locks are made so that the bolts may be reversed to fit either right or left hand doors. This is accomp- Fig. the box is The mortise lock is used upon housed into a mortise and the selvage into a gain cut into the edge of the door stile. 139. 137. Setting gage for of Depth lished Gain Width Gain by removing a screw it is in the side of the box and carefully lifting the bolt.INTERIOR FINISH construction and is 133 attached to the outer surface of the door. the lock and bore sized holes. a rim lock : when pushed To attach (1) Place the lock against the side of the door and mark thru the key hole and knob spindle hole with a sharp awl or divider point. knob spindle and knobs. Setting of Gage for Fig. A right hand door right one which swings to the open. appropriate Fasten the lock Gain Ready for Hinge and place the escutcheons. the better class of work.

line (2) Bore the holes for knob spindle (3) Locate a center the edge of the stile on the and bore (4) for the mortise which shall receive the box of the lock. and key. (7) and Close the door and mark the vertical position of the latch upon the jamb. the door and place the latch or strike plate. knob spindle knobs.134 CARPENTRY holes. Fig. In placing the lock. locating (8) Open its vertical . selvage n using a sharp knife. one at each corner of the square. Place the box and then n mark about protruding 143. 142. 144. This will permit the door to be trimmed with- LATCH PLATE- KHOB SPINDLE out the removal of the lock in case the door LATCH BOLT should swell after being fitted and locked. (6) Fasten the lock by means of the screws thru the selvage and attach the escutcheons. . keep the selvage back from the edge " door a scant TS so that the selvage may be sunk below the of the edge of the door by that Fig.<5ELVAGE amount when mortised in. is key hole A more accurate result is obtained if the knob spindle located by four points. (5) Ml ReLATCH PLATE move the lock and sel- "gain in" the vage. Fig.

such as lath. (9) Scribe about the plate and then gain it into the jamb. Holes for nail- In laying a finish floor. Rough floors laid diagonally overcome this Paper is usually placed between the two floors. Equally common is the practice of taking step (3) (1) first. sawed wearing makes However. All Fig. oak wears well hard wood in either plain or quarter-sawed forms. (2) taken after step Laying Quarter the best and - Scraping stock floor. Where it is necessary to run lengths for both floors in the same direction the finish floor should be separated from the rough floor by thin furring. transfer to the jamb by rule or gage. a piece of 2"x4" long should be used as a pounding block that the . difficulty. On a by means of the knife its horizontal position essential door with a rabbeted jamb instead of an adjustable stop. with steps (5). 142.INTERIOR FINISH position 135 and marks just made upon the jamb. the measurement will be arris of from the back to the stile the front of the latch. Floors. Care Where grooves fail to fit about 3' or 4' tongues of boards that are laid. then chisel out the openings for latch and bolt. Locating Knob Spindle finish floors are milled Hole with tongues and grooves on edges and ends. ing are usually drilled at the mill also. and 71. should be taken in starting a floor to select straight boards. floor will The shrinkage of the wide boards of the under open unseemly cracks in the finish floor. by a measurement taken from the latch to the face of the door. it is not advisable to lay it with its lengths extending in the same direction as those of the rough floor. placed 16" apart. (10) Attach the plate.

Nails are driven "toeing" thru the board just above the tongue that the heads may be con- cealed and also to better draw the board in position. 144. Locating Selvage Gain Fig. 143. for a good rough floor will hold such nails with sufficient firmness.136 CARPENTRY mon tongue of the board being laid may not be battered. Where nails must be driven into hard maple. The shoe now . without the drilling of a hole. should be scraped. the floors being laid and finished by a specialist in floor work. On the great majority of hard woods the dipping of the point of the soap or oil will cause it to enter the wood with careful driving. Electrically driven mait relieve the carpenter of much of this work. Fig. Ready for the Lock not necessary that nails should always strike joists. nail in After a hardwood floor has been laid Scraping chines floors is a tedious task at best. Hammer It is marks showing upon the face of a floor indicate carelessness. a hole must be drilled first. the most comcause of trouble in floor laying.

cap Fig. The method of procedure is not unlike that described for the door frame. Base board and shoe mould should be fore the mould is placed.Like detail. next placed. the side casings are fitted at their lower ends. 145 illusstyles. -. Next.INTERIOR FINISH mould is 137 placed last. trates a satisfactory type of door use. being nailed together. 146 illustrates a is The head casing with its common type of cottage window frame. stained. but not varnished. Jambs Where . being nailed to the floor. The sill will be grooved on its under side to receive the top edge of the siding board and given a fall of 1" in 10". so that any shrinkage of the joists will cause the mould to drop with the floor. must be grooved to receive a parting stop as shown. jambs. Frequently ends housed into the they are nailed and then cut to length. cut to length and nailed. 145. be- On account of waste in tonguing and grooving and straightening flooring stock. The jambs will be assembled first. an allow- ance extra of is from i to i necessary in CAP CA5IHG OUT51DECA5in<3 estimating 72. frame for cottage sill The will be 51LL given a pitch or fall of l"in 12 "and will have its Detail of Door Frame Fig. dow other carpentry RABBETED OAMB window and door frames may be constructed in any one of a number of Fig. Door and WinFrames.

The ends are shaped as indicated so that. Fig. jamb may be made use of for pocket weights are to be used each The stock sawed out of the cover stock by proper manipulation. PARTING 3TRI STOP WEIGHT POCKET PULLEY 3TIIZ BLIND STOP 73. ing of brick as shown. Their presentation must be left to the instructor. but will fall free. at least the holes for them should be prepared. the floors in falling will not pull over the walls. 146. an ordinary framed house with a coverThese bricks are fastened to the wall by . Woodwork Structures. JAMB for the making of frames belongs to millwork and PULLEYS space can be spared here for general directions only. in Masonry BEAD Wood ings is framing in brick and other masonry buildbut slightly differ- SILL ent from that wholly in wood. and these are to be placed near the lower edge of the joists so that they may split out of the joists easily or allow the floor to drop is free. There are a number of "tricks of the )RIP CAP trade" in frame making. in case of fire. Detail of Window Frame the ends of joists which rest in solid masonry walls.138 CARPENTRY jamb must have a pocket as detailed. 148. A popular type of construction It consists of that known as brick veneer. Fig. in case of a falling of the floor and joists. 147 illustrates the manner of framing Fig. Pulleys may be placed before the jambs are assembled. Anchors are used to tie the building together.

148.INTERIOR FINISH metallic bonds. while it is claimed that a wall so formed STRAP ANCHOR: Fig. 149 in brick walls. Brick Veneer . PAPER. AIR. 139 all of From the outside. 5PACE Fig. 147-a PLATE. of solid brick. lintels are required to support the shows the manner of framing a window opening for METAL BO! FAR. 150. 147-b Joist Framed into Brick Wall Over openings arch. Fig. Fig. the building has the is appearance warmer than one of solid brick. AttCHOR Fig.

Window Detail for Brick Wall .140 CARPENTRY Fig. 149.

INTERIOR FINISH 141 Fig. 150. Fig. Attaching Plate to Brick Wall . 151 illustrates the manner of attaching a plate to a brick wall. 151. Lintels a brick wall. Fig.

and multiplying a predetermined price per square for a This latter method is more accurate than similar type of building. . This consists in "taking off" particular piece of carpentry the material quantities in detail and to this adding the labor cost This is the method in common use by conof placing the same. two methods may be used. ft. or unit price per cubic foot for that type of house. such as an architect's estimate of the probable cost of a building planned by him. Where a rough or working required. Ordinarily. Any evident variations surance adjusters. cost of material and cost of labor. of partitions.. tractors in making a final estimate. counting from the basement floor to the top of the attic walls that are.CHAPTER VII ESTIMATING 74. etc. Building costs may be divided into is two main divisions. Porches and open spaces are not figured. of floors. the cubic-foot unit method. estimate is One consists in figuring the cubical contents in feet and multi- plying a predetermined. in unit costs so discovered should be noted 142 and corrections made. The follow- ing table of unit prices will give a rough working estimate for various types of building differentiated after the custom of in- The prices are for 1915 and to be of any value must be compared with known costs of similar structures in the community in which they are to be used. or may be finished outside measurements. A second method consists in estimating the number of squares (100 sq. the main frame is figured. There but one so-called safe way to figure or estimate the cost of any work. Methods of Estimating. Table for Estimating by Cubic-Foot Unit. 75.) of side wall.

ESTIMATING CUBIC-FOOT UNIT ESTIMATE 143 PER CUBIC FOOT COUNTRY PROPERTY 5c Frame dwelling. shingle roof. shingle roof. . furnace. furnace. artistic design. ordinary If slate or 2>3 - 6><6><10 -1 metal roof. shingle roof. painted. plain finish (good house) and finish. painted. no sash weights. furnace. STUDDING. shingle roof. hardwood in first floor. good plumbing. pine painted 13#-18c 76. CITY PROPERTY Frame dwelling. no cornice Frame dwelling. bath. pine floors furnace. plain finish Frame barn. good cornice. Grading Rules. hardwood floors in hall and parlor. shingle roof. ing. shingle roof. . plain. small box house. no bath or ? Brick dwelling. same class 8^-10c Frame barn. fair plumbing Brick dwelling same class 10 10 Frame dwelling. sash weights. good cornice. shingle roof. blinds (good house) Brick dwelling. good foundation Frame store. and association. good plumbsome interior ornamentation. classification of lumber and these rules vary with the association in the of and from year to year rules taken same The following will from a catalogue a middle west lumber concern be found helpful: YELLOW PINE DIMENSION. not painted. The best grade and the one recommended use on first class jobs. 6>. same class 10 Frame dwelling. well finished Frame church or school house. well finish. shingle roof. shingle roof. Fifteen or There is lumber. small cornice. 1 JOISTS AND TIMBERS for Common. more associations no uniformity as to grades of have rules for inspection. ordinary Brick church or school house.7^c 8^-10c Brick dwelling. bath. painted. plain finish Brick store. well painted Brick dwelling. same class Frame dwelling. No. add %c per cubic foot.

sap stains. and is somewhat mostly used not recom- on first class jobs for sub or rough floors. Is strong. but is strictly sound and uniform and weather. and width. It is knots than No. 8 Common. This grade in thickness is not clear. sound.sound and durable. waste. The best . CEILING. uneven in quality. PARTITION. but not recommended for first class work. tight job Can also be used on cheap painted jobs. 1 SHIPLAP. No. No. little Coarser than No. 1 grade. Is sound. pitch or pitch pockets. for barn boards. and will lay without waste due to cutting out of imperfections. No. 1 Common. It used on the best classes of work. and flooring of this grade is often used is for sheathing or sub flooring where a warm. A fairly good lower grade which will work up No. Should be used when a natural This grade will finish is desired. . SHEATHING. and wherever exposed to wear This grade 1 is sound but contains more sound coarser.144 CARPENTRY Dimension up to 20 feet long only can be this grade. No. will lay up with desired. and for sheathing under is siding. Timbers are not manufactured in No. 2. from defects and the grade used upon first class jobs. AND DROP SIDING Practically free grade manufactured. 1 grade. serviceable grade. and a good grade for ordinary work or wherever covered with paint. It is. Runs nicely but with some waste due to cutting out defects. It can be used for outside work. YELLOW PINE FLOORING. 2 Common. obtained in This stock will show defects not found in No. YELLOW PINE BOARDS. sound knots. Clear Grade. Makes a fair subfloor or sheathing. contain small. 2 Common. AND FENCING is Common. but mended for this purpose except upon cheap buildings. and some pieces are not entirely straight. It is a sound. 2 Common. No.

Good for cornice work and porch ceilings. TIMBERS. CEILING AND FLOORING is No. Y. cypress finish contains some Is suitable for outside finish on White Pine Boards. shakes or other defects. specified lengths. As a rule. cluded. Has small sound knots and other slight All siding is defects such as can be covered with paint. Contains no sap. ''Clear" is and white free from all defects. Clear Drop Siding. No. Good sound straight stock. Not ' furnished in Yellow Pine and Cypress Finish. Especially suited to porch Edge Grain Flooring. and posts subjected to moisture. Excellent for exposure to weather. as are the 5 to 2" grade.ESTIMATING FIR BOARDS. Cypress suitable for inside finish or for cornice work on first class jobs. pine. This grade especially selected and better than No. 1. is The yellow pine suitable for interior finish. The heaviest grade five shingles laid one on top of the other will to measure 2" at the butts. carried in stock only in No. . Free from defects. but clear and 16". AND CYPRESS FINISH. red-knotted boards should be No shakes. to be used for sills Clear Ceiling. ordinary jobs. Bevel or cypress. WHITE PINE BOARDS 5 6 to 2 Clears. SHINGLES. Clear Grade. 1 Barn Boards. Cypress C" Grade. redwood. 1 in- Nothing but sound. Carried in stock in red cedar. bundled 10 pieces to the bunch in random lengths. Select is 145 DROP SIDING. 2 Extra Star A Star. is This stock in 'clear" grade is practically free from defects. 1 Timbers. floors as it wears well and resists effects of moisture. A lighter grade. LAP SIDING. Lap " Siding. "C" knots and other slight defects. P. grade.

edging. suitable allowance must be made This waste is incurred (1) thru loss when boards or for waste. of tables in determining quantities. in a girder 6" by 8" by Solution: 16'. are determined To determine the number of joists required for a by count. planks are cut to required lengths. Necessary allowances will be indicated herein. 12'. incurred in machining the stock. room or a building. 2" x 10". (board measure). 2" x 8". Girders. tonguing and grooving. M. less Stock practice than 1 " thick is figured as 1 " thick. S-l-S and \%* x 3^". Lumber " is measured in indicated terms of the board foot as a unit. . Shrinkage due to seasoning and surfacing one side and one edge so that the stock may have uniform thickness and width will give actual sizes as follows: 2" x 4" will give when sized on one side and one edge. divided by 12" times the number equal to the number of board feet. posts. 12" by 12" by 1 or its equivalent. 2" x 6". is Heavy Timbers. Rule length in feet gives a Thickness in inches times width in inches. etc. Example: Determine the B. Joists. IE gives I^"x7^". (2) Waste 14'. S-l-S and IE. S-l-S and IE gives 1^x11^. 6"x 8" jg X16' = 64' B. Standard lengths are 10'. by the abbreviation B. and to this add one joist to be placed against the second wall. 2"xl2".146 CARPENTRY 77. etc. Cataloged or listed sizes are for lumber fresh from the saw. M... In commercial lumbermen make use III. count the actual wall (^ times number of feet in length or number required beginning at a width of room when set 16" on centers). as dressing. Estimating Lumber Quantities. S-l-S and IE gives When ". and these will not always cut to advantage. Appendix In estimating quantities.M. 1^" x 5^".

then adding for 6" stock. which for floors. Calculate the exact surface to be covered. for 1" x 4" deduct 1/3. for roof sheathing for shingle roofs. at doors gables. Calculate the exact surface to be covered. 5% . iV for 10" boards and y% where 8" boards are used. The additions specified allow for waste in cutting. Sheathing laid with 2" spaces should have proportionate deductions made. for unmatched sheathing or barn boards or fencing. then. " laid 2 being used mainly These additions are due to the fact that thru seasoning and apart. is 15% for 17% for sidewalls. 147 stock will measure J/g" less than Count one for each lineal foot of Studs for Walls and Partitions. on I"x6". count actual number and add one. a 6" becomes 5%" and a 4" becomes 3%". and windows. 2" by 4" for each square of Rafters. figuring the exact surface to be covered. for 25%. flooring. dressing. where specified 16" on centers. as in counting for joists. for sidewalls 20%. Four inch and 6" are seldom laid solid. deduct openings. and 20% for roofs. The extra studs are to be used in doubling corners. or sized on 4 indicated above. deducting the openings. as it is also called. will be estimated by the kind most always used. and board becomes 11^". then deduct as is ^. Sheathing. If shiplap or matched sheathing is laid diagonally add waste due to lack of ability to reverse cut. such under slate roofs and better known as used sometimes for sub-floors and side walls and roof sheathing flooring. wall or partition. On a plain roof. add tV for 12" boards. figure as if laid solid.ESTIMATING 5-2-5 and 2E. roofs then add for floors 17%. that is. an 8" becomes 7%". a 12" Shiplap. a 10" becomes 9^". sides. deduct openings. lineal feet of not require these extra studs. and in Barns and sheds Allow 25 will Bridging. Sheathing when matched.

148
Siding.

CARPENTRY
For bevel
siding, calculate the exact surface,

deduct

openings; then add for 6" siding when laid 33%; for the 4" siding add 50%.

4>"

to the weather,

Drop

Siding.

Drop

siding,
flooring,

ceiling

and

wainscoting

are

figured just like
Flooring.

matched

which

is

described below.

For square edge, calculate the exact surface to be

covered, add for 6" flooring 11% for waste in matching, etc.; for 4" flooring add 20%. It is becoming common practice to specify
flooring

by

actual face

measurement

after being machined.

The

following figures are for actual surface measurements.

For matched
then add

flooring, calculate the exact surface to

be covered,

20% for 5J4" flooring, for 3^" flooring add 25%, for 2^"
for \y<
less

add 33%,
1" thick.

add 40%.
1
"

Flooring

than

thick, like all other lumber, is estimated as

Shingles.

A

bunch

of

shingles contains the equivalent of

250 shingles of 4" average width. With an exposure of 4^" to the weather a 4" average shingle will cover 18 square inches, making 800 shingles to the square. Waste in doubling the first course and
in laying will necessitate

an addition

of

8%

on a plain roof and

12% on
the

hips or on gabled walls. or 1000.

Cost estimates are based upon

M.

SHINGLES PER SQUARE
Plain roof, 4 exposure, 990; roof cut up, 1010 Plain roof, 4tf" exposure, 880; roof cut up, 900 " Plain roof, 5 exposure, 790; roof cut up, 810
"

Lath.

Lath

for interior plaster

by
3d

4',

put up
will

in bundles of 50 each

work are usually <^g" by 1-^g" and are sold by the 1000.

1000 lath

fine lath nails.

cover 70 yards of surface and will require 8 Ibs. of Lathing is usually considered a part of the

plasterer's contract.

There

is

no uniformity

of practice as to the

deduction for openings.

ESTIMATING

149

The cheapest is "rosin sized," and is not Building Papers. This is used mainly under floors and upon side walls waterproof. under bevel siding. It is sold by the pound in rolls each 36" wide
containing 500 square feet.

Dry

felt is

used where better protection from cold

is desired.

In the cheaper grades, the material is made of wood fiber and rosin. In the better grades wool is used. Tar felt, used where moisture
is

to be resisted,

is

dry

felt

saturated with
Ibs.

tar.

These materials

are sold

by

the pound: 12, 15, and 20

to the 100 square feet,

in rolls of various widths.

A

catalog should be consulted for

weights and covering capacity.
78.

Estimating Millwork Quantities.
will

The number

of doors

be determined by an actual count. Mouldings, casings, baseboard when moulded, window stools, etc., are sold by the 100 feet lineal measure, random lengths.

and windows

Extra charge is made for specified lengths where the quantities are determined by scale measurements of the plan and elevations.

Window

parts, buffets, etc., will

sizes, door frames, inside jambs, stair be found priced in millmen's catalogs, and assist greatly in determining prices for ordinary work. This text cannot give space to list such data, which is so readily obtained

frames of stock

from commercial catalogs.
79.

Example

of

Form

for Bill of Materials.

BILL
TICKET OR

150

CARPENTRY
80.

Estimating Labor Costs. following data is to be made use
to determine the hours per

In estimating labor costs the
of.

The

estimator will have

paid in his locality,
necessary.

wages per hour and make whatever changes in the data is He should also compare the quantity of work done by
scale of

day and the

observe with that given herewith. The time data based upon the work of one mechanic who has mastered With an efficient foreman and a selected his trade fairly well.
herewith
is

men he may

group of workmen these time allowances can be reduced in many instances as much as one-half. Experience alone will determine
the possibilities of such reductions with safety.

COST OF PLACING FRAME AND COVERING
By One Man
HRS. PER 1000 B.M. FT.

and plates 6"X8", no gains or mortises Sills and plates 6"X8", gains no mortises Sills and plates 6"X8", gains and mortises Joists and box sills
Sills

20 40 60 20

Studding Studding

2"X4" 2"X6"

'

Rafters 2"X4", plain gable roof Rafters 2" X 4", hip roof add to

32 23 40
27

5%

30% for each hip or valley.

Rafters2"X6", plain gable roof Rafters 2"X6", hip roof add 5% to

30%

for each hip or valley.

Sheathing, square edged, horizontal, walls Sheathing, square edged, diagonal, walls

16

19
.-

Sheathing, 6" matched, walls
Sheathing, 6" matched, walls diagonal

24 32
10

Sheathing for
Sheathing for

floors, sub-floors, floors, sub-floors,

square edged

square edged diagonal
.

12
13

Roof Sheathing, plain gable roof Roof Sheathing, hip roof
*

.

.

,

20

Gillette's

For a more complete treatise of labor costs, the student is referred to Handbook of Cost Data, Section X, the source, in the main, of the

basis of this data.

3>4 face. smoothed and sanded maple. sand papered 26% 45 40 80 107 320 COST OF BRIDGING AND FURRING HRS. store and corner boards 32 11> 53 . 6" Siding. finished with cap and ^4 round. PER M. 2>^" face. plain roof. add Shingling. FT. FT. new work 3> for each hip or valley. no smoothing " yellow pine. 2%" face. . drop. IX" face. Surfaced barn boards Wainscoting. old work.ESTIMATING COST OF PLACING FRAME AND COVERING Cornices 151 (Continued) HRS. add 20% for labor in removing old shingles. bevel. FT. 46 COST OF PLACING FLOORS By One Man HRS. Floors. scraped. Floors. business block Floors. laid and well smoothed oak. yellow pine. on joist. pine " 35 face. shiplap Siding. hips and valleys. bevel. fine floor. fancy tf 5}4 8 HRS. including paper between. Shingling. laid not smoothed maple. Ceiling. plain Shingling side walls.M. - 35 42 27 are placed 120 when window and door casings and corner boards when jointed between casings over siding Siding. "&%" face. Floors. PER 1000 B. Siding. 40 smoothing rough Floors. PER 1000 B. in a dwelling. put up. Shingling. yellow pine. 3>^ on sheathing. FT. Floors. PER 1000 LIN. joints. Bridging Placing plaster grounds 65 20 . 4" Siding. PER 1000 LIN. glued. 400 to 800 3 member 220 Water Belt table. 5% Shingling side walls.M. smoothed. laid Floors. laid direct Floors. Corner boards 73 195 HRS. drop. laid and smoothed maple. cut.

152

CARPENTRY
COST OF PLACING BASEBOARDS
HRS. PER 100 LIN. FT.

Baseboard, three member, hardwood, average number miters
Baseboard, two member, scribed to floor

10

16

Baseboard, plain,

X round at floor

8 2>

Moulding, bed, flat, 3"

COST OF PLACING DOORS, WINDOWS, BLINDS
HRS.

ON EACH
l \/

Window, to put together when K. D. (knock-down) Window, making frame t Window, setting frame ^ Window, setting frame in brickwork Window, fitting and hanging sash per pair

.

3

K
1 1

Window, hanging blinds per pair, before frames are set Window, hanging blinds per pair, after frames are set Window, casing inside Window, ordinary pine in frame building, including setting of frame ... Window, same but hardwood Window, ordinary pine in brick building, including setting of frame. Window, same but hardwood Window, attic and cellar Door, making frame Door, making frame with transom Door, common hardwood, set jambs, case, hang and finish, including
.

24

2 2 5

6> 6>
9

.

.

IK
2>
3}4
10

transom
Door, common
Door,

1^" pine complete
pine complete

ty4

common 1^ "

5X

Door, casing opening one side Door, casing opening both sides Door,
Door,
fitting,
fitting,

^
.

.

.

.

hanging and trimming

\% \%
2> 4
32

Door,

hanging and trimming outside door, pine hanging and trimming outside door, oak Sliding doors, pine, (framing not included) to finish complete with lining,
fitting,

jambs, casing and hardware, per pair
Sliding doors, same, but

hardwood

48
24
1

Sliding doors for barn 12'X18'

Transom,

fixed

Transom, hung

1>

ESTIMATING
COST OF STAIR
Box
stair, cellar

153

WORK
HRS. LABOR

ON EACH

or attic

:

25
balusters

One
One

flight plain stair, flight fine stair,

7-room house, hand

rail,

40
100

9-room house, handrail, paneled

PORCHES IN GENERAL
Hours per
lineal foot

5 500
16 to 200

Balustrade hours per 1000 lineal feet
Lattice for porches, hours per 1000 square feet

LATH
Lath, hours per 1000

7

MISCELLANEOUS LABOR ITEMS
Paneling, pine, hours per 100 sq.
ft

50
sq. ft

Paneling, hardwood, hours per 100

83
2^
fittings

Drawers, dovetailed, hours, each
Drawers, 15"X18", including racks and
Shelves, in storeroom,

2

dadoed into compartments 18" square, hours
sq. ft. shelf

per 100 sq.

ft

Shelves, pantry,

no dado, hours per 100

Closet hooks on strip of wood, 12" apart, hours per 100 lineal feet

15

Sideboard, oak, 8'X8', hours

100

81.
will

Estimating

Quantities of

Nails.

The
The

following table

enable one to estimate the quantity of nails required for

the various kinds of

common

carpentry.

table of length

and number

of nails to the

pound, Appendix

III,

may

be made

use of in determining nail estimates for other kinds of work not

here specified.

154

CARPENTRY
QUANTITIES OF NAILS

MATERIALS

ESTIMATING 155 MATERIALS IN PLACE AT 30c PER HOUR VARIOUS MATERIALS .

such as the plumber. including lathing Millwork including glass and glazing Carpentry labor Lumber Hardware Tinwork and galvanized iron Plumbing and gas fitting and materials Painting and materials Heating (not included) Total 3^ 2^ 7 5 3 4y 3 51^ 100% 100% Example: A lumber bill for a given frame house is found to "figure" $500.. combining these and adding his com- mission of 10% for oversight. etc. and an additional 10% for incidentals or contingencies. In any event. 83. Total Building Costs by Percentages.08. . brick Plastering and cut stone 16% 8 21 19 18 " 36%. Founany other parts of a building which may be unusual should be excluded and figured separately in detail. determine the approximate cost of the various sub-contracts. the mason.00+14. the contractor as a rule secures bids from the various sub-contractors. such as lumber or millwork or labor.156 (B) CARPENTRY Take = = 1.000 feet of joists to be placed at 50c per hour $6. and for the house as a whole. Having carefully estimated the costs of one or two of the large items in a building. 00. or $10 .08 we find it $10. 6 20 12 10 and materials. the lather. the total cost of a building may be approximated with a fair degree of accuracy by a general by means of the following table of percentages. Looking for the hours would take 20 at 50c. Where time is available. contractor dations or before a building settle completed the contractor will have to with each sub-contractor upon the basis of detailed cost is finally estimates. COSTS BY PERCENTAGES FRAME ITEMS BRICK BUILDING DWELLING Excavation.

for steam. Such a method of estimating should not be mistaken for anything but fairly safe approximation where normal conditions exist. for 12% add additional. electric gas. cement walks. this To For furnace heat.76 92 12 . 65. Solution: 157 $500 = 19% of the total cost. = = = = = = = = = $421 12 .72 473. add 2 to 3%. . For electric wiring.80 184.60 500 00 . For fixtures. grading. electric wiring. add 10 to 7% . add To this total 10% for incidentals 10% for contractor's charge.92 must be added heating. Above this and contingencies. Excavation. Total cost = $2632 (exclusive of heating).56 552. window shades. 5% of $2632 . to get the cost to the owner. brick and cement work = 16% of $2632 = Plastering 8% of $2632 Millwork and glazing = 21% of $2632 Carpentry labor = 18% of $2632 Hardware = 3>^% of $2632 Tinwork = 2K% of $2632 Plumbing = 7% Painting = of $2632 . Lumber . 210. . $2631. add amount add 6% for architect's fee.ESTIMATINX. 1%%. sewerage. add 8 to 10% and . add 6 to hot water. . decoration of walls. electric and gas fixtures. architect's fee and contractor's commission.24 131 .

side = cosine or angle A = cos A . . sine of an angle is the ratio of opposite side to its hypotenuse. The ratio of the side a to the side c called the sine of the angle A. r-rr = ~rb adjacent side hypotenuse -r- A = sec A c hypotenuse opposite side 73- a = cosecant of angle 158 A = esc A . let b represent the value of the AC. 152.APPENDIX Natural Trigonometric Functions. .. Let a represent the value or length of the side side B C. = adjacent side opposite side side rj- = tangent of angle A = tan A . . hypotenuse a r b = opposite . its c = sin A. let c represent the value of the side is AB. or opposite side over hypote- nuse = sine of angle b c A = sin In a similar manner: = adjacent . drop a line perpendicular to the side AE forming the right triangle ABC. More concisely stated. Fig. I From any point on the line AD Consider the angle DA E. b adjacent side = a c --rr~ cotangent of angle secant of angle A =cot A. The A.

etc.) of the angles of a triangle equals 180 degrees. for the same angle. the greater the accuracy.. b. The Table of Natural Trigonometric Functions. degrees. Draw to scale very carefully any angle and drop lines from any two points. 5=90 30 = 60 (The sum degrees. variation in values should not be great. C = 90 . Fig. measure the angle A of the triangle whose sides were just measured. Measure the sides of the triangles so formed and express is their ratios as functions of the angle A. vice versa. cosine. angles is By the solution of right tri- meant the finding of unknown sides or angles when values of other sides and angles are known. With a protractor. And. c degrees. and compare the ratios of the sides or the functional values with those given in the Table. we have determined the value of the angle in degrees. Given A = 30 = 24. Example Solution i. The larger the scale of the drawing. The lengthening of the sides of the angle should not be mis- taken for a change in the value of the angle. 152. By making use of the hundredths scale of the framing square together with a finely pointed pair of dividers. large and small triangle it will be seen that once Comparing an angle like functions of known in degrees. Appendix II. are determined irrespective of the length of sides. is nothing more than a compilation of these various ratios carefully figured out and placed in the form of a table to assist in the easy solution of problems having to do with the finding of certain parts of a triangle when other parts are given.APPENDIX These ratios are 159 known as natural functions of the angle because their values change with every change in the value of the angle. which shall be perpendicular to the base line. if we know the functional values or ratios of certain sides of the right triangle formed about an angle. as at B and B'. a. Find B. its sine. Appendix III. Solutions of Right Triangles.

6 Arith. find B. in this one side determined by the data given. a=12.8. however. = 20. or 30 degrees. all kinds of work. Sub- check c 2 =a 2 + 2 ft . B = 90 ' degrees A sin c ' . A little consideration. of procedure unless the show that scale is large it is a rather risky method and the work scaled small. = . 242 =122 +20. it will be seen. consists in might setting one square upon another with the angle of direction and the length is. or 30 degrees. Graphic check.866. the remaining fraction to hundredths by means of a sharp pair of dividers and the hundredths of graphic solutions scale of the square.784. Given A and a. The graphic check which. Substituting numerical values in (1). and b. 576 = 576. c. whence. 576=144+431. Graphs serve as easy checks against grave errors upon Example Solution 2.5. (a=c times sine ^4. The lengths a and b are then carefully measured by taking a reading of the full inches and reading. sin of A .) = cos A . Substitute the numerical values and check as in Example i.<* b ^ = cos A. whence b =c cos A . Again. = . from Tables. Very many carpenters make use this in will such as determining rafter lengths. stituting numerical values in (2).160 CARPENTRY ~=sinA.78 2 . b=c cos A. From the Tables. Appendix II. a = c (2) b sin A. That problem the protractor is set at 30 degrees and a of is length of 24 units of taken on the inclined square. . To . cos A. have been made use of as a graphic solution.

APPENDIX
Example
Solution
j.

161
c.

Given A and
degrees
;

b.

To
.

find B, a,

and

B = 90
~~

A

a

= sin A C

a = c sin

/I

.

Substitute the numerical values and check as in Example

i.

Example
Solution

4.

Given a and

c.

To

find

A, B, and

b.

sin

A=

a -

(That

is,

look in the tables, Appendix II, for the angle
result obtained

which has a sine equal to the

by dividing the numerical

value of the side a by the value of the side c.) B = 90 degrees A.
b
C

~=cos A;

b

=c

cos A.
i.

Substitute numerical values and check as in Example

Example
Solution

5.

Given a and
tan

b.

To

find

A, B. and

c,

A=T
degrees

a

B = 90
c

A.
sin /!.

Substitute numerical values

and check as

in

Example

i.

APPENDIX
Directions.

II

An

examination of the table of natural functions
left,

will indicate in the

column at the

angles of

degrees to and

including 45 degrees, reading down. The column to the extreme right will be found to contain degrees from 45-90 inclusive, read-

ing up.

*

This compact arrangement of table
fact that sines

is

made

possible thru the
reciprocals

and

cosines,

tangents and cotangents are

one of the other. 6 and

That

is,

as the sine (column 2, reading

down)

increases in value, the cosine of the
2,

complementary angle (columns

reading up) decreases.
1

Example
Solution

.

Find the value

of the sine of

40 degrees.

Columns
2.

1

and

2,

reading down, sin 40 degrees = .6428.
sin

Example
Solution

Find the value of

50 degrees.

Columns 6 and
8.

5,

reading up, sin 50 degrees = .7660.
of cos

Example
Solution

Find the value

40 degrees.

Columns 1 and 5, reading down, cos 40 degrees = .7660 (which is as might have been expected. Since 40 degrees is the complement of 50 degrees, the cos 40 degrees should be the same in value as the sin 50

degrees.

Example
Solution

4-

Find the value of cos 87 degrees.

Columns 6 and 2 reading up, cos 87 degrees = .0523

Tangent and cotangent values. Proceed as with sines using and 3, reading down, for tangent values between 0-45 degrees inclusive, columns 6 and 4, reading up, for values between 45-90 degrees. For cotangent values between 0-45 degrees use columns 1 and 4 reading down, and columns 6 and 3 reading up for cotangent values between 45-90 degrees
Examples.
columns
1

inclusive.

162

APPENDIX

163

TABLE OF NATURAL

SINES,

TANGENTS, COSINES, AND

COTANGENTS
Degrees

0039 = . 8. =gQ = 3 of 1 degree. Find the value of tan 50 degrees . 7.8910 . = > of 1 deg.0144= 1 2062.0431= . 30 min. 4. Solution sin = . of cos 26 deg. IS IN FRACTIONAL DEGREES Example Solution. Looking in columns 3 and Ans. = 36 degrees. the value of the function of the next lower Example Solution 9. Find the value cos 26 deg.8949. TO FIND THE VALUE OF A FUNCTION WHEN THE ANGLE 20 min. tan 50 degrees = 1 1918 tan 51 degrees = 1. y of z . .164 CARPENTRY TO FIND THE VALUE OF AN ANGLE.0144 . 26 deg. This process of finding more accurate values is known as interpolation. 3764. difference for interval of 1 deg. number of degrees.. or degrees Frequently one must find a functional value and minutes.0431 20 20 min. as given in the table herewith.0078= . these functions increasing as the value of the angle increases. find the angle. instead added to. THE VALUE OF A FUNCTION BEING KNOWN Example 6. however. The cosine the angle increases. for fractional degrees. Example Solution cot = 1 . The value of a fractional degree would be similarly treated for the sine. cosine and cotangent. = 0078 30 min. y$ of .2349 difference for an interval 1 of 1 degree = . tan 50 degrees 20 min. 8988 . 1 . from 0-90 degrees) Ans. 5150. (sine values Looking in columns 2 and 5 31 degrees (Columns 2 and 1). = . . decrease in value as For this reason the fractional value of the of and cotangent must be subtracted from. it becomes necessary to find the value of an angle with greater accuracy than even degrees. find the angle. 30 min. cos 27 deg. = 8988 = .0039 cos. = 1918+ . Interpolation. Also.

.APPENDIX TO FIND THE VALUE OF AN ANGLE 165 WHEN THE FUNCTIONAL VALUE CANNOT BE FOUND IN EXACT FORM IN THE TABLE 10.5095 = tan 27 deg.4877 = tan 26 deg. = . Therefore. . part of (5) 1 This gives the fractional degree or 60 minutes which the second difference is. Example Solution ~ Find the angle whose tan the table. = .5000 = tan angle X. difference for interval X 123/218 of 1 deg.0123 = 34 min. or the difference for the interval of 1 degree. between tan angle and tan 26 deg. of 1 degree or This difference is for an interval 60 minutes. or 60 min. 34'. Search the body of the table for the functional values (2) Find the difference between these functional values.5 From 4877 = tan 26 deg. . Express this difference in minutes and add if the function be a sine or tangent.5 = 26 deg. (4) Express this last difference as the numerator of a fraction whose denominator is the first difference found. and substract if a cosine or cotangent to the number of degrees representing the angle whose function was the lower of the two functions found given in the table. is . difference for interval of 1 deg. 0218 . (3) Find the difference between the given functional value and that of the lower angle of the two used above. angle whose tangent = . . Rule: (1) next above and next below that given.

0156 III USEFUL TABLES FOR DECIMAL VALUES .APPENDIX FRACTIONAL EQUIVALENTS .

OF difference SIZES between consecutive sizes is . SCREW GAGE .01316".APPENDIX 167 WOOD AND MACHINE SCREW The No.

168 CARPENTRY LENGTH AND NUMBER OF WIRE NAILS TO THE POUND SlZE^ .

inches .APPENDIX 169 WIRE BRADS Size.

in Tons .170 CARPENTRY STRENGTH OF MATERIALS YELLOW PINE POSTS Load LENGTH IN FT.

Lbs. Lbs.100 Pine. 23456 A 6x6 1 1 6x8 8x8 3>2 8x12 12x12 12x16 7 16x16 9 8 7 1235 2X BENDING 4X 5X VA 6 6 STRESSES FOR STRUCTURAL TIMBERS WORKING UNIT STRESSES USED IN DRY LOCATIONS COMPRESSION Parallel to Stress in extreme Species of fibre Horizontal shear stress Perpendicular to grain grain" Short Columns" in. whereas the other species should.400 700 900 900 700 75 125 Oak Pine. "Sound" southern yellow pine and "sound" Douglas fir require qualifications. locations. have all pieces of exceptionally low density for the no additional species excluded.APPENDIX BRICK PIERS Load HEIGHT IN FT. sq. Lbs. "Dense" southern yellow pine and "dense" Douglas fir should also conform to the other requirements of this rule. sq. Lbs. in addition to being graded for defects. Madison. western 85 70 900 300 300 300 1.200 Tamarack * 85 70 95 900 600 300 200 350 900 NOTE : The safe working defects limited according to the sections stresses given in this table are for timbers with on defects in the rules of the Southern Pine Association for Select Structural Material. sq. . eastern Hemlock.200 350 Sound grade Hemlock.209 *Pine. Wis.000 1. in. eastern white 400 250 300 350 900 1. SIZE IN INCHES 171 in Tons 6 8 10. Timber *Fir. southern yellow Dense grade Sound grade Spruce 1 . Douglas Dense grade 1. sq.300 100 1. Norway 80 85 125 800 1.600 1. in. This table gives working unit stresses for structural timbers used in dry and is compiled in the main from material furnished by the Forest Products Laboratory. in.600 1.300 1.300 900 1.

of Wall Surface TABLE OF BRICK WALL CONTENTS IN NUMBER OF BRICKS No. OF WALL THICKNESS . OF SQ FT. Ft.172 CARPENTRY Seven Bricks to Each Sq.

70-a. column 11) 12}^ (run of common 4). Take 12" on tongue of square beginning at left.97" (length of common rafter per foot of run) = 17' 8. (column 2). (Cf. To Lay Out Miter Cut of Plate. Seat cut. rafter) x 16.12" = y ". the horizontal projection or length of look- out becoming multiplier. Length of common rafter. Given a square hipped roof. Fig. scribe along tongue.) 2. Length of long plate diminished by length of short plate. 3. 173 . d. and a pitch of 3^.12" = 17' W(. increased by thickness of ridge piece plus diagonal thickness of hip. Rafter. scribe along blade. To Lay Out Common a. having a span of 25 ft. column 8) Take 12" on tongue and 12" on blade. (1) Length determined as was that of common rafter. column 5. table. Tail for common rafter. 1. s columns 3 and c. a roof with square corners.APPENDIX IV (Short Cuts to Roof Framing) GRIFFITH'S FRAMING TABLES FOR THE SQUARE AND OCTAGONAL ROOF Directions for Using Table for the Steel Square. scribe along blade. that is. Fig. Take 12" on tongue of framing square and 12" on blade. (Cf. EXAMPLE. (Cf. small Length of Ridge. 70-a. Plumb 70-a. Fig. (Cf. and 12" on blade b.) cut.

column 9) Take 17" on tongue and 12" on the blade. but invert square. (-75 = M. mouth to c. (2) End cut use same numbers as for plumb cut back from of hip or valley f. column 16) Take 17" on the tongue and 20. 7%" (Cf. scribe along the blade. Measure straight plumb cut 3/^j diagonal thickness of ridge. of hip or valley rafter. of the hip for fascia. scribe along the blade. or Valley Rafter (Cf. Length (run of (Cf column 12) 12}/2 .78" or 20rt" (columns 3 and 4) on the blade. Reduction for ridge. e. Plumb cut. cut a distance equal to the thickness of ridge To Lay Out Hip a. fit where it must be cut out the angle of the plate.174 (2) CARPENTRY End cut use same numbers as Measure 3/ for plumb cut but back from invert position of square.75" = 21' d. Reduction for ridge. the blade. 4. (Cf. common rafter) valley rafter per foot of x 20. column 6) Take 17" on the tongue and 12" on b. Seat cut. . e. (1) Length determined as was that of hip or valley tail rafter. straight plumb piece. Side cut. the horizontal projection of or length of the lookout of common rafter becoming the multiplier. Tail for hip or valley rafter. This also gives the miter cut at the end of the tail and also the miter cut at the bird's joint of valley rafter.) 7.78" (length of hip or run of common rafter) = 21' columns 3 and 4. scribe along the tongue.

Jacks need no on a square cornered building provided the hips or valleys are of the same thickness as the jacks and the measurements are made from the further reduction in length long points of the jacks. Second shortest jack = length of shortest increased 2' 10". Drop 23) of hip when no backing is given. NoteAll rafter lengths are measured down the middle be made of the top edges theoretically. a. and 16. common Same as for common rafter. Scribing along the tongue will give the face cut of roof boards. 5. column Reduce at seat cut ^ " '. measured at right angles to seat cut. . (Cf. scribe along the tongue for angle of backing. 6. Otherwise suitable reductions must be made for rafter and ridge thicknesses. Plumb cut. scribe column 14) Take 12" on the tongue = !". To Lay Out Jacks.of rafter diminished by 2' 10". c. Jacks set 24" centers. rafter) column 21) Take 12" (rise of " on the tongue and 20rf on the blade (Cf. as that for the common rafter! b. also of plancher. Tail for jack. common h. d. etc.97" or 17" on blade 4). etc. Length. 175 Backing of hip. On the square cornered measurements of hip or valley rafters may from the long point without further reduction in length providing a 2" thick ridge is used. Same (Cf. Side cut.97" on the blade.APPENDIX g. Beginning with longest jack = length. beginning with shortest jack =2' 10" (column 19). roof. columns 3 and (.

horizontal projection of (2) End or length of lookout becoming the multiplier. 70-b.) (. Given to frame an octagonal Plate.94" = Set T- (. small table. 4. columns 3 and 4. Cf. silo with a span of 21' and a roof pitch of 11" to the foot. = 67> degrees. column 7) b. (Cf.69 3. and . This also gives miter cut at end of hip tail for fascia. rafter per foot of run) 4.28" (Cf. 81 and 82. Take 10}^ (run) x 16. small table Fig. Figs. plumb cut. (Cf column 17) = 17 deg. 2. column 11). Use same number of degrees as for cut.94= (Cf. 40 min. (Cf. To Lay Out Miter Cut of 1. T-bevel by means of protractor to same. 30 min. a. Eight sided polygon. Side cut. To Lay Out Hip or Valley Rafter = 49 deg. also the miter cut of the bird's rafter. x . tail Determined as is length of common column 11). To Lay Out Common a. column 5) =47 de 6\ 30 min.) (Cf. (Cf. Plumb cut.69' = 8%' Fig. d. columns 3 and c. . Set a To Find Length of a Side for Plate.17 6 CARPENTRY Directions for Using Table for Protractor. plate miter T-bevel by means of a protractor* to this angle. Set b.414 (cotangent of octagon) = 8. mouth joint of valley where it must be cut out to fit the angle of the plate.) 21' (2 x run) = %. 70-b. common 1. Length (length of 14' 3". by means of protractor. 70-b. Plumb cut. Tail (1) Length rafter (Cf. Seat cut. bevel column 8) 42 deg. Rafter.) = 14' 2. EXAMPLE. *Starrett's "Framing Tool" is strongly recommended for framing in degrees. Fig. 50 min.

Length (run of of hip or valley rafter. e. Seat cut. Tail for jack. 10 min. same pitch. Length. 177 (Cf. (1. Use same number of degrees plumb cut of hip or valley. . 3 and d. Side cut. as for f. column 15) = 17 deg.APPENDIX C. c.82= J4 columns (Cf. zontal projection of tail or length of lookout of (2) common rafter becoming multiplier. of (Cf . . protractor and T-bevel.that for When set 16 " centers = difference. column 20) = V. Plumb cut. Determined as for hip or valley.03" (length of octagon rafter) 4). hip or valley per foot of run of common = 14' Use 10. as for common rafter. (Cf. 50 min. 5. To Lay Out Jacks a. square roof " x 21% = 52)4". hori(1) Length. column 10) = 40 deg. Backing g.82"- 10%" (. column 13) common 14' rafter) x 17. Tail for hip or valley rafter. Same as for common rafter. Drop 16 5_lt of column 22) = 74 deg. Same (Cf . common Proceed accordingly. of hip. End cut. b. (Cf column 24) hip when no backing is used.

Spading or picking ^ % Cost per yard $ estimated in terms of the cubic yard. 1:2^:5. 178 . Excavations are estimated in terms of the cubic yard. 2 parts sand. Cellar and sidewalks are often priced by the foot surface measure. by " " " medium " volume. The price will vary somewhat according to the mixture and the amount of form work required. 27 cubic feet. floors is a mortar composed of 1 part cement and 2 Sometimes a 1:1 mixture is used.APPENDIX V MISCELLANEOUS ESTIMATING Excavations. 1:3:6. Concrete is work. cubical contents and the ANALYSIS OF COST FACTORS PER CUBIC YARD hour at labor. nature of the soil. The rich mixture is used for cellar floors on high grade Concrete. 4 parts crushed rock. Throwing out labor. Mixtures are designated as " " rich 1 part cement. Cement top- ping for cellar floors parts sharp sand. each square being figured as to various amounts combined. the stone or gravel being passed thru a %" screen. The is price per yard will vary according to the Where ground not level. Cisterns and tanks make use of a special mixture of 1 :2 :3. standard specifications for depth and construction being understood." ordinary 1:4:8. the plot should be divided into its squares. ^4 hour at hour at Wheeling 50 feet. and "lean.

0.048bbl. cu.1481 bbl. yd. 24X40 Solution T7> =80 cu. yd.44 bbl. = 280X0. cu. the cost of materials for the wall may be easily determined. 017 cu. Stone or gravel Estimate quantities of various materials needed for a wall 10"X7'X Example : . 1:2 1:2^ 0. yd. ft. = 4.0344cu.048bbl.0174cu.= 9.1239 bbl.0344 = 2.. yd.0341 cu. yd. yd.APPENDIX TABLE FOR ESTIMATING QUANTITIES FOR CONCRETE (Proportion of materials in one cubic foot of concrete.) 179 MIXTURE Rich (1:2:4) Medium Cement Sand 0. =80X0.1052 bbl. (1:2#:5) 0. Cement = 280X0.0163cu. and of sand and stone per cu. Ordinary (1:3:6) 0. yd. ft.76cu. =9. 0326 cu. using a 1:2^:5 mixture. yd. The expense of form work in ordinary base- . 0348 cu. Sand Stone =280X0. Knowing the cost of cement per bbl. 2 hours each 1 @ @ add Total Where forms 1 are required carpenter. 0. j7> Solution 10X7X48 = =13. yd. Cement = 80XO. 0. yd.912 bbl.0170cu. . TABLE FOR ESTIMATING QUANTITIES FOR CEMENT MORTAR (Proportion of materials in one cubic foot of cement mortar) MIXTURE 1:1^ Cement Sand Example 0. 0. Estimate quantities of material for 1 :2 cement mortar for topping of cellar floor 1"X24'X40'.548 cu. yd. 0. .0370cu. 0341 cu. 752 ANALYSIS OF LABOR COST FACTORS PER CUBIC YARD mason. yd. .0311cu. 48'. yd. . yd. 2 hours 2 laborers.041 bbl.058 bbl. yd. yd. 0. 1239 Sand bbl. 280 cu. 1% hours @ same as wall Cellar floor construction costs approximately the work having forms. 0.

@ Sand ]4 cu. @ @ @ Tender. FLUES 1 SIZE OF SIZE OF FLUE CHIMNEY No. 1:3 Brick. Portland cement. ordinarily. Bricks may be laid in lime mortar or in cement mortar. 2 3 1 8"X 8"X 8"X 8" 8" 8" 12"X12" 16"X16" 16"X28" 16"X40" 20*X20" 30 50 70 40 . . CHIMNEYS No. 10 Total $ ANALYSIS OF COST FACTORS PER 1000 CEMENT MORTAR BRICKS. One foot of chimney height will contain five courses of ordinary bricks. thicker than 4". 3 bu. To determine the number of bricks in a wall. Mason. @ Sand. 10 hrs. @ Tender. 1000 ANALYSIS OF COST FACTORS PER LIME MORTAR BRICKS. The unit of Brickwork. 10 hrs. @ @ X cu. make suitable allowance. A mason can lay 800 to 1000 common and 300 to 400 face bricks in a day. multiply each square foot of surface by 7 (sometimes average number of bricks per foot of wall for breakage. T% is used) which thick. yd.$ Chimneys. is the when 4" Add 5% For walls Deduct for openings over 2' square. @ hrs. 10 hrs. BRICKS PER FT. Total .180 CARPENTRY is offset ment wall construction by labor and additional cement cost of topping of cellar floor. measurement in brickwork is the 1000 bricks. Mason. yd. 1:3 Brick. 1000 Lime. 1000 @ IX bbl.

6"X12" 7"X14" 8"X16" 9"X18" 4X" 5^" 11 533 377 3. in. (100 SQ.APPENDIX Slate Roof. Strips of plastering less than 1 foot wide are estimated as a foot in width. (8"xl6" slate) Total $ Metal work extra. etc. Slate. 16X20X144" 27" -=1707 slates.) @ 8 Slater. deduct j/ the area of openings. 20 min Nails. REQ. Example 16'X20'. 2. FT. Roofing Paper. No. Placing paper. slate diminished 181 Exposure of each slate will equal the length of a by 3" (the usual amount of lap) divided by 2. divide the area to be covered by the exposure of each slate as determined just above.66 2 277 214 1. 2 Ibs. slate.8 Ibs. In estimating the number of square yards. will be charged extra: .5 ANALYSIS OF COST FACTORS PER SQUARE. multiplied by the width of the To determine the number of slates required. TABLE OF SLATES PER SQUARE OF SIZE 100 FEET NAILS REQ. Closet areas are increased by J/ to make allowance faces. LENGTH OF EXPOS.. The extra labor involved in working around grounds is Plastering. Plastering is thus allowed for.. Determine the number of 6* X 12" slates required to cover a surface 12"-3" Solution 2 X6" = 27 sq. estimated by the square yard. for the extra labor involved in working small sur- Special plastering of cornice. W A" hrs. @ @ @ .

) @ '. IK yds. and 90 sq. 1st. old A gallon of paint will cover approximately 250 to 300 sq. A painter should cover 150 per hour. 8 @ Sand. 8 hrs.. tho done a different set of workmen. are figured as if solid. 16 hrs. @ @ Painting. 12 hrs. 1 yd. coat. ANALYSIS OF COST FACTORS FOR LATHING A SQUARE Lath.182 CARPENTRY Lathing is usually a part of the plasterer's contract. (100 SQ. etc. @ @ Sand. each 1 helper. Ibs. Cost factors . @ @ Total . @ 2 plasterers. 2 plasterers. ft. of new work. may be easily determined from the above statements. Plaster of Paris. 3d fine Lather. Hair. @ Lime. 13 bu. 10 Ibs. 1 bbl. grills. Railings. @ $ @ Total ANALYSIS OF COST FACTORS PER SQUARE FOR 2-COAT JLIME PLASTER Lime. Painting is estimated by the square yard. no deductions being made for openings such as doors and windows.. and costs easily estimated for ordinary work. FT. sq. 16 hrs Total. 10 bu. each 1 helper. ft. of work and 350 ft. 6 Ibs. ft. 12 hrs. ANALYSIS OF COST FACTORS PER SQUARE FOR 3-COAT LIME PLASTER @ Hair. 2nd coat. 1500 Nails. The unit is either the square yard by or the 1000 laths.

Essentials of Woodworking. Chicago.. Comstock.. Cyclopedia of Building Construction.APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY OF REFERENCES CHICAGO MILLWORK SUPPLY Co. McCormick Bldg. Clark Co. and Builders' Pocket Book... . Manual Arts J. Practical Uses of the Steel Square. GRIFFITH: Price Book and Specifications for Lumber and Mill- work.: and Mill-work. Chicago. Modern Carpentry. Construction and Superintendence. Chicago.VAN TINE Co. GILLETTE: Price Book 183 and Specifications for Lumber Handbook of Cost Data. Peoria. Wm. HODGSON: HODGSON: KIDDER: York. New York. John Wiley and Sons. Press. Frederick Drake Co. Frederick J. Architects' Drake Co-. New KIDDER: Building. Radford Architectural Co. T. : Myron C.. RADFORD: Chicago. THE NATIONAL HARDWOOD LUMBER and Inspection of ASSOCIATION: Rules for Measurement Hardwood Lumber. GORDON. Iowa. Chicago. Davenport. 111. RADFORD: Chicago. New York. Radford Architectural Co. Details of Building Construction..

Chalk Line . 109 102 Apron Architrave 38. Splicing Posts Cornice Costs. '..103 Estimating Brick Work.. Masonry Brick Walls Contents Table Bridging Building Paper 169 Drip Cap 20 20 172 32 95.39.. 138 . Brick Wall Angle Post 20 139 118 109 109 Rafter 74 19 Concrete Mixtures Corner Boards Board. : 98 110 125 Named 129 109 127 Bibliography of Reading References 183 . Board Measure Table Bonds. 138 Trim. Placing Batter Boards Frame Hanging Hinging Jambs. 94 130 137 Door. 184 180 . Blind Stop 109. . 98 "Duck" 127 E End Cut of Common Rafter Hip and Valley Rafter of Octagonal and Other Hips and Valleys of 55 62 79 20 142 Casing Casings.. Placing Deck .138 128 English Bond . Placing Drain Tile 24 109.INDEX (NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES) Common American Bond Anchor. Setting Parts Sill 129 15 129 131 Bed Moulding Belt Course .109 98 156 Ashlar 20 by Percentages Example of Form 154 107 B Backing Hip Rafter for Square Cornered Building Octagon and Other Hips Balloon Frame Counter Flashing 63 Cove Crown Moulding 118 98 80 27 109 128 109 Base Block Blocks. . Placing 109. Fitting Mould Mould. .

94 53 52 98 27 109 King-Post 78 Lap Siding Ill Lathing 115 Frame Length and Number of Wire Nails to the Furring Pound 168 G Girders 29. and Valley Rafter Lengths...35. Tables. 125 Flemish Bond Floors. Fascia Finish Floor 98 109 108 Rafter. 138 Laying out Foundation Materials Frames.. Excavations Grounds. 135 for Concrete Footings Forms 23 18 13 19 Foundations Jamb 109.. 54 Length of Common Rafter 61 of Hip and Valley Rafters. Carpentry Lathing 182 Quantities Lumber Painting 146 149 Half-frame 27 Millwork Quantities Plastering Headers 182 181. 143 .. . and Valley Rafter Seat Cut. of Jacks for Square Cornered 66 Building . and Valley Rafters for Octagon and other Polygons and Valley Rafter Side Cut.. 62 61 60 62 ... .. .31 . Unit Lengths 74 60 59 Finishing Exterior Walls Flashing 105 Interior Finish 115.115 Labor Costs.109 119 Quantities of Nails Slate Roof Excavations Exterior Wall Coverings 95 Hip and Valley Rafter End Cut. . Grade Line . . and Valley Rafter Plumb Cut. 81 65 Roof about Chimney Square with Rafter Table Table for Common and Jack Rafters Frieze Full "...182 153 181 18 Headroom 20.. Directions . . 20 18 Walls Interpolation 117 164 Laying and Scraping . Lumber Roof Framing Tables. 72 173 142 178 150 for.IXDEX Estimating Cement Mortar Concrete Cubic-foot Unit 183 179 178 Griffith's -Griffith's Grading Rules. 16 50. Basement Framing Joists Common Rafter " 25 49 31 Jack Rafter for Octagonal and Other Polygonal Roofs for Square Cornered Building . .

85 94 Framing Framing Terms 69 45 46 42. . 138 Locks. 96. . Stair H8 Hip and Valley 60 Plumb Cut Rafter of Leveling Door of Octagonal Hip and Valley 74 122 117 Foundation Rafters Rod with Straight-edge Lintels 14 17 Porches Porch Steps Protractor. 109 Rough Floors Rubble Work Run Run Parting Strip Partition 109. 55 62 79 25 Placing Joists Plancher 32. 79 57 Miter Cuts of Plate 69 N Natural Trigonometric Functions 158 118 Nosing 39 56 57 46 119 118.98 by Scaling Polygon Sill 82 53 73 110 16 Platform.119 38 116 . 81 Any Polygon Roofs 73 Octagon Bay.186 CARPENTRY Plates Length of Octagon and Other Polygonal Jacks of Rafter of Side of 41. 141 Framing with 82 138 109. Woodwork for Raked Moulding 27 138 100 Reduction for King-post for Ridge Ribbon Boards Ridge. 41 Plank Frame 98 27 Hip and Valley Rafter of Octagonal and Other Hips and Valleys Setting Basement Frames . Framing Openings in Framework 42.121 95. Wall Detail Patterns for Joists and Studding Pier Sash Cord Scaffolding 127 Pitch Pitch Board 38 123 46 120 96 Scribing Against Irregular Surface 114 Seat Cut of of Common Rafter . of Stair. Cutting of Frame Octagonal and Other Jacks Frame. 98 45 Roof Boards. 138 20 45 . Fitting 132 Pulleys Lookout Lookouts. Framing 98 99 Pulley Stile M Main Frame Masonry Construction.. Length of Piece Rise Rise of Stair Riser -.. . ..

31. 60 52 Frames Sash. Brick Stock Bill Stool Form Stone Work Stop Bead Story Pole Straightening Studding Strertgth of Materials Stretchers Stringer 138 20 109 109. Fitting . 138 20 118 Weight Pocket Well Hole Winders. for Brick Wall. Stair 36 118 140 137 Window Table of Detail. 138 W Wall Board Walls 121 42 117 Water Proofing Table 170 38 24 109 109.INDEX Setting Partitions 187 41 Studs 40 110 95..121 35 gonal Jacks Siding Circular U Uneven Pitch of Tower 113 113 Ill Roof .109. 90 166 Hook Stick Sills UsefulTables. Table of Fractional Equivalents for Decimal Values of 1(5(5 Window Frames Sheathing or Sheeting Natural Functions 163 98 of Octagonal Hip and Valley 75 56 69 109 104 13 Shed Roof Framing Shingling 89 102 105 106 Rafters Tail. The Value of a 164 Function Being Known Veneer.138 Six-eight-ten Sole Piece Method 15 109 159 Valley Rafters Rafter Unit Lengths 65 58 Solution of Right Triangles Spacing Joists Stair Building 32 117 Types Stirrups . Rafter Hips and Valleys. 126 . Hip and Valley Rafters Common and Jack Rafters for .' 118 36 149 Value of a Function. Hip and Valley Rafters 60 Octagonal and and Valleys Other Hips 75 65 81 Ill Translating Framing Problems from Protractor to Framing of Jack Rafter of Octagonal and Other Poly- Square and Vice Versa Tread Trimmers 84 118. 29.. Shingle Tins Shoe Mould 109 Tangents Threshold Toe Hold Transit 129 Placing Side Cut. The Angle Being Given in Fractional 164 Degrees of Angle.

Placing.188 CARPENTRY Sill Window Stool 109 Wooden Bricks to the Steel Square. . Table for Wood and Machine Screw. 109 .- Wood's Key 26 70 Trim. .109 . 127 Y-level 169 Wire Brads. Sizes 167 Table of. 14 Yoke .

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